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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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WESTERN XIA DYNASTY


 
Xixia Dynasty, or Western Xia Dynasty, lasting hundreds of years, was the exception in the Chinese history chronicles, namely, there was no separate volume for this dynasty. At most, it was treated as a section in the books such as History of Song Dynasty, History of Liao Dynasty, History of Jurchen Jin [Gold] Dynasty, and History of Yuan Dynasty. However, the Chinese history recorded that Western Xia was able to retain Tang China's court music and Confucian classics while Northern China's Five Dynasties failed to inherit the Tang legacy.


It would be during Manchu Qing Dynasty that scholars began to compile records about Tangut's Western Xia Dynasty, among whom would be Zhang Jian, Wu Guangcheng, Zhou Chun and Chen Kun. In the early years of the Republic of China, scholar Dai Xizhang compiled a book entitled Xi Xia Ji (i.e., Records of Western Xia). Scholar Luo Zhenyue, one of the four renowned oracle bone experts, while staying in Japan, had published the Tangut dictionary Yin Tong (i.e., "Pronunciation Same"), and his sons Lu Fucheng and Luo Fuchang continued his father's workings from 1916 onward. In 1933, scholar Wang Jingru published three volume "Western Xia Research" and received an award from the French Science Academy. The junior son of Luo Zhenyue, i.e., Luo Fuyi, continued the research in the 1970s afte Zhou Enlai purportedly intervened during the turmoil years of the cultural revolution. In 1980, Professor Wu Tianxi published Xi Xia Shi Gao (i.e., Writings On the History Of Western Xia Dynasty). The Russians, Americans, Japanese, Hungarians, New Zealanders, French, British and Germans certainly had abnormally strong interests in dead people and language, and contributed significantly to the discovery of the Tangut history and language.
 
 
Origins Of the Tanguts
 
Out of the Qiangic people would evolve the later Xixia Kingdom led by the Dangxiang nomads or the Tanguts. The Dangxiang people, i.e., the Tanguts, were remnants of the Western Qiang people. The Dangxiang people would be living to the south of the Tuhuhun people. This dwelling place of the Dangxiang people and the Tuyuhun people would be called the Inner Tibet [against the Frontal Tibet or Outer Tibet] in the later times. By the time of South-North Dynasties, Dangxiang-qiang dwelled around Huanghe-qu [the Yellow River winding, i.e., Xizhi in Yu Gong or Cizhi in Hou Han Shu] of Qinghai Prov. Dangxiang-qiang spread from Lintao [Lintan of Gansu Prov] and Xiping [Xining of Qinghai] in the east to Yehu [Shanshan and Turfan county in the New Dominion Prov] in the west. The Dangxiang-qiang legends claimed that they originated from Bai-he [white river, i.e., the ancient Bailongjiang or Qiang-shui] and the cross-border areas of today's Qinhai-Gansu-Sichuan provinces. Their epics also inferred to their tradition of pasting the red color onto their dark faces, building stone citadels, pointing to the ancient Gao-yao-mi statelet as their origin, and eulogizing a Tibetan girl as the wife of their ancestor.
 
Seng Ren interpreted the Dangxiang-qiang legends by applying the Gao-yao-mi statelet as that belonging to the son born by the leader of seven brothers of Dangxiang-qiang and Tibetan girl. Seng Ren claimed that the seven brothers, together with Gao-yao-mi statelet, would comprise the eight clans of Tuoba-shi, Feiting-shi, Wangli-shi, Pochao-shi, Yeli-shi, Miqin-shi, Xifeng-shi and Mozang-shi. History recorded that there evolved eight Dangxiang tribes of Qiangic nature by the time of Five Dynasties (AD 907-960), with one tribal group carrying the old Toba name. By Sui Dynasty, about A.D. 584, thousand households of Dangxiang-qiang sought suzerainty with the Chinese. In A.D. 585, Tuoba Ningcong led his tribe to Xu-zhou (Lintan of Gansu Prov). However, in A.D. 596, they attacked Huizhou [Maowen Qiang Automous County of Sichuan Prov] prefecture of Sui Dynasty, but sought suzerainty with the Chinese again after a defeat. In A.D. 629, Dangxiang-qiang leader Xifeng Bulai relocated to Guizhou (A'bei prefecture and Songpan county of Sichuan Prov] and received the Tang conferral as "ci shi" (satrap or governor) for Guizhou Prefecture. Other clans came to Tang, too, and Tang Dynasty zoned Zhiju-zhou, Feng-zhou, Yan-zhou and Yuan-zhou in today's Sichuan Prov for settling the Qiangs. The Toba Tribe of the Dangxiang people had inter-marriage with the Tuyuhuns (i.e., the Murong Xianbei clan), and at one time made an alliance against the Tang army. In A.D. 634, Tuoba Chici assisted Tuyuhun King Youyun in fighting Tang at the Langdaoxia valley. After a defeat, Tuoba Chici and his nephew Tuoba Sitou sought suzerainty with the Chinese, and he was conferred the royal family name of 'Li' and assigned the territories of Xirong-zhou, i.e., to the northwest of the ancient Songzhou prefecture and at the cross-border area of today's Qinghai-Gansu-Sichuan Provinces. Tuoba Chici headed 32 so-called 'jimi-zhou', i.e., chained and harnessed prefectures, and reported to the Tang Dynasty's Songzhou governor office.
 
Tangut minister, Luo Shichang, stated that the Toba (Tuoba) people who stayed in the ancient Songzhou Prefecture [Songpan of Sichuan border area] had adopted their old name of Toba. When the Dangqiang relocated to the Yinzhou and Xiazhou territories [Jingbian & Mizhi of Shenxi Prov], around the West Yellow River Bend, they renamed themselves the 'Ping-xia Tribe'. From A.D. 635 to 678, the Tibetans kept on assaulting the Qiangs. In 635, the Tibetans defeated the Qiangs in Dangxiang and Bailan area. By A.D. 678, the Qiangs lost the territories of Yangdong to the Tibetans. Tang Emperor Xuanzong (reign 712-756) allowed 25 Qiangic prefectures of the Qiang people to relocate to Qingzhou (Qingyang of Gansu Prov). Tuoba Sidai (speculated to be Tuoba Sitou) received the conferral from Tang Xuanzong. The Tibetans termed the stranded Qiangs in the original habitation area as 'Miyao' and later applied the term to all Qiangs and consecutively the Tanguts. After the An-Shi Rebellion in late Tang Dynasty, the Tibetans occupied over a dozen prefectures in He-xi [west of the Yellow River] and Long-you [the rightside or western Gansu Prov] as well as the Western Territories [the New Dominion Prov] by taking advantage of the vacuum left by the Tang army's departure. Tuoba Shouji, i.e., son of Tuoba Sitou, received Tang Emperor Xuanzong's conferral as Duke Xiping-gong, and later the post of "ci shi" (satrap or inspector) for Rongzhou and consecutively "du du" (governor) of Lingzhou for the contribution to quelling the An Lushan-Shi Siming Rebellion. By the time of Tang Emperor Daizong (reigh 760-779), Dangxiang-qiang in the Lingzhou & Qingzhou areas colluded with the Tibetans in harassing the Tang border. General Guo Ziyi petitioned to have Dangxiang-qiang relocate to Yinzhou (Yulin of Shenxi Prov) and Xiazhou (Baichengzi of Inner Mongolia). Dangxiang-qiang also moved to Suizhou (Suide of Shenxi) & Yanzhou (Yan'an of Shenxi). Five Qiangic chieftans (i.e., "ci shi"), such as Tuoba Chaoguang and Tuoba Qimei, went to see the Tang emperor in Chang'an. The 'Ping-xia Tribe' would be the Tuoba Chaoguang clan which took the name from 'ping' or leveled desert surface between Xiazhou and Yinzhou. Seng Ren claimed that some Qiangs had herded to Lishi of Shanxi in A.D. 765 but later crossed the Yellow River back to the west.
 
Toba Sigong, a Dangxiang nomad with a Toba clan name, was from the 'Ping-xia Tribe' around the West Yellow River Bend. He was the grandson of Tuoba Qianhui, while Tuoba Qianhui was the grandson of Tuoba Shouji. While Tuoba Qianhui was conferred the post of "ci shi" of You-zhou, Toba Sigong assumed the post by himself. The eruption of the Huang Chao Rebellion (874-884) would mark the rise of the Tuoba clan. Toba Sigong had come to the aid of Tang Dynasty in A.D. 881 when rebel Huang Chao sacked Xi'an the Tang capital in A.D. 880. Tang Emperor Xizong conferred Toba Sigong the title of Duke Xia-guo-gong [lord of the Xia statelet], 'jie-du-si' (satrap) of the prefectures of Xia-Sui-Yin-You [Xiazhou=Jingbian-xian; Suizhou=Suide; Yinzhou=Mizhi-xian; Youzhou=Jingbian-xian], and the Tang family name of Li. Toba Sigong brothers continued to enjoy the Tang conferrals.
 
 
The Tangut Language
 
The Tanguts devised their own indigenous ideogrammatic script in A.D. 1036 and developed a literary tradition of translated Buddhist texts and original secular works. Seng Ren, in Western Xia Kingdom & Oriental Pyramid, claimed that the Mongols continued to allow and encourage the Tangut characters (termed 'He-xi' character) usage throughout the 13th & 14th centuries, and the Tangut script buddhism scripts were carried over to Japan in the same timeframe. In A.D. 1342, at the Juyongguan Pass, to the northwest of Peking, Yuan Emperor Shundi erected a six-language monument, with one Tangut Na-lin participating in the project. In A.D. 1372 of Ming Emperor Hongwu's Era, a Tangut scripted buddhist article and drawing was authored. The Tangut characters were still in use during Ming Emperor Hongzhi's Era (AD 1488-1505). Two Tangut script pogadas dating from 1502 were discovered in the Hanzhuang area of Baoding city of Hebei Prov in 1962. Historian Chen Yinke discovered, in a Tibetan script in a German library, the Tangut scripts dating from Ming Wanli Era [1573-1620] in 1931. Later, in A.D. 1810, some scholar by the name of Zhang Shu opened up a monument wall inside of the Dayun-shi Monastery in Wuwei and discovered a 2.5x0.9 meter size monument with the Tangut-Chinese inscriptions dating from Tangut Emperor Chongzong [Li Qianshu] Tianyou Era. In 1917, some Tangut buddhism manuscripts were discovered in Lingwu county. In 1952 & 1972, at Wuwei of Gansu Prov, the Tanguts scripts were again discovered, while the Tangut royal tombs [which were ransacked by the Mongols] were excavated on the outskirts of Yinchuan in the same time period.
 
The Tangut language, i.e., the dead Tibeto-Burman language of the Buddhist empire of Xi-xia, received its popularity as a result of intrusions and exploration by the Russian, British Hungarian and French. In A.D. 1882, Frenchman Devieria rebutted Britishman A Wylia's 1870 comment in regards to the 6-language monument at the Juyongguan Pass, speculating that it could be the dead Tangut language. In this year, Britishman E C Baber claimed that the Tanguts could be the same as Mi-yao-ren in Qinghai Prov. Britishman T W Bushell acertained 40 Tangut characters on basis of the Tang-gu-te [i.e., Tangut] coins on a British Royal Society magazine in the 1890s. Devieria, after studying Zhang Shu's discovery, acertained his viewpoint in 1898. In A.D. 1899, Frenchman M G Morisse found a Tangut script with Chinese interpretation in Peking and paraphased about 100 Tangut characters. In May 1908, an expedition of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, led by Peter Kuzmitsch Kozlov, discovered a library of Tangut manuscripts hidden inside a stupa amongst the ruins to the west of a lost Tangut city at Khara Khoto in Inner Mongolia. Kozlov, who was researching botany in Sichuan, was asked to go north to Khara Khoto (i.e., today's Heicheng [black city] or Heishui-cheng [black water city under the E-ji-na Mongolian Banner that was sandwiched between the Jiayuguan Pass of Gansu Prov to the southwest and the Gobi-Altai Mountain of Outer Mongolia to the north] for detecting treasures buried by the Tangut legendary 'Black' [black faced?] general. (Khara Khoto was where the Tanguts stationed one of the 12 columns of armies, and it could also be the location where the Huns exiled Han Dynasty emissary Su Wu for shepherding the sheep should it be the same as "bei hai' [the north sea, i.e., commonly perceived to be Lake Baykal further to the north]. The Mongols, after exterminating Tangut Xia Dynasty, established the 'Yi-ji-nai' [mutation of E-ji-na, i.e., black water] garrison here. Seng Ren speculated that the E-ji-na River ran dry after Ming Dynasty heavily utilized the water resource around the He-xi Corridor for agriculture. At one time during Tang Dynasty, Lake Juyan, where the E-ji-na River flew to, possessed 300 square kilometers in size.)
 
Kozlov, after shipping over some treasures to St Petersburg in March, left for Sichuan Prov again. Kozlov revisited Khara Khoto in May and located the manuscripts hidden inside a stupa on the rightside bank of a dry bed river, i.e., the ancient E-ji-na River. The British and the Americans followed Kozlov's path thereafter. In 1914, A Stein came to Khara Khoto and scavenged the remaining manuscripts that were discerned to be Tibetan, Tangut, Turkic, Chinese and Uygur scripts. In 1914, Luo Fucheng & Luo Fuchang brothers obtained from Russian [Yi-feng-ge, namely, a Soviet spy who converted Li Dazhao to communism] a Tangut dictionary (i.e., "The Pearls In A Palm") authored by Gu-le-mao-cai in A.D. 1190. Scholar Luo Zhenyue interpreted another batch of Tangut dictionaries entitled "Pronunciation Same" and "Literature Sea" on basis of the Russian excavations. In 1916, American B Laufer claimed that the Tangut language belonged to the same branch as the Yi-zu & Naxi-zu minority in Southwestern Yunnan Province. A dozen years later, an American, by the name of Warner, discovered a few wall drawings, three potteries and a few dozens of coins. In 1931, British S N Wolfenden and American G T Bowles claimed that the people in the Muya area could be descendants of the Tanguts who were exiled and relocated there by the Mongols. Thoughout the 20th century, the Chinese, Russians, Americans, Japanese, Hungarians, New Zealanders, French, British and Germans had conducted tenuous research into the Tangut language. The Russians, with first hand evidence, had produced the most scholars, some of whom had suffered death in Stalin's Purge.
 
 
The Tanguts vs Five Dynasties
 
During the Five Dynasties time period, the Tuoba-Li family expressed loyalty to all five succeeding courts as well as the Northern Han Dynasty to the east of the Yellow River. Only Posterior Tang had launched one campaign against Tuoba-Li's Tangut regime. In A.D. 895, Toba Sigong (i.e., Li Sigong) passed away. Brother Li Sijian assumed the post of "ding-na-jun jie-du-shi" (i.e., Governor-general for Quelling-turmoil Garrison). When Posterior Liang was founded by Zhu Wen, Li Sijian expressed loyalty and received extra titles of "jianxiao taiwei' [monitoring captain] and "shi zhong" [imperial attache]. In 908, Li Sigong's grandson, Li Yichang, took over Li Sijian's post. Three months later, Li Yichang was killed by his general Gao Zongyi. An uncle, by the name of Li Renfu, was supported as the new Governor-general for Quelling-turmoil Garrison. At one time, Li Renfu was attacked by Li Chunxu (i.e., King Jinn-wang) who encircled the Xiazhou city. Posterior Liang Emperor Taizu (i.e., Zhu Wen) came to the relief of Li Renfu.
 
After Li Chunxu overthrew Posterior Liang, Li Renfu expressed loyalty to Posterior Tang. In A.D. 933, son Li Yichao assumed the post of Li Renfu. Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong [Li Siyuan or Li Dan, reign 926-933] had campaigned against Li Yichao for his refusal to relocate to Yanzhou. After laying siege of Xiazhou in vain for over hundred days, Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong withdrew the siege and re-confirmed Li Yichao's post. After Li Yichao's death in A.D. 936, brother Li Yiyin assumed the post.
 
When Shi Jingtang, i.e., Tang Emperor Mingzong's son-in-law, colluded with the Khitans in overthrowing Posterior Tang and establishing Posterior Jinn, Li Yiyin continued to receive the old conferrals. Posterior Jinn further caught the Tangut rebels in A.D. 943 on behalf of Li Yiyin. When the Khitans attacked Posterior Jinn in A.D. 944, Li Yiyin led a combined force of 40,000 Tibetans, Qiangs and Han Chinese in attacking the west side of the Khitans by crossing the Yellow River at Linzhou.
 
Posterior Jinn was destroyed by the Khitans in A.D. 946. The second year, Liu Zhiyuan of the Shatuo Turkic origin established Posterior Han Dynasty. Posterior Han Dynasty continued the pacification policy as to the Tanguts, and further seceded Jingzhou (Mizhi county of Shenxi) to Li Yiyin in A.D. 949 and conferred the title of "zhong shu ling" (minister for central secretariat).
 
After Guo Wei, i.e., "liu shou" (retained governing magistrate) for Yedu (Yecheng of Shanxi), killed Posterior Han Dynasty Emperor Yindi (r 948-950), Guo Wei upgraded Li Yiyin to the title of King Longxi-jun-wang in A.D. 951. Guo Wei, i.e., Posterior Zhou Dynasty Emperor Taizu (r 951-954), conferred the title of King Xiping-wang onto Li Yiyin in A.D. 954. Li Yiyin did not severe relations with Northern Han Dynasty till A.D. 957.
 
In A.D. 960, Zhao Kuangyin initiated the Chenqiao Coup, took over the reign from Posterior Zhou and established Song Dynasty as Emperor Taizu (r 960-976). Li Yiyin promptly dispatched an emissary to the Song court for expressing loyalty, and changed his name to Li Yixing for avoiding the conflict with the last character of the given name of Zhao Kuangyin's father. Li Yiyin surrendered 300 stallions to the Song court in A.D. 962 and received a jade-belt as imperial bestowal in return. When Li Yiyin died in A.D. 967, Song Emperor Taizu ordered a mourning for three days and conferred Li Yiyin the title of King Xia-wang posthumously. Son Li Guangrui assumed his father's post.
 
 
Tanguts vs Song Dynasty
 
During Song Dynasty, Toba Sigong descendant sought suzerainty with Song Chinese and changed their last name to Song royal family name of 'Zhao' from Tang family name of 'Li'. However, Xixia sought suzerainty with Khitans at the same time. Li Guangrui, in A.D. 975, declined Northern Han Emperor Liu Jiyuan's demand for a concerted attack at Song Dynasty. In May 975, Northern Han dispatched an army of 10,000 for crossing the Yellow River to attack Tangut Yinzhou city. In August, Song Emperor Taizu launched a five prong attack at Northern Han, and Tanguts assisted Song in attacking Northern Han from the west. IN A.D. 976, Song Emperor Taizu passed away, and his brother Zhao Guangyi succeeded as Song Emperor Taizong (r 976-997). Li Guangrui changed his name to Li Kerui for conflict with the first character of the given name of Zhao Guangyi. Son Li Jiyun [Li Jijun] succeeded the post of Li Kerui in A.D. 978.
 
When Song Emperor Taizong attacked Northern Han in March 980, Li Jiyun ordered than Li Keyuan and Li Kexian lead Yinzhou and Yanzhou armies for an attack at Northern Han across the Yellow River. Brother Li Jipeng succeeded the post of Li Jiyun in A.D. 980. Li Keyuan and Li Kexian opposed Li Jipeng's ascension. Li Jipeng quelled Li Keyuan and Li Kexian. Li Kewen of Suizhou, however, petitioned with Song court in removing Li Jipeng. Song Emperor Taizong took advantage of Tangut internal strife in ordering that Li Jipeng report to Song capital while Li Kewen of Suizhou assume the Tangut post. In May 982, Li Jipeng reported to Song capital. Thereafter, Song Emperor Taizong recalled all Tangut Li brothers from the four prefectures.
 
However, two cousins of Li Jipeng, i.e., Li Jiqian & Li Jichong, fled to Dijingze Lake area with weapons hiding in his nany's mourning cart and rebelled against Song Dynasty. Li Jipeng had voluntarily submitted to Song Dynasty by surrendering four prefectures of Yin-Xia-Sui-You and served Song Dynasty at the capital of Kaifeng. His cousin, Li Jiqian, opposed submission policy and declared himself the ruler of the Tanguts by adopting the advice of his Han ethnic counsel Zhang Pu. In A.D. 984, Li Jiqian lost his wife and mother to the Song army during a surprise night attack by Song's Xiazhou official Yi Xian. Li Jixian then sought alliance with Yeli-shi clan and re-strengthened his forces. In A.D. 985, Li Jiqian & Li Jichong took over Yinzhou. Song Emperor Taizong, at the advice of Zhao Pu, released Li Jipeng for controlling Tangut territories, and moreover tried to pacify Li Jiqian as well. But Li Jiqian refused Song conferrals and already sought suzerainty with Khitans. In May 997, Li Jiqian attacked Lingzhou with 10,000 army. Lingzhou was guarded by Song General Dou Shenbao. Song dispatched five columns against Li Jiqian.
 
When Song Emperor Zhenzong (Zhao Heng, reign A.D. 998-1022) was enthroned, Xixia ruler, Li Jiqian, sent congratulations. Song Emperor Zhenzong conferred the post of ding nan jie-du-shi (governor-general quelling rebellions) and the territories of Xia-Sui-Yin-You-Jing onto Li Jiqian. Emperor Zhenzong released a Xixia offical by the name of Zhang Pu. Li Jiqian sent his brother to Song court, and Song granted the name of Zhao Baoji onto him. Song Emperor Zhenzong dispatched a minister (Zhang Qixian) to Jing-Yuan areas as jinglüe shi, and Zhang Qixian proposed that the city of Lingwu on the west Yellow River bend be abandoned.
 
In 1001, Li Jiqian attacked the surrounding cities of Lingzhou, and took over Qingyuan-jun Garrison and Huaiyuan-zhen town. The next year, Li Jiqian attacked Lingzhou. Heh Liang, a Song official in charge of Yongxing Jun army, would propose to defend Lingwu so that Xixia and Western Territories [New Dominion Prov] could be segregated from each other. Heh Liang adamantly proposed that Song build two castles of Fule and Yaode for sake of supplying Lingwu with grains. Heh Liang stated that the supply of good horses would be cut off should Lingwu be lost to the Tanguts. Song emperor Zhenzong then ordered that Wang Chao lead 60,000 relief army to Lingzhou (Lingwu).
 

Li Jiqian attacked Song Qingyuan Jun Garrison, and Duan Yi surrendered to the Tanguts. Li Jiqian then attacked Dingzhou and Huaiyuan; Song official Cao Can assembled nomadic people as mercenaries and defeated Li Jiqian. In A.D. 1002, Li Jiqian attacked Lingzhou. Song zhi zhou shi (magistrate equivalent) Fei Ji defended the city for over one month, cut his finger and wrote a blood letter for requesting relief with Song court, and later died in street fightings. Wang Chao made an excuse for not going to Lingzhou on time. After taking over Lingzhou, Li Jiqian renamed Lingzhou [Yinchuan area of Ningxia] to Xiping-fu and made it the capital of Xixia.
 
One year later, Li Jihe of Song Zhi-Zhenrong-Jun Garrison wrote to Song court that a chieftan (Tibetan) from Liugu (six valleys), by the name of Balaji (Panluozhi), intended to attack Tanguts on behalf of Song. Zhang Qixian proposed that Song conferred the title of 'King of Liugu' and the post of zhao tao shi (campaigning emissary) onto Balaji. Song decided to offer Balaji the title of suofang jie-du-shi (satrap or governor for northern territories) onto Balaji. Balaji claimed that he had assembled 60,000 strong army for fighting Tanguts.
 
To the east, Li Jiqian then attacked Linzhou [Shenmu-xian of Shenxi, seceded by Song in 1226] but he was defeated by Song zhi zhou (prefecture chief) Wei Jubao. Changing his direction to the west, Li Jiqian re-routed towards Xiliang (Western Liang or Gansu Prov) and killed a Song official called Ding Weiqing in Nov 1004. Li Jiqian took over Liangzhou by pretending an attack at Huanzhou & Qingzhou. Balaji, previously a vassal under jurisdiction of Xiliang district, would pretend to surrender to the Tanguts. When Balaji led his Liugu army to Xiliang for Li Jiqian to inspect on, Balaji would suddenly launch an attack at the Tanguts. Balaji shot an arrow at the eye of Li Jiqian. When Li Jiqian fled back to Lingzhou, he died of the wound in Jan 1004 at age 42 and was conferred the title of Emperor Taizu posthumously.
 
Li Jiqian's son, Li Deming, was enthroned next. Tanguts notified the Khitans of the succession, and Khitans conferred the title of King Xiping-wang onto Li Deming. In 1005, Song Emperor Zhenzong sent a messenger to Li Deming for sake of pacifying him, and Li Deming dispatched general Wang Shen to Song for seeking suzerainty. Cao Wei of Song Zhi-zhenrong-jun Garrison proposed that Song exterminated Xixia by taking advantage of Li Jiqian's death. Song Emperor Zhenzong stated that Song could not attack Tanguts while the Tanguts were in mourning status. Song conferred the post of Dingnan-jun jie-du-shi (satrap or governor for Quelling Turmoils Garrison) onto Li Deming and then added King Xiping-wang by copying the Khitan approach. A peace treaty was reached by Sept 1006. In A.D. 1007, Li Deming obtained Song court's approval to open up border trade post at Bao'an-jun Garrison (today's Zhidan county of Shenxi Prov).
 
Tibetan chieftan Balaji was killed by some alien tribe, and Liugu tribes erected Balaji's brother, Sibangduo (Siduodu), as the new chieftan. Song court continued the conferral of suofang jie-du-shi onto Sibangduo. Sibangduo failed to rein in his people, and Sibangduo people defected to the Tibetans. Tibetan chieftan proposed to Song court that they launch a coordinated attack at Li Deming. Song Zhenzong declined it. Tibetans, however, invaded Song's Qinzhou territories, and Song official at Qinzhou, Cao Wei, defeated the Tibetans. Song conferred the title of ningyuan da jiangjun (grand general for Ningyuan area) and tuan lian shi (militia emissary) of Aizhou onto Tibetan chieftan.
 
 
Declaration of Grand Xia Dynasty
 
Tangut ruler Li Deming, aka Zhao Deming, had a son by the name of Li Yuanhao. Li Yuanhao often proposed to Li Deming that the Tanguts defeat the Huihe (Uygur) and Tibetans first. Li Yuanhao led a surprise attack at Ganzhou [Zhangye of Gansu Prov], and took over the city from Huihe. Li Deming made Li Yuanhao into the crown prince. Li Yuanhao often instigated his father in rebelling against Song. After the death of Li Deming, Li Yuanhao got enthroned. Song dispatched gongbu langzhong (minister for engineering department) Yang Ji to the Tanguts and continued the previous conferrals onto Li Yuanhao. Khitans conferred Li Yuanhao the title of 'King of Xia'.
 
In A.D. 1034, Li Yuanhao attacked Huanqing territories. Song General Wei Tong attacked the hind of the Tanguts. Tanguts then invaded Song territories again. Li Yuanhao i) captured Qi Zongju who led relief soldiers from Huanqing and ii) defeated Wang Wen who led relief soldiers from Ningzhou. Then, Li Yuanhao released Qi Zongju for sake of peace with Song. After that, Li Yuanhao dispatched an army of 25,000 against the Tibetans. Tanguts were defeated and Tangut general Sunuer was taken as prisoner of war. Li Yuanhao personally led an expedition against the Tibetans, but he was defeated by the Tibetans, too.
 
Li Yuanhao then changed target to the Huihe (Uygur) people. In A.D. 1036, Li Yuanhao took over Huihe territories of Guazhou (Gansu-xian and Anxi-xian of Gansu), Shazhou (Tunhuang-xian of Gansu) and Suzhou (Jiuquan of Gansu Prov), and hence Tanguts controlled the He-xi Corridor for 191 years.
 

At this moment, two Chinese intellectuals from Huazhou area went to Lingzhou (Lingwu-xian of Ningxia) to see Li Yuanhao. Li Yuanhao (Zhao Yuanhao) adopted the advices of the two guys in building Xixia kingdom, renamed Lingzhou to Xingzhou (where 'xing' means prospering) and xiping-fu into xingqing-fu (i.e., today's Yinchuan area of Ningxia), declared a dynastic title of "Da Xia" (Grand Xia), established 16 departments and ministries, instituted 12 army supervisors (i.e., jian jun si), recruited an official army of 500,000, and devised the written Tangut characters. Tangut records claimed that a minister, by the name of Ye-li-ren-rong, spent years on a high storey building in devising the scripts, for which Li Yuanhao conferred him Marquis Fuping-hou posthumously and Tangut Emperor Renzong conferred him King Guanghui-wang posthumously in A.D. 1162. In A.D. 1038, Li Yuanhao sent messenger to Song court to notify his imperial entitlement as Xia Emperor Jingzong. In his letter, Li Yuanhao claimed Toba (i.e., Xianbei) ancestry and heritage dating from Toba Wei Dynasty. Among Western Xia territories would be: Xiazhou [Jingbian-xian], Suizhou [Suide of Shenxi], Yinzhou [Mizhi-xian of Shenxi], Youzhou [east of Jingbian-xian of Shenxi], Jingzhou [Mizhi-xian of Shenxi], Lingzhou [Lingwu], Ganzhou [Zhangye of Gansu], Xingzhou [Yinchuan], Liangzhou [Wuwei of Gansu], Guazhou [east of Gansu-xian/Anxi-xian of Gansu], Shazhou [Dunhuang of Gansu], Suzhou [Jiuquan of Gansu], Lanzhou [Lanzhou, surrendered by Tibetans in A.D. 1126], Linzhou [Shenmu-xian of Shenxi, seceded by Song in 1126], Fuzhou [Fugu-xian of Shenxi], and Fengzhou [east of Hetao in Inner Mongolia] and etc.
 
Tangut rulers (from A.D. 873 to 1038) and emperors (from A.D. 1038 to 1227), would include:
Tuoba Ningcong
.
.
. ?
Tuoba Chici
Tuoba Sitou [Tuoba Sidai]
.?
Tuoba Shouji
.?
Tuoba Qianhui
Toba Sigong (Li Sigong)
...
Emperor Jingzong (Li Yuanhao, reign 1032-1038, 1038-1049 ?)
Emperor Yizong (reign 1049-1068?)
Emperor Huizong (reign 1068-1086?)
Emperor Chongzong (Li Qianshun, reign 1086-1139)
Emperor Renzong (Li Renxiao, 1140-1193)
Emperor Huanzong (Li Chunyou, reign 1194-1206)
Emperor Xiangzong (Li An'quan, reign 1206-1211)
Emperor Shenzong (reign 1211-1223)
Emperor Xianzong (Li Dewang, reign 1223-1226)
The Last Ruler (reign 1226-1227)

 
 
Khitans-Jurchens-Tanguts-Song
 
The Khitans had married over their princess to the Tangut emperor, and had good diplomatic relationships with the Tanguts. In A.D. 1122, the Jurchens defeated the Khitans in Manchuria, and the Khitans fled to the Yinshan Mountains of Inner Mongolia. Tangut General Li Liangfu came to the Khitan's aid with 30,000 soldiers. The Tanguts were defeated by the Jurchens, and most of the Tangut soldiers drowned themselves in a mountain torrent in a valley called 'Yegu' (wild valley). Jurchen General Zongwang wrote to the Tanguts asking them to pay tributes the same way as the Tanguts did to the Khitans. In A.D. 1124, the Tanguts accepted suzerainty with the Jurchens, and Jurchen Emperor Taizong (reign A.D. 1123-1135) seceded to the Tanguts the territories south of the Yinshan Mountains.
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

 
When Song Chinese took over some lands west of 'shan-xi' (i.e., land to the west of Huashan Mountain) that was seceded to the Tanguts, Tangut Emperor (Li Qianshun) wrote to the Jurchens asking for intervention. Jurchens, as an appreciation of the alliance with Song Chinese against Khitans, had earlier seceded nine prefectures of 'shan-xi' ex-Khitan territories to Song, including Shenxi Prov and 'he-nan' land (south of the Yellow River). Jurchens, who had an earlier agreement to allow Song to retake Peking from Khitans, had helped Song in the siege of Peking when Song army failed to take over Peking. Hence, Jurchens, in exchange for surrendering Peking to Song per alliance agreement, would receive the tax revenues of Peking as a compensation. (Later, Jurchens retook the territories of 'he-nan' / 'shan-xi' lands and Peking after defeating Song Chinese and capturing two Song emperors, Song Huizong & Song Qinzong.)
 
Tangut Emperor Chongzong (Li Qianshun) died in the year of A.D. 1139 (1140?). Li Qianshun's son, Li Renxiao, was enthroned as Tangut Emperor Renzong (AD 1140-1194 ?). Tanguts, originally father-in-law of the Khitans, had once disputed with Jurchens about the diplomatic etiquette when Jurchen emissary insisted that Tangut emperor used the minister protocol to receive Jurchen imperial emissary (Wang A'hai). When Jurchen Emperor Xizong (Wanyan Dan) was killed by Hailingwang (King of Hailing, i.e., Wanyan Liang, reign A.D. 1149-1161), the Tanguts would reprimand Jurchen emissary as to the killing. Tanguts would come to pay respect to Jurchens' Hailingwang one year later, i.e., in A.D. 1150.
 
Around A.D. 1161, Jurchens attacked Song Chinese, Song invaded Gansu Prov, and Tanguts took over some cities from Jurchens as well as invaded Song territories. Jurchen Emperor Shizong (Wayan Yong) enthroned in A.D. 1161. Tanguts offered some cities to Jurchens and requested for Jurchen assistance in attacking Song Chinese.
 
In A.D. 1164, Tanguts sent an official, 'da fu', to Jurchens. Tangut prime minister, Ren Dejing, had been assisting Tangut emperor for over 20 years, and Ren Dejing executed many Tangut royal family members in preparation for an eventual usurpation. In A.D. 1170, Ren Dejing obtained southwestern Tangut territories (including Lingzhou Prefecture) as his fief. Ren Dejing forced Tangut emperor into petitioning for 'conferral' by Jurchen emperor. Jurchen Emperor Shizong took advice from 'shang shu' Li Shi and refused to approve Tangut emperor's petition. Hence, Ren Dejing contacted Song Chinese for assistance. Tangut Emperor (Li Renxiao) intercepted the Song messenger's letter to Ren Dejing and managed to have Ren Dejing and his cronies captured and executed.
 
Tangut Emperor (Li Renxiao) continued to surrender tributes and gifts to Jurchens in A.D. 1172 and A.D. 1177. Tanguts and Jurchens set up trading posts around the border areas of Shenxi Prov and had disputes over trader's pillaging. In A.D. 1191, some Tangut border generals killed a Jurchen general, and Tanguts apologized to Jurchen Emperor Zhuangzong (Wanyan Jing, reign 1190-1208) by executing the perpetrators.
 
Tangut Emperor (Li Renxiao) died in A.D. 1193. Li Renxiao's son, Li Chunyou, would be Tangut Emperor Huanzong (1194-1206 ?). In A.D. 1197, trading posts were re-established. In A.D. 1200, Li Chunyou's mother got ill, and Jurchens dispatched imperial doctors (Shi Deyuan and Wang Lizhen) to the Tanguts. In A.D. 1206, Li Renxiao's brother, Li An'quan, deposed Tangut Emperor Huanzong. Li An'quan enthroned as Emperor Xiangzong (1206-1211 ?). Huanzong died a few months later while under the house arrest. Li An'quan forced Li Chunyou's mother into petitioning with Jurchens for conferral of the emperor title. Jurchens approved the request.

 
 
Mongols-Tanguts-Jurchens
 
The Mongols attacked the Tanguts in A.D. 1205, 1207, 1208 and in A.D. 1209. In A.D. 1205, Genghis Khan (Timuchin) invaded Tangut territories and took over the city of Luo-si. In A.D. 1207, Genghis Khan attacked Tanguts again and took over the city of Ke-wo-luo-hai. In Jan of A.D. 1210, the siege of Tangut capital was released when the waters, breached by the Mongols for flooding the Xia capital, flowed to the Mongol camp instead. Peace was secured only when Tangut emperor (Li An'quan) delivered his youngest daughter to Genghis Khan as a bribe. After Mongols left, Tanguts, angry that the Jurchens did not come to their aid, broke the peace treaty with the Jurchens.
 
In A.D. 1211, Li An'quan died. A royal member was selected as Tangut Emperor Shenzong (1211-1223 ?). Taking advantage of Jurchen's defeat at Huihebao, Tanguts raided into the Jurchen territories. In A.D. 1212 and 1213, Tanguts attacked Jurchens four times. In A.D. 1213, Jurchens reprimanded the Tanguts, but Tanguts continued to infringe on the Jurchen territories, including Yan'qing area of Shenxi Prov. Jurchens fought back in A.D. 1215. In A.D. 1216, Jurchens captured a Tangut spy who disclosed that the Tanguts had colluded with Song Chinese in attacking Jurchens. In A.D. 1217, Jurchen general at Qingyang, General Qingshannu, defeated a Tangut army of 30,000. After more rounds of fightings, Jurchens intended to have peace talk with the Tanguts. In A.D. 1218, Qingshannu passed on Tanguts' wish to have peace talk, but Jurchen court ignored it. Wars continued till A.D. 1223. Tangut emperor's son, Deren, requested that Tanguts have peace with Jurchens; Deren stated that he would rather be a monk than continuing wars with Jurchens; and Deren was exiled to Lingzhou Prefecture. This year, the Mongols attacked the Tanguts. Jurchen generals requested for a campaign against the Tanguts by taking advantage of Mongols' entanglement with the Tanguts. But Jurchen governor in Shenxi advised against this proposal. Tanguts continued to raid into Jurchen territories. Jurchens and Tanguts had ten years of border wars since A.D. 1213.
 
Tangut Emperor Shenzong passed away in this year. His son, Li Dewang, was enthroned as Tangut Emperor Xianzong (1223-1226 ?). In A.D. 1224, Jurchens and Tanguts reached a peace agreement and promised to be brothers. Since Western Xia had refused to provide troops in the war against the Khwarizm, and more over, signed another alliance treaty with Jurchen Jin, Genghis Khan led a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign against the Tanguts in A.D. 1225. In A.D. 1226, Shenzong and Xianzong died consecutively. The last Tangut ruler ruled for only one year, and Tangut Xixia Dynasty ended in A.D. 1227 under Mongol attacks. A Tangut minister, Wang Lizhi, was dispatched to Jurchens for intermarriage, and hence Wang Lizhi stayed on in Jurchen territories, responsible for settling Tangut refugees.

 
 
Mongol Attack on Tanguts
 
Tanguts were never isolated from the nomads on the steppe. Earlier, Toghrul (Kerait chieftan) was resented by his tribesmen for killing his brothers. When Toghrul was defeated by his uncle and fled with few hundreds of horsemen, Yisugei (Genghis Khan's father) would come to his aid and drive Toghrul's uncle to Tanguts' Western Xia. Later, Toghrul's brother rebelled as well, and Toghrul had to flee to the three statelets of 'Hexi', 'Huihu' and 'Huihui', and Kara Khitai for asylum, consecutively. After Timuchin defeated Toghrul's Keraits, Toghrul fled towards the Naimans and was killed by the Naiman soldier. Toghrul's son fled to Tanguts and pillaged Xixia people. When attacked by the Tanguts, Toghrul's son fled to Chouci {Qiuci] in Chinese Turkistan and was killed by the chieftan there.
 
From A.D. 1205 onward, Mongols attacked Tanguts six times. Genghis Khan first accused Xixia of giving asylum to Toghrul's people, i.e., King Toghrul Wang-han's son Yi-la-he-sang-kun. In 1209, 1217, and 1226-1227, Mongols reached Mt Helanshan three times and laid siege of Xingqing-fu city.
 
The Tanguts were attacked by the Mongols in A.D. 1205, 1207 and 1208 before they were defeated again in A.D. 1209. In A.D. 1205, Mongols sacked two border garrisons, Li-ji-li-zai and Luo-si-cheng, pillaged people and camels, and retreated within one month. Xia Emperor Huanzong repaired castles thereafter, declared amnesty, and renamed capital of Xingqing-fu into Zhongxing-fu. Tanguts intruded into Mongol plains in late 1205, only to withdraw after hearing of Jurchen defeat. After the grand assembly of 1206, Timuchin, now titled Genghis Khan, conferred kingship onto his brothers. He conferred 'wan hu' (10,000 households) on Muhuali and Borjie as well as 95 'qian hu' (1,000 households). Both 'wan hu' and 'qian hu' are military titular names. (Mongols initially had simple titular posts, and Khuibilai would have his counsellor, Liu Bingzhong, work on governmental structure later.) Muhuali, i.e., Muqali or Mukali, proposed to Genghis Khan that they should first defeat the Tanguts, then the Jurchens and finally the Song Chinese. Since the Chinese chronicle counts the full first year as the No. 1 year, A.D. 1206 would be the so-called first year of Mongol Dynasty. The official dynastic epoch of 'Yuan' would not come till Khubilai declared it in A.D. 1271. (Southern Song ended eight years later, in A.D. 1279.)
 
In the autumn of 1207, campaigns against the Tanguts began on the pretext that Tanguts did not surrender tributes. Genghis Khan attacked the citadel Wo-luo-hai-cheng, to the north of Hetao and near the northern pass of Lang-shan Mountain. Mongols slaughtered the city after 40 days of fightings. Five months later, Mongols retreated after Tangut Emperor Xiangzong dispatched relief armies. In the spring of A.D. 1209, Wei-wu-er (Uygur) came to show respect. In the spring of 1209, Genghis Khan personally led the 650 mile march on the Tanguts in the south. This was after the Huihe people in Gaochang killed the governor ["shao jian"] of Western Liao and surrendered to Mongols as a vassal. Mongols, utilizing the northwestern exposure, attacked Tangut's Wo-luo-hai Pass again. Tangut Emperor Xiangzong [Li An'quan] dispatched son Cheng-zhen to the front, and Tangut Deputy Marshal Gao Yi was killed after being caught by the Mongols. Alternatively speaking, Mongols captured Tangut deputy marshal Gao Linggong and the city of Ke-wu-la [Wo-luo-hai?]. In April, Mongols sacked Wo-luo-hai after a Chinese [Xie Muhuan] pursuaded a ex-Song Chinese defender into surrendering the city. Tangut's "tai fu" [imperial tutor] Xi-bi-e-da was caught by Mongols. Mongols then intruded southward towards Ke-yi-men Pass. Tangut General Weimingling-gomng, with 50000 relief army, ambushed Mongols in a valley and drove Mongols out of the mountain pass. Two months later, Mongols seduced Tanguts into a trap, defeated them, sacked Ke-yi-men, and intruded to Zhongxing-fu capital. By Sept, Mongols flooded the city with water from the Yellow River. Water as deep as several feet destroyed houses in the city and drowned numerous people. Tangut's request with Jurchens was declined. By Dec, however, flood destroyed the Mongol dike and flooded the Mongol camps instead.
 
In the winter, Genghis Khan turned to Kuchlug and Tuotuo in the northwest, causing Kuchlug to flee to Kara Khitai while Tuotuo was killed by a stray arrow. In Jan of A.D. 1210, the siege of Tangut capital was released when the waters, breached by the Mongols for flooding the Xia capital, flowed to the Mongol camp instead. Mongols released the Tangut 'tai fu' for a peace talk. Peace was secured only when Tangut emperor (Li An'quan) delivered his youngest daughter (rumored to be later responsible for poisoning Genghis when he re-attacked Xixia) to Genghis Khan as a bribe, but the Tanguts refused to supply troops to the Mongols as auxiliary. Tanguts would pay for this later.
 
After Mongols left, Tanguts, angry that the Jurchens did not come to their aid, broke the peace treaty with the Jurchens which had been effective as of A.D. 1165, and a new treaty would not be signed till A.D. 1225 when they faced new waves of Mongol attackes. Tanguts attacked Jurchen's border town but were defeated, and hence they asked Genghis Khan to attack the Jurchens. Tanguts would be engaged in ten years' border wars with Jurchens. In A.D. 1211, Li An'quan died. A royal member was selected as Tangut Emperor Shenzong (1211-1223 ?). In A.D. 1212 and 1213, Tanguts attacked Jurchens four times. Jurchens fought back in A.D. 1215. In A.D. 1217, Jurchen general at Qingyang, General Qingshannu, defeated a Tangut army of 30,000. Tanguts continued to raid into Jurchen territories. Jurchens and Tanguts had ten years of border wars since A.D. 1213. Wars continued till A.D. 1223.
 
In autumn of A.D. 1216, Mongols came to Shenxi from their early campaigns against Tanguts in the west. In A.D. 1217, Mongols attacked Tanguts for the fourth time on the pretext that Tanguts did not obey appropriation. Mongols laid siege of Xingqing-fu. Tangut Emperor Zunzong fled to "xi-jing" [western capital], and assigned son De-ren for city defence. De-ren requested for peace with Mongols.
 
In A.D. 1218, Mongols departed from Zijingguan Pass and captured Jurchen 'yuanshuai xingshi' Zhang Rou. Muhuali departed 'xi-jing' for 'he-dong' (east of Yellow River) and captured Taiyuan, Dai, Feng, Lu, Huo-zhou and Pingyang of Shanxi Province. Jurchen General Wu Xian attacked Man-zhou, and Zhang Rou defeated Wu Xian. Tanguts were attacked in this year [?], and Tangut Emperor fled to 'xi-liang' (west of Gansu Province). A Khitan, by the name of Liuge, took over 'Jiangdong' (east of the river) of Koryo. Mongols dispatched Ha-zhen and Zhao-la against Liu-ge, and Koryo king requested for vassalage. In June of A.D. 1219, Xi-yu (western territories) of Chinese Turkistan killed Mongol emissaries, and Genghis Khan personally campaigned against 'Xi-yu' and captured chieftan Ha-zhi-er-zhi-lan-tu. (In A.D. 1218, the governor of Oyrat, an eastern province of Khwarizm, robbed and killed several Mongol merchants.)
 
Since Western Xia had refused to provide troops in the war against the Khwarizm, and more over, signed another alliance treaty with Jurchen Jin, Genghis Khan led a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign against the Tanguts in A.D. 1225. One year earlier, in A.D. 1224, Mongol omnipotent magistrate for Northern China, i.e., Bei-lu, already attacked Tanguts' Yinzhou city where tens of thousands of Tanguts died and defender Ta-hai was caught alive. Genghis Khan, en route of return, first attacked Tanguts' Shazhou and laid the siege for half a year. At Shazhou, Tanguts burnt dead the Mongols digging through a tunnel, and Mongols withdrew the siege for a retreat to Mongolia after Tangut Emperor De-wang agreed to send in hostage. In A.D. 1225, Jochi died in the camp north of the Caspian Sea.
 
In the spring of 1226, Genghis Khan, after zoning the fiefdoms for his four sons, attacked Tanguts on the pretext that no hostage was sent in yet. Two columns of armies were arranged, with one prong attacking Shazhou from the west, and another prong striking southward against Xixia. In Feb, Genghis Khan took over Heisui city [Khara Khoto], reached Mt Helanshan, caught Tangut General A-sha-gan-bu, and waited for a conversion with "western route". (A-sha-gan-bu had insulted Genghis Khan's emissary on the matter of attacking Jurchens together with Mongols.) Mongol "western route" first attacked Shazhou by utilizing a defector Tangut general Li Qianbu. Li Qianbu and Mongol General Hudu-timur barely escaped a banquet set up by Shazhou defenders who faked a surrender. With pleading from Li Qianbu, Genghis Khan spared the city after sacking it. Mongol "western route" then attacked Suzhou with a Tangut called Cha-han who grew up among Mongols since childhood. Suzhou defenders killed the general who was the brother of Li Qianbu. Mongols slaughtered the city, only sparing 106 households who were relatives of Li Qianbu. After Suzhou would be Ganzhou whose defender was the father of Cha-han. Tangut deputy defender killed the whole family of Cha-han's father. Mongols failed to sack Ganzhou after six attacks. At this time, Genghis Khan led his forces to Ganzhou, and combined for an attack at Ganzhou. Ganzhou was spared slaughter with the pleading from Cha-han. In autumn, Mongols took over Xiliang-fu when defender surrendered. Hence, the whole "Western Corridor" fell to Mongols.
 
In Sept, Li Quan captured Zhang Bin. Genghis Khan then trepassed the Tengri Desert for the region called "Yellow River Nine Winding". Mongols took over Yingli, and then dispatched a contingent against Xiazhou. Mongols, with two columns, swept through the Tangut territory on the east bank of the Western Bend. By Nov, two columns pinched Tangut Xiping-fu city. A Xixia general, by the name of Weimingling-gong, led 100000 relief army from Zhongxing-fu, and challenged the Mongols for a battle near Helanshan Mountain. (Helan means great horse in northern dialect.) Mongols crossed the frozen Yellow River and fought Tanguts on the two banks. Xixia armies were defeated at Helanshan. Weimingling-gong retreated into Lingzhou city with remnants and converged with deposed Tangut Prince De-ren. In Nov, Genghis Khan lay siege of Tanguts' Ling-zhou. Mongols then sacked Lingzhou, and De-ren was killed.
 
Mongol armies then took over various cities including Lingzhou Prefecture, Shizhou Prefecture, and then Lintao governor office including Taohe and Xining prefectures. Five stars, in a row, were noted in the skies. In Dec, Li Quan surrendered. Zhang Rou was conferred marshal and 'qian hu'. Ogodai lay siege of Jurchen 'nan-jing', i.e., southern capital, and dispatched Tang Qing for extracting tributes from the Jurchens.
 
After the Battle of Lingzhou, Mongols pushed at Zhongxing-fu the capital from Yanzhou. In A.D. 1227, Genghis Khan attacked Tanguts' capital, and in Feb, took over Lintiao-fu. In Mar, took over Xining prefecture and Xindu-fu. In April, took over Deshun prefecture and killed 'jie-du-shi' Ai Shen and 'jin shi' Ma Jianlong. At Deshun, Xixia General Ma Jianlong resisted the Mongols for days and personally led charges against the Mongols outside of the city gate. Ma Jianlong later died of arrow shots. Genghis Khan, after taking over Deshun, went to Liupanshan Mountain for shelter from the severe summer.
 
In May, Mongols dispatched Tang Qing to Jurchens again. In Jun, Jurchens sent Wanyan Hezhou for peace. Genghis Khan stated that he had said one year ago, when five stars converged onto one line, that Mongols should not kill people at random, and Genghis Khan made it an decree not to kill at random.
 
At Tangut capital of Zhongxing-fu [Yinchuan of today's Ningxia], rightside prime minister Gao Lianghui defended the citywall for half a year, day in and day out, and died of illness. An earthquake struck the capital. Epidemic erupted and more than half of the citizens and soldiers caught illness. The new Xixia emperor, i.e., Xia Modi [Zhao Ri], being attacked by the Mongols, surrendered to the Mongols by requesting for one month grace period. Genghis Khan, deeply ill himself, nominally agreed to the surrender request but secretly ordered the slaughter of the city before his death. On Aug 25th [?], Genghis Khan died but possibly instructed that his death not be divulged before the Tanguts were to surrender. In August, Xia Modei left the capital for the Mongol camp where Tu-lei killed him on the spot. The Mongols killed the Tangut emperor and his royal family members. Pillaging erupted throughout the capital. At the pleading of Cha-han, Mongol stopped killing, with possily one or two out of ten inhabitants left. The Tanguts officially surrendered in A.D. 1227, after being in existence for 190 years, from A.D. 1038 to A.D. 1227. (Five stars in a row were interpreted as some omen as to rise and fall of an emperor or dynasty. History of Yuan Dynasty mentioned that Genghis Khan, before his death, had ordered that Mongols should not kill people at random. This certainly is a glorification since the Tangut massacre contradicted what Genghis Khan had decreed. )
 
Meanwhile, Genghis Khan sent Ogedei eastward against Jurchens. They crossed the great bend of the Yellow River and began to attack the Jurchen Jin forces. In July, Genghis Khan died at age 66 somewhere near today's Liupanshan Mountain, Gansu Province, rumored to have been poisoned by his Tangut wife. He was buried in Qinian Valley [?] and was titled Taizu posthumously. (Alternative account stated that the corpse was shipped to the origin of Kerulen River, and along the road, Mongol soldiers killed numerous people for preserving the secrecy of the burial site.) Genghis Khan was also titled Emepror Shengwu, having a reign of 22 years and having conquered 40 countries. Tolui was made regent. Genghis Khan, at death-bed, outlined to his youngest son, Tului, the plan for attacking the Jurchens, i.e., circumventing southward near the Song-Jurchen border areas of Sichuan Province. Genghis Khan said the Song Chinese would for sure acquiesce because the Jurchens were the feuds of Song Chinese.
 
Tangut remnants, per Seng Ren's Western Xia Kingdom & Oriental Pyramid (Sichuan People's Publishing House, edition Jan 2002), fled to Muya area of today's Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Prov) and established a regime called Xi-wu-jia-er-bu. They later assisted Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang in campaigning against Ming Yuezhen rivalry and received the conferral as Ming Dynasty's xuan-wei-shi si (i.e., minority 'tu si' or satrap). Tanguts continued their minority 'tu si' heritage till Manchu Qing Emperor Kangxi's 39th Year, i.e., A.D. 1700. In 1994, Tangut's family lineage book was surrendered to the Chinese government by Li Peiye, i.e., 23rd generation grandson of Tangut Emperor Di-jian (?). Li Peiye claimed that Tangut descendants still live in Huang-shui River area of Qinghai Prov.
 
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

 
TO BE CONTINUED !
 
 
Written by Ah Xiang
 
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],