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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme. Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of the Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate the American wartime reporters. (More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and The American Involvement in China: the Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
Antiquity The Prehistory
Fiery Lord
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For details on when the east met with the west, see this webmaster's discussion on the Huns, the Yuezhi, the Tarim Mummies, the Yuezhi-Yushi misnomer, the Mongoloid-Caucasoid admixture at 2000 B.C.E., the fallacy of the Aryan bearing of the Chinese civilization, the fallacy of the Yuezhi jade trade, the Yuezhi migration timeline, as well as the location of the Kunlun Mountain, Queen Mother of the West the legendary proto-Tibetan Qiangic jade trade with the Sinitic Chinese, and the Qiang's possible routes of passage into Chinese Turkestan at http://www.imperialchina.org/Barbarians.htm which was embedded within the Huns.html and Turks_Uygurs.html pages. (The Mt. Kunshan jade was more likely the Mt. Huoshan jade, or the Mt. Yiwulv jade or the Kunlun jade juxtaposed together in the later book HUAI NAN ZI, not related to Queen Mother of the West. Also see this webmaster's discussion on the ethnic nature of the ancient Huns belonging to part of the epic Jiang-rong human migration of the Jiang-surnamed San-miao people and Yun-surnamed Xianyun people.)
Doctorate Li Hui from Fudan University of China had analyzed the Asian DNAs to have derived a conclusion that the ancestors of the Asians possessed a distinctive Mark M89 by the time they arrived in Southeast Asia. About 30,000 years ago, from the launching pad of Southeast Asia, the early Mongoloids went through a genetic mutation to marker M122. Li Hui claimed that the early migrants to the Chinese continent took three routes via two entries of today's Yunnan and Guangxi-Guangdong provinces. More studies done after Li Hui had ascertained the dates of the O1, O2 and O3 haplogroup people, with the the (O1, O2) entrants along the Southeast Chinese coast dated to have split away from the O3-haplogroup people like 20,000 years ago, much earlier than the continental peers, i.e., the Sino-Tibetans (O3a3c1-M117), Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao, O3a3b-M7) and Mon-khmers.
Li Hui commented that one branch of the early Mongoloids, over 10,000 years ago, entered China's southeastern coastline with genetic marker M119. Li Hui, claiming the same ancestry as the Dai-zu and Shui-zu minorities of Southwestern China, firmly believed that his ancestors had dwelled in the Hangzhou Bay and the Yangtze Delta for 7-8 thousand years. The people with M119 marker would be the historical "Hundred Yue People". The interesting theory adopted by Li Hui would be the migration of one Mongoloid branch of people who continued to travel non-stop along the Chinese coastline to reach the Liao-he River area of Manchuria. Li Hui's speculation on basis of the DNA technology was an evolving process. This would be likely the O2-haplogroup people, rather than the C-haplogroup people whose historical presence in Asia could be dated 50,000 year ago, just after the earlier D-haplogroup people who were now mostly restricted in the area of Hokkaido, Japan, and known as the Ainu. The C-haplogroup people developed into what this webmaster called by the Altaic-speaking people, i.e., ancestors of the Mongols and Manchus. What likely happened was that the O2-haplogroup people first travelled along the coast to reach Manchuria, and then traced back towards the south to reach the Yangtze area about 7-8000 years ago, where they evicted the O1-haplogroup people to the Southeast Asian islands. At about the same time, the O3-haplogroup people, moving through the continent, reached today's western Liaoning at least 5000 years ago, or like 11,000 years ago on basis of the evidence of the pottery aging. See the genetical analysis conducted by Li Hongjie of Jirin University on the remains of prehistoric people extracted from the archaeological sites.
  Northeast (southeastern Inner Mongolia)
    Niuheliang, Lingyuan, the Hongshan Culture, 5000 YBP, 4 N, 1 C*, 1 O

   Yuxian County (the Sanguan site), Hebei, the Lower Xiajiadian Culture, 3400-3800 YBP, all O3
Combining Li Hui's study with the pottery excavation, we could see a clear path going north extending from around 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Refer to Yaroslav V. Kuzmin's discourse on potteries to see the path of migration of proto-Mongoloids from southwestern China (approx. 15,120±500 BP) to Northeast Asia (Manchuria [13,000 BP, or c. 14,000 - 13,600 cal BC] and Japan [c. 11,800–10,500 cal BC (c. 13,800 - 12,500 cal BP)]) to Siberia (11,000 BP, or 11,200 - 10,900 cal BC).
In the timeframe of about 10,000 years, developing a genetic mutation to marker M134, one more branch of people who went direct north, per Li Hui, would penetrate the snowy Hengduan Mountains of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to arrive at the area next to the Yellow River bends. Owning to the cold weather environment, some physique, such as big noses, heavy lips and longer faces, developed among this group of people, i.e., ancestors of the Sino-Tibetans. Splitting out of this northbound migrants would be those who went to the east with a new genetic marker M117, i.e., ancestors of the modern Han [a misnomer as the proper term should be Sino-Tibetan, nor the later Sinitic] Chinese. We could say that our Sino-Tibetan ancestors forgot that they had penetrated northward the Hengduan Mountains from the Indo-China "CORRIDOR" in today's Burma-Vietnam. "Walking down Mt Kunlun", i.e., the "collective memory of the ethnic Han Chinese" throughout China and the Southeast Asian Chinese communities, that was echoed in Guo Xiaochuan's philharmonic-agitated epic, would become the starting point of the eastward migration which our Chinese ancestors remembered. (Li Hui grouped the 3000-year-old Chu and Qi people in the same category as the Han Chinese, albeit meeting the ancient classics' records as to the Qi statelet's lineage from the Qiangic-Tibetan Fiery Lord.)
Li Hui then pointed out that the ancient Wu people, with M7 genetic marker, came to the lower Yangtze area about 3000 years ago. While Li Hui claimed that the M7 Wu people had split away from the northbound M134 Sino-Tibetan people, the historical Chinese classics pointed out that the Wu Statelet was established by two uncles of Zhou Dynasty King Wenwang, i.e., migrants from the Yellow River area. The general layout by Lu Hui seems to have corroborated with Scholar Luo Xianglin's claim that early Sino-Tibetan people originated from the Mt Minshan and upper-stream River Min-jiang areas of today's Sichuan-Gansu provincial borderline and then split into two groups, with one going north to reach the Wei-shui River and upperstream Han-shui River of Shenxi Prov and then eastward to Shanxi Prov by crossing the Yellow River. --Though, this webmaster's analysis of China's prehistory shows that the Sino-Tibetan people who moved to the eastern coast was one group, with the future Tibetans being actually the exiles to Northwest China from eastern and central China during the era of Lord Shun. Namely, the split of the Sinitic and proto-Tibetan people occurred prior and during the exile in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E.
What Li Hui did not touch on in his earliest studies were the cousin tribes of the Sino-Tibetans, namely, the Hmong-miens and Mon-khmers. As noted at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3164178/, "A clear hierarchical structure (annual ring shape) emerged in the network of O3a3b-M7 (Fig. 2B), in which MK (Mon-Khmers) haplotypes lay at the center of the network (immediately next to the origin), HM (Hmong-Mien) haplotypes were distributed at the periphery to the MK haplotypes, and the ST (here the subfamily Tibeto-Burman) haplotypes were only found further away from the origin."

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

In Chinese history, the people in today's Manchuria were classified into the "Anterior Jurchens" and the "Posterior Jurchens". The "Anterior Jurchens" would be a group of people who defeated the Khitans' Liao Dynasty (AD 907-1125), and set up the Jin [Gold] Dynasty (AD 1115-1234) that lasted 119-120 years in northern China. The "Posterior Jurchens" were the name first adopted by the Manchus when they rebelled against the Chinese Ming dynasty's rule. They renamed themselves the Manchu (Man-zhou, with the three dot 'zhou' meaning a continent or an island in the river, which was an absurb usage of a Chinese character) in the early 17th century. In the Turk & Uygur section, this webmaster mentioned that Jian Bozan, a writer who committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution, happened to be an ethnic Uygur from Hunan Province. Another writer, Lao She [i.e., the elder She], who also committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution, was an ethnic Manchu.
The Chinese records categorically said that "the ancestry of the Manchus can be traced back more than 2,000 years to the Sushen tribe, and later to the Yilou, Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji], Mohe [Malgal] and Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) tribes native to the Changbaishan Mountains and the drainage area of the Heilongjiang River in northeast China." Here, the name Sushen would be used during the Zhou Dynasty time period, Yilou during the early Han Dynasty time period, Moji during Toba's Northern Wei Dynasty, Mohe (Malgal) during Sui Dynasty, Bohai (Palhae) during Tang Dynasty, and Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) during Soong Dynasty. This was of course after hundreds of years of mixing-up or confrontation between the original inhabitants of Su-shen (Yliou) and the invaders such as the Mo (He) & Hui, Fuyu and Xianbei people. Not to mention the Han Dynasty's establishment of four ccommanderies extending from today's southern Manchuria to the northern and central Korean peninsula, with the Sinitic Chinese influence cut short by the deportation in A.D. 238 of 40,000 households of the Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China, yielding the area to the Tungunsic people (i.e., the Xianbei and Wuhuan) and the Fuyu people (including Koguryo & Paekche). The deportation was repeated in the late time period of Ming Dynasty, when border general Li Chengliang dismantled the six garrison towns in southeastern Manchuria, yielding the area to the Manchu control.
--The Chinese way to tell the continuity of people in one area was unscientific: Sushen-shi was recorded to have sent in bows and arrows using the stone arrowheads and promenade arrow-shafts during the 25th reign of Lord Shun [reign 2257 - 2208 B.C.E.; reign 2044-2006 with rule of 39 years and life of 100 years per Zhu Yongtang's adjustment of THE BAMBOO ANNALS {which might have its pre-Xia records on the ancient sovereigns inserted by the latter-day people}]. When Marquis Chen-guo asked about a fallen eagle with a stone arrowhead, Confucius reminded the marquis of an early record on the history book, which stated that the Sushen-shi people had sent in some arrow tributes to Zhou King Wuwang who subsequently inscribed the Sushen-shi characters and allocated to various vassals as gift. Marquis Chen-guo did locate the ancient arrow in the royal storage and found it to be true. This was similar to THE ANALECTS' stories in which Confucius was often consulted by the kings and dukes for deciphering the strange animals and people, such as 'qilin' [giraff] and the long-leg people. Sushen-shi, living in today's Manchuria bordering the Japan Sea, had sent in tributes after Zhou King Wuwang built roads leading to the four barbarian direction. (THE ANALECTS carried stories similar to GUO YU, a book containing sophistry talks, precursor to ZHAN GUO CE. The GUO YU story about the Wu king cosulting with Confucius about the long-leg story was a forgery as Confucius was on exile during the Wu-Yue war. The passage about Lord Shun's receiving the Su-shen-shi tribute in THE BAMBOO ANNALS could be a later insertion as the Jinn dynasty scholars, after the excavation of the said book, commented that it had the history from the Xia dynasty downward, not before the Xia dynasty.)
Origin Of the Jurchens
The Jurchens were said to be a group of people who lived in today's Manchuria for many centuries and the tribal name was known since the 7th century according to some historical record. The book The History Of Jurchen Jin Dynasty, written by Yuan's Prime Minnister Toktoghan (Tuo Tuo), recorded that the ancestors of the Jurchens were from the tribe called Moji or the Mohe (Malgal), located in the land of the ancient state of Sushen bordering the Japan Sea.
Sushen-shi, Gu-zhu, Ji-zi Chaoxian, "Mo", "Hui", Dong-hu & the [Misnomer] Dong-yi (Eastern Yi) Barbarians
This webmaster mentioned the Sushen State in the Korean section. The Sushen Statelet first submitted their renowned arrows and bows to Lord Shun during the 25th reign of Lord Shun (reign 2257-2208 BC ?). Also note that the stone arrows were often used on the American continents. Sushen continued to pay pilgrimage to Zhou Dynasty later. Sushen renewed the tribute in the Cao Wei dynasty time period of the Three Kingdom era.
Also on record would be a statelet called Guzhu (i.e., lonely bamboo) in southern Manchuria, i.e., a Shang Dynasty vassal. It was said that Zhou Dynasty founder, Ji Chang, managed his statelet so well that the old people went there for retirement, and two princes of the Guzhu Statelet (i.e., the Mo-tai-shi clan), Bo-yi and Shu-qi, came to live in the Zhou land. After the demise of Shang Dynasty, Ji-zi, a Shang Dynasty prince who had his Shang-conferred fief at Ji (Taigu, Shanxi; or the ancient Yangyi, near Taiyuan), departed for the land of the east [possibly a destination on the Shandong peninsula, called the 'Ming-yi' [bright Yi or sunny Yi] land, and then a cross-sea trip to either today's southern Manchuria or northern Korea] that came to be known as "Chao-xian [Korea]" in the ancient classics of SHAN HAI JING (The Legends of Mountains and Seas). Ji-zi, after declining Zhou King Wuwang's invitation, was said to have fled to the land to the east, where he practiced the eight clauses of administration. ZHU SHU JI NIAN claimed that 'fu-shi' [fatherly imperial tutor], i.e., Ji-zi, had taken over the Gu-zhu [lonely bamboo] land to be king among the Yi [barbarian] people. (Tang Dynasty emperor Gaozu later named the Khitan Liao land as the 'Ji[1]-zhou' prefecture.)
Ji-zi ('tai shi'), together with Wei-zi and Bi-gan ('shao shi'), were touted as three Shang saints by Confucius in the WEI ZI section of LUN YU (ANALECTS). No matter how the Shang Dynasty exodus took place to reach Korea or today's Manchuria, Shang Prince Ji-zi of the 11th century B.C.E. and the Chaoxian (Korea) designation of the 4th century B.C.E. apparently all belonged to the Sinitic family, as all available ancient Korean words as recorded in the book Fang Yan (i.e., Dialects) by Western Han Dynasty minister Yang Xiong, all appeared to be one syllable characters, none like multi-syllables as today's Tungusic or Korean languages are. According to YU GONG, a Zhou Dynasty book about the tributes to the nation's capital, today's Liao-dong Peninsula was a Sinitic civilization world, with the established cross-sea trade route YU GONG, which was precise in making the distinction among the Yi people, listed the Dao-yi (island Yi) in the ancient Ji-zhou prefecture [who came from today's Liaodong Peninsula by sea, using the Jie-shi mountain around today's Mountain and Sea Pass as the beacon tower equivalent, and sailed into the ancient Yellow River for surrendering tributes], the Yu-yi [sea corner Yi] and Lai-yi [the Laizhou prefecture Yi] in the ancient Qing-zhou prefecture, the Huai-yi [the Huai-shui River Yi] in the ancient Xu-zhou prefecture, the Niao-yi -bird totem Yi] in the ancient Yang-zhou prefecture, plus the He-yi in the ancient Liang-zhou prefecture. (Note that the ancient book YU GONG made a difference between the Dao-yi and Niao-yi while the two characters later corrupted into each other to mean the wrong Yi group, i.e., the island Yi in today's southeastern Manchuria being swapped to be the bird totem Yi in the Yangtze River area.)
Interspersed among the major groups of people of Sushen (Yilou), Dong-hu and Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea) were numerous "Mo" ("He") people and "Hui[4]" people. Those groups of people were later treated to be the same as Fuyu. According to Chen Shou, Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) had 80,000 households. Fuyu shared the same customs as the Huns on the matter of taking over the concubines of late father or late brothers. Fuyu, part of the ancient "Mo" and "He" people who could have lived in today's northern Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia, had moved into Manchuria under the pressure of the ancient "Xianyun" [i.e., predecessors of the Huns] according to classics Shi Jing. Fuyu was speculated to be the ancient Bai-min [white clothing people] or the ancient Fa-ren [hair people]. In light of the eastern migration, Fuyu might not be of the same people as the original natives of Manchuria, such as the Su-shen-shei people bordering the Japan Sea. --The possible explanation was that the so-called Mo-hui people were a combination of the Mo [He] people from today's Inner Mongolia and the Hui[4] people who were speculated to have been pressured into a move into today's Manchuria [from the Shandong peninsula and North China] when the Zhou people overthrew Shang Dynasty, a claim that would equate the "Hui" people to belonging to the same category as Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi's exodus. Somewhere near today's Yexian County, where the ancient Yellow River turned north to merge with the Zhang-he [Zhuo-zhang-shui] River before continuing north to flow into the Hu-he and Hutuo-he rivers, there was a place known as Ji-mo [sacrifice for the elder uncle], where Ximen Bao of the Wei Principality had at one time stopped the sacrifice of virgin girls by throwing a sorceress and her accomplices into the water. The sacrifice of virgin girls, 'niu2 [sinking] bi4 [favourite concubine]' on the Oracle bones, was ascertained to be a Shang Dynasty practice for pacifying the Yellow River flooding. Here, it was deduced that the 'bo' [elder uncle] character had corrupted into the 'mo' character in 'Ji-mo', which was the name used for designating the Hui-Mo group of migrants into the Korean peninsula.
By the time of the Spring and Autumn time period of Zhou Dynasty, the northern or northeastern barbarians who were closer to the Sinitic Chinese would be called by Shan-rong or the Mountain Rongs (aka Beirong or Wuzhong) and by the Chi-di [Red Di], Bai-di (White Di) and Chang-di (long-leg Di), about the area of today's central and southeastern Shanxi, Shanxi-Hebei border area, the Western Hill areas to the west of Peking, and the Jehol mountains - which was termed the You-yi-shi land during the Xia dynasty time period. Sima Qian, in the perspective of the Han Emperor Wudi's invasion of Korea and extrapolating on the then-layout of the barbarians by 600-700 years backward, claimed that the Mountain Rongs, at one time, like 55 years after Zhou Ping Pingwang's eastward relocation of the capital city, went across the Yan Principality to attack the Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province; 44 years after that, they attacked Yan again; the Yan-Qi joint armies, under the command of Qi Counsellor Guan Zhong, Marquis Qi Huan'gong, and Count Yan, drove them out and moreover penetrated into the Rong land. Sima Qian, without distinction between the North Yan and South Yan states, claimed that the Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet.
The sensational northern campaign by Qi Lord Huan'gong could never have happened, nor the sensational southern invasion of the Shandong peninsula by the Mountain Rong barbarians 55 years after the Zhou dynasty's relocation of the capital city to Luoyang. Lu Lord Huan'gong, in 710 B.C., visited the Tang-di (Yutai, Shandong) place to have a summit with the Rong barbarians who could be the later so-called Bei-rong or Northern Rong barbarians, namely, some group of the barbarians whom Sima Qian, 600-700 years later, extrapolated to mean the Guzhu, Lingzhi and Hui-he barbarians in today's southern Manchuria. That is, a different time and a different space. (The geography of the You-yi-shi land could be a dispute, as well as the geography of the Yan state. The Yan state, which was commonly taken to be located in Jixian County, Tianjin, Hebei Province, could be wrong as the archaeological excavation showed that the Yan state might have originally be established along the Liuli-he River for the first part of the Zhou dynasty, southwest of today's Peking, while the Jixian area was constantly referred to as the country of Viscount Wuzhong-zi. The relative locality of both the Yan state and the Wuzhong state could be a puzzle as the Wuzhong state was more likely in today's central Shanxi [before it was pushed north to let's say Yuyang or Jixian during the early Eastern Zhou Dynasty time period while the Yan state might have relocated southward to today's Baiyangdian Lake area during the same time period. Note that in this area, King Wuwang initially conferred the descendant of Lord Yao the Ji fief [later Jizhou prefecture, a statelet to the southwest of today's Peking as well as the abbreviation for the Hebei province], which was taken over by the Yan later later. During the Han dynasty, scholars could have recompiled the book GUAN ZI. In GUAN ZI, there was a wild assertion to the effect of the Qi army had skirted the Jinn Princiaplity's land to reach the Yellow River inflexion area to conquer the barbarians in the 'da-xia' [grand Xia] land, coined with the phrases of crossing the 'liu sha' [quick sand] and climbing the 'bei-er' [?Zhongtiao] mountain.)
During the Warring States time period, the barbarians in the same area came to be known as Dong-Hu or the Eastern Hu people. A Yan Principality General, by the name of Qin Kai, after returning from Donghu as a hostage, attacked Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance, and further attacked Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea), extending the control to the Jeanyeong or Zaining-jiang River of Korea. Yan built the Great Wall [which preceded the great walls built by the succeeding Chinese dynasties, all the way to Ming Dynasty] and set up the Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. The Sushen tribe was then known as Yilou. (The Chinese history recorded succeeding names like Moji , Mohe, Bohai and Nuzhen (Nuzhi) tribes in the same area.)
Hence, in today's southern Manchuria and northern Korea, major identifiable groups of people included the Sushen people at the Japan Sea, the Fu-yu people interspersed in-between, the Ji-zi Choxian Koreans to the south, and the Dong-hu to the west. Chen Shou said the people of Yilou, who were speculated to be Tunguzic, looked similar to Koguryo and Fuyu, but the language differed from each other. Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and the Koguryo people, i.e., more likely of the Mo people family, shared the same language. Chen Shou recorded that the Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and Koguryo people shared the same language, but had different styles of clothing and temperament. Eastern Woju, which was near today's Tumen River estuary, was said to have the similar language as Koguryo. (The Shiwei people shared the same language as the Moji people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River.)
In the 2nd century, Yilou had to submit tributes to Koguryo in addition to Fuyu. In the early 3rd century, Yilou resisted the rule of Fuyu. Yilou, which submitted tribute to Wei China in A.D. 236 and 262, was attacked by Koguryo in A.D. 280 as punishment for robbing the Koguryo people at the border, enjoyed a time period of relative independence after Koguryo suffered defeat in the hands of Paekche, but was attacked again by the revived Koguryo in A.D. 398. Riding on ships, the Yilou people often pirate-attacked Bei-woju (the northern Woju) which was located in the land between today's Vladivostok and the Tumen Rivermouth. After a couple hundreds of years, the native Yilou people apparently mixed up with the migrant Fuyu people [i.e., what Egami meant by the horseriding invaders against Japan] to tranform into the later Jurchen or Manchu people.

More about Sushen-shi, Gu-zhu, Ji-zi Chaoxian, "Mo", "Hui", Dong-hu is available at imperialchina.org/Koreans.html

Donghu: Wuhuan & Xianbei
The Jurchens were said to be related to the Tungus. The Xianbei-Wuhuan, who were said to be of the Tungus stock, were driven to the Xianbei and Wuhuan Mountains after they accused the first Hunnic king Modu (Modok) of patricide. They were later relocated to today's Liaoning Province, i.e., southern Manchuria, by Han Emperor Wudi for sake of segregation from the Huns. Hence, they were called the Donghu or Eastern Hu barbarians, inheriting an old tribal name that long existed in the Zhou times. The important thing to be noted about the earlier Huns or the Donghu (i.e., the Xianbei-Wuhuan) will be that they were living alongside the Chinese for hundreds of years and should be deemed semi-sinicized and semi-civilized. The later Khitans or the Jurchens or the Mongols fared much worse as ate raw meat and did not know how to count their ages.
After the Hunnic decline in late first century AD, the Xianbei expanded west. The Xianbei mixed up with the Huns. The Hunnic Xia Dynasty, established by Helian Bobo, was said to be of a mingle nature, called 'Tie Fu'. The Tie Fu Huns were born of Xianbei mothers and Hunnic fathers. There appeared a Xianbei chieftain called Tanshikui (reign A.D. 156-181) who established a Xianbei alliance by absorbing dozens of thousands of the Huns. The Tanshikui alliance disintegrated after the death of Tanshikui. Another chieftain called Kebi'neng emerged. Warlord Yuan Shao campaigned against the Wuhuans and controlled three prefectures of the Wuhuans. In 207, Cao Cao, who controlled the last Han Dynasty emperor, launched a punitive campaign against the Wuhuan people. Exiting the Lulongsai Pass and trekking deep into the southern Manchuria mountains, Cao Cao's army penetrated to Liucheng (today's Chaoyang), i.e., Wuhuan's home base in today's southern Manchuria. At the Battle of Bailangshan (white wolf mountain), Cao Cao defeated Wuhuan chieftain Tadun. Over 10,000 Wuhuan households under Yan Rou relocated to China under the order of Cao Cao. The Wuhuan people, with the three prefectures' eqivalent of cavalry force, served Cao Cao as the mercenaries.
Ts'ao Wei Dynasty broke a new Xianbei alliance by sending an assassin to killing chieftain Kebi'neng. Following the destruction of Wuhuan, Sima Yi, in the name of Cao Wei Dynasty, penetrated further into today's Manchuria. Sima Yi exterminated the Gongsun Family who ruled southern Manchuria and northern/central Koreas for almost half a century, massacred thousands of the Gongsun regime's officials and officers as well as the able-bodied men, and in A.D. 238 deported 40,000 households of the Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria, yielding the area to the Tungunsic people (i.e., the Xianbei and Wuhuan) and the Fuyu people (including Koguryo & Paekche). (A repeat of history: In the late time period of Ming Dynasty, border general Li Chengliang dismantled the six garrison towns in southeastern Manchuria, which were linked by beacon towers and the great walls on the mountain ridges, and forcefully deported hundreds of thousands of the Sinitic Chinese to North China, yielding the area to the Manchu control.)
Among the Xianbei who were to take the place of the Wuhuan to dominate the area would be the clans of Duan, Murong and Yuwen. The Xianbei, with major tribes of Murong, Yuwen, Duan, established many short-lived successive states in North China and along the Chinese frontiers. Among these states was that of the Tuoba or Toba (T'o-pa in Wade-Giles), a subgroup of the Xianbei, in modern China's Shanxi Province.
Moji & Mohe
During Toba Wei Dynasty, the Mohe (Malgal) was renamed to the old name of Moji . At the times of Toba Wei Dynasty, Moji possessed altogether seven tribes. The Moji people then were called by the Malgals during Sui Dynasty, who were very much a mixed-up people by that time. By Tang Dynasty, two tribes, i.e., Heisui (black water) and Sumuo, were known. Sumuo, one of the Moji tribes, sought protection with Koguryo, and after Koguryo's demise in the hands of Tang, became independent and established the State of Bo-hai (Po'hai) (Palhae) around the Dongmoushan Mountains. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. Note Bohai (Po'hai) was recorded to have possessed a written language, the music and rituals, a government with systems. It possessed five big cities, fifteen prefectures and sixty-two zhou (lesser prefectures).
During the second year of Tang Emperor Taizong, A.D. 628, the Moji land was made into the Yanzhou Prefecture. The Moji tribes joined Koguryo in resisting Tang Dynasty. During the tenth year of the Kaiyuan Era, A.D. 722, Tang Emperor Xuanzhong set up Heisui-fu or the Blackwater Governor office in the Moji land. The Heishui [Blackwater] Mohe (Malgal) dwelled in the old land of Sushen. The Blackwater Tribe, who dwelled in the ancient Sushen land, also sought protection with Koguryo, and at one time, sent 150,000 troops to fight against the Tang army on behalf of Koguryo. They were defeated by Tang in a place called An'shi. In the Kaiyuan Era of Tang Dynasty, the Blackwater Tribe came to pay pilgrimage to Tang and its land was made into Heisui-fu (i.e., the Blackwater Governor Office) and its tribal chieftain was conferred the title of 'dudu' or governor-general. The Blackwater Tribe was given the Tang family name of 'Li'. After Po'hai became a strong power, this tribe became subordinate to the Sumuo Tribe.
The Shiwei people, i.e., the future Mongols under Genghis Khan, shared the same language as the Moji people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River. The location of the Shi-wei was to the east of the Turks, the west of the Moji, and the north of the Khitans. They were connected with Koguryo in the south, around today's Changbaishan Mountains as well as with the Shiwei in the north. Part of the Fuyu people had dwelled next to the Shi-wei people along the Amur River. In the early times, Fuyu split into two parts, i.e., North Fuyu and East Fuyu, with the founder of East Fuyu moving to the northeastern coast of the Korean peninsula. Later, in A.D. 723, Da-mo-lou, i.e., a descendant of North Fuyu which was destroyed by Korguryo, came to Tang Dynasty together with the Shi-wei tribe of Dagou (Dadu). History stated that Da-mo-lou dwelled near the Du-na River which flew into the Amur River towards the northeastern direction.
Successors Of the Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba
After the Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba disappeared into China's melting pot during the 16 Nations time period (AD 304-420), the newcomers from the northern hemisphere, together with the remaining Tunguzic people, would be occupying the eastern part of today's Mongolia and Machuria. In A.D. 443, the barbarians who took over Tuoba's old territories, i.e., the upper Heilongjiang River and northern Xing'an Ridge, came to see Tuoba Wei Emperor (Tuoba Tao) and told him that they found the Tuoba ancestor's stone house, called by 'Ga Xian Dong'. Tuoba Tao sent a minister called Li Chang to the stone house which was carved out of a natural cavern. In the 1980s, this cavern was discovered as well as the inscription left by Li Chang.
The people who dwelled in the old Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba territories would be the later Shiwei Tribes (ancestors of the Mengwu Shiwei or Genghis Mongols), the Khitans, the Xi nomads, and the Mohe people et als. Among them would be ancestors of the later Jurchens or the Mongols. The Khitans first appeared on the stage.
The New History Of Tang Dynasty mentioned that the Khitans were descendants of the Kebi'neng Xianbei. (Alternatively, The Old History Of Five Dynasties said that the Khitans were an alternative race of the Huns.) The New History Of Tang Dynasty said that by the time of Toba's Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534), the ancestors of the Khitans adopted the name 'Khitan' for themselves. The Khitans lived around the Liao River in today's Manchuria. To the east of the Khitans will be Koguryo, to the west the Xi Nomads, to the north Mohe (Malgal) and Shiwei Tribes, and to the south the Yingzhou Prefecture of Toba Wei Dynasty. The Shiwei statelets would be where this webmaster is to trace the Mongols for their origin. The Mohe (Malgal) would be where the Jurchens came from. The New History Of Tang Dynasty said that the Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. The Eastern Turks assigned Khan Tuli in charge of the Khitan and the Moji tribes. The Khitan chieftain was conferred the title of 'Sijin' by the Turks. Around A.D. 620s, the Khitan chieftain came to see Tang's first Emperor, Tang Gaozu, together with a Moji chieftain. The Khitans rebelled against the Turks and fled to Tang for asylum. In A.D. 628, the Turks pleaded with Tang Emperor Taizong to have the Khitans relocate back to be under the Turk control, but Tang Taizong declined this request.
The Xi people, according to New History Of Tang Dynasty, were derived from the Tadu's Wuhuan (one branch of the Eastern Hu barbarians) who were defeated by Ts'ao Ts'ao during the Three Kingdoms time period. Alternatively, they were said to be a different race of the Huns. By the time of Toba Wei, Xi renamed themselves to Kuzhen-xi and they borderd with the Turks in the west and the Khitans in the northeast. By the time of Sui Dynasty, they changed their name back to Xi. A chieftain called Suzhi followed Tang Emperor Taizong in the Korean campaigns and was conferred the post as Governor-General of Raole, in charge of six prefectures. At one time, the Xi people followed the Khitans in rebelling against Tang, and Xi sent some captured Tang general to the Muchuo's Orchon Turks for execution. During the second year of the Jaiyuan Era of Xuanzong, Tang Emperor Xuanzong once sent Tang Princess Gu'an to the Xi chieftain and conferred the title of King of Raole onto this chieftain. The Xi chieftain came to the Tang capital the second year for the marriage. More Tang princesses would be married to the Xi chieftains. By the 4th year of the Zhenyuan Era, the Xi joined the Shiwei in attacking the Zhengwu Governor office. Xi also joined Huihe and Shiwei in attacking today's Chinese Turkistan. In the first year of the Dazhong Era, Tang General Zhang Zhongwu defeated the Xi people and burnt 200,000 tents. When the Khitans strengthened, the Xi submitted to the Khitans. Badly treated by the Khitans, the Xi fled to Tang and was assigned to the Guizhou Prefecture, where they split into the Eastern Xi and Western Xi.
The Shiwei people were said to be an alternative race of the Khitans, according to The New History Of Tang Dynasty. They could be related to the ancient 'Dingling' people (while Dingling was said to be derived from the ancient Chi-di people who were of the same Zhou royal family name of 'Ji' and had intermarriage with the Jinn principality). They shared the same language as the Mohe [Malgal] people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River, to the east of the Turks, the west of the Mohe [Malgal], and the north of the Khitans. There were over 20 Shiwei tribes on record, including Mengwu Shiwei. They first came to Tang Dynasty during the 5th year of Tang Emperor Taizong's reign. The Shiwei people came to the Tang court over a dozen time. By the 4th year of the Zhenyuan Era, Xi joined Shiwei in attacking the Zhengwu Governor office.
The Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi), i.e., the Jurchens
The Sumuo group of the Moji people was called the Bohai (Parhae) during the Tang Dynasty, and the Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) during Soong Dynasty. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. During the Five Dynasties time period, the Khitans took over the Po'hai land. The Blackwater Jurchens who remained in the south, including the former Sushen territories, were subordinate to the Khitans and were named the 'acquaintance Jurchens' or the 'cooked Jurchens', while the remaining Jurchens living in the north, near today's Heilongjiang River, would be named the 'stranger Jurchens' or the 'raw Jurchens'. According to MENGDA SHILU (The Factual Notes on the Black Dadan), the Jurchens and the Dadan [i.e., the Mongols], whose C haplogroup gene was validated today, were of the same family, with their appearance being that of hairlessness except for Genghis Khan and his immediate circle, and that the distinction made for the Dadan people was due to their civilized levels, with those near the Chinese called by cooked, those faraway called raw, and among the raw, there were two groups of black and white, black meaning the extreme uncivilized and the white meaning somewhat civilized. Genghis Khan's Mongols, according to the book, belonged to the Black Dadan, whose barbarity was exhibited in its customs of having each horseman round up ten non-Mongol villagers as fodder to fill moats and sack forts, i.e., the same 'human wave' attack tactic that the Chinese communists similarly adopted in its so-called people's war of 1945-1950, while the Jurchens belonged to the White Dadan. The Dadan, according to the Chinese classics, could have some ingredients from the Shatuo Turks of the Tang Dynasty period. When the later Jurchens defeated the Khitans, the Jurchens sent an emissary to Bohai, saying that the Jurchens (Nuzhi) and the Bohai people were of same family. (Note the later Jurchens, who were called by the "cooked" or white Dadan versus the "raw" or black Dadan [i.e., the Mongols] had more pigs than horses. This could mean a different life style and a different group of people.)
The Jurchens' defeat by the Mongols would be after their 119-20 years of stay in China, and by that time, they had become very much sinicized. The other mistake they made was in relocating their capital from today's Beijing to Bianliang or today's Kaifeng. That move basically cut off their tribal and logistical support from their homeland in Manchuria.
There is a need to touch on the hair style to determine the ethnicity of the ancient barbarians. There were the pigtail style of the Tuoba, the cut hair style of the Xianbei and Wuhuan, and the cut hair and pigtail style of the Jurchens and Manchus, to state that both the Huns and the later Turks had in fact shared a similar hair style as the Sinitic Chinese, namely, no hair cut plus the bundling of hair. The difference between the Huns and the Sinitic Chinese was "hu2 [Huns] fu2 [clothing] ZHUI1 [back of the head] jie2 [bundling the hair]", while the Sinitic Chinese bundled the hair at the top of the head. As commented by historian Huang Wenbi, the Qiangic people in western China, who had been exiled there from the east as this webmaster had repeatedly said, shared the same customs as the ancient Yi people along the eastern Chinese coast, namely, they did not bundle hair and further had an opposite direction as far as wrapping the clothing was concerned, namely, "bei4? pi1?[dangling] fa1 [hair] zuo3 [left] REN4 [overlapping part of Chinese gown]". The point was that the barbarians from today's Manchuria were conspicuously different from the Sinitic Chinese or the Huns or Turks, whereas they might share some similar customs, like the dangling hair, with the ancient Yi people along the eastern Chinese coast or the ancestors of the Qiangs who were exiled to the northwest from the eastern coast.
The ancient Chinese had different terms for the barbarians in four directions. Yi, who originally meant for the bow-carrying people in eastern China and along the Shandong penisula coast, later mutated its meaning to mean Dongyi or Yi-of-the-East, who would include the people in Manchuria, Korea and Japan. In the early times, the Yi was associated with the word 'niao' for bird, and there were eight to nine different 'niao-yi' people in the east. The Shang Dynasty people, considered a group of Yi people, were recorded to have treated 'Xuan Niao' (i.e., Black bird, possibly sparrow) as the totem. Manchurian legends as to the birth of their founder had something to do with swallowing the red fruit dropped by a bird. Toba Wei Dynasty, in return for being called the nickname of 'suo lu' (pigtailed enemies), would call the southern Chinese by the derogatory name of 'niao yi' (i.e., bird-like aliens) for possibly southern Chinese accents or generic-kind of name for southeastern Chinese and islanders. [This interesting epithet, however, would sometime mean that the Tuoba Xianbei might not be related to the original Nine Yi people who were driven away from the eastern Chinese coast.] In later times, the Yi designation would be associated with a word 'dao' for island, pointing to the barbarian people in East China Seas. (Both the character 'niao' and 'dao' looked quite close and might have corrupted consecutively during the course of history.) Yi is more an inclusive word to mean aliens. The big Korean school of thought, touched on in prehistory section, claimed that the Koreans were true descendants of the Dongyi people.
The Founding Father of the Jurchens
The History Of Jurchen Jin Dynasty recorded that the founding father of Jurchens had two more brothers. At age 60 plus, the second brother, by the name of Hanpu, left Koryo for Manchuria with his younger brother Baofuli. The elder brother, A'gunai, who was fond of Buddhism, told the two brothers that he could not leave Koryo because their descendants would for sure reunite here in Koryo.
Hanpu went to live among the Wayan people, a prominent Jurchen tribe in Manchuria. Hanpu, at age above 60, went to live among the Wayan people, a prominent Jurchen tribe in Manchuria. After mediating over the feud of two neighboring tribes, Hanpu was given an old virgin woman for marriage. Two sons were born, Ulu and Wolu, plus a daughter called Zhusiban. Hanpu was posthumously entitled "shi-zu" (the beginning ancestor). Son Wulu was posthumously entitled De-di (the virtue lord). Wulu's son, Ba-hai, was posthumously entitled An-di (the peace lord). Ba-hai's son, named Sui-ke, was posthumously entitled Xian-zu (the oblation ancestor). At Sui-ke's times, there was no house built in the Blackwater Tribe area. The barbarians lived in caves dug out of hill, with beams supporting the ceiling. In the summer times, the barbarians moved with the herds to graze the new grass. After Sui-ke moved to Haigushui, the Jurchens began to built the fixed dwellings, called by Nageli which meant residence in Chinese. Sui-ke's son, called Shilu, first started to erect rules and creeds in reforming the "raw Jurchens" customs of lawlessness as a result of lack of a written language and contracts. Shilu was posthumously entitled Shao-zu (the shining ancestor).
Shi-lu's son, called Wugunai, was born in A.D. 1021 (the first year of Khitan Liao's Taiping Era). Wugunai was the sixth generation tribal chieftain for the Jurchens. Wugunai was posthumously entitled Jing-zu (the bright ancestor). Wugunai first started the Jurchen expansion by taking control of various tribes including Baishan (white mountain), Yehui, Tongmen, Yelai and Tugulun etc. To prevent the Khitans from penetrating into the Jurchen land, Wugunai often rounded up the convicts and refugees from the Khitan territory, including the Tiele [Turkic] tribesmen etc, for handover to the Khitans. The Khitan emperor received Wugunai at the Liao dynastic palace and conferred him the post of "jie-du-shi" (satrap) for the raw Jurchen tribes. However, Wugunai put off accepting the satrap seal. The Jurchens under Wugunai then used the Liao conferral to set up the governance system, and the Jurchens, who did not have iron, began to buy iron shields from the neighboring country.
Wugunai's second son, who was born in A.D. 1039 (the 8th year of Khitan Liao's Chongxi Era) and posthumously entitled Shi-zu (the dynastic ancestor), inherited the satrap conferral from the Khitans. Shi-zu (the dynastic ancestor), at age 54, died in A.D. 1092 (the 8th year of Khitan Liao's Da'an Era) after a reign of 19 years. The 4th son succeeded the 2nd son as Su-zong (the serious lord, born A.D. 1042). Su-zong, when seeing the Khitan emperor, often misled the interpreter so that he could be asked to move closer to the imperial seat to talk to the Khitan emperor direct.
The 5th son succeeded the 4th son as Mu-zong (the solemn lord, born A.D. 1053). Mu-zong often played tricks against the various Jurchen tribes to win favor from the Khitans. In the 9th year reign, Mu-zong paid a pilgrimage to the Khitan emperor at Yusuo. In the 10th year reign, Koryo first sent an emissary to the Jurchens. Mu-zong passed the reign to the son of Shi-zu (dynastic lord) after death. This would be Kang-zong (the prosperous lord, born A.D.1061). During the 4th year reign, the Jurchens and the Koryo began to have military conflicts over the reciprocal repatriation of refugees and convicts. During the 11th year reign, Kang-zong died at age 53.
The succeeding Jurchen ruler, Taizu [the grand ancestor, born A.D. 1068], Wanyan Min (Aguda), was the 2nd son of Shi-zu [dynastic ancestor]. Wanyan Min (Aguda) first challenged the Khitan rule by building castles. When the Khitans sent Xiao-da-buye to Ningjiang-zhou with an army, the Jurchens countered by assembling the Jurchen tribes to form an army. Aguda sent emissary to the Bohai domain, pacifying them by a claim that the Jurchens and the Bohai people were of the same family. After defeating the Khitans, Taizu declared himself an emperor, the dynastic name of Da-jin [grand gold] to counter the Khitan dynastic embodiment of iron, and proclaimed the era of Shouguo in AD 1115.
The Mongol Attacks On the Jurchens
The Jurchens had in early days defeated the Khitans in a seven-year war (AD 1115-1122) by means of an alliance with Northern Soong (AD 960-1127), and founded the Jin Dynasty (AD 1115-1234). They subdued neighboring Koryo (Korea) in A.D. 1126 and invaded Soong, while the son of defeated Khitan Liao ruler fled with the small remnant of his army to the Tarim Basin where he allied himself with the Uygurs (Uighurs) and established the Karakitai state (Western Liao Dynasty, A.D. 1124-1234).
Genghis Khan declared war in A.D. 1211 on the Jurchens. The Jurchens had fights with the early 'Mengwu' people (led by Kabul-khan) in 1139 and in 1147, and they nailed Ambaki and Kabul-khan's elder son to wooden donkeys and hence were feuds of Genghis Khan's Mongols. The Ta-ta-er (the Tartars) had assisted the early Jurchens in defeating the Mongol (Meng-ku) rebellions, handed over Mongol leader Ambakai (disputed to have adopted the tribal name of Tayichi'ut) and his son to the Jurchens for execution in A.D. 1150s, and dealt the remaining Meng-ku tribes a decisive defeat near Lake Buir in A.D. 1160s.
In A.D. 1211, Genghis Khan held a khuriltai (assembly). (First assembly was in A.D. 1206.) When the new Jurchen Jin Emperor Wanyan Yongji sent an emissary to Genghis Khan, Genghis Khan refused to bow down to take the decree. He advanced into northern China to attack Jurchen Jin and defeated Jurchen General Hu Shaohu and his 300 thousand army. Many Khitans and Chinese joined the Mongolians to avenge on the Jurchens. This will include Genghis's later prime minister, Yeluchucai, and famous generals like Chinese brothers, Si Tianni and Si Tianzhe etc. At that time, Mongols, with aid from the Khitans and Chinese who served in Jurchen army, notably with the help of a Jurchen general called Ming'an, took over Juyongguan Pass of the Great Wall (near Beijing). Genghis Khan was wounded in Dadong and agreed to a peace with the Jurchens with the condition that the Jurchen princess be sent to him as a bride. He retreated back to Mongolia. The new Jurchen Emperor, Jin Xuanzong, however, made a strategic mistake by relocating his capital to Bianliang (today's Kaifeng), which essentially enraged Genghis Khan as well as cut himself from the Jurchen base in Manchuria. The successor Jin emperor would be defeated again later, but not until 1234.
In A.D. 1213, Genghis Khan resumed warfare against the Jurchens. With three armies into the heart of Jin territory, in A.D. 1214, siege of Zhongdu (Beijing) began. Meantime, he devastated northern China, sacking numerous cities in Hebei/Shandong provinces, reducing them into all ruins. By A.D. 1215, Beijing (known as Yanjing) fell, and history recorded the horrors of massacre and suicides. The Mongolian army, short of grain supply during the siege, would line their soldiers up, select soldiers via one out of every hundred or so, and kill them for food. As to the residents inside of Beijing, hunger led to cannibalism, too, and at the time when Beijing fell, innumerable number of women and girls jumped down from the city wall to commit suicide. Some western traveller recorded that the human oil from burning those dead bodies had been so thick that it did not dissappear for a long time. In A.D. 1216, Genghis went back to Mongolia.
Genghis Khan died in A.D. 1227 during his campaigns against the Tanguts. Since Western Xia had refused to provide troops in the war against the Khwarizm, and more over, signed another alliance treaty with Jurchen Jin, Genghis Khan readied a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign against the Tanguts. Late in A.D. 1226, when the rivers were frozen, the Mongols struck southward. On the banks of the frozen Yellow River the Mongols defeated a Xixia army of more than 300,000. The Mongols killed the Tangut emperor in a mountain fortress. His son took refuge in the walled city of Ningxia. Leaving one-third of his army to take Ningxia, Chinggis sent Ogedei eastward, across the great bend of the Yellow River, to attack the Jurchen Jin. The Mongols, as a precautionery measure, marched southeast to eastern Sichuan Province, where the Western Xia, the Jin, and the Soong empires met, to prevent Soong reinforcements from reaching the Tanguts in Ningxia. Here he accepted the surrender of the new Western Xia emperor but rejected peace overtures from Jin. On his death in 1227, he outlined to his youngest son, Tului, the plans that later would be used by his successors to complete the destruction of the Jin empire.
When the Jurchens were driven out of Bianliang or Kaifeng in A.D. 1233, they retreated southward to a small town close to the Soong border called Caizhou (today's Lunan, Henan Province). The Jurchens sent a messenger to Soong Chinese requesting for help in fighting the Mongols. Soong Emperor Lizong flatly denied it, and more over, Soong struck a deal with the Mongols in attacking the Jurchens together. Soong would then play the card of allying with the Mongolians in destroying Jurchen Jin, and it even sent tens of thousands of carts of grain to the Mongol army in the besieging of the last Jurchen stronghold. With the Mongols attacking the north gate and the Soong Chinese attacking the south gate, the Jurchens were completely defeated and the last emperor, Jin Aizong, committed suicide in A.D. 1234. The remaining Jurchen genegals and royal family members jumped to the river to commit suicides as well. There is a saying that the Jurchens who survived the Mongols had later retreated towards Manchuria. However, the truth of fact is that Manchuria was already in Mongol hands; besides, the Jurchens in northern China were already very much sinicized to be differentiated from the local Chinese.
The Soong Chinese's Game Of Triangular Warfare
For hundreds of years, the Soong Dynasty, built on top of Northern Zhou (AD 951-960) of the Cai(1) family, would be engaged in the games of 'three kingdom' kind of warfares. Northern Soong (AD 960-1127) would face off with the Western Xia (AD 1032-1227) and Khitan Liao in a triangle, and then played the card of allying with the Jurchens in destroying the Khitan Liao. With Northern Soong defeated by the Jurchens thereafter, Southern Soong (AD 1127-1279) would be engaged in another triangle game, with the other players being Western Xia and the Jurchen Jin. Southern Soong would then play the card of allying with the Mongolians in destroying Jurchen Jin, and it even sent tens of thousands of carts of grain to the Mongol army in the besieging of the last Jurchen stronghold. Soon after than, the Southern Soong generals broke the agreement with the Mongols and they shortly took over the so-called three old capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang and Chang'an. But they could not hold on to any of the three because what they had occupied had been empty cities after years of warfare between the Jurchens and Mongols.
The Later Manchus
The later Manchus could be just a kinsmen tribe of the original Jurchens, and at most descendants of the Jurchens who remained in the homeland throughout the Jurchen expansion in northern China during the period of 1115-1234 AD. Similar to the legends about the Jurchen founders, the ancestor of the Manchu founders, Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, had wandered into a village where he was taken in as a distinguished guest and given a woman for marriage. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun was said to have been born after his mother swallowed a red fruit dropped by a sparrow. Bu-ku-li grew up under the foot of the Changbaishan (i.e., snow-capped) Mountain. When he asked who his father was, his mother told him the sparrow story and gave him the last name of 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' which was translated into Chinese as the 'jin' or gold for Ai-xin and 'surname' for Jue-luo. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, similar to the Jurchen founders, would somehow pacify the generations of fighting between this village where he took as home and two other neighboring villages. He was supported by all three villages as chieftain, called 'bei-le'. Hence the 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' tribe came into existence.
Bu-ku-li-yong-shun descendants would relocate to a place called He-tu-a-la (i.e., later Xingjing). Jue-chang-an, the grandfather of later Nurhaci (i.e., Nu-er-ha-chi, 1559-1626), gradually grew in the tribal strength. A Ming Dynasty general (Li Chengliang) at Liaoxi, in order to suppress the Jurchen growth, would attack the grandson-in-law of Jue-chang-an. Jue-chang-an and his son died as a result of a conspiracy between the Huron Chieftain Ni-kan-wai-lan and Ming Dynasty General Li Chengliang. Nurhaci, around the age of 25 at that time, attacked Huron Chieftain Ni-kan-wai-lan to avenge the death of his father/grandfather. Ni-kan-wai-lan fled to the Ming territories, and Nurhaci wrote a letter to the Ming court asking for hand-over of Ni-kan-wai-lan. The Ming court, however, only condoled Nurhaci with 30 horses, two coffins, the post of 'dudu' (i.e., governorship) of Jianzhou-wei, and the title pf General 'Long-hu' (dragon and tiger). Nurhaci hence set up four banners of armies, trained his soldiers, and attacked the Ming border castle to have Ni-kan-wai-lan captured and executed.
By late Ming Dynasty, three Jurchen tribes were known, Jianzhou (jianzhou Prefecture), Haixi (east of the sea [Huron Lake]), & Yeren (Uncivilized people). Under Nurhaci [Nurhachu] (1559-1626), the Manchus united various tribes and expanded their territory. Nurhaci first defeated the Ye-he Statelet at Huron Lake. The territories of the Huron Lake area was named Haixi-wei {garrison of west of the lake) by Ming Dynasty, where the Ye-he tribe was the biggest of the four subtribes in the area. The Ye-he tribe chieftain, considered a vassal of Ming, was jealous of Nurhaci's expansion, and he called upon an army of 30,000, including some Mongols, for an attack on Nurhaci. Nurhaci thoroughly defeated the Ye-he tribe. The Ye-he tribe promised to send in their daughter for inter-marriage with Nurhaci, but the Ye-he tribe then promised to marry the princess to the Mongols. (The Ye-he family would later produce the Empress Dowger Cixi.)
By A.D. 1616, Nurhachu proclaimed the founding of 'Da Jin', namely, Grand Gold Dynasty, at a place called Xingjin. The Manchu claim of relation to the Jin dynasty of China was purportedly the justification for conquering China in the 17th cent. and establishing the Qing dynasty. In addition to the original four banners of yellow, red, blue and white, Nurhachu set up four extra embedded banners of yellow, red, blue and white. The so-called 'Eight Banner' system was used for organizing armies into eight columns. The Manchus set up eight Mongol and Chinese banners, respectively, on basis of the ethnic composition. Nurhachu, after making an oath of 'seven hatreds for the Ming Dynasty', led an army of 20,000 against the Ming border town of Hushun. Before arriving in Hushun, a Chinese intellectual, by the name of Fan Wencheng, came to Nurhaci's camp to serve as a counsellor. Nurhaci asked Fan whether Soong Dynasty's prime minister Fan Zhongyan was his ancestor, and Fan replied 'yes'. Fan Wencheng somehow persuaded Ming general at Hushun, Li Yongfang, into a surrender. Nurhaci then defeated Ming relief armies to Hushun and killed three generals. When the news arrived at Ming court, Emperor Shenzong sent someone called Yang Hao to counter Nurhaci. Yang Hao, who had lost a battle to the Japanese in Korea, would lose the Battle of Saerhu. Though Yang Hao mobilized an army of 200,000, including 20,000 Koreans and 20,000 Ye-he tribesmen, Nurchaci used smart tactics and defeated the Ming armies one by one within a matter of half a year. Yang Hao was arrested and demoted by Ming court, and Xiong Tingbi was conferred the post of 'jing lüe' for Manchuria. After rebelling against Ming Dynasty and defeating the Ming army at the Battle of Sa'erhu in A.D. 1619 (?), they moved their capital today's Shenyang City, called Shengjin at the time. Southern Manchuria, Liaoning Province, was historically Ming Chinese territories. Nuerhachu later died of the cannon of Ming General Yuan Chonghuan at the battle of Ningyuan (today's Xingcheng, Liaoning Province). Yuan had built this kind of long range canon with the help of the Jesuits, and Yuan named it 'Red-Hair Alien Cannon'. Nuerhachu's successor, Huangtaiji, would first attack the Koreans and Mongolians, and then played a dissension to have Ming Emperor Chongzhen kill Yuan. In A.D. 1636, Huangtaiji changed their name to Manchu from Jurchen and declared their dynasty name of 'Qing', namely, clearness. After the death of Huangtaiji, Emperor Shunzhi would be enthroned. Huangtaiji's brother, Duo'ergun (Dorgon), would be responsible for pushing the war against Ming. The Manchus boasted of an army of 220,000 for the Eight Banners. (After taking over China, they had raised an additional army of 660,000 for the Green Camp Battalions.)
The Manchus first used the Khitan's Siniform script. The Uygur script indirectly influened the Manchus when they adopted the Mongol script in 1599. (The Manchus finally adopted the Chinese logographic characters.)
In northern China, Ming Dynasty was already devastated by the rebellion led by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. Li followed his uncle-in-law in rebelling against Ming Dynasty in A.D. 1628. After a defeat in Shenxi, Li re-organized his rebels in Henan Province. While in Henan, Li acquired two intellectuals, by the name of Niu Jinxing and Li Yan, and re-shaped his bandit approach. By 1644, Li Zicheng sacked Xi'an and captured King Qin Zhu Cunshu, attacked Taiyuan and killed King Jin Zhu Qiushu. After conquering the Daizhou Prefecture, Li Zicheng went all the way to attack the Ming capital of Peking in the east. He sacked Peking (Beijing) and caused the last Ming Emperor Sizong (Chongzhen) to hang himself inside of the Forbidden City. Meanwhile, in the west, Zhang Xianzhong intruded into Sichuan of western CHina. A Ming general at Ningyuan, Wu San'gui, was on his way to Peking to rescue the Ming emperor, but he stopped at the Shanhaiguan Pass when he heard of the fall of the capital. Wu surrendered to the Manchu when he heard that his mistress was grabed by the rebels. After the Manchus were invited by Wu San'gui the gatekeeper for the Shanhaiguan Pass, the Manchus used the slogan of 'Restoring the Ming Dynasty' to call for cooperation among the Ming Chinese remnant armies in the wars against the rebells. Duo'ergun relocated Manchu Emperor Shunzi to Peking. The Manchus pursued Li Zicheng to Xi'an. After a defeat in the Tongguan Pass, Li fled southward to the Jiugongshan Mountain, Hubei Province where Li was killed by the local Ming warlords. The Manchu armies went on to Sichuan to kill rebel Zhang. The Manchus attacked the Southern Ming Court and slaughtered the city of Yangzhou on the north bank of the Yantze. Ming General Shi Kefa died during this battle. Then, crossing the Yantze River, the Manchus slaughtered more cities, Jiading and Zhejiang etc. Wu San'gui would be responsible for fighting the new Ming Emperor who received support from a general under rebel Zhang Xianzhong. The new Ming emperor fled to Burma and was later handed over to Wu by the Burmese king. Wu and another two Chinese generals would control southwestern China and southern China as the so-called Three Vassals for dozens of years.
In southern China, General Zheng Chenggong rebelled against his father who had surrendered to the Manchus. He launched a war to recover Taiwan from the Dutch, from Dongshan Islands, Fujian Province. The Zheng family would rule Taiwan till A.D. 1683. Shi Lang, a general under Zheng's son, would defect to the Manchus and be responsible for taking over Amoy and Quemoy in A.D. 1680 and subsequent leading the Manchus landing in Taiwan.
Ethnic contention between Manchu and Han Chinese was intense. During the 266 years of Manchu rule, numerous Chinese rebellion had ocurred. The Manchu imposed a strict rule of haircutting. The Manchus had a special hair style: They cut hair off the front skull of their head and made the remaining hair into a long pigtail. The pigtail story might be related to the early Tobas of the 4th-6th century. The Tobas were called "suo nu", namely, pigtail styled robbers. The Chinese had no choice, either hair or head to be cut. The Manchus also adopted predatory methods of land deprivation. They set up a caste system in the attempt of avoiding the possibility of being assimilated by the Chinese. Today, the Manchus had lost their ethnic identities. If anyone called himselve a Manchu, it would be for sake of child birth or college entrance quota. The Manchus may have lost their identies because they lacked a religion. The Hui Muslims could claim to be a Hui because they believed in Islam no matter how Chinese they look. The Manchus have nothing to cling to as a differentiation from the Chinese.



written by Ah Xiang

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This is an internet version of this webmaster's writings on "Imperial China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of this webmaster's writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Imperial China", which was originally planned for after "Republican China", is now being pulled forward, with continuous updates posted to Pre-History, Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, offering the readers a tour of ancient China transcending space and time. A comprehensive version covering the 3000 years of ancient Chinese history, from 3000 B.C. down, with 3-5 times more materials than shown on this website and including 95% of the records in the spring & autumn annals ZUO ZHUAN, is expected to be made available on the Amazon website soon. The unforgotten emphasis on "Republican China", which was being re-outlined to be inclusive of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955, will continue. This webmaster plans to make part of the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. Due to constraints, only the most important time periods would be reorganized into some kind of publishable format, such as the 1939-1940, 1944-1945, and 1945-1950 Chinese civil wars, with special highlight on Km Il-sun's supplying 250,000 North Korean mercenaries to fighting the Chinese civil war, with about 60,000-70,000 survivors repatriated to North Korea for the 1950 Korea War, for example --something to remind the readers how North Korea developed to threaten the world with a nuclear winter today. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of this webmaster's writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. This webmaster intends to make the contents of this website into the Prometheus fire, lightening up the fuzzy part of China's history. It is this webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country. This webmaster's question for the sons of China: Are you to wear the communist pigtails for 267 years?

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At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],