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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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THE JURCHENS & THE MANCHUS

 
For details on when the east met with the west, see my recent discussions on the Huns, the Yuezhi, the Tarim Mummies, the Yuezhi-Yushi misnomer, the Mongoloid-Caucasoid admixture at 2000 B.C.E., the fallacy of the Aryan bearing of the Chinese civilization, the fallacy of the Yuezhi jade trade, the Yuezhi migration timeline, as well as the location of the Kunlun Mountain, Queen Mother of the West the proto-Tibetan Qiangic jade trade with the Sinitic Chinese, and the Qiang's possible routes of passages into Chinese Turkestan at http://www.imperialchina.org/Barbarians.htm which was embedded within the Huns.html and Turks_Uygurs.html pages. (Also see my discussion on the ethnic nature of ancient Huns belonging to part of the epic Jiang-rong human migration of the Jiang-surnamed San-miao people and Yun-surnamed Xianyun people.)
 
To expound the myth of the Koreans and the Altaic-speaking people, most recent DNA analyses need to be taken into account. Doctorate Li Hui from Fudan University of China had analyzed the DNA of the Asians to derive a conclusion that the ancestors of the Mongoloid Asians possessed a distinctive Mark M89 by the time they arrived in Southeast Asia. About 30,000 years ago, from the launching pad of Southeast Asia, the early Mongoloids went through a genetic mutation to Marker M122. Li Hui claimed that the early migrants to the Chinese continent took three routes via two entries of today's Yunnan and Guangxi-Guangdong provinces. The interesting theory adopted by Li Hui would be the migration of one more branch of people who, at about 20,000 years or earlier, continued to travel non-stop along the Chinese coastline to reach the Liao-he River area of Manchuria where they developed into what this webmaster called by the Altaic-speaking people, i.e., ancestors of the Turks and the Mongols.
 
Combining Li Hui's study with the pottery excavation, we could see a clear path going north extending from around 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Refer to Yaroslav V. Kuzmin's discourse on potteries to see the path of migration of proto-Mongoloids from southwestern China (approx. 15,120±500 BP) to Northeast Asia (Manchuria [13,000 BP, or c. 14,000 - 13,600 cal BC] and Japan [c. 11,800–10,500 cal BC (c. 13,800 - 12,500 cal BP)]) to Siberia (11,000 BP, or 11,200 - 10,900 cal BC).
 
In the timeframe of about 10,000 years or earlier, developing a genetic mutation to marker M134, one more branch of people who went direct north, per Li Hui, would penetrate the snowy Hengduan Mountains of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to arrive at the area next to the Yellow River bends. This group of people would be ancestors of the Sino-Tibetans. Splitting out of this northbound migrants would be those who went to the east with a new genetic marker M117, i.e., ancestors of the modern Han [a misnomer as the proper term should be Sino-Tibetan, nor the later Sinitic] Chinese. We could say that our Sino-Tibetan ancestors forgot that they had penetrated northward the Hengduan Mountains from the Indo-China "CORRIDOR" in today's Burma-Vietnam. "Walking down Mt Kunlun", i.e., the "collective memory of the ethnic Han Chinese" throughout China and the Southeast Asian Chinese communities, that was echoed in Guo Xiaochuan's philharmonic-agitated epic, would become the starting point of the eastward migration which our Chinese ancestors remembered. (Li Hui grouped the 3000-year-old Chu and Qi people in the same category as the Han Chinese, albeit meeting the ancient classics' records as to the Qi statelet's lineage from the Qiangic-Tibetan Fiery Lord.) This seems to corroborate with Scholar Luo Xianglin's claim that early Sino-Tibetan people originated from the Mt Minshan and upper-stream River Min-jiang areas of today's Sichuan-Gansu provincial borderline and then split into two groups, with one going north to reach the Wei-shui River and upperstream Han-shui River of Shenxi Prov and then eastward to Shanxi Prov by crossing the Yellow River.
 
One more branch of the early Mongoloids, about 10,000 years ago, were commented to have entered China's southeastern coastline with genetic marker M119. Li Hui, claiming the same ancestry as the Dai-zu and Shui-zu minorities of Southwestern China, firmly believed that his ancestors had dwelled in the Hangzhou Bay and the Yangtze Delta for 7-8 thousand years. The people with M119 marker would be the historical "Hundred Yue People". Li Hui then pointed out that the ancient Wu people, with M7 genetic marker, came to the lower Yangtze area about 3000 years ago. While Li Hui claimed that the M7 Wu people had split away from the northbound M134 Sino-Tibetan people, the historical Chinese classics pointed out that the Wu Statelet was established by two uncles of Zhou Dynasty King Wenwang, i.e., migrants from the Yellow River area.
 
As to today's Koreans, this webmaster believed that at most they had a tiny ingredient of this group of early proto-Mongoloid who moved north from 20,000 years ago, just as the Homo sapiens had taken in a portion of the DNA from the Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Li Hui's claim that today's Koreans were the mixtures of the early migrants to Manchuria and the later Yi migrants from Eastern China, did corroborate with this webmaster's historical analysis of the Huns, the Turks and the Mongols -- which yielded the conclusion i) that there was no chance for an east-west cross-traffic through the Gobi (Dazi, Tengri & Liusha [Kumtag]) in prehistory; ii) that the Mongoloid had a pattern of raiding to the west, not the other way around by the Indo-Europeans. The Korean nationalists' claim of a "Siberian origin", in light of the fact that the Koreans had predominantly the O2-haplogroup gene of the Yi/Yue people along the Chinese coast, was unfounded, as well as the Tangun myth --which in my opinion was a 13th century A.D. forgery on basis of the ancient Chinese scholars' statement that the Sushen-shi people at the Japan Sea submitted the tributes (i.e., stone arrows) to China at the time of Lords Yao-Shun-Yu. (See Assertions By Wang Zhonghan for clues as to the relationship between/among the Qiangic Proto-Tibetan, the Sino-Tibetan Jiang-rong (Proto-Hun), and the Altaic Xianbei/Mongols: "the northern barbarians and the western barbarians were similar [i.e., Qiangs] at the Spring-Autumn time period, but by the time of the late Warring States time period, the Chinese began to see the northern barbarians as different from the western barbarians". Namely, the ancient Huns were offsprings of the ancient Sino-Tibetan Jiang-rong people at the Yellow River bends while the Xianbei, the Khitan, the Mongol, the Jurchen and the Manchu people were all related to the Tungusic people from today's Northeastern China.)

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

 
In the Chinese history, the people in today's Manchuria were classified into the "Anterior Jurchens" and the "Posterior Jurchens". The "Anterior Jurchens" would be those Jurchens who defeated the Khitans' Liao Dynasty (AD 907-1125), and set up the Jin or Gold Dynasty (AD 1115-1234) that lasted 119-120 years in northern China. The "Posterior Jurchens" were the name first adopted by the Manchus when they rebelled against the Chinese Ming Dynasty. They renamed themselves the Manchu {Man-zhou, with the three dot zhou meaning a continent or an island in the river, which was an absurb usage of a Chinese character) in the early 17th cent. In the Turk & Uygur section, we mentioned that Jian Bozan, a writer who committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution, happened to be an ethnic Uygur from Hunan Province. Another writer, Lao She, who also committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution, was an ethnic Manchu.
 
The Chinese records categorically said that "the ancestry of the Manchus can be traced back more than 2,000 years to the Sushen tribe, and later to the Yilou, Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji], Mohe [Malgal] and Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) tribes native to the Changbaishan Mountains and the drainage area of the Heilongjiang River in northeast China." Here, the name Sushen would be used during Zhou Dynasty time period, Yilou during early Han Dynasty time period, Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] during Toba's Northern Wei Dynasty, Mohe (Malgal) during Sui Dynasty, Bohai (Palhae) during Tang Dynasty, and Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) during Song Dynasty. This was of course after hundreds of years of mixing-up or confrontation between the original inhabitants of Su-shen (Yliou) and the invaders such as the Mo (He) & Hui, Fuyu and Xianbei people.
 
(The Chinese way to tell the continuity of people in one area was unscientific: Sushen-shi was recorded to have sent in bows and arrows using stone arrowhead and promenade arrow-shaft during the 25th reign of Lord Shun [reign 2257-2208 BC ?]. When Marquis Chen-guo asked about a fallen eagle with a stone arrowhead, Confucius reminded the marquis of an early record on the history book stating that Sushen-shi had sent in arrow tributes to Zhou King Wuwang who subsequently inscribed the Sushen-shi characters and allocated to various vassals as a gift. Marquis Chen-guo did locate the ancient arrow in the storage and found it to be true. Sushen-shi, living in Manchuria bordering the Japan Sea, had sent in tributes after Zhou King Wuwang built roads leading to four barbarian directions.)
 
 
Origin Of the Jurchens
 
The Jurchens were said to be a group of people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and the tribal name was known since the 7th cent according to one account. The book The History Of Jurchen Jin Dynasty, written by Yuan's Prime Minnister Toktoghan (Tuo Tuo), recorded that the ancestors of the Jurchens were from the tribe called Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] or the Mohe (Malgal) which were located in the land of the ancient state of Sushen bordering the Japan Sea.
 
Sushen-shi, Gu-zhu, Ji-zi Chaoxian, "Mo", "Hui", Dong-hu & the [Misnomer] Dong-yi (Eastern Yi) Barbarians
We mentioned the Sushen State in the Korean section. The Sushen Statelet first submitted their renowned arrows and bows to Lord Shun during the 25th reign of Lord Shun (reign 2257-2208 BC ?), and Sushen continued to pay pilgrimage to Zhou Dynasty later. Sushen renewed the tribute in Cao Wei dynasty of the Three Kingdom time period. Also on record would be a statelet called Guzhu (i.e., lonely bamboo) in southern Manchuria, i.e., a Shang Dynasty vassal. It was said that Zhou Dynasty founder, Ji Chang, managed his statelet so well that old people went there for retirement, and two princes of the Guzhu Statelet (i.e., the Mo-tai-shi clan) in southern Manchuria, Bo-yi and Shu-qi, came to live in Zhou land. After the demise of Shang Dynasty, Ji-zi, a Shang Dynasty prince, departed for the land of the east [possibly a destination on the Shandong peninsula and then a cross-sea trip to either southern Manchuria or northern Korea] that came to be known as "Chao-xian [Korea]" in the ancient classics of Shan Hai Jing (The Legends of Mountains and Seas). Note that no matter how the Shang Dynasty exodus took place to reach Korea, Shang Prince Ji-zi of the 11th century B.C.E., the 'Ming-yi' [bright Yi or sunny Yi] and the Chaoxian (Korea) designation of the 4th century B.C.E., apparently all belonged to the Sinitic family, as all available ancient Korean words as recorded in the book Fang Yan (i.e., Dialects) by Western Han Dynasty minister Yang Xiong, all appeared to be one syllable characters, none like multi-syllables as today's Tungusic or Korean languages are.
 
Interspersed among the major groups of people of Sushen (Yilou), Dong-hu and Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea) were numerous "Mo" ("He") people and "Hui[4]" people. Those groups of people were later treated the same as Fuyu. According to Chen Shou, Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) had 80,000 households. Fuyu shared the same customs as the Huns on the matter of taking over the concubines of late father or late brothers. Fuyu, part of the ancient "Mo" and "He" people who could have lived in today's northern Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia, had moved into Manchuria under the pressure of the ancient "Xianyun" [i.e., predecessors of the Huns] according to classics Shi Jing. Fuyu was speculated to be the ancient Bai-min [white clothing people] or the ancient Fa-ren [hair people]; however, in light of the eastern migration, Fuyu might not be of the same people as the original natives of Manchuria, such as the Su-shen-shei people bordering the Japan Sea. --The possible explanation was that the so-called Mo-hui people were a combination of the Mo (He) people from today's Inner Mongolia and the Hui[4] people who were speculated to have been pressured into a move into central Manchuria [from the Shandong peninsula and North China] when the Zhou people overthrew Shang Dynasty, a claim that would equate the "Hui" people as belonging to the same category as Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi's exodus.
 
By the time of the Spring and Autumn time period of Zhou Dynasty, the northern or northeastern barbarians closer to the Chinese would be called Shan-rong or Mountain Rongs (aka Beirong or Wuzhong), about the area of today's Jehol mountains and the Western Hill areas to the west of Peking. The Mountain Rongs, at one time, went across the Yan Principality of Hebei Province to attack Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province; 44 years after that, they attacked Yan again; the Yan-Qi joint armies, under the command of Qi Counsellor Guan Zhong, Marquis Qi Huan'gong, and Count Yan, drove them out and moreover penetrated into the Rong land. Around 664 B.C.E., the Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. During the Warring States time period, the barbarians in the same area came to be known as Dong-Hu or the Eastern Hu people. A Yan Principality General, by the name of Qin Kai, after returning from Donghu as a hostage, attacked Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance, and further attacked Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea), extending the control to the Jeanyeong or Zaining-jiang River of Korea. Yan built the Great Wall [which preceded the great walls built by the succeeding Chinese dynasties, all the way to Ming Dynasty] and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. The Sushen tribe was then known as Yilou. (The Chinese history recorded succeeding names like Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji], Mohe, Bohai and Nuzhen (Nuzhi) tribes in the same area.)
 
Hence, in southern Manchuria and northern Korea, major groups of people identified included the Sushen people at the Japan Sea, the Fu-yu people interspersed in-between, the Ji-zi Choxian Koreans to the south, and the Dong-hu to the west. Chen Shou said the people of Yilou looked similar to Koguryo and Fuyu, but the language differed from each other. Since Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and Koguryo peoples shared the same language, the speculation would be that the Mo people were Tunguzic, too. Chen Shou recorded that the Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and Koguryo peoples shared the same language, but different styles of clothing and temperament. Eastern Woju, which was near today's Tumen River estuary, was said to have the similar language as Koguryo. In the 2nd century, Yilou had to submit tributes to Koguryo in addition to Fuyu. In early 3rd century, Yilou resisted the rule of Fuyu. Yilou, which submitted tribute to Wei China in A.D. 236 and 262, was attacked by Koguryo in A.D. 280 as punishment for robbing the Koguryo border people, enjoyed a time period of relative independence after Koguryo suffered defeat in the hands of Paekche, but was attacked again by the revived Koguryo in A.D. 398. Riding on ships, the Yilou people often pirate-attacked Bei-woju (northern Woju) which was located in the land between today's Vladivostok and the Tumen Rivermouth. After a couple hundreds of years, the native Yilou people apparently mixed up with the migrant Fuyu people [i.e., what Egami meant by the horseriding invaders against Japan] to tranform into the later Jurchen or Manchu people.

 
More about Sushen-shi, Gu-zhu, Ji-zi Chaoxian, "Mo", "Hui", Dong-hu is available at imperialchina.org/Koreans.html

 
Donghu: Wuhuan & Xianbei
The Jurchens were said to be related to the Tungus. The Xianbei-Wuhuan, who were said to be of the Tungus stock, were driven to Xianbei and Wuhuan Mountains after they accused the first Hunnic king Modu (Modok) of patricide. They were later relocated to Liaoning Province by Han Emperor Wudi for sake of segregation from the Huns. Hence, they were called the Donghu or Eastern Hu nomads, inheriting an old tribal name that long existed in the Zhou times. The important thing to be noted about the earlier Huns or the Donghu (i.e., the Xianbei-Wuhuan) will be that they were living alongside the Chinese for hundreds of years and should be deemed semi-sinicized and semi-civilized peoples. But the later Khitans or the Jurchens or the Mongols fared much worse, and those people ate raw meat and did not know how to count their ages.
 
After the Hunnic decline in late first century AD, the Xianbei west. The Xianbei mixed up with the Huns. The Hunnic Xia Dynasty, established by Helian Bobo, was said to be of a mingle nature, called 'Tie Fu'. The Tie Fu Huns were born of Xianbei mother and Hunnic Father. There appeared a Xianbei chieftan called Tanshikui (reign A.D. 156-181) who established a Xianbei alliance by absorbing dozens of thousands of Huns. The Tanshikui alliance disintegrated after the death of Tanshikui. Another chieftan called Kebi'neng emerged. Warlord Yuan Shao campaigned against the Wuhuans and controlled three prefectures of Wuhuan nomads. In 207, Cao Cao, who controlled the last Han Dynasty emperor, launched a punitive campaign against the Wuhuan. Exiting the Lulongsai Pass and trekking deep into the mountains, Cao Cao's army penetrated to Liucheng (today's Chaoyang), i.e., Wuhuan's home base in today's southern Manchuria, and at the Battle of Bailangshan (white wolf mountain), defeated Wuhuan chieftan Tadun. Over 10,000 Wuhuan households under Yan Rou relocated to China under the order of Cao Cao. The Wuhuan people, with three prefectures eqivalent of cavalry force, served Cao Cao as the mercenary cavalry.
 
Ts'ao Wei Dynasty broke a new Xianbei alliance by sending an assasin to kill Kebi'neng. Following the destruction of Wuhuan, Sima Yi, in the name of Cao Wei Dynasty, penetrated further into Manchuria. Sima Yi exterminated the Gongsun Family who ruled southern Manchuria and northern and central Koreas for almost half a century, massacred thousands of Gongsun regime officials and officers as well as able-bodied men, and in A.D. 238 deported 40,000 households of Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria, yielding the area to the Tungunsic, i.e., the Xianbei and Fuyu (including Koguryo & Paekche). (A repeat of history: In the late time period of Ming Dynasty, border general Li Chengliang dismantled six garrison towns in southeastern Manchuria, and forcefully deported hundreds of thousands of Sinitic Chinese to North China, yielding the area to the Manchu control.)
 
Among the Xianbei who were to take the place of the Wuhuan to dominate the area would be the clans of Duan, Murong and Yuwen. The Xianbei, with major tribes of Murong, Yuwen, Duan, would establish many short-lived successive states in North China and along the Chinese frontier. Among these states was that of the Tuoba or Toba (T'o-pa in Wade-Giles), a subgroup of the Xianbei, in modern China's Shanxi Province.
 
Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] & Mohe
During Toba Wei Dynasty, the Mohe (Malgal) was renamed to the old name of Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji]. At the times of Toba Wei Dynasty, Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] possessed altogether seven tribes. The Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] then were called by the Malgals during Sui Dynasty, who were very much a mixed-up people by that time. By Tang Dynasty, two tribes, Heisui (black water) and Sumuo, were known. Sumuo, one of the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] tribes, sought protection with Koguryo, and after Koguryo's demise in the hands of Tang, became independent and established the State of Po'hai (Palhae) around Dongmoushan Mountains. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. Note Bohai (Po'hai) was recorded to have possessed a written language, music and rituals, government and system, and it possessed five big cities, fifteen prefectures and sixty-two zhou (lesser prefectures).
 
During the second year of Tang Emperor Taizong, A.D. 628, the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] land was made into Yanzhou Prefecture. The Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] tribes joined Koguryo in resisting Tang Dynasty. During the tenth year of Kaiyuan Era, A.D. 722, Tang Emperor Xuanzhong set up Heisui-fu or Blackwater Governor office in the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] land. The Heishui [Blackwater] Mohe (Malgal) dwelled in the old land of Sushen. The Blackwater Tribe, who dwelled in the ancient Sushen land, also sought protection with Koguryo, and at one time, sent 150,000 troops to fight Tang on behalf of Koguryo. They were defeated by Tang in a place called An'shi. In the Kaiyuan Era of Tang Dynasty, the Blackwater Tribe came to pay pilgrimage to Tang and its land was made into Heisui-fu (i.e., Blackwater Governor Office) and its tribal chieftan was conferred the title of 'dudu' or governor-general. The Blackwater Tribe was given the Tang family name of 'Li'. After Po'hai became a strong power, this tribe became subordinate to the Sumuo Tribe.
 
The Shiwei people, i.e., the future Mongols under Genghis Khan, shared the same language as the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River. The location of the Shi-wei was to the east of the Turks, the west of the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji], and the north of the Khitans. They were connected with Koguryo in the south, around today's Changbaishan Mountains as well as with the Shiwei in the north. Part of the Fuyu people had dwelled next to the Shi-wei people along the Amur River. In early times, Fuyu split into two parts, i.e., North Fuyu and East Fuyu, with the founder of East Fuyu moving to the northeastern coast of the Korean peninsula. Later, in A.D. 723, Da-mo-lou, i.e., descendants of North Fuyu which was destroyed by Korguryo, came to Tang Dynasty together with the Shi-wei tribe of Dagou (Dadu). History stated that Da-mo-lou dwelled near the Du-na River which flew into the Amur River towards the northeastern direction.
 
Successors Of Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba
After the Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba disappeared into China's melting pot during the 16 Nations (AD 304-420), the newcomers from the northern hemisphere, together with the remaining Tunguzic people, would be occupying the eastern part of Mongolia and today's Machuria. In A.D. 443, the barbarians who took over Tuoba's old territories, upper Heilongjiang River and northern Xing'an Ridge, came to see Tuoba Wei Emperor (Tuoba Tao) and told him that they found Tuoba ancestor's stone house, called 'Ga Xian Dong'. Tuoba Tao sent a minister called Li Chang to the stone house which was carved out of a natural cavern. In 1980s, this cavern was discovered as well as the inscriptions left by Li Chang.
 
The peoples who dwelled in old Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba territories would be the later Shiwei Tribes (ancestors of Mengwu Shiwei or Genghis Mongols), the Khitans, the Xi nomads, and the Mohe people etc. Among them would be ancestors of the later Jurchens or the Mongols. The Khitans first appeared on the stage.
 
The New History Of Tang Dynasty mentioned that the Khitans were descendants of the Kebi'neng Xianbei. (Alternatively, The Old History Of Five Dynasties said that the Khitans were an alternative race of the Huns.) The New History Of Tang Dynasty said that by the time of Toba's Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534), the ancestors of the Khitans adopted the name 'Khitan' for themselves. The Khitans lived around the Liao River in today's Manchuria. To the east of the Khitans will be Koguryo, to the west the Xi Nomads, to the north Mohe (Malgal) and Shiwei Tribes, and to the south Yingzhou Prefecture of Toba Wei Dynasty. The Shiwei statelets would be where we are to trace the Mongols for their origin. The Mohe (Malgal) would be where the Jurchens came from. The New History Of Tang Dynasty said Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. The Eastern Turks assigned Khan Tuli in charge of the Khitan and the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] tribes. The Khitan chieftan was conferred the title of 'Sijin' by the Turks. Around A.D. 620s, the Khitan chieftan came to see Tang's first Emperor, Tang Gaozu, together with a Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] chieftan. Khitans rebelled against the Turks and fled to Tang for asylum. In A.D. 628, Turks pleaded with Tang Emperor Taizong to have Khitans relocate back to Turk control, but Tang Taizong declined this request.
 
The Xi people, according to New History Of Tang Dynasty, were derived from the Tadu's Wuhuan (one branch of Eastern Hu nomads) who were defeated by Ts'ao Ts'ao during the Three Kingdoms time period. Alternatively, they were said to be a different race of the Huns. By the time of Toba Wei, Xi renamed themselves to Kuzhen-xi and they borderd with the Turks in the west and the Khitans in the northeast. By the time of Sui Dynasty, they changed their name back to Xi. A chieftan called Suzhi followed Tang Emperor Taizong in the Korean campaigns and was conferred the post of Governor-General of Raole, in charge of six prefectures. At one time, the Xi people followed the Khitans in rebelling against Tang, and Xi sent some captured Tang general to the Muchuo's Orchon Turks for execution. During the second year of Jaiyuan Era of Xuanzong, Tang Emperor Xuanzong once sent a Tang Princess Gu'an to the Xi chieftan and conferred the title of King of Raole. The Xi chieftan came to the Tang capital the second year for the marriage. More Tang princesses would be married to the Xi chieftans. By the 4th year of Zhenyuan Era, the Xi joined the Shiwei in attacking Zhengwu Governor office. Xi also joined Huihe and Shiwei in attacking Chinese Turkistan. In the first year of Dazhong Era, Tang General Zhang Zhongwu defeated the Xi and burnt 200,000 tents. When the Khitans strengthened, the Xi submitted to the Khitans. Badly treated by the Khitans, the Xi fled to Tang and was assigned to Guizhou Prefecture, and they split into Eastern Xi and Western Xi.
 
The Shiwei people were said to be an alternative race of the Khitans, according to The New History Of Tang Dynasty. They could be related to the ancient 'Dingling' people (while Dingling was said to be derived from the ancient Chi-di people who were of the same Zhou royal family name of 'Ji' and had intermarriage with the Jinn principality). They shared the same language as the Mohe [Malgal] people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River, to the east of the Turks, the west of the Mohe [Malgal], and the north of the Khitans. There were over 20 Shiwei tribes on record, including Mengwu Shiwei. They first came to Tang Dynasty during the 5th year of Tang Emperor Taizong's reign. The Shiwei people came to Tang court over a dozen time. By the 4th year of Zhenyuan Era, Xi joined Shiwei in attacking Zhengwu Governor office.
 
The Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi), i.e., the Jurchens
The Sumuo group of the Moji [commonly mispronounced as Huji] people was called the Bohai (Parhae) during Tang Dynasty, and the Ruzhen (Nuzhen, Nuzhi) during Song Dynasty. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. During the Five Dynasties time period, the Khitans took over the Po'hai land. The Blackwater Jurchens who remained in the south, including the former Sushen territories, were subordinate to the Khitans and were named the 'acquaintance Jurchens' or the 'cooked Jurchens', while the remaining Jurchens living in the north, near today's Heilongjiang River, would be named the 'stranger Jurchens' or the 'raw Jurchens'. When the later Jurchens defeated the Khitans, the Jurchens sent an emissary to Bohai, saying that the Jurchens (Nuzhi) and the Bohai people were of same family.
 
Jurchens' defeat by the Mongols would be after their 119-20 years of stay in China, and by that time, they had become very much sinicized. The other mistake they made was in relocating their capital from today's Beijing to Bianliang or today's Kaifeng. That move basically cut off their tribal and logistical support from their homeland in Manchuria.
 
There is a need to touch on the hair style to determine the ethnicity of the ancient barbarians. There were the pigtail style of Tuoba, the cut hair style of the Xianbei and Wuhuan, and the cut hair and pigtail style of the Jurchens and Manchus, to state that both the Huns and the later Turks had in fact shared a similar hair style as the Sinitic Chinese, namely, no hair cut plus the bundling of hair. The difference between the Huns and the Sinitic Chinese was "hu2 [Huns] fu2 [clothing] ZHUI1 [back of the head] jie2 [bundling the hair]", while the Sinitic Chinese bundled the hair at the top of the head. As commented by historian Huang Wenbi, the Qiangic people in western China, who had been exiled there from the east as this webmaster had repeatedly said, shared the same customs as the ancient Yi people along the eastern Chinese coast, namely, they did not bundle hair and further had an opposite direction as far as wrapping the clothing was concerned, namely, "bei4? pi1?[dangling] fa1 [hair] zuo3 [left] REN4 [overlapping part of Chinese gown]". The point was that the barbarians from today's Manchuria were conspicuously different from the Sinitic Chinese or the Huns or Turks, whereas they might share some similar customs, like the dangling hair, with the ancient Yi people along the eastern Chinese coast or the ancestors of the Qiangs who were exiled to the northwest from the eastern coast.
 
The Ancient Chinese had different terms for barbarians in four directions. Yi, who originally meant for the bow-carrying people in eastern China and along the Shandong penisula coast, later mutated its meaning to mean Dongyi or Yi-of-the-East, who would include peoples in Manchuria, Korea and Japan. In the early times, the Yi was associated with the word 'niao' for bird, and there were eight to nine different 'niao-yi' people in the east. The Shang Dynasty people, considered a group of Yi people, were recorded to have treated 'Xuan Niao' (i.e., Black bird, possibly sparrow) as the totem. Manchurian legends as to the birth of their founder had something to do with swallowing the red fruit dropped by a bird. Toba Wei Dynasty, in return for being called the nickname of 'suo lu' (pigtailed enemies), would call the southern Chinese by the derogatory name of 'niao yi' (i.e., bird-like aliens) for possibly southern Chinese accents or generic-kind of name for southeastern Chinese and islanders. [This interesting epithet, however, would sometime mean that the Tuoba Xianbei might not be related to the original Nine Yi people who were driven away from the eastern Chinese coast.] In later times, the Yi designation would be associated with a word 'dao' for island, pointing to the barbarian peoples in East China Seas. (Both the character 'niao' and 'dao' looked quite close and might have corrupted consecutively during the course of history.) Yi is more an inclusive word to mean aliens. The big Korean school of thought, touched on in prehistory section, claimed that the Koreans were true descendants of the Dongyi people.
 
 
The Founding Father of the Jurchens
 
The History Of Jurchen Jin Dynasty recorded that the founding father of Jurchens had two more brothers. At age 60 plus, the second brother, by the name of Hanpu, left Koryo for Manchuria with his younger brother Baofuli. The elder brother, A'gunai, who was fond of Buddhism, told the two brothers that he could not leave Koryo because their descendants would for sure reunite here in Koryo.
 
Hanpu went to live among the Wayan people, a prominent Jurchen tribe in Manchuria. Hanpu, at age above 60, went to live among the Wayan people, a prominent Jurchen tribe in Manchuria. After mediating over the feud of two neighboring tribes, Hanpu was given an old virgin woman for marriage. Two sons were born, Ulu and Wolu, plus a daughter called Zhusiban. Hanpu was posthumously entitled "shi-zu" (the beginning ancestor). Son Wulu was posthumously entitled De-di (the virtue lord). Wulu's son, Ba-hai, was posthumously entitled An-di (the peace lord). Ba-hai's son, named Sui-ke, was posthumously entitled Xian-zu (the oblation ancestor). At Sui-ke's times, there was no house built in the Blackwater Tribe area. The barbarians lived in caves dug out of hill, with beams supporting the ceiling. In the summer times, the barbarians moved with the herds to graze the new grass. After Sui-ke moved to Haigushui, the Jurchens began to built the fixed dwellings, called by Nageli which meant residence in Chinese. Sui-ke's son, called Shilu, first started to erect rules and creeds in reforming the "raw Jurchens" customs of lawlessness as a result of lack of a written language and contracts. Shilu was posthumously entitled Shao-zu (the shining ancestor).
 
Shi-lu's son, called Wugunai, was born in A.D. 1021 (the first year of Khitan Liao's Taiping Era). Wugunai was the sixth generation tribal chieftan for the Jurchens. Wugunai was posthumously entitled Jing-zu (the bright ancestor). Wugunai first started the Jurchen expansion by taking control of various tribes including Baishan (white mountain), Yehui, Tongmen, Yelai and Tugulun etc. To prevent the Khitans from penetrating into the Jurchen land, Wugunai often rounded up the convicts and refugees from the Khitan territory, including the Tiele [Turkic] tribesmen etc, for handover to the Khitans. The Khitan emperor received Wugunai at the Liao dynastic palace and conferred him the post of "jie-du-shi" (satrap) for the raw Jurchen tribes. Howeverm Wugunai put off accepting the satrap seal. The Jurchens under Wugunai then used the Liao conferral to set up the governance system, and the Jurchens, who did not have iron, began to buy iron shields from the neighboring country.
 
Wugunai's second son, who was born in A.D. 1039 (the 8th year of Khitan Liao's Chongxi Era) and posthumously entitled Shi-zu (the dynastic ancestor), inherited the satrap conferral from the Khitans. Shi-zu (the dynastic ancestor), at age 54, died in A.D. 1092 (the 8th year of Khitan Liao's Da'an Era) after a reign of 19 years. The 4th son succeeded the 2nd son as Su-zong (the serious lord, born A.D. 1042). Su-zong, when seeing the Khitan emperor, often misled the interpreter so that he could be asked to move closer to the imperial seat to talk to the Khitan emperor direct.
 
The 5th son succeeded the 4th son as Mu-zong (the solemn lord, born A.D. 1053). Mu-zong often played tricks against the various Jurchen tribes to win favor from the Khitans. In the 9th year reign, Mu-zong paid a pilgrimage to the Khitan emperor at Yusuo. In the 10th year reign, Koryo first sent an emissary to the Jurchens. Mu-zong passed the reign to the son of Shi-zu (dynastic lord) after death. This would be Kang-zong (the prosperous lord, born A.D.1061). During the 4th year reign, the Jurchens and the Koryo began to have military conflicts over the reciprocal repatriation of refugees and convicts. During the 11th year reign, Kang-zong died at age 53.
 
The succeeding Jurchen ruler, Taizu [the grand ancestor, born A.D. 1068], Wanyan Min (Aguda), was the 2nd son of Shi-zu [dynastic ancestor]. Wanyan Min (Aguda) first challenged the Khitan rule by building castles. When the Khitans sent Xiao-da-buye to Ningjiang-zhou with an army, the Jurchens countered by assembling the Jurchen tribes to form an army. Aguda sent emissary to the Bohai domain, pacifying them by a claim that the Jurchens and the Bohai people were of the same family. After defeating the Khitans, Taizu declared himself an emperor, the dynastic name of Da-jin [grand gold] to counter the Khitan dynastic embodiment of iron, and the era of Shouguo in AD 1115.
 
 
The Mongol Attacks On the Jurchens
 
The Jurchens had in early days defeated the Kitans in a seven-year war (AD 1115-1122) by means of an alliance with Northern Song (AD 960-1127), and founded the Jin Dynasty (AD 1115-1234). They subdued neighboring Koryo (Korea) in A.D. 1126 and invaded Song, while the son of defeated Kitan Liao ruler fled with the small remnant of his army to the Tarim Basin where he allied himself with the Uygurs (Uighurs) and established the Karakitai state (Western Liao Dynasty, A.D. 1124-1234).
 
Genghis Khan declared war in A.D. 1211 on the Jurchens. The Jurchens had fights with the early 'Mengwu' people (led by Kabul-khan) in 1139 and in 1147, and they nailed Ambaki and Kabul-khan's elder son to wooden donkeys and hence were feuds of Genghis Khan's Mongols. The Ta-ta-er (the Tartars) had assisted the early Jurchens in defeating the Mongol (Meng-ku) rebellions, handed over Mongol leader Ambakai (disputed to have adopted the tribal name of Tayichi'ut) and his son to the Jurchens for execution in A.D. 1150s, and dealt the remaining Meng-ku tribes a decisive defeat near Lake Buir in A.D. 1160s.
 
In A.D. 1211, Genghis Khan held a khuriltai (assembly). (First assembly was in A.D. 1206.) When the new Jurchen Jin Emperor Wanyan Yongji sent an emissary to Genghis Khan, Genghis Khan refused to bow down to take the decree. He advanced into northern China to attack Jurchen Jin and defeated Jurchen General Hu Shaohu and his 300 thousand army. Many Khitans and Chinese joined the Mongolians to avenge on the Jurchens. This will include Genghis's later prime minister, Yeluchucai, and famous generals like Chinese brothers, Si Tianni and Si Tianzhe etc. At that time, Mongols, with aid from the Khitans and Chinese who served in Jurchen army, notably with the help of a Jurchen general called Ming'an, took over Juyongguan Pass of the Great Wall (near Beijing). Genghis Khan was wounded in Dadong and agreed to a peace with the Jurchens with the condition that the Jurchen princess be sent to him as a bride. He retreated back to Mongolia. The new Jurchen Emperor, Jin Xuanzong, however, made a strategic mistake by relocating his capital to Bianliang (today's Kaifeng), which essentially enraged Genghis Khan as well as cut himself from the Jurchen base in Manchuria. The successor Jin emperor would be defeated again later, but not until 1234.
 
In A.D. 1213, Genghis Khan resumed warfare against the Jurchens. With three armies into the heart of Jin territory, in A.D. 1214, siege of Zhongdu (Beijing) began. Meantime, he devastated northern China, sacking numerous cities in Hebei/Shandong provinces, reducing them into all ruins. By A.D. 1215, Beijing (known as Yanjing) fell, and history recorded the horrors of massacre and suicides. The Mongolian army, short of grain supply during the siege, would line their soldiers up, select soldiers via one out of every hundred or so, and kill them for food. As to the residents inside of Beijing, hunger led to cannibalism, too, and at the time when Beijing fell, innumerable number of women and girls jumped down from the city wall to commit suicide. Some western traveller recorded that the human oil from burning those dead bodies had been so thick that it did not dissappear for a long time. In A.D. 1216, Genghis went back to Mongolia.
 
Genghis Khan died in A.D. 1227 during his campaigns against the Tanguts. Since Western Xia had refused to provide troops in the war against the Khwarizm, and more over, signed another alliance treaty with Jurchen Jin, Genghis Khan readied a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign against the Tanguts. Late in A.D. 1226, when the rivers were frozen, the Mongols struck southward. On the banks of the frozen Yellow River the Mongols defeated a Xixia army of more than 300,000. The Mongols killed the Tangut emperor in a mountain fortress. His son took refuge in the walled city of Ningxia. Leaving one-third of his army to take Ningxia, Chinggis sent Ogedei eastward, across the great bend of the Yellow River, to attack the Jurchen Jin. The Mongols, as a precautionery measure, marched southeast to eastern Sichuan Province, where the Western Xia, the Jin, and the Song empires met, to prevent Song reinforcements from reaching the Tanguts in Ningxia. Here he accepted the surrender of the new Western Xia emperor but rejected peace overtures from Jin. On his death in 1227, he outlined to his youngest son, Tului, the plans that later would be used by his successors to complete the destruction of the Jin empire.
 
When the Jurchens were driven out of Bianliang or Kaifeng in A.D. 1233, they retreated southward to a small town close to the Song border called Caizhou (today's Lunan, Henan Province). The Jurchens sent a messenger to Song Chinese requesting for help in fighting the Mongols. Song Emperor Lizong flatly denied it, and more over, Song struck a deal withe Mongols in attacking the Jurchens together. Song would then play the card of allying with the Mongolians in destroying Jurchen Jin, and it even sent tens of thousands of carts of grain to the Mongol army in the besieging of the last Jurchen stronghold. With the Mongols attacking the north gate and the Song Chinese attacking the south gate, the Jurchens were completely defeated and the last emperor, Jin Aizong, committed suicide in A.D. 1234. The remaining Jurchen genegals and royal family members jumped to the river to commit suicides as well. There is a saying that the Jurchens who survived the Mongols had later retreated towards Manchuria. However, the truth of fact is that Manchuria was already in Mongol hands; besides, the Jurchens in northern China were already very much sinicized to be differentiated from the local Chinese.
 
The Song Chinese's Game Of Triangular Warfare
For hundreds of years, the Song Dynasty, built on top of Northern Zhou (AD 951-960) of the Cai(1) family, would be engaged in the games of 'three kingdom' kind of warfares. Northern Song (AD 960-1127) would face off with the Western Xia (AD 1032-1227) and Khitan Liao in a triangle, and then played the card of allying with the Jurchens in destroying the Khitan Liao. With Northern Song defeated by the Jurchens thereafter, Southern Song (AD 1127-1279) would be engaged in another triangle game, with the other players being Western Xia and the Jurchen Jin. Southern Song would then play the card of allying with the Mongolians in destroying Jurchen Jin, and it even sent tens of thousands of carts of grain to the Mongol army in the besieging of the last Jurchen stronghold. Soon after than, the Southern Song generals broke the agreement with the Mongols and they shortly took over the so-called three old capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang and Chang'an. But they could not hold on to any of the three because what they had occupied had been empty cities after years of warfare between the Jurchens and Mongols.
 
 
The Later Manchus
 
The later Manchus could be just a kinsmen tribe of the original Jurchens, and at most descendants of the Jurchens who remained in the homeland throughout the Jurchen expansion in northern China during the period of 1115-1234 AD. Similar to the legends about the Jurchen founders, the ancestor of the Manchu founders, Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, had wandered into a village where he was taken in as a distinguished guest and given a woman for marriage. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun was said to have been born after his mother swallowed a red fruit dropped by a sparrow. Bu-ku-li grew up under the foot of the Changbaishan (i.e., snow-capped) Mountain. When he asked who his father was, his mother told him the sparrow story and gave him the last name of 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' which was translated into Chinese as the 'jin' or gold for Ai-xin and 'surname' for Jue-luo. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, similar to the Jurchen founders, would somehow pacify the generations of fighting between this village where he took as home and two other neighboring villages. He was supported by all three villages as chieftan, called 'bei-le'. Hence the 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' tribe came into existence.
 
Bu-ku-li-yong-shun descendants would relocate to a place called He-tu-a-la (i.e., later Xingjing). Jue-chang-an, the grandfather of later Nurhaci (i.e., Nu-er-ha-chi, 1559-1626), gradually grew in the tribal strength. A Ming Dynasty general (Li Chengliang) at Liaoxi, in order to suppress the Jurchen growth, would attack the grandson-in-law of Jue-chang-an. Jue-chang-an and his son died as a result of a conspiracy between the Huron Chieftan Ni-kan-wai-lan and Ming Dynasty General Li Chengliang. Nurhaci, around the age of 25 at that time, attacked Huron Chieftan Ni-kan-wai-lan to avenge the death of his father/grandfather. Ni-kan-wai-lan fled to the Ming territories, and Nurhaci wrote a letter to the Ming court asking for hand-over of Ni-kan-wai-lan. The Ming court, however, only condoled Nurhaci with 30 horses, two coffins, the post of 'dudu' (i.e., governorship) of Jianzhou-wei, and the title pf General 'Long-hu' (dragon and tiger). Nurhaci hence set up four banners of armies, trained his soldiers, and attacked the Ming border castle to have Ni-kan-wai-lan captured and executed.
 
By late Ming Dynasty, three Jurchen tribes were known, Jianzhou (jianzhou Prefecture), Haixi (east of the sea [Huron Lake]), & Yeren (Uncivilized people). Under Nurhaci [Nurhachu] (1559-1626), the Manchus united various tribes and expanded their territory. Nurhaci first defeated the Ye-he Statelet at Huron Lake. The territories of the Huron Lake area was named Haixi-wei {garrison of west of the lake) by Ming Dynasty, where the Ye-he tribe was the biggest of the four subtribes in the area. The Ye-he tribe chieftan, considered a vassal of Ming, was jealous of Nurhaci's expansion, and he called upon an army of 30,000, including some Mongols, for an attack on Nurhaci. Nurhaci thoroughly defeated the Ye-he tribe. The Ye-he tribe promised to send in their daughter for inter-marriage with Nurhaci, but the Ye-he tribe then promised to marry the princess to the Mongols. (The Ye-he family would later produce the Empress Dowger Cixi.)
 
By A.D. 1616, Nurhachu proclaimed the founding of 'Da Jin', namely, Grand Gold Dynasty, at a place called Xingjin. The Manchu claim of relation to the Jin dynasty of China was purportedly the justification for conquering China in the 17th cent. and establishing the Qing dynasty. In addition to the original four banners of yellow, red, blue and white, Nurhachu set up four extra embedded banners of yellow, red, blue and white. The so-called 'Eight Banner' system was used for organizing armies into eight columns. The Manchus set up eight Mongol and Chinese banners, respectively, on basis of the ethnic composition. Nurhachu, after making an oath of 'seven hatreds for the Ming Dynasty', led an army of 20,000 against the Ming border town of Hushun. Before arriving in Hushun, a Chinese intellectual, by the name of Fan Wencheng, came to Nurhaci's camp to serve as a counsellor. Nurhaci asked Fan whether Song Dynasty's prime minister Fan Zhongyan was his ancestor, and Fan replied 'yes'. Fan Wencheng somehow persuaded Ming general at Hushun, Li Yongfang, into a surrender. Nurhaci then defeated Ming relief armies to Hushun and killed three generals. When the news arrived at Ming court, Emperor Shenzong sent someone called Yang Hao to counter Nurhaci. Yang Hao, who had lost a battle to the Japanese in Korea, would lose the Battle of Saerhu. Though Yang Hao mobilized an army of 200,000, including 20,000 Koreans and 20,000 Ye-he tribesmen, Nurchaci used smart tactics and defeated the Ming armies one by one within a matter of half a year. Yang Hao was arrested and demoted by Ming court, and Xiong Tingbi was conferred the post of 'jing lüe' for Manchuria. After rebelling against Ming Dynasty and defeating the Ming army at the Battle of Sa'erhu in A.D. 1619 (?), they moved their capital today's Shenyang City, called Shengjin at the time. Southern Manchuria, Liaoning Province, was historically Ming Chinese territories. Nuerhachu later died of the cannon of Ming General Yuan Chonghuan at the battle of Ningyuan (today's Xingcheng, Liaoning Province). Yuan had built this kind of long range canon with the help of the Jesuits, and Yuan named it 'Red-Hair Alien Cannon'. Nuerhachu's successor, Huangtaiji, would first attack the Koreans and Mongolians, and then played a dissension to have Ming Emperor Chongzhen kill Yuan. In A.D. 1636, Huangtaiji changed their name to Manchu from Jurchen and declared their dynasty name of 'Qing', namely, clearness. After the death of Huangtaiji, Emperor Shunzhi would be enthroned. Huangtaiji's brother, Duo'ergun (Dorgon), would be responsible for pushing the war against Ming. The Manchus boasted of an army of 220,000 for the Eight Banners. (After taking over China, they had raised an additional army of 660,000 for the Green Camp Battalions.)
 
The Manchus first used Khitan's Siniform script. The Uygur script indirectly influened the Manchus when they adopted the Mongolian script in 1599. (The Manchus finally adopted Chinese logographic characters.)
 
In northern China, Ming Dynasty was already devastated by peasant rebellions led by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. Li followed his uncle-in-law in rebelling against Ming Dynasty in A.D. 1628. After a defeat in Shenxi, Li re-organized his rebels in Henan Province. While in Henan, Li acquired two intellectuals, by the name of Niu Jinxing and Li Yan, and re-shaped his bandit approach. By 1644, he led an army of one million eastward. Li Zicheng sacked Xi'an and captured King Qin Zhu Cunshu, attacked Taiyuan and killed King Jin Zhu Qiushu. After conquering Daizhou Prefecture, Li Zicheng went all the way to attack Ming capital of Peking in the east. He sacked Peking (Beijing) and caused the last Ming Emperor Sizong (Chongzhen) to hang himself inside of Forbidden City in Beijing. Meanwhile, in the west, Zhang slaughtered 3/4th of Sichuan's population. (Sichuan was later filled up by migrants from Guangdong and Hunan provinces.) A Ming general at Ningyuan, Wu Sangui, was on his way to Peking to rescue Ming emperor, but he stopped at Shanhaiguan Pass when he heard of the fall of the capital. Wu surrendered to Manchu when he heard that his mistress was grabed by the rebel. After Manchus were invited by Wu Sangui the gatekeeper for Shanhaiguan Pass, the Manchus used the slogan of 'Restoring Ming Dynasty' to call for cooperation among Ming Chinese remnant armies in the wars against the peasant rebells. Duo'ergun would relocate Emperor Shunzi to Peking. When they came into China in A.D. 1644, they brought in maybe just tens of thousands of Manchu soldiers. The major armies among the Manchu were still of Chinese nature, and they pursued Li Zicheng to Xi'an. After a defeat in Tongguan Pass, Li fled southward to Jiugongshan Mountain, Hubei Province where Li was killed by local Ming warlords. Manchu-Ming armies went on to Sichuan to kill rebel Zhang. Then, they continued on to attack Southern Ming Court and slaughtered the city of Yangzhou on the north bank of the Yantze. Ming General Shi Kefa died during this battle. Then, crossing Yantze River, the Manchus slaughtered two more cities, Jiading and another Zhejiang city. The notorious slaughering of Jiading City was conducted by Manchu generals of ethnic Chinese background, in fact. Then, Wu Sangui would be responsible for fighting the new Ming Emperor who received support from a general under peasant rebel Zhang Xianzhong. But the new Ming emperor fled to Burma and was later handed over to Wu by Burmese king. Wu and another two Chinese generals would control southwestern China and southern China as the so-called Three Vassals for dozens of years.
 
In southern China, General Zheng Chenggong rebelled against his father who had surrendered to the Manchus. He launched a war to recover Taiwan from the Dutch, from Dongshan Islands, Fujian Province. The Zheng family would rule Taiwan till A.D. 1683. Shi Lang, a general under Zheng's son, would defect to the Manchus and be responsible for taking over Amoy and Quemoy in A.D. 1680 and subsequent leading the Manchus landing in Taiwan.
 
Ethnic contentions between Manchu and Han Chinese were intense. During the 266 years of Manchu rule, numerous Chinese rebellions had ocurred. The Manchu imposed a strict rule of haircutting. The Manchus had a special hair style: They cut hair off the front skull of their head and made the remaining hair into a long pigtail. The pigtail story might be related to the early Tobas of the 4th-6th century. The Tobas were called "suo nu", namely, pigtail styled robbers. The Chinese had no choice, either hair or head to be cut. The Manchu also adopted predatory methods of land deprivation. They set up a caste system in the attempt of avoiding the possibility of being assimilated by the Chinese. The first Manchu emperor had a famous story about marrying a Chinese woman called 'Dong Guifei'. After the death of this comcubine, Emperor Shunzhi purportedly went to Wutaishan Mountain as a monk. Dong Guifei could be related to some Manchu with inter-marriage with the Chinese from the Han Banner. Historians believed that Dong was a Manchu, but the populace belief was that she was a Han. Today, the Manchus had lost their ethnic identities. If anyone called himselve a Manchu, it would be for sake of child birth or college entrance quota. The Manchus may have lost their identies because they lacked a religion. The Hui Muslims could claim to be a Hui because they believed in Islam no matter how Chinese they look. The Manchus have nothing to cling to as a differentiation from the Chinese.
 

 

TO BE CONTINUED !!!!!


 
written by Ah Xiang
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
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At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],