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Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
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Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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ZHOU DYNASTY


 
The people of Zhou Dynasty lived in an area that was considered to be the dwelling place of the Xirong & Rongdi, somewhere in northern and western Shaanxi Prov, near Gansu border. In another sense, the original Chinese 3000 years ago could not be much different from the Xirong & Rongdi at all. While the ancient Chinese were considered sedentary with fixing places like cities and castles, the Xirong & Rongdi barbarians remained nomadic, constantly on the move. In both Shenxi (Shaanxi) and Shanxi Province, records had shown that the Xirong & Rongdi barbarians and the ancient Chinese co-habitated in an interspersing way. Charles Hucker, in "China's Imperial Past", made a speculation about the distinction between the sedentary and nomadic ways of life in China's northwestern areas, around the Yellow River line, at the time of early history: That is, the two ways of life had existed among both the Xia-ren or the Chinese and the nomadic people; both groups of people had partial agriculture and partial husbandry in the area; it was due to the Xia Chinese building up the walled states that led to the polarization of the two ways of life. (This webmaster, though, would paraphrase it in one more way: Namely, every change of the dynasties of Xia or Shang would see the former rulers and their clansmen fleeing to the northern or western border to be the new generation of the barbarians.)
 
The Zhou people, counted as a vassal of the Shang Chinese, were living among the barbaric west. According to Shi Ji, Zhou'a ancestor could be traced to Houji, the Chinese god or father of agriculture. Houji, like Shang ancestor Xie, was the son of ancient overlord Diku. Houji's mother was named Jiang Yuan, a You-tai-shi (Fufeng and Wugong, Shenxi Prov) woman, carrying the Fiery Lord tribal name. (Later statelets of Qi, Shen, Xu and Lv all belonged to the Jiang family. The Zhou people, said to be descendants of the Xia people, had intermarriage with the Jiang-surname Qiangic Fiery Lord tribe, which would be a prevalent way of Ji-Jiang marriage among the early Chinese.) The legend said that Houji was born after his mother stepped onto the footprints of a giant and that Houji, being deserted to the moutains and lakes by his mother, was taken care of by the beasts and birds. Both Lord Yao and Lord Shun used Houji as the master of agriculture. The name 'houji' then became a standard title as the "agriculture minister". Lord Yao conferred Houji the last name of 'Ji', meaning origin. Confucius had commented on the story of the You-ji-shi clan. Per The Legends of Mountains and Seas, Hou-ji was buried in the land of today's Sichuan basin after death, which in an alternative perspective shed light on the nature of the Sinitic people as from the west of China versus the prehistoric Yi people to the east. Note that the later Zhou people had adopted a different character 'Ji1' for their clan's surname, which was the name used by the Yellow Lord.
 
After Xia King Taikang lost his throne, Buzhu, i.e., Houji's son or [possibly] "multi-generational" descendant [by citation of the ambiguity about generational gap in Guo Yu], left for the west in the aftermath of the abandonment of the agriculture post by the [usurped] Xia Dynasty court. (There was some confusion where Buzhu went, and it could be a move to southern Shanxi from western Shandong, not the Rong & Di land.) Another two generations will be Gongliu who renewed agriculture in the Rong & Di land. This renewal would be a basis for a claim that the Zhou people had consecutively changed their modes of life. Gongliu's son (Qingjie) set up a statelet in a place called 'Bin', in today's central Shenxi Province, a place belonging to the Xirong later. ('Bin' was disputed by some scholars to be still in Shanxi Prov rather than Shenxi Prov.) Another eight generations or three hundred years would be Zhou Dynasty's founder, Gugong (aka Danfu [Tanfu]). Gugong, being attacked by the Rong & Di and Xunyu barbarians, would relocate to Mount Qishan. The people of 'Bin' followed him to Qishan. Gugong abolished the Rong & Di customs, built a city in a plain called Zhou-yuan under the foot of Qishan, and devised five posts of si tu, si ma, si kong, si shi, & si kou per Shang Dynasty's court system. (Some scholars disputed the five posts since bronze inscriptions did not add up to the five counts.) Gugong declared their statelet 'Zhou'. From this definite statement, some historians deduce that the character 'Zhou' which the Shang people had described about in the Oracle bones prior to this event was not the same as the Zhou statelet that Gugong had launched. Gugong is also known as 'Zhou King Taiwang' (i.e., the grand king) posthumously. Gugong's elder son, 'Tai Bo', went to the Yantze Delta (Meili Village, Wuxi County, Changzhou, Jiangsu) for sake of launching own statelet. (Xu Zhuoyun speculated that Tai Bo was deliberately dispatched to the Yangtze Delta as a tactic move to circumvent and attack Shang Dynasty from both directions.) Tai Bo wanted to yield the succession to his brother because the ancient mandate said that the son of Tai Bo's brother (Ji Li) would be the future lord of the Zhou people. Ji Li's mother was called Tai-jiang, a Jiang surname woman of the You-tai-shi clan. (Xu Zhuoyun cited scholar Liu Qiyi's research of 'jin wen' or bronze inscriptions in stating that 12 kings of Western Zhou Dynasty had inter-married with the Jiang-surname women consecutively.) Ji Li's son, born by a Zhi-ren-shi or Zhi-zhong-shi woman, would be Ji Chang, i.e., Zhou King Wenwang or Count Xibo, who was said to have possessed four nipples, and Zhou King Wenwang was recorded to be bird-nosed, tiger-shouldered, and dragon-faced.
 
A mediocre sinologist error would be to claim that the Zhou people originated from the west or Central Asia. The 'west' story could have derived from two inputs: the Zhou people's locality to the west of the Xia and Shang people, and Zhou King Wuwang's claim as people from the west. As we detailed below, when Zhou Lord Wuwang campaigned against last Shang King Zhouwang, he eulogized his alliance's bravery by calling his armies the "people from the west". (Zhou King Wuwang's alliance also pointed to the fact that the Zhou people, by the timeframe of 11th century B.C.E., had basically surrounded the Shang people from north, west and south.) Scholar Liu Qiyu, in anthology Hua Xia Civilization, tackled the issue of 'xi' or west. His validations pointed to the land of 'he qu' (i.e., the inflexion point of the Yellow River Bends) as the 'land of the west', i.e, the later land between the Qin and Jinn principalities.
Liu Qiyu cited Guo Yu's statement in regards to You-yu-shi as proof that the Yu clan had deep connection with the Xia people. The statement from Guo Yu could be paraphrased like this: "In ancient times, Count Chong-bo Gun also reigned in the land of the You-yu-shi clan." Count Chong-bo Gun was the father of Lord Yu and dwelled in southern or southwestern Shanxi Prov, i.e., the east bank of today's East Yellow River Bend. The You-yu-shi clan's locality, considered the second 'Xia Ruins' in archaeology, would be in today's eastern Shenxi Prov, i.e., Hancheng (west bank of the today's East Yellow River Bend) and Pucheng (west bank of Luo-shui River). This shows that the Xia people had in fact dwelled on both banks of the Yellow River plus the inflexion point in today's northeastern Henan Prov. Today's East Yellow River Bend was known as 'Xi-he' or the western river because the Yellow River did not flow horizontally into the sea via Shandong Prov but made an eastern bend northward for exit into the sea in today's Hebei Prov. Liu Qiyu researched into ancient classics Mu Shi (i.e., the Oath of War at Muye) and concluded that Zhou King Wuwang's reference to 'xi tu' would be the land to the west of the later Tongguan Pass of eastern Shenxi Prov.
 
The Zhou People's Origin
The Zhou people traced their ancestor to Houji who was buried in the land of Sichuan-Gansu border per SHAN HAI JING. That was of course the era of the Five Sovereigns. After the Xia Dyansty was launched, the Zhou people were living in the heartland of China as hereditary agricultural ministers. Zhou ancestor Buzhu, i.e., Houji's son or [possibly] "multi-generational" descendant [by citation of the ambiguity about generational gap in Guo Yu], left for the west after the [Dong-yi-usurped] Xia Dynasty abandoned the agriculture post. Per historical records, the Zhou people acted as "agriculture minister" for the Xia court, from ancestor Qi4 to ancestor Buzhu, which meant that the Zhou clan dwelled most likely in today's Henan-Shandong border line, with the naming of a place by 'Tai2', south of today's Zhangqiu of Shandong. Some confusion existed as to the place Buzhu had left for, either somewhere still in southwestern Shanxi Prov or somewhere across the Yellow River in Shenxi Prov. Roughly, the Zhou people, from ancestor Buzhu to ancestor Gongliu, dwelled in southern Shanxi and then southeast of today's Xi'an, Shenxi. Xu Zhuoyun, in Xi Zhou Shi (i.e., The History of Western Zhou Dynasty, 1973 edition, Lianjing Publishing House, Taipei, Taiwan), stated that the Zhou ancestors, per scholar Qian Mu's 1931 dissertation, migrated westward to Shenxi Prov from Shanxi Prov. Xu Zhuoyun cited Ban Gu's Hou Han Shu in stating that the Fen-yin area of southern Shanxi Prov, possessing a temple in the name of Zhou ancestor Houji, should be the Zhou people's original habitation area. Xu Zhuoyun listed 16 sentences in Shang Dynasty's divination and oracle records to prove that the Shang people, at the reign of Shang Dynasty King Aoding, had instructed the subordinate tribes in campaiging against the Zhou people and speculated that the Zhou ancestors must have lived around southern Shanxi province, a place to the northeast of the inflexion point of the Yellow River. Liu Qiyu pointed out that after the demise of Xia, whoever stayed in Shanxi/Shenxi provinces continued to call themselves the 'Xia' people. First Zhou King Wenwang eulogized the eastward flow of the Fen-shui River to Lord Yu's accomplishment and numerous Zhou Dynasty records stated that they were descendants of Xia Dynasty founder Lord Yu. (There were two citations in Zuo Zhuan that contradicted this claim, with the Ji-lineage principality lords distancing themselves from the people of Qi3-guo [i.e., the Xia descendants], and calling the Qi-guo people by 'Qi3-yi' or the eastern Yi people of Qi3; though, alternative explanations were made to the effect that Qi3 Lord Chenggong had adopted the [Eastern] Yi customs and practiced it to the day of his death, and that the Wei-guo minister was actually stating that it was not Wei-guo's fault to not have reverance for the Xia Dynasty lord Xiang because the ghosts-gods [i.e., spirits] had deserted the Xia lords, not the common interpretation that the Wei-guo people did not revere the Xia lord Xiang's oblation because the Ji-surnamed Wei people did not belong to the same lineage as the Xia people.) Ancestor Gongliu then relocated the Zhou clan to Bin, i.e., today's Xunyi where Liu Zhidan's communist Red Army banditry sought safen. Ancestor Gugong-tanfu, under the attacks of the barbarians, relocated southwestward to Zhouyuan, south of Mt. Qishan.
 
The Shang & Zhou Relations
Often neglected would be the oracle or divination inscriptions on the bronze utensils left by the Zhou people at Mt Qishan. During the earlier reign of Shang King Aoding, the Zhou people were often campaigned against by Shang Dynasty. But later on, Zhou began to submitt to Shang and assist Shang in numerous campaigns against the barbarians in today's Shanxi and Gansu Provinces. In Shang Dynasty's oracle bones, two vassals, i.e., the Zhou statelet and Marquis Jiu-hou [Gui-hou], which was speculated to be the Gui-fang statelet, had taken charge of fighting the proto-Qiangic Rong barbarians on behalf of Shang, and furthermore surrendered the Qiangic prisoners to Shang for live burial. (Shang Dynasty's tombs, per ROC-era scholars Li Ji and Yang Ximei, had purportedly produced a diverfied range of skulls, with limited numbers ascertained to be sacrificial nature of people of the Caucasoid type, and of the Austronesian pigmy type, and etc. However, Yu Jinquan and Zang Zhenhua reversed their predecessor's conclusion to state that the measure on the skulls using the pure visual judgment was incorrect, and on basis of the shovel-shaped teeth, concluded that those Shang tomb victims were all Mongoloid in the sense of physical anthropology.) Xu Zhuoyun cited Chen Mengjia's research in pointing out that Zhou Taiwang, during Shang King Wuyi's reign, relocated to Mt Qishan under the pressure of the Doggy Rong; that Zhou Lord Ji Li [Ji-li or Jili], during the 34th year reign of Shang King Wuyi, paid pilgrimage to the Shang court; that Jili defeated the Xiluo-Gui-rong barbarians and captured 20 Di[2] kings the next year [i.e., the 35th year of Shang King Wu-yi]on behalf of the Shang court but Shang King Wuyi was killed by a lightening around the Wei-shui River when the Shang king was hunting in the area of the Yellow River and Wei River; that Jili campaigned against the Yanjing-rong (Yan-rong) barbarians but got defeated during the 2nd year reign of Shang King Taiding (Wending), an event that pointed to the fact that the Zhou army, acting as a mercenary army for Shang, had in fact transferred to today's Shanxi-Hebei area from western China to fight the mountain Rong; that Jili, two years thereafter, i.e., the 4th year of Shang King Wending, defeated Wuyu-rong (Yuwu-rong) barbarians and received conferral as 'mu shi' (shepherd chancellor) from the Shang king; that Jili first campaigned against the Shihu-rong barbarians during the 7th year reign of Shang King Taiding and against the Yitu-rong barbarians during the 11th year reign of Shang King Taiding, and defeated three "da fu' of the barbarians; that Jili was killed by Shang King Wending (Taiding) thereafter, when Ji-li defeated and captured three da-fu of the Yitu-rong and came to the Shang court to surrender the prisoners of war, with historians commenting in THE BAMBOO ANNALS that the Shang king put Ji-li under the house arrest at the Shang capital where Ji-li was pressed [pressured or stressed] to death; and that the Zhou people began to attack Shang Dynasty during the 2nd year reign of Shang King Di-yi (Yili) [- which was not shown in THE BAMBOO ANNALS as it recorded that Count Xi-bo (Ji Chang) began to attack Di2 in the 17th year of Shang King Xin]. Xu Zhuoyun speculated that Shang King Wu-yi most likely died in the hands of the Zhou people rather than a lightening strike in a similar coverup as later Zhou King Zhaowang's death on the Huai-shui River in a conflict with the southern barbarians [? the Jing people who dwelled in the same land as the ancient Sanmiao, a linkage area to the Shu & Ba states in today's Sichuan]. However, the Shang-Zhou relationship had improved since Jili's successor, Ji Chang, i.e., posthumous Zhou King Wenwang, had again married with the Shang princess. Both the mother and the wife of Zhou King Wenwang, per scholar Fu Sinian, were princesses of the Shang royal house. The Zhou people were conferred the title of 'Xi Bo' (Count of the West) by Shang Dynasty King Zhouwang as a buffer state against the western and northwestern barbarians. The barbarians here could be very likely the remnants of the Xia people who were overthrown by the Shang people, as well as the mountain Rong people who dwelled at today's Shanxi-Hebei-Chahar border area.
 
 
Zhou's Feudal System
 
Charles Hucker had another point, namely, the Zhou Dynasty's system is exactly the same feudal system as Medieval Europe, except for one distinction: Zhou's feudal statelets shared a blood relationship with the Zhou king, either through hereditary rights or the inter-marriage. This assertion has its historical merits because China's academics, under the influence of the so-called 'historical materialism', treats the first Chinese Empire of Qin as the start of the feudal society while anything preceding it as the 'slave society'. Zhou's feudal system, in fact, never fully died away, except for a short time period of the Qin Empire during which time the 'Jun-Xian System' (namely the Commandary-County System) was erected after Emperor Shihuangdi first united China under an autocratic centralized rule. The end of Qin marked a restoration of the various Zhou statelets or dukedoms, and early Han Dynasty continued with the conferral of Kings and Dukes. Emperors of later dynasties frequently played with the game of upgrade and downgrade of the feudal titles between king and duke.
 
The Zhou Kings As Moral, Political, Military & Familial Leaders:
Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against Shang Dynasty in the 11th century BC had been glorified by later historians and rulers. Charles Hucker treated the success in capturing Chaoge (the Shang capital) as nothing other than a looting.
www.chinaknowledge.de also disputed Shang China's influence as extending nowhere beyong its capital which we called by the name of the 'Shang Wastes' or 'Shang Ruins'. My opinion is that we should treat the ancient Chinese overlords as moral, political, military and familial leaders; hence, both the Shang and Zhou government had adopted a kind of 'laissez fair' attitude in governing the domain and vassals. Zhou King Wuwang, after his success in defeating Shang, went back to his home in western China. Further, he allowed two of his brothers (Guan-shu and Cai-shu) to stay on in the Shang capital together with the the Shang prince (Lufu). Alternatively speaking, King Wuwang allocated the northern, eastern and southern outskirts of the Zhou capital as fiefs for Chuan-shu, Cai-shu and Huo-shu. While Zhou King Wuwang showed leniency to the ex-Shang order, his successor, Zhougong, had taken a drastic measure to rezone the country after quelling the rebellion.
 
After King Wuwang's death, Zhou-gong (Duke Zhou) - who was commonly taken to be King Wuwang's brother but could be possibly a maternal cousin of King Wuwang, would assume the post of a regent, and this led to the rebellion of the Shang people (under Shang Prince Wugeng) and the three Zhou brothers. From the excavated articles, there was sign that Zhougong actually issued decrees in the name of a king. It would be Duke Zhou who would be responsible for quelling the rebellion, after a campaign of three years, and Zhougong further Duke Zhou took measures to exert the Zhou influence throughout China proper. Zhougong reached possibly the land of 'Yi2' and 'Xi1' and drove the Yi rebels to the south of the Yangtze per Lv-shi-chun-qiu, extending influences and rules via re-zoning of vassalage and conferring of duke and marquis titles. For the first time, Duke Zhou (Zhougong) laid out the blueprint of a relatively uniform society that will continue on for one millennium. Xun-zi commented that Zhougong had re-zoned the land into 71 vassals, with 53 carrying the Zhou surname of 'Ji(1)'. --Though, the ridddle here is that Zuo Zhuan stated clearly that the mother of Zhou King Wuwang, who was a daughter of Jiang-surnamed counsellor Jiang Taigong, had eight brothers, including Zhou-gong et al., while Shi Ji etc could be wrong in saying that Zhou King Wenwang had ten sons. The only recorded names among Zhou King Wenwang were Ji Boyikao, and Ji Fa (Zhou King Wenwang), while Zhou King Wuwang's sons included Ji Geng and Ji Song (i.e., Zhou King Chenwang). Alternatively, historians who compared the records from books and excavations had pointed out that among Zhou King Wenwang's sons, fifteen enjoyed conferral of fiefdoms, such as Shen-guo or Dan-guo under Ji Zhai, Gao-guo, and Cao-guo under Ji-zhenduo; and among King Wuwang's sons, four enjoyed conferral of fiefdoms. The controversy here is that Zuo Zhuan stated that Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang, had set up fifteen "brotherly" statelets, and among all the new fiefs, there were forty states that were Ji-surnamed. The "brotherly" states could be those held by blood brother, cousins, and uncles, in fact.
 
The early Zhou kings are the true commander-in-chief. They were in constant wars with the barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called 'guo', namely, the statelet or principality. Charles Hucker noted that Zhou had 14 standing royal armies, with 6 stationed in Haojing, near today's Xi'an, and 8 armies stationed in the east. Other than the 'xi-liu-shi' (the western six armies) and 'Chengzhou-ba-shi" (eight armies at Chengzhou), the Zhou court had retained eight Shang armies ("Yin-ba-shi") which, under the command of Count Bo-maofu, participated in the campaigns against the Yi people to the east. Zhou King Zhaowang (r. 1052-1001 BC) was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze areas and died in his last action. Zhou King Muwang (r. 1001-946 BC; 962-908 per BAMBOO) was a legendary figure famous for fightings in the west. King Muwang was rumored to have travelled to today's Central Asia where he met and rondevous on Kunlun Mountain with so-called Xi Wang Mu, namely, Queen Mother of the West. Western historians, including Charles Hucker, claimed this queen mother to be Queen of Sheba. (The actual place for the Kunlun Mountains would be somewhere close to today's Jiuquan County, Gansu Province. Mt. Kunlun, extending for almost 2000 miles, from the Kara-Kunlun bordering Tibet in the west to the Qilian Mountain in the east, was a source of many Chinese myths and legends. For the fictional travelogue Mu-tian-zi, see http://www.imperialchina.org/Dynasties/?p=43)
 
The later kings' campaigns were less effective. King Liwang (r. 878 - 827 BC) led 14 armies against the barbarians in the south but failed to achieve any victory. King Xuanwang (r 827-782 BC) was said to have fought the Jiang-rong barbarians in vain; however, SHI JING gloriously eulogized Xuanwang's victorious campaigns against the barbarians to the north and to the south. King Youwang was killed by the Quanrong, and the Zhou capital of Haojing was sacked.
 
 
Zigzags With the Rong & Di Barbarians
 
In the hun.htm section, I had expounded the ethnic nature of various Rong-di people, cleared the dispute in regards to the ethnicity of the 'Rong' people, and proven that the Rong people, being mainly Sino-Tibetan speaking Qiangic people, shared the same blood-line as the Xia Chinese but differred in 'Culture' such as cuisine, clothing, money and language. At times of Zhou Dynasty, pockets of barbarian tribes and statelets still existed in the hearts of the Yellow River area and on the Shandong Peninsula, as in the case of the Di Statelet, the Chi Di Statelet & Sou Man's Chang-di Statelet etc. (Those barbarian statelets could have moved into central China at the invitation of the Qin and Jinn principalities, as we were to detail later.)
 
Count of West, Xibo, namely, Zhou ancestor Ji Chang, once attacked the Doggy Rongs (said to be same as the Yun-surnamed Xianyun barbarians). Dozen years later, Zhou King Wuwang exiled the Rongs north of the Jing & Luo Rivers. The Rongs were also called Huangfu at the time, a name to mean their 'erratic submission'. 200 years later, during the 17th year reign [i.e., 956 BC per Bamboo Annals], Zhou King Muwang was noted for defeating the barbarians, reaching the Qinhai-Gansu regions in the west, meeting with Queen Mother of West on Mt Kunlun [possibly around the Dunhuang area], and then relocating the barbarians eastward to Tai-yuan, i.e., the starting point of the Jing-shui River for better management [in a similar fashion to Han Emperr Wudi's relocating the Southern Huns to the south of the north Yellow River Bend]. Zhou King Muwang resettled the barbarians at the origin of the Jingshui River, among them, Yiqu, Yuzhi, Wuzhi, Xuyan and Penglu, namely, the five Rongs as noted in history -- which could be the origin for the misnomer 'Indo-European' Yuezhi. History recorded that King Muwang captured four white wolves & four white deers (white deer and white wolf being the titles of ministers of Rongdi barbarians) during his campaign. The Huangfu (Doggy Rong) people then no longer sent in yearly gifts and tributes. Zhou King Yiwang, the grandson of King Muwang (r. 1,001 - 946 BC; 962-908 per BAMBOO), would be attacked by the Rongs. King Yiwang ordered Guo-gong to attack the Taiyuan-rong. The great grandson, King Xuanwang (reign 827 - 782 per BAMBOO), finally fought back against the Rongs. Shi Jing eulogized King Xuanwang's reaching Tai-yuan (original Tai-yuan being not the appropriated one in the north of today's Shanxi Prov). Thereafter, King Youwang (reign 781-771) was killed by the Doggy Rongs at the foothill of the Lishan Mountain and capital Haojing was sacked. The Rongs who stayed on at Lishan were called the Li-rong. The Rongs moved to live between the Jing & Wei Rivers. Lord Qin Xianggong was conferred the old land of Zhou by Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720). Zhou King Pingwang encouraged the Qin Lord to drive out the Quan-rongs.
 
65 years later, in the east, the Shan-rong or Mountain Rongs, who were of the Tungunsic stock, went across the Yan Principality of Hebei Province to attack the Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province. 44 years later, the Mountain Rongs attacked the Yan Principality. Around 664 BC, the Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. The story of 'old horses knew the way home' would be about the joint army being lost after they penetrated deep into the Shanrong land. Hence, Yan Statelet extended by 500 li to the northwest, in addition to the eastward 50 li which was given to Count Yan for his escorting Marquis Qi all the way into the Qi Statelet. During the 16th year of Zhou King Huiwang (reign 676-652), namely, 661 BC, the Chang Di barbarians who were located near today's Jinan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Chang Di barbarians, hearing of the Qi army's counter-attacks against the Shanrong, embarked on a pillage in central China by attacking Wey (spelled in same way as
www.chinaknowledge.de for sake of differentiation from the former Wei eliminated by Jinn and the later Wei that was split from Jinn) and Xing statelets. The Chang Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he' (cranes), and they cut him into pieces. A Wey minister would later find Yigong's liver to be intact, and hence he committed suicide by cutting apart his chest and saving Yigong's liver inside of his body.
 
20 years later, the Rong-di barbarians attacked Zhou King Xiangwang (reign 651-619) at the encouragement of Zhou Queen who was a daughter of the Rongdi ruler. By this time, the Rong-di had moved into central China at the invitation of the Qin and Jinn principalities. The later Zhou court put blame on the Jinn royal family for inviting the barbarians to the heartland of China. Per section "Qi Yu" of "Guo Yu", Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria [depending on how you interpret the localities of the two statelets] in 664 BC, had campaigned against the Bai-di barbarians in the west [i.e., the area of central and western Shanxi] in 651 BC (i.e., 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Huan'gong was recorded to have occupied 'da xia' (i.e., the Grand Xia land) in today's central Shanxi Prov and might have crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., the western Yu-shi clan's land) in Shenxi Prov. (Senior scholar Wei Juxian speculated that Qi Huan'gong had at one time reached the Bering Straits where the ex-Shang remnants had dwelled since the Shang-Zhou transition time period and that it was due to Qi Huan'gong's contacts with the Shang remnants that the American Indians or the Shang people paid a visit to China with tributes of humming birds that were recorded in the Soong Principality's chronicles. This was certainly an overblown reading of some latter-day add-on books, such as Yi Zhou Shu, which this webmaster had pointed out to be products from the post 3rd century B.C. Yuezhi-Hun War, not before that. This webmaster had analyzed historian Lv Simian's writings several times and agreed with the statement that the Shan-rong could be the same as the Bei-rong, and that those Rong people had in fact dwelled in the areas of today's Shanxi, Hebei and Shandong. Further, this webmaster believed that what the records stated about Qi Lord's trekking 'liu sha' or the flowing sand could be nothing more than wading the sandy Sha-he River to climb the Mt. Taihangshan of today, not what 'liu sha' [moving sand] historically referred to as the Kumtag Desert.)
 
The Jin (Jinn) Principality also helped the Zhou King by attacking the Rongs and then escorted the king back to his throne 4 years after the king went into exile. The Rong-di moved to live in a place called Luhun, and they would later be forced to relocate elsewhere by the Qin-Jinn principalities. When Qin intended to get rid of the Luhun-rong & Jiang-rong around the Qin capital of Yong in 638 BC, the Jinn Principality adopted a policy of allowing the remotely-related barbarian clan to stay closer to the land between Qin, Jinn and Zhou Dynasty capitals: Jinn Lord Huigong, for his mother's tie with the Luhun-rong clan, relocated the Luhun-rong to Yi-chuan [i.e., the Yi-shui River area] and the Jiang-rong to southern Shanxi Province, i.e., namely, the southward migration to the Mt. Songshan area of the Yun-surnamed Xianyun [Huns] clan whose Qiangic nature was validated about 80 years later by the dialogue between Fan Xuan-zi of the Jinn Principality and the descendant of Jiang-rong. The Jinn Principality began the process of expansion that would merge and conquer dozens of barbarian statelets to the east of east Yellow River Bend, with Jinn Lord Xiangong merging 17 statelets and subjugating 38 others [per "Haan Fei-zi"]. After the defeat in the hands of Jinn, the Rongs moved to the land between the Xi-he (today's east segment of the Yellow River loop or bend) and the Luo River, and two groups were known at the time, Chidi (Red Di) and Baidi (White Di). (Note that Ancient West Yellow River Bend is the same as today's East Yellow River Bend. Ancient Yellow River Bend did not equate to today's inverse U-shaped course with the North Bend lying inside the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, but the U-shaped Bend with the South Bend in southern Shanxi Prov and then a south-to-north turn in Hebei Province for exit into the sea.) Baidi (White Di) dwelled in ancient Yanzhou (today's Yan'an), Suizhou (today's Suide) and Yinzhou. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated Jinn defeated the Baidi and the remnants were know as Bai-bu-hu later. Chidi (Red Di) dwelled in a place called Lu(4), near today's Shangdang. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated that the Jinn Principality destroyed the Lu(4) tribe of the Chidi, and the remnants were know as Chi-she-hu later. Details about the barbarians were also covered at prehistory section and the Huns section. [Here, I had deliberately spelled Jin(4) into Jinn for sake of distinction from Jurchen Jin(1) Dynasty. Jin(4) is spelled Tsin in Wade-Giles.]
 
In 623 BC, i.e., during the 37th year reign, Qin Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong nomads and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban [i.e., likely the historical Yiqu-rong statelet or the future Yuezhi people]. Qin Lord Mugong conquered 12 Western Rong tribes. As to the barbarian groups, by the later Zhou Dynasty, there were Mianzu, Gun-rong, Di [2], and Huan-rong to the west of the Qin Principality, Yiqu-Dali-Wuzhi-Xuyan to the north of the Qin Principality, Linhu-Loufan to the north of Jin (Jinn) Principality, and Donghu-Shanrong to the north of Yan Principality. Mianzu could be pronounced Raozhu. Gun-rong (Quanrong) was know as Kunrong or Hunrong or Hunyi. The character 'hun4' for Hunyi or Hun-yi is the same one as Hunnic King Hunye or Kunye and could mean the word of mixing-up. Yiqu was one of the Xirong or Western rong stateles at ancient Qingzhou and Ningzhou areas. Dali-rong dwelled in today's Fengxu County. Wuzhi was originally part of Zhou land, but it was taken over by the Rong people. Qin King Huiwang took it back from the Rong later and launched the Wuzhi county. Linhu was later destroyed by General Li Mu. Li Mu (?-229 B.C.), a Zhao Principality general who was counted as one of the four famous [together with Bai Qi, Wang Jian and Lian Po) during the Warring States time period, in mid-240s B.C. induced the Huns into invading south and throughly defeated about 100,000 Huns in the Yanmen [swan gate] area. Loufan belonged to today's Yanmen'guan Pass area (Ningwu of Shanxi).
 
One hundred year later, Lord Jinn Daogong made peace with the Rongdi (who attacked Zhou King Xiangwang earlier), and the Rongdi sent in gifts and tributes to Jin (Jinn). Jin (Jinn) later split into the three states of Haan(2), Zhao & Wei. The two successive Jinn states which bordered the northern barbarians, Wei & Zhao, plus Qin and Yan, would be busy fighting the barbarians for hundreds of years, and they built the separate walls to drive the barbarians out. Another one hundred years, Zhao Xiang-zi of the Zhao Principality took over the Bing and Dai areas near the Yanmenguan Pass. Zhao, together with the Haan and Wei families, destroyed another opponent called Zhi-bo and split Jin (Jinn) into the three states of Haan, Zhao & Wei.
 
The barbarian statelets like Dali & Yiqu built dozens of castles to counter the Qin principality. The Yiqu-Rong built castles to counter Qin. After about one century of relative peace, Qin began to expand by attacking Dali & Yiqu. Qin King Huiwang took over 25 cities from the Yiqu-rong. At the time of Qin King Zhaowang, Qin Queen Xuantaihou killed the Yiqu-rong King. (King Zhaoxiangwang's mother, Queen Dowager Xuantaihou, adultered with the Rong king from the Yiqu Statelet, with two sons born.)
 
On the western bank of today's Eastern Yellow River Bend, Qin took over Shangjun Commandary from the Wei principality. Zhao King Wulingwang adopted reforms by wearing the Hu nomads' cavalry clothing and he defeated Linhu and Loufan and built the Great Wall from Dai to Yinshan Mountain. Zhao King Wulingwang, in 300 B.C.E., about 100 years ahead of Han Dynasaty Emperor Gaozu's war with the Huns, took over the so-called "he-nan" land or the land south of the Yellow River, i.e., the sheath area. Zhao set up Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai prefectures (commandaries). Zhao set up the Jiuyuan (nine plains) Commandary in the sheath area. Qin took over Longxi of Gansu, Beidi and Shangjun of Shenxi, and built the Great Wall. A Yan Principality General by the name of Qin-kai, after returning from the Donghu [Eastern Hu] barbarians as a hostage, would attack the Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance. Yan built the Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. The Qin State founded the first united empire of Qin in 221 BC. After Qin's unification of China, Emperor Shihuangdi, in 214 B.C.E., ordered General Meng Tian on a campaign that would drive the so-called Hu nomads or the Huns out of the areas south of the Yellow River. Qin set up thirty-four counties in the "he-nan" land, including the names of former barbarian groups such as Qusou and Xuyan etc, termed the newly-acquired territory by the new-Qin-land, which would be the Shuofang and Wuyuan commandaries in Han Dynasty's time period. Qin lost the land south of the Yellow River when it had to recall troops for cracking down on the rebellions in late Qin time period. The Huns under Mote's father, Tou-man, fled northward and would not return till General Meng Tian died ten years later. Speculations about the nature of Rong & Di People, Qiang, Sanmiao & Yuezhi was given in the Qin section and Hun section.
 
For further discussions on Barbarians & Chinese, please refer to
The Mandate of Heaven
 
The concept of 'Heaven' as an ancient 'Di(4)' or overlord had been with the Chinese since the era of Eight Ancient Lords. 'San Huang', termed the Three Sovereigns (Fuxi, Yandi the Fiery Lord, and Huangdi the Yellow Emperor), would have an alternative saying which included the 'Heaven Huang', 'Land Huang', and 'Human Huang' or 'Taishan Mountain Huang'. The 'Heaven' concept was widely adopted by the Euroasian nomadic people and incorporated in their shamanism. 'Heaven' was equivalent to 'Tengri'. There is no definite way to tell where the original concept of 'heaven' had originated. Shang Dynasty's founder, Shang-Tang, claimed that Lord Highness (Heaven) instructed him to campaign against Xia Dynasty' Lord Jie because of Jie's corruption, lasciviousness and cruelty. Shang-Tang was also named 'Tian Yi' or 'Heavenly Yi'. Since 'Heaven' was considerd a Di(4), Shang-Tang was called 'Heavenly Yi'. The last Shang ruler, Jie, had refused to take admonition by claiming that the 'mandate' was with him the minute he was born.
 
Later, Confucius would term it by the 'Cheng Tang Revolution' or 'Shang Tang Revolution', a word that would be used by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in his efforts at overthrowing the Manchu rule. Professor Lock Hoe had commented that China's dynastic changes and revolutions (as seen in the saying 'Every 50 Years, A Cycle In Cathay') had served as an illuminating guide for the Jesuits who visited China in the 16-17th centuries, and it was due to the Jesuits who propagated the egalitarian and revolutionary ideas that led to the conclusion that the French or British royal houses could be overthrown by a 'revolution'.
 
The citation of the 'Mandate of Heaven' could be seen in Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against the Shang Dynasty ruler in the 11th century BC. Zhou was a small tribal state in today's Shaanxi Provice, southwest of the Mount Qishan, in a place called 'Zhouyuan' [the plateau of Zhou]. Ji Chang would manage his statelet so well that the old people went there for retirement, and two princes of the Guzhu Statelet (of the Mo-tai-shi clan) in southern Manchuria, Bo-yi and Shu-qi, came to live in Zhou's land during the 21st year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). Two lords of the ancient Yu and Rui statelets had disputes over a patch of land and they decided to have Ji Chang arbitrate it; but once they entered the Zhou land, they felt guilty about litigation after observing the civility of the Zhou people; and they called off their trip and returned to their home statelets, and vacated the land that was disputed. Some Shang ministers defected to Zhou. Over 40 statelets defected to Zhou and proposed that Ji Chang be the king. Ji Chang attacked the Di[2] people during the 17th year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). The vassals came to pay respect to the Zhou people during the 21st year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang).
 
The last Shang ruler, Zhouwang, was said to be a despotic ruler. He killed one marquis (Jiuhou or Jiu Hou) and the marquis' daughter because the marqui's daughter was not lewd to him. Another marquis (Er Hou or Er'hou) was killed when he tried to protect Jiuhou. Prince Bigan, son of Shang King Zhouwang, would be deposed for admonishing Zhouwang on the deeds. Count Xibo, i.e., Ji Chang, sighed about the killings. At the vilification of Shang minister Chonghouhu, Ji Chang was imprisoned by Shang King Zhouwang during the 23rd year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). [The true reason could be Zhou's aggressive military actions against various statelets.] Zhouwang would kill Count Xibo's elder son, Boyikao, and made a dish out of Boyikao's flesh for Xibo to eat. Zhouwang laughed when Xibo ate it without knowing that it was his son's flesh. When imprisoned in a place called Youli (in Henan Prov), Ji Chang renovated the ancient Fu-xi '8 Gua' into '64 Gua', a divinity method called 'milfoil divination' (Yi Jing, Book of Changes). Ji Chang was released during the 29th year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). Count Xibo was set free only after Xibo's minister bribed Zhouwang through a Shang minister (Fei Zhong) by presenting a beauty from the You-xin-shi clan, a stallion from the Li[4]-rong Statelet [not the future Li-rong who sacked Zhou capital Haojing] and other treasures. (Xibo was titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou. Ancient title for 'Count' might not be of same level as that in Europe and could be higher than marquis in Zhou times.) In year 29 of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang), vassals defected from Zhou. The next year, Zhou, together with the vassals, came to the Shang capital to pay tributes.
 
Per BAMBOO, in year 31 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), Ji Chang obtained Jiang Shang as military counsellor. The next year, year 32, five planets converged per THE BAMBOO ANNALS, and the Zhou people attacked the Mi statelet. The next year, when Count Xibo invaded another Shang vassal called the Ji-guo (also pronounced as Li2 or Qi2) Statelet, somewhere near Shangdang of eastern Shanxi Prov, Zu Yi, a Shang minister, expressed the worry that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' might be changed. Shang King Zhouwang rebutted Zu Yi, saying that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' was with him the minute he was born. In the next two years consecutively, Xibo then invaded Yu-guo fief (Qinyang of Henan Prov, next to Shang capital), and then conquered Chong-guo fief (i.e., Chonghouhu's fief at Songxian County of Henan Prov) after two sieges within 30 days. Per BAMBOO, in year 33 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), the Mi people surrendered to Zhou. Xibo invaded the Shang vassal called Mixu-guo Fief (Lingtai of Gansu Prov) and took over the Mixu drums as bounty for Tang-shu. The pretext of various wars that the Zhou people launched was a mandate from the Shang king to contain the rebellions, i.e., an imperial Shang order dated the 33rd year of Shang King Xin. In year 34 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), Zhou attacked Qi, Yu and Chong. In year 36 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), the vassals came to show respect for Zhou, and Zhou attacked Kun-yi. Xibo would attack Quanrong or Doggy Rong (said to be descendants of Panhu, i.e., the southern barbarians in Wuling, Changsha Commandary, and possibly hinting the relocation to western China of the early San-Miao people. The later Chidi was said to be of the same family as Quanrong).
 
Xibo then built city at Feng-yi [Yunxian county of Shenxi Prov] after relocating there from Cheng in year 35 of Shang King Xin, and relocated the Zhou capital there from Zhou-yuan of Qishan Mountain. In year 41 of Shang King Xin, Ji Chang died. Xibo died at age 97, with a claim of the king's title for 9 years. (Ancient scholars disputed Xibo or Zhou King Wenwang's king title since the Zhou king could not have existed at the same time as the Shang king. Or, it was a Zhou challenge against the Shang rule to claim to be a king on the same footing.)
 
Jiang Taigong (i.e., Luu Shang of the Lv-shi clan or Jiang Ziya with the Jiang surname, aka Taigongwang) abandoned his post of 'da fu' with the Shang King for the west. (Mencius said that Luu Shang, i.e., a descendant of the Luu-shi clan from the Yao-Shun time period, first fled to the east sea coastline to evade the Shang rule after last Shang King Zhouwang enthroned and refused to take admonition, then came back to capital Chaoge as a buffalo butcher, then went to Mengjin as a peddler, and finally went to the northwest to fish on the Wei-shui river bank.) Lv Shang was against the extravagent task of building the 'Lu Tai' (deer platform) palace for Shang King Zhouwang. Lv Shang then left with his wife Ma-shi and went to the Wei-shui River for fishing till Zhou King Wenwang came along and met him. Wenwang commented that his father, Zhou ancestor Taigong, was in anticipation of Lv Shang for a long time. Other capable men who came to serve Wenwang would include Tai-dian, Hong-yao, San-yi-sheng and Nangong Gua.
 
Wuwang, named Ji (last name) Fa (first name), expanded his influences on basis of 50 years of management by his father Ji Chang who was conferred the title of Xibo (Count West) by last Shang King Xin (Zhouwang). Year 42 of Shang King Xin was Zhou Wuwang Ji-fa's 1st year. In year 44 of Shang King Xin, Ji Fa attacked Lih. In year 48, two suns appeared in the sky per BAMBOO. After Xibo passed away, Zhou King Wuwang would rally eight hundred Shang vassals on the bank of the Yellow River, Mengjin. In November of year 51 of Shang King Xin, the date of wu-zi [Gregorian Nov 11, 1052; Shang Nov 17, year 51; Zhou Dec 17, year 10; Xia calendar October], Ji Fa crossed the Yellow River at Mengjin, and returned across the river after the military show-off. Bo-yi & Shu-qi came to rebuke Wuwang as to the military campaign while father was not properly buried yet. (Scholars disputed the number of 800 vassals as unrealistic.) In this year, Shang King Xin imprisoned Ji-zi and killed Bi-gan. Prince Wei-zi fled the Shang capital per BAMBOO. Alternative saying is that Zhouwang's brother, Wei-zi, first fled the Shang Dynasty capital. Zhouwang's son, Prince Bigan, seeing the departure of Wei-zi, would try to persuade Zhouwang again, but he was ordered to be killed by Zhouwang to see how many compartments Bigan's heart had. Zhouwang's uncle, Prince Ji-zi, would pretend to have gone mentally ill for sake of avoiding Zhouwang's persecution, but he was still imprisoned by Zhouwang.
 
When Zhou King Wuwang called upon various tribes to rebel against Shang, he stated that he was carrying out the order from the Heaven to penalize the Shang king who had disrupted his kingdom by killing his elder son (Bigan) and imprisoning the uncle (Ji-zi) under the influence of the witch-like Shang queen (Daji, a woman whom the Shang king obtained from You-su during a campaign in year 9 of his reign). While crossing the Yellow River, a white fish jumped aboard. Fish was interpreted as a sign of war for carrying the scales or shields on its body, while the color of whiteness was the embodiment of Shang. Interpreting the white fish as an omen, he called off the first campaign on the Yellow River bank after rallying 800 Shang vassals. The vassals said to Wenwang, "Zhouwang could be campaigned against by now." Wuwang said, "You guys did not know the 'Mandate Of Heaven' yet."
 
Per BAMBOO, Shang official Nei-shi fled to Zhou in year 47. When Shang's chief history, ritual and music ministers, Tai-Shi (grand 'shi') and Shao-Shi (junior 'shi'), fled to Zhou with Shang's ritual instruments, Zhou King Wuwang now orderd a campaign against Shang, two {? ten per Chu Bosi) years after the Mengjin Assembly. Per BAMBOO, Zhou began the campaign against Shang King Zhouwang in Shang King's reign year 52, i.e., Geng-yin, or 1051 B.C.E., or Zhou King Ji Fa's reign year 11. With the help of counsellor Jiang Taigong, Zhou Lord Wuwang launched an attack at Shang Dynasty which controlled central China at the time. In autumn, the Zhou army amassed at Xianyuan, which was south of Mt Qishan per SHIJING-DAYA. In [Zhou] December, Ji fa preyed to the heavenly god. Vassals followed Zhou. In [Zhou] December the Zhou allied army reached the Mengjin river crossing, which was taken to be Gregorian Jan 10 of 1050 B.C.E. [or Shang Dec 28, year 52; Zhou Jan 28, year 12 - since the Zhou calendar was one month ahead of the Shang calendar]. Wuwang assembled 300 chariots, 3000 brave soldiers, and an army of 45000 and crossed the Yellow River at Mengjin on the [Shang] Wuwu day of Dec of the 12th year reign (Gregorian Feb 4, 1050 b.c.e.; Shang Jan 24, year 53; Zhou Feb 24, year 12). "Shi Ji" recorded that Wuwang called his troops by the name of the 'people from the west', and that his allies included eight barbarian statelets, the Qiangs from Gansu, the Shu-Sou-Mao-Wei statelets in today's Hubei-Sichuan Provinces, Lu and Peng from the northwest, and Yong and Pu south of the Han-shui River. Per BAMBOO, during Ji Fa's 12th year, in the year of Xin-mao, the Zhou alliance defeated the Shang army at Mu-ye, i.e., the outskirts of Mu. Before the battle, Shang King Zhouwang was validated to have preyed to the heavenly god as well. In the outskirts of the Shang capital Chaoge, north of the Yellow River, [which had a similar naming locality along the narrow riverside road between today's Xi'an and Luoyang, i.e., Jixian county of Henan Prov, south of the Yellow River,] a place called Muye, he met his alliance who had joined him with 4000 more chariots. The allied army confronted the Shang army of 700 thousand and defeated them. The battle occurred on the [Shang] jia-zi date [Gregorian Feb 10, 1050 b.c.e.; Shang Jan 30, year 53; Zhou Feb 30, year 12]. (Some scholar disputed the Shang army's number of 700,000 as unrealistic, and Xu Zhuoyun cited Mencius' statement of 'weapons floating above the blood stream' in disputing the popular claim that the Shang army defected to Zhou during the battle. Scholar Xu Zhuoyun and Wei Juxian both cited the ancient classics in attributing last Shang King's exhaustion in the earlier eastward campaign against the Dong-yi or Huai-yi barbarians to his losing control in the west.)
 
Scholar Luo Xianglin claimed that the Zhou people had asserted control over the Shang people via advanced weaponry of chariots. Luo Xianglin further pointed out that Zhou had special ministry in charge of standardization, materials, quality of chariot manufacturing.
 
Ji Fa hence proclaimed the founding of Zhou Dynasty under the 'Mandate of Heaven'. The 'Mandate of Heaven' became a norm for the substitution of Chinese dynasties. To enforce the concept, some legends would be made to support the claim of the will of the Heaven. For Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang, there was the legend that his mother had dreamt about some dragon flying into the house when she gave birth to his son. Even nomadic rulers, like the Hunnic king Liu Yuan of Hunnic Zhao Dynasty (A.D. 304-329) would proclaim himself emperor in A.D. 308 and declared his dynasty as 'Han' on basis of one sound logic that the Hunnic kings had historically ackowledged that they were the nephews of the Han Dynasty Chinese emperors. By designating his dynasty as 'Han', he intended to play the card of asserting the so-called 'Mandate of Heaven'.
 
To lend legitimacy to the dynastic change, Zhou King Wuwang revived the fiefs of discontinued lineages as well as revived fiefs of some of the legendary clans. King Wuwang built a tomb for Shang Prince Bigan and then west back to the west in April of his 12th year reign. Wuwang made further conferrals, and made the descendant of Shen-nong-shi (Lord Yandi, Fiery Lord, or the Devine Farmer) inherit the land of Jiao (Shanxian County, Shenxi), the descendant of Lord Huangdi [Yellow Lord] inherit the land of Zhu4, the descendant of Lord Yao inherit the land of Ji (a statelet to the southwest of today's Beijing, Hebei which was taken over by Yan later), the Gui-surnamed descendant of Lord Shun inherit the land of Chen (Wanqiu County), and the Si-surnamed descendant of Lord Yu inherit [i.e., continue the rule of] the land of Qih (Yongqiu, Bianzhou, near Kaifeng of Henan) with the title of Donglougong (whose 21st generation grandson was exterminated by the Chu Principality). Remnants of Chen, which was pronounced as 'dan' in ancient Chinese and in today's Fujian dialect, later fled to the Qi Principality, changed their name to Tian, and ultimately usurped the Qi principality of the Jiang-surnamed lineage. The Jiang-surnamed Jiao statelet was later pressed on a flee to the east, and Duke Zhougong and Duke Zhaogong, in rezoning the fiefdoms, assigned the land of Jiao, namely, the Yellow River inflexion point or today's Sanmenxia that was innundated by the reservoir, to the Ji-surnamed son of Duke Zhaogong.
 
In year 13, Que-bo, i.e., Count Bo as known in the Shang oracle bones, came to pay respect to Zhou King Wuwang. Wuwang allowed the Shang ancestral oblation palace to continue. Wuwang, in this year, doled out massive conferrals onto the vassals. In year 15, Sushen-shi came to pay respect, and Wuwang moved the nine cauldrons to Luo-yi. In year 16, ex-Shang prince Ji-zi came to pay respect. In year 17, Wuwang passed away.
 
 
The Timeline of Zhou Dynasty
 
Prior to Zhou Dynasty, the rulers of Xia and Shang Dynasties called themselves 'Di(4)' posthumously, namely, the word that would denote the equivalent of legendary overlords for Heaven, Earth and Mount Taishan in Chinese history or 'emperor' in the western sense. Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang Dynasty , decided to adopt the title of 'wang' or king to show his humbleness in front of the legendary overlords. They were called 'wang' posthumously as well.
 
The first part of Zhou, Western Zhou, with its capital near today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, ended in 771 BC when King Youwang was killed by the Quanrong (i.e., the Doggy Rong nomads) who were invited by Marquis Shenhou of the Shen Principality to avenge the king for deposing his daughter-queen and crown prince. The son of Youwang, King Pingwang, moved his capital to Luoyang, Henan Province in 770 BC, with the help of the ancestors of the later Qin Empire. Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for assisting Zhou King Pingwang in the crackdown on the Rong nomads and relocation of the Zhou capital. Zhou King Pingwang also conferred Qin the old Zhou land of Qishan and Feng should Qin receover it from the Rongs. Historians named the later part of Zhou as Eastern Zhou and it ended in 256 BC when the great grandfather of First Qin Emperor Shihuangdi invaded the Zhou capital and removed all Zhou Kingdom's bronze utensils (i.e., ding or cauldron).
 
Eastern Zhou, however, was further sub-divided into the two time periods of 1) the Spring and Autumn and 2) the Warring States. This division was based on the emergence of six prominent families in determing the politics of the Jinn Principality in 475 BC.
 
 
Rankings Of the Zhou Lords & Principalities
 
In Chinese, there exists a fixed phrase called 'wang hou jiang xiang' which means the four titles of king, marquis, general and prime minister. Though the rulers of dozens of the Zhou principalities called themselves 'Gong', a word that denotes the title of 'Duke', this word was more like a general title to mean a ruler or a lord or simply a complimentary title. A similar word to be found in English would be probably 'Sir' or 'Grandpa'. Scholar Fu Sinian studied the bronze inscriptions, i.e., jin wen, from the Zhou times and concluded that the ancient five rankings of duke, marquis, count, viscount, and baron did not conform with the bronze inscription or the classics such as Shang Shu or Shi Jing. Fu Sinian stated that duke-gong, count-bo, viscount-zi, and baron-nan were originally used within a royal family as rankings; governmentally, 'bo' or count was the leader of a conferred fief while 'hou' or marquis was for denoting the vassal guarding the border posts. The ancient title for 'Count' might not be of the same level as that used in medieval Europe and should be higher than marquis in Shang-Zhou times. Zhou King Wenwang, i.e., Xibo or Count Of West, originally titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou, received the conferral of count from the last Shang King. (Historians who analyzed the Shang system pointed out that the Shang king, who did not have the five rankings as the later Zhou court had, possessed The Three Dukes system, with Xibo, Jiuhou and Erhou being the three rulers to the west, north and south of the Shang heartland.) The Zhou court conferred the title of count on the descendants of the two uncles of Zhou King Wenwang. The ancestor of the Chu Principaility, Xiong Yi, who was Mi-surnamed, was conferred by Zhou King Chenwang the title of count and the land of Dan'yang. Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for the crackdown on the Rong barbarians. During the 10th year of the reign, Zhou King Huiwang conferred onto Lord Qi, i.e., Marquis Qi Huan'gong, the title of Count. King Xiangwang conferred onto Jinn Lord the title of Count and the land of Yangfan or 'he nei' (pronounced as He-rui in ancient Chinese [or Hanoi in Vietnamese] to mean the winding section of the Yellow River).
 
In the Zhou times, some of the 'gong' lords were indeed titled as equivalent to the dukes. The brothers [and/or cousins] of Zhou King were entitled 'Duke'. The Shang capital areas were divided into three parts, Bei (Tangying, Henan or north of Jixian county per Chu Bosi) to the north, Yong to the west, and Wey to the east. Three brothers, Cai-shu, Guan-shu & Huo-shu, were named three superintendents over the Shang remnants. Guan-shu, i.e., brother Shu-xian, was conferred Duke of Guan (Zhenzhou, Henan) as well as the superintendent of Yong. Cai-shu, i.e., brother Shu-du, was conferred Duke of Cai (Shangcai, Henan) as well as the superintendent of Wey. Bei was left with Shang Prince Wugeng, but under the supervision of brother Huo-shu. Brother Dan, i.e., Zhougong, was conferred the title of Duke Zhou of Qufu, Shandong Province. (Duke Zhougong would later send his son, Boqin, to Qufu, and Boqin built the city of Qufu, apparently after the quelling of the Shang rebellion.) Boqin's statelet would be Lu. Brother Shi, i.e., Zhaogong (Shaogong), was conferred the land of Yan (Jixian County, Tianjin, Hebei Prov), and he was referred to as 'Yan-bo' or count of Yan. --The speculation that the brothers here could be on the maternal side, could invalidate the claim that the Zhou principalities were Ji-surnamed as the maternal brothers could be related to counsellor Jiang Taigong, a Jiang-surnamed clan.
 
As previously stated, Zuo Zhuan stated that Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang, had set up fifteen "brotherly" statelets, and among all the new fiefs, there were forty states that were Ji-surnamed, including the Zhongshan-guo [central mountain] that was destroyed at about 490 B.C., relaunched in 453 B.C. with the help of Zhao Xiangzi, again relaunched in 414 B.C. under Zhongshan-wugong at Gu, destroyed by Wei in 407 B.C., relaunched in 380 B.C. at Lingshou, and destroyed by the Zhao statelet in 296 B.C. The "brotherly" states could be those held by blood brother, cousins, and uncles, in fact. Zhougong, after quelling the Shang rebellion, again launched a round of conferrals, with Xun Zi stating that Zhougong rezoned the county into seventy-one states, with the Ji-surnamed states numbering by fifty-three.
 
Duke Zhougong's taking over regency after King Wuwang's death triggered a rebellion by brothers Guan-shu & Cai-shu. Guan-shu & Cai-shu allied with Wugeng, Yan3 [Qufu of Shandong Prov], Pugu [Boxing of Shandong], Xu-yi [in today's northern Jiangsu] & Huai-yi [in today's northern Anhui] for a rebellion. Zhougong mounted an eastern campaign that lasted three years. Per Mencius, Zhougong drove King Feilian [i.e., ancestor of the Qin Dynasty founders] of the eastern people to the coast and killed him. Altogether 50 statelets were routed. Zhougong killed Wugeng and Guan-shu, exiled Cai-shu, and revoked Huo-shu's ranking and nobility. To the northeast of Luoyang, Zhougong built a city called Chengzhou and relocated the Shang people of Bei-Yong-Wey to Chengzhou (Luoyi). Alternatively, Duke Zhaogong was said to be responsible for building the Chengzhou city [the accomplished Zhou capital] under the order of Zhou King Wuwang, while the original Zhou capital in today's Shenxi Prov was named 'Zongzhou' or the ancestral Zhou capital. Zhougong devised a new 'jing [square-shaped] tian [land]' system on basis of the Xia and Shang experiences, and endorsed the elder-son inheritance system. Zhougong conferred onto the younger brother the title of Wey-kang-shu, i.e., Marquis of Wey or Marquis of Meng. (The 16th generation descendant of Wey-kang-shu would be Wey Lord Yigong who died in the hands of the Chang-Di barbarians. Qi Lord Huan'gong, after defeating the Chang-di, erected Wey Lord Wengong and relocated the Wey capital to Chuqiu of today's Henan Prov.)
 
The rest of the lords are mostly marquis, and this include Marquis Shenhou. (One of the Marquis Shenhou was the father-in-law of the last Western Zhou king.) Zhou King Wuwang, to thank his counsellor Jiang Taigong for the efforts in overthrowing Shang, had conferred the land of Yingqiu (today's Linzi, Shandong Province) as the Qi Principality. Lord Qi Huan'gong was the first of the five hegemony lords during the Spring and Autumn time period. The Jin (Jinn) Principality, i.e., today's Shanxi Province or the land of the Tao-tang-shi clan, was conferred onto the Shu-yu (Uncle Yu) by Zhou King Chengwang after Zhou Duke Zhougong quelled the Tao-tang-shi people who joined the Shang rebellion. King Chengwang was the son of King Wuwang and Yi-jiang (daughter of Jiang Taigong). Shu-yu's son, Ji Xie, was called Marquis Jinhou by citation of the Jinn-shui River of Shanxi Prov. (Scholar Liu Qiyu stated that the ancient Jinn-shui River was near Pingyang County of southern Shanxi Prov and later approriated to northern Shanxi Prov's Taiyuan area. Tao-tang-shi was a vassal of the Xia/Shang Dynasties and had a history of over 1100 years.) Shu-yu made the city of Yi[4] (i.e., Lord Yao's capital), a word that could mean a bird's wing, as his capital. After the Jinn Principality split into three states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 475 B.C., the Zhou court had conferred the titles of marquis onto all three rulers, respectively.
 
While Marquis Wei Wenhou was a marquis, his son, King Wei Huiwang, called himself by 'king'. But this was during the Warring States time period. The lords who called themselves kings during the Spring and Autumn time periods would be those in southern and southeastern China, namely, the states of Chu, Wu and Yue.
 
The ex-Shang Prince Wei-Zi (Qi) was made the duke of Soong. The inheritor of the Shang(1) Dynasty heritage was given the title of 'Shang(4) Gong', namely, the Highest Duke. This would be after Duke Zhougong quelled the rebellion of Shang Prince Wugeng and two Zhou family brothers (Guan-shu and Cai-shu) in a matter of three years. Lord Soong Xianggong was one of the five hegemonies, too.
 
The Chu Principality to the South
The ancestors of Chu, Xiong Yi, were originally conferred by Zhou King Chenwang the title of count and the land of Dan'yang (near today's Zigui, Three Gorges area, Hubei Province). The Chu ancestors carried the last name of Xiong [i.e., bear]. Chu was the first state to declare themselves a king during the Spring and Autumn time period [apparently not counting King Xu-yan-wang, a person of Yi background, who rebelled against Zhou King Muwang]. It was said that Xiong Tong was enraged into declaring himself a king after Zhou King Pingwang refused to elevate his ranking above viscount. After Zhou King Dingwang dispatched a minister, Wangsun Man, to the Chu army camp to dissuade Chu Lord Zhuangwang from an attempt at seeing the nine bronze cauldrons, the Chu Kingdom manufactured three shelves of music-purpose bronze bells, with the nine top bells weighing 10,000 jin [i.e., 5000 kg in today's measure].
 
Shi Ji stated that the Chu ancestors derived from Lord Zhuanxu, i.e., Lord Huangdi's grandson. The great grandson of Lord Zhuanxu would be called Chongli who was named 'Zhu Rong' or the god of fire by Lord Diku. One brother, by the name of Wu-hui, inherited his brother's title of 'Zhu Rong'. Wu-hui born a son called Lu Zhong, and Lu Zhong married a woman from the 'Gui-fang-shi' (ghost domain family) and born six sons, including Kunwu, Canhu, Pengzu, and Jilian et al., the youngest of whom would be the traceable ancestor of Chu. At the end of Shang Dynasty, a Chu descendant, by the name of Yu-zi (Xiong), after admonishing on Shang King Zhouwang 57 times in vain, left for the Zhou statelet. Zhou King Wenwang conferred him the land of Shangdang and the post of 'gong qing' (court minister). Yu-xiong, who served the Zhou court, was a Jilian descendant. The great grandson of Yu-xiong would be Xiong Yi, i.e., the founder of the Chu Statelet.
 
The Wu Principality at the Yantze Delta
The Wu State was founded by two uncles of King Zhou Wenwang. The two uncles, headed by Tai Bo, decided to go to the Yantze Delta to launch a state because they did not want to contend with the necromancy note which stated that their nephew (Zhou King Wenwang) would revive Zhou. The Zhou court later conferred, on the descendants of the two uncles, the title of count. The Wa Japanese, who came to Han China in the first century, claimed to be descendants of Tai Bo, the uncle of Zhou King Wenwang (posthumously); the Wa Japanese called themselves by the ancient title of 'Da Fu'. (The Wa Japanese of the Tai-bo lineage were later apparently conquered by the Paekche people of the Fu-yu lineage from Manchuria.)
 
The Yue Principality at the Yantze Delta
Lord Yu's tomb, on Mount Kuaijishan, in today's Shaoxing, Zhejiang, was a good monument validating the stories of Lord Yu. One of the sons of King Shaokang of Xia Dynasty was permanently assigned to the Kuaiji land to guard the tomb, and the later Yue Principality was said to have descended from this lineage.
 
 
Western Zhou (1134 - 771 BC; 1122 - 771 BC; per THE BAMBOO ANNALS 1050 - 771 BC)
 
Zhou King Wuwang (Ji Fa, reign approx 1134-1115 BC; reign 1061-1045 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS)
Wuwang established the Zhou dynasty with the help of Jiang Ziya (Jiang Taigong, l. 1212-1073 BC per Chu Bosi who had the Zhou years zeroed down to be closer to the years shown on THE BAMBOO ANNALS). King Wuwang married the daughter of Jiang Ziya. King Wuwang conferred the land of Linzi [Shandong Prov] onto Jiang Ziya as the Qi Principality. Qi continued their lineage till the Tian family usurped it. What was hinted in the ancient records was that though both Qi and Lu were ordained to be set up on the Shandong peninsula, the Jiang clan successfully merged with the Yi locals for their possible pre-Zhou affinity but the Lu people had continuous conflicts with the locals on enforcing the Zhou system and rule. Details about King Wuwang were provided in the topic on the conquest above.
 
An ex-Shang royal family member, Ji-zi (Qi Zi or Kija), was conferred the land of southern Manchuria and northern Korea in 1,121 BC (? more likely after 1050 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS). More, Ji-zi was recorded to have departed first for the Yang-yi or the sun Yi land which was construed to be somewhere on the Shandong peninsula, east of the Qi and Lu principalities.
 
Per THE BAMBOO ANNALS, the Shang-Zhou transition happened in 1050 B.C.E., not 1122 B.C.E. The year 1122 B.C. was commonly treated as the year when Shang Dynasty ended. Using the first full year as the reign for a new dynasty, Zhou Dynasty counts 1121 B.C. as the first year of existence. In the ancient times, two derivations had been used to determine the exact year Shang Dynasty ended. Ancient Scholar Liu Xin derived 1122 BC, while some others, including Seng Yixing's version in "The New History of Tang Dynasty", derived 1111 BC instead. The majority of the ancient [Confucian] scholars, who were against THE BAMBOO ANNALS for its tell-truth historical accounts about dynastic usurpation, had overlooked the only history book that survived the Qin's book-burning and the Han Dynasty scholars' recompilation under the Confucian political correctness.
 
Zhou King Chengwang (Ji Song, reign approx 1,115-1,078 B.C.; 1044-1008 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS)
Zhou King Wuwang died after 7 years of reign or two years after defeating Shang Dynasty, namely, the year 1045 B.C.E. per THE BAMBOO ANNALS. Archduke Zhougong (Dan) took over the regency and did not return the regency till King Chenwang grew up in 7 years. Ji Song (i.e., Zhou King Chenwang) was said to be born in the year Zhou King Wuwang conquered the Shang dynasty.
 
The eastern capital was established at Luoyi (Luoyang). Zhougong (Duke of Zhou), under the order of King Chengwang, fulfilled the wish of King Wuwang in building the city of Luoyi (Luoyang) and moved the nine bronze utensils there. (The nine cauldrons, which were said to have been made by Overlord Yu in the 3rd millennium B.C.E., could have been repeatedly re-cast over the history, and might contain the actual maps for the book Shan Hai Jing [The Legends of Mountains and Seas].) Duke Zhougong defeated the rebellion of two brothers and Shang Prince Wugeng. The ex-Shang Prince Wei-Zi (Qi) was made into the duke of the Soong Principality. Duke Zhougong and King Chengwang further attacked the Huai-yi (ancient Xu-guo statelet) people around the Huai River, and attacked the ex-Shang Marquisdom of An-guo fief and relocated the An-guo marquis away from the area of today's Qufu County, Shandong Prov. After King Chengwang attacked the Dong-yi barbarians, a statelet called Xi-shen (Sushen of Manchuria) came to pay pilgrimage.
 
When King Chengwang was a kid, he at one time joked with Shu-yu (Uncle Yu, i.e., a possibly Jiang-surnamed brother of Chengwang's mother, who was said to be a brother of King Chengwang's mother in Han Shu), rather King Chengwang's brother, that he was to confer the land of Tang onto Shu-yu. The land of Tang, i.e., the hereditary fief of ancient overlord Tang-yao, was near the Xia Ruins in today's southern Shanxi Province. Duke Zhougong quelled the Tang statelet and relocated them to the land of Du in today's Shenxi as a result of the Tang peope, who were Ji-surnamed as lord Tang-yao was, joining the Shang prince's rebellion against the Zhou rule. --Here, there was an interesting story about the later White Di [linked to the later white-clothed Xianbei] or Red Di [linked to the later red-clothed Kirghiz] barbarians being descendants of Tang-shu or Uncle Tang. While this webmaster attributed the designation Tang-shu to Shu-yu's descendants who launched the Jinn Principality, the most likely case would be that it was the descendants of the original Tang-shu who fled to the barbarian tribes to become the Red and/or White Di in lieu of being forcefully relocated to the Du land by the Zhou people. As history said, the son of Shu-yu would soon change the name of his fief to Jinn. (Tang-shu or Uncle Tang was similar to He-bo [Elder Uncle of the River] or Count of the Yellow River, namely, titles that continued their lineage for thousands of years. Later, when Jinn Principality princes married with the Di barbarian women, they often hesitated about marrying women with the Ji-surname[, with one likelihood being that Prince Chonger worried more about double-marrying Ji-surnamed barbarian Di woman because his mother had come from this Ji-surnamed barbarian tribe]. This is however another puzzle as we had adopted the more correct interpretation here that Shu-yu was more likely a Jiang-surnamed brother of King Chengwang's mother, rather than King Chengwang's brother or King Wuwang's posthumous son. Also note that Jinn had elimintated numerous Ji-surnamed fiefs from Zhou King Wuwang and Duke Zhougong's eras.)
 
Per Zuo Zhuan, when Duke Zhougong rezoned the fiefs, he made arrangement for the barbarian, the non-Sinitic, and the non-Ji/non-Jiang-surnamed tribes and clans to be dispersed across the country. For the Lu-guo on the Shandong peninsula, the six clans of Tiao-shi, Xu-shi, Xiao-shi, Suo-shi, Changshao-shi and Weishao-shi, were piggybacked; for the Wey-guo statelet that was to administer half of the people of the Shang dynasty's capital district, the seven clans of Tao-shi, Shi-shi, Fan-shi, Qi-shi, Fan4-shi, Ji-shi, and Zhongkui-shi were piggybacked; and for Shu-yu or Uncle Yu's Tang-guo (later Jinn-guo), the Huai-surnamed eight clans were piggybacked. The Huai surname was commonly taken as the same as the Kui surname and postulated to be the same as Jiuhou/Guifang of the Shang era. The new settlers would arrive at their fiefs as the so-called "guo-ren" or the city people, while the original inhabitants in the countryside outside of the citywalls would be called "ye-ren" or the countryside people.
 
Qin's ancestors, i.e., the great grandson of Ji Sheng (Feilian's junior son), Meng Zhen, was hired by Zhou King Chengwang. Previously, the Qin ancestors were 'imperial garrison' generals under the last Shang Dynasty overlord and resisted the Zhou invasion. The Qin people, who relocated to Northwest China from the eastern Chinese coast, carried on the customs of the ancient Nine Yi barbarians of the coast, such as the bended-feet burial. King Chenwang also conferred on the descendent of Bo Yi the title of Marquis of Shen(1) or Shenhou. (Here, both the Qin people and Marquis Shen-hou's people appeared to be the Jiang-surnamed people who relocated to Northwest China from the eastern Chinese coast.)
 
King Chengwang, prior to death, decreed that Duke Zhaogong and Duke Bigong be responsible for assisting crown prince Ji Zhao.
 
Zhou King Kangwang (Ji Zhao, reign approx 1,078 - 1,052 B.C.; 1007-982 B.C.E. per BAMBOO)
King Kangwang, during his 40 [? contradicting THE BAMBOO ANNALS records] year reign, had ruled the country in the spirits of King Wenwang and King Wuwang. Penalization tools were never called upon to punish the people. King Kangwang asked Duke Bigong dwell in the east. Jiang Taigong [l. 1212-1073 per Chu Bosi] died after a life of over 100 years, during the 6th year reign of King Kangwang per "The Bamboo Annals". Jiang Taigong was renowned for writing the first military strategy and tactics books, i.e., the six volumes of "Liu Tao", a book that the future tacticans and strategicians, like Guan Zhong, Sun Wu, Wu Qi, Sun Bin, Su Qin, Huang-shi-gong [yellow rock grandpa, i.e., Zhang Liang's master], Zhang Liang, and Zhuge Liang et al., had inherited.
 
Per inscriptions on the Xiao Meng Ding cauldron, the Zhou people, during Kangwang's 25th year reign, launched two attacks against the Gui-fang barbarians who colluded with the deposed Shang Dynasty remnants against Zhou. The cauldron claimed to have captured 13,811 prisoners of war.
 
Zhou King Zhaowang (Ji Xia, reign approx 1,052 - 1,001 B.C.; 982-963 per BAMBOO)
King Zhaowang was hated for his lack of so-called 'De', i.e., virtues. He campaigned in the south. When he crossed the Huai River, sailors deliberately used rubber to seam the boat for King Zhaowang to use. The rubber-seamed boat melted mid-stream, and King Zhaowang, Duke Jigong and the entourage all fell into the river. King Zhaowang died of drowning.
 
Zhou King Muwang (Ji Man, reign approx 1,001 - 946 B.C.; 962-908 per BAMBOO)
King Muwang would set up several posts, including the position of 'tai pu', for sake of restoring the Zhou kingdom's prestige and power. Against the advice of counsellor Duke Jigong, King Muwang attacked the Rong-di people. Hence, the Rongdi no longer came to pay pilgrimage to the Zhou court. King Muwang, after defeating the Quan-Rong (Rong-di), exiled the Quanrong to Taiyuan, the origin of the Jing-shui and Wei-shui Rivers. Muwang was said to be indulgent in travelling to the west. In the 17th year of his reign, he visited the Kun Lun Mountain. When he was toasting with Queen Mother of the West at the Yao-Ci Lake on Mount Kunlun, the Xu statelet rebelled against Zhou. His chauffeur, Zaofu (or Zao Fu, i.e., Qin's ancestoral relative), drove him home to quell the rebellion, in an eight-horse chariot.
 
Paraphrased from the Bamboo Annals (For the fiction travelogue Mu-tian-zi, see http://www.imperialchina.org/Dynasties/?p=43):
 
  • In the first year of King Muwang's reign, the king, who was already 50 years old, ordered the building of the Zhao-gong Palce after ascending the throne in the first lunar month, and in the month of October, ordered to build the Qi-gong Palace in Nanzheng. In this year, Muwang made a conferral onto Yu-mi (Count Xin-bo) who previously rescued Zhou King Zhaowang in the Han-shui River while the Zhou army was campaigning against the Jing-ren.
  • In the sixth year, Zi-dan (? Viscount Dan) of Xu of the Xu-an statelet, one of the [?] Yi peoeple, came to the Zhou court, and was conferred the title of Bo (Count).
  • In the spring of the 8th year reign, Bei-tang (i.e., North Tang, some Northwestern Rong statelet), came to deliver a black-colored horse as tribute, which later gave birth to one of Muwang's chariot horses, Lu-er.
  • In the 9th year, Muwang ordered to construct the Chun-gong [spring] Palace.
  • In the eleventh year, King Muwang made a conferral on 'Qing-shi' [minister] Moufu, i.e., Lord (Duke) Ji-gong.
  • In the twelfth year, Ban (Lord Mao-gong), Li4 (Lord Gong-gong), and Gu3 (Lord Pang-gong [?Feng-gong]) commanded the army to campaign against the Quan-rong barbarians under the helm of King Muwang. In October, King Muwang went north [i.e., northwest] on a hunting trip and attacked the Quanrong [in today's Guyuan area of Ningxia]. (King Muwang attacked the Quan-rong against the advice of Ji-gong, which led to the barbarians' cessation of tribute relationship with the Zhou court.)
  • In the spring of the thirteenth year, Ji-gong commanded an army on a western expedition under the helm of King Muwang, and reached the land of Yangyu [which was north of the Northern Yellow River Bend per Mu-tian-zi]. In July, the Xi-Rong [western Rong] sent an emissary to seeing Zhou King Muwang. While King Muwang was campaigning in the west, the Xu-Rong people under self-proclaimed King Xu-yan-wang [i.e., Zhou-sanctified Count Zi-dan] invaded the Luo-he River area from the east. In October, Zhou King Muwang, riding on the chariot commandeered by Zao-fu, returned to the Zong-zhou capital for quelling the Xu-yan-wang rebellion. (According to the Bamboo Annals, Zhou King Muwang met with Queen Mother of the West during the 17th year's reign. According to Mu-tian-zi, i.e., Zhou King Muwang's travelogue, King Muwang departed the capital one year earlier, and travelled to the north of the Northern Yellow River Bend, where Mount Yangyu was said to be located, and continued on the trip to seeing the Queen Mother in July of the 17th year of the reign. Hence, the two accounts had conflict, meaning that Mu-tian-zi or the tervelogue was a fiction written in the 4th century B.C.E. on basis of the limited records available in the Bambool Annals.)
  • In the fourteenth year, King Muwang[, having obtained another stallion Ji-luo,] travelled south to the Chu land, ordered Chu-zi (Viscount Chu) [ i.e., Chu King Wenwang per Hou Han Shu] to attack the Xu rebels. The Xu rebellion was quelled. [Alternative historical records stated that the Xu people were a group of peace-loving people and that the king of the Xu people abdicated for the Yangtze River area in lieu of organizing the resistance against the Zhou army.] In April, King Muwang went hunting at Jinqiu; in May, ordered to construct the Fan-gong Palace. In September, the Di-ren (? Zhai-ren) invaded the Bi statelet. In winter, King Muwang went hunting at the Ping-ze Lake. After a tiger was caught, King Muwang ordered to build a tiger cage, i.e., the future Hulao [tiger cage] Pass in today's Yingyang, Henan Province.
  • In the spring of the 15th year reign, the Liu-kun-shi people came to pay pilgrimage. King Muwang ordered to make Chongbi-tai (double wall terrace). In winter, King Muwang stayed at the Yian-ze (the salt lake).
  • In the 16th year, Marquis Huo-hou, Jiu, passed away. King Muwang conferred onto Zao-fu the land of Zao, i.e., a fief for the ancestors of both the future Zhao Principality and the Qin people.
  • In the 17th year reign, King Muwang made an expedition to Kunlun-qiu (Kunlun Hill), and visited Queen Mother of the West. In this year, Queen Mother of the West came to Zhou to show respect, and dwelled at the Zhao-gong Palace. In Autumn, in August, Zhou King Muwang relocated the [Quan-]Rong barbarians to the land of Tai-yuan [grand plateau, i.e., the land of the origin of the Jing-shui and Wei-shui Rivers]. (The barbarians would continue to move east, became part of the Li-rong barbarians at Mount Lishan after sacking Haojing the Zhou capital and killing Zhou King Youwang, and then crossed the Yellow River to reach today's Shanxi, where the split into the Bai-di mand Chi-di barbarians and intermarried with the Jinn principality - possibly the hint as to the imaginary meeting between Zhou King Muwang and the Quan-rong in the fictional travelogue Mu-tian-zi of the 4th century B.C.E.) (Per Hou Han Shu, King Muwang caught five barbarian chieftans in this campaign.)
  • In the spring of the eighteenth year, King Muwang lived at the Qi-gong Palace, where he received the visits of the vassals.
  • In the 21st year, Ji-gong [posthumously Ji-wen-gong] passed away.
  • In the twenty-fourth year, King Muwang ordered Zuo-shi [leftside history or court music minister, i.e., one of the three elderly dukes], to take charge of compiling the history of the king's commandments and the past dynastic events. This would be treated as the beginning of the compilation of history on the Zhou people.
  • In the thirty-fifth year, the Jing-ren people, who were in today's Hanzhong plains and had defeated predecessor Zhou King Zhaowang, intruded into the Xu land. Count Mao-bo, i.e., Qian, commanded the army to defeat the Jing-ren at Zi (i.e., Zigui, near today's Yangtze gorges and the Han-shui River estuary).
  • In the thirty-seventh year, King Muwang raised nine armies to attack south, reaching as far as Jiujiang (nine rivers), with turtles caught to make a bridge. The Zhou army attacked the Yue statelet [at the lowerstream Yangtze], and reached the place of Yu. The Jing-ren people [who were to the upper reach of the Yangtze], [upon hearing of the Zhou army's campaign towards southeastern China,] came to submit tributes.
  • In the 39th year, King Muwang assembled vassals at Mount Tushan.
  • In the forty-fifth year, Marquis Lu-hou passed away.
  • In the 51st year, King Muwang made the penal code "Lv Xing" after reflecting on his 100 plus years of life.
  • In the fifty-fifth year, King Muwang passed away at the Yu-gong [? Zhi-gong] Palace.
     
    Zhou King Gongwang (Ji Yihu, reign approx 946 - 934 B.C.; 907-896 per BAMBOO)
    King Wuwang died after a reign of 50 years. King Gongwang visited the Mi-guo Statelet at Jingzhou Prefecture and saw three beautilful women in Mi-guo Lord Kanggong's residence. Kanggong's mother asked his son to surrender the three beauties, but Kanggong refused. One year later, King Gongwang attacked Mi-guo Statelet and exterminated it.
     
    Zhou King Yiwang (Ji Jian, reign approx 934 - 909 B.C.; 895-871 per BAMBOO)
    King Yiwang relocated the Zhou capital from Hao (Haojing or Chongzhou) to Quanqiu (i.e., Feiqiu). Zhou Kingdom degraded in its ruling, and poets began to record events via poems.
     
    Zhou King Xiaowang (Ji Pifang, reign approx 909 - 894 B.C.; 870-862 per BAMBOO)
    King Xiaowang ordered Marquis Shen (Shenhou) to attack Quan-Rong around 909 BC. Qin's ancestor, Fei Zi, lived in a place called Quanqiu (a place near Fufeng of Shenxi), and he was good at raising horses around the Wei-shui River. Marquis Shenhou, whose daughter married Daluo (Fei Zi's father), somehow persuaded Zhou King Xiaowang into bestowing the last name of 'Ying' on Daluo's descendant for sake of pacifying or controlling the Xi Rong or Western Rong people. (This shows the influence of Daluo's descendants in this barbaric West area.)
     
    Marquis Shenhou was quoted to have mentioned to Zhou King Xiaowang that his ancestor had married their woman to 'Rong Xuxuan' where Rong meant for the barbarians and 'Xuxuan' was the great grandson of Zhongyan. (In the eyes of Marquis Shenhou, the Qin people might be equivalent to the 'rong' people.) Shi Ji was ambiguous in this section: Interpretation would be that Daluo had another son born with Marquis Shenhou's daughter, called 'Cheng'; Fei-zi, not Cheng, was conferred the ancestral name of 'Ying'. Note my general designation of 'Daluo's descendants' below in lieu of either Fei-zi or Cheng.
     
    Zhou King Xiaowang conferred them the land of Qin (today's eastern Gansu Province) as a vassal, and hence Daluo's son was know as 'Qin Ying'. Qin became the vassal which was situated to the western-most part of then China. History records that two more groups of people dwelled to the west of Qin and Zhou Chinese, namely, the Western Rong nomads and the Yveh-chih people.
     
    Zhou King Yi(2)-wang (Ji Xie, reign approx 894 - 878 B.C.; 861 - 854 per BAMBOO)
    King Yiwang was another son of King Yiwang. He steam-killed Marquis Qi Aigong in a bronze utensil called 'ding' or cauldron.
     
    Zhou King Liwang (Ji Hu, reign approx 878 - 827 B.C.; 853 - 828 per BAMBOO)
    King Liwang was in reign for 26 years per BAMBOO. He paid attention to material interests and used a minister called Rongyigong as his prime minister. Duke Zhaogong (descendant of Zhaokanggong Mugonghu) admonished him by saying that civilians had complaints. King Liwang then hired a witch from Wey-guo fief to report on the populace. Liwang killed those who talked about him. Vassals did not come to the Zhou court to show respect. Liwang prohibited admonition in year 8 per BAMBOO.
     
    [Alternative records claimed that during his ?? 34th reign, people walking on the streets dared not talk to each other.] Liwang gloated, saying to Zhaogong that nobody dared to villify him any more. Zhaogong cited i) that controlling the mouth of the populace would be more difficult than controlling the mountain torrents, ii) that floods could kill lots of people once a dam was broken, and iii) that the populace would not be kept under control once their dissatisfaction broke out. King Liwang refused to take Zhaogong's advice. Three years later, i.e, the 12th reign per BAMBOO, ministers colluded with each other and attacked King Liwang; King Liwang fled to a place called Zhi (Huoyi or Yong'an in Shanxi), east of the East Yellow River Bend. Liwang's son fled to Zhaogong's home for asylum and when being attacked by the Guo-ren or civilians, Zhaogong said he would be willing to substitute his own son for the life of the prince because it was his fault that King Liwang did not take his advice. Per BAMBOO, during the 13th reign, Count Gong-bo, He, ruled as a regent till Zhou-gong and Zhao-gong selected prince Jing as the new ruler after Liwang's death.
     
    While Zhou King Liwang was ruling despotically, the Xi Rong (Xirong or Western Rong) people had rebelled in the west and killed most of the Daluo lineage of the Qin people. Zhou King Xuanwang conferred Qin Zhong (r. BC 845-822 ?) the title of 'Da Fu' and ordered him to quell the Xirong. Qin Zhong got killed by Xirong during the 6th year of Zhou King Xuanwang or 822 B.C.E. per BAMBOO, after being a Qin ruler for 23 years. Qin Zhong's five sons, under the elder son (Qin Lord Zhuanggong), would defeat Xirong with 7000 relief army from Zhou. Qin Lord Zhuanggong (r. BC 821-778) hence recovered the territories called Quanqiu and enjoyed the Zhou court's conferral of the title of 'Xi Chui Da Fu', i.e., the 'Da Fu' on the western-most border. (Qin ancestors' tombs had been discovered in Li-xian county of Gansu Prov.)
     
    Interregnum, i.e., the Republican Administrative Period (841 - 828 B.C., commonly known as 'gong he' or the modern-sense republican administrative period but alternatively known as the collective leadership by 'gong' and/or 'he' royal court uncles - as here we might just have one person called 'he' who was count Gong-bo). From here onward, THE BAMBOO ANNALS records and all the rest of history books which survived the book burning of Qin Shihuangdi, had converged.
    [hereditary titled] Duke Zhaogong and [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong took the regency as "interregnum". During the 14th of "interregnum", King Liwang passed away in Zhi, east of the Yellow River. Prince Jing, who spent the years in Zhaogong's home, was selected as the new Zhou king.
     
    Zhou King Xuanwang (Ji Jing, reign 827 - 782 B.C.)
    With two dukes as prime ministers, King Xuanwang renewed the Zhou spirits. Vassals began to come to show respect. During the 12th year of the reign, Lu Lord Wugong (r. BC 825-816) came to Zhou court. King Xuanwang, against the advice of Guo-fief Lord Wengong (descendant of Guo Zhong or Guo-shu, a brother of King Wenwang), did not take care of the thousand acre royal field. (This Guo-fief was the so-called West Guo Statelet in Chencang, Shenxi Prov.) During the 39th year of his reign, King Xuanwang attacked Jiang-rong barbarians (a race of Xi Yi or western Yi barbarians, said to be descendants of ancient minister 'Si Yue' or 'four mountains'), but he was defeated by Jiang Rong and lost his Nan-ren (i.e., soldiers from Nanyang, Henan Prov) troops. King Xuanwang ordered Bo Yi to attack the west. He made his brother, Ji You, the inheritor of Zheng (i.e., Zheng Lord Huangong). King Xuanwang refused to listen to advice from a minister called Zhongshanfu of Fan-guo fief, and King Xuanwang killed another minister called Du Bo for no reason. Legends said that three years later, in his 46th reign, King Xuanwang died of an arrow shot by the ghost of Du Bo.
     
    Zhou King Youwang (Ji Gongnie, reign 781 - 771 B.C.)
    During the 2nd year of his reign, the San Chuan area, i.e., three rivers areas of Jing-Wei-Luo & Yellow River, had a big earthquake. Qishan Mountain shook during the quake, and rivers dried up. A Zhou minister, Boyangfu, commented that the Zhou Kingdom might have bad fate. King Youwang would use Guozhifu as his minister. During the 3rd year, Youwang took in Baoshi (a woman from the Shi family, of Xia heritage, who was adopted by people of the Bao-guo fief) as the new queen and then bore a son called Bo-fu. At one time, King Youwang, for sake of making Bao-shi laugh, would ridicule the vassals by lighting the fire on the beacon towers that were designed for the national defence. When King Youwang deposed the prince born from the old queen, the father-in-law, Marquis Shenhou, would invite Quanrong, the Zeng-guo fief (descendants of Lord Yu of former Xia Dynasty) and Xi Yi (the western Yi barbarians) to help him in attacking the Zhou king. Since vassals no longer responded to Youwang's beacon signal as a result of earlier ridiculing, King Youwang was killed by Quanrong at Lishan Mountain (today's Lantian, Shenxi). The Rong people who stayed on in Lishan Mountain areas were called Li-rong, and later the Jinn Principality had married a woman called Li-ji who caused Prince Chong'er go into exile for 19 years. With King Youwang's death, Western Zhou Dynasty ended after a duration of 257 years.
     
     
    Eastern Zhou (770-256 BC)
     
    Zhou King Pingwang (Ji Yijiu, reign 770-720 B.C.)
    Zhou King Pingwang moved eastward to Luoyi in 770 BC under the escort of the Qin lord, and promised to Qin the land of Feng and Qishan should Qin defeat Quanrong and recover the territories. Zhou King Pingwang conferred Ying Kai the title of count.
     
    Qin Lord Xianggong (Ying Kai, reign BC 777-766) assisted Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720) in cracking down on both the Western Rong and the Dogggy Rong. Ying Kai came to the aid of Marquis Shen after Marquis Shen wrote four letters, including requests to: i) Ying Kai, ii) Marquis Jinn (Ji Chou), iii) Marquis Wei (Ji He, Wei Lord Wugong, over 80 years old at the time) and iv) the son of count Zheng, requesting for help in driving the Doggy Rong nomads out of the Zhou capital, Haojing. The Zhou court had to rely upon vassals, such as Qin, Chu, Qi and Jinn, for governance. The title given for the vassal would be 'Fang-bo', i.e., the elder count or the count of a certain domain.
     
    Ying Kai died during the 12th year of his reign (766 BC ) when he campaigned against the Rong at Qishan. After Ying Kai would be Qin Lord Wengong (r. BC 765-716). Wengong, during his 3rd year reign, had a hunting in the east, and the next year, he selected the Qishan area for building a city as the capital. During his 13th year reign, Wengong began chronicle recording, and during his 16th year reign, Qin Wengong defeated Rong at Qishan. Qin Wengong would give the land east of Qishan back to the Zhou court.
     
    The records of 'Chun Qiu', Spring and Autumn, started in the Lu Principality in 722 BC when Lord Lu Yingong (r. BC 722-712) got enthroned.
     
    Zhou King Huanwang (Ji Lin, reign 719-697 B.C.)
    When King Pingwang died, his son, Xiefu, also passed away. A grandson by the name of Ji Lin was selected. During the 3rd year of his reign, count Zheng Zhuanggong came to the court. King Huanwang was not respectful to the Zheng count. Count Zheng was angry. During the fifth year of Huanwang's reign, Count Zheng, without Zhou court's approval, had exchanged the royal veneration site of 'Xu-tian' (near today's Xuchang, Henan) for another patch of land from Lu Principality. Xu-tian was the place given to Duke Zhougong by King Chenwang, and later Zhou court used this land for venerating Mount Taishan. (Count Zheng's ancestor would be the brother of King Xuanwang, Ji You, and King Xuanwang conferred Ji You the land of Zheng as Zheng Lord Huangong.) During the 8th year of his reign, i.e., 712 BC, Lord Lu Yingong was killed and Lu Huangong was enthroned. During the 13th year of his reign, King Huanwang campaigned against the Zheng Principality, but incurred an arrow wound in the hands of a Zheng general by the name of Zhu Dan. This would be called the Battle of Ruge in 707 BC. The Zhou court had rallied very little support during the campaign, and the Zhou prestige was said to have been gone by that time.
     
    The son of Jinn's Quwo Zhuang-bo, a relative of the Jinn marquis, would attack, capture and kill Marquis Jinn Aihou (r 717-710 BC) in 710 BC. Qin Lord Ninggong (r. BC 715-704) would defeat King Bo and drove King Bo towards the Rong people in 713 BC. Ninggong conquered King Bo's Dang-shi {? Du-bo) clan in 704 BC. In 703 BC approx, the Soong captured the Zheng lord and erected a new Zheng lord.
     
    Zhou King Zhuangwang (Ji Tuo, reign 696-682 B.C.)
    [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong, Heijian, wanted to kill King Zhuangwang for sake of having Prince Ke (King Zhuangwang's brother, Ziyi) enthroned. A minister by the name of Xin-bo informed the Zhou king of Heijian's scheme. King Zhuangwang killed [hereditary titled] Zhougong. Prince Ke fled to the Yan Principality.
     
    Qin Ninggong's elder son (Wugong) was deposed, and Chu-zi, the son of Ninggong's junior son, was enthroned by three ministers at the age of 5. Chu-zi was killed 6 years later and Qin Lord Wugong (r. BC 697-677) was selected. About this time, Qin Wugong campaigned against the 'Pengxian-shi Rong' and reached the foot of Huashan Mountain. Qin Lord Wugong, in 688 BC, exterminated Gui-rong (Shanggui of Longxi) and Ji-rong (Tiansui Commandary), and the next year, exterminated the Du-bo Fief (southeast of Xi'an), Zheng-guo Fief (Zheng-xian County) and Xiao-guo Fief (an alternative Guo Fief from the domain conferred by Zhou King Wenwang onto Uncle Guo-shu).
     
    At the Zheng Principality, a minister by the name of Gaoqumi killed his lord Zheng Zhaogong (r. BC 696-695) in 695 BC. Qi Lord Xianggong (r. 697-686 BC) was assassinated by his minister (Guan Zhifu) in 686 BC; Jinn exterminated the fief statelets of Geng, Huo and Wei; another assasination in Qi would see Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC) selected in 685 BC.
     
    Zhou King Xiwang (Ji Huqi, reign 681-677 B.C.)
    Lord Qi Huan'gong made Guan Zhong (l. 715-645 BC per Chu Bosi) the counsellor in 685 BC. Qi Huan'gong (Xiao-Bai, ?-643 BC) rose to prominence in vassal politics beginning in 679 BC. During the 3rd year of the Zhou King Xiwang's reign, i.e., 679 BC, Qi Lord Huan'gong proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord'. Guan Zhong, skillful at accumulating wealth [by ironically endorsing prostitution as a means of tax revenue collection], had helped Qi Huan'gong in assembling vassals for nine times. Qi Huan'gong called Guang Zhong by 'zhong fu', i.e., proxy father.
     
    Also in 679 BC, Marquis Jinn Min-hou was killed by Jinn Quwo Wugong. Zhou King Xiwang conferred marquisdom onto Quwo Wugong. Quwo Wugong called himself Lord Jinn Wugong and died two years later. Qin Lord Wugong passed away in 677 BC, and 66 persons followed to his tomb as live burial.
     
    Zhou King Huiwang (Ji Lang, reign 676-652 B.C.)
    During the seond year of the reign, an uncle by the name of Tui rebelled against King Huiwang. King Huiwang sought asylum in Zheng's capital, i.e., today's Yangdi County, Henan Prov. During the 4th year of the reign, Count Zheng Ligong and Lord of Guo-fief (Guogong Linfu) aided Zhou King Huiwang by killing Tui and restoring Huiwang's kingdom. During the 10th year of the reign, King Huiwang conferred onto Lord Qi, i.e., Marquis Qi Huan'gong, the title of Count. (Count was apparently higher ranking than marquis during the Zhou kingdom time period.)
     
    Jinn Wugong's successor, Jinn Xian'gong (r. 676-651 BC), attacked the Li-rong (Xi Rong) barbarians in 672 BC approx, and captured a Li-rong woman called Li-ji. Jinn Xian'gong killed most of the princes from the deposed Jinn Marquisdom lineage, and one such prince fled to the Guo-guo statelet. Wars erupted between Jinn and Guo-guo. In 665 BC approx, Li-ji born Xiqi and then conspired to have Jinn Xian'gong's elder princes deposed or killed, pushing Jinn into another round of turmoil.
     
    In 664 BC, Qi Lord Huangong destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu. (Guzhu was formerly the Zhu-guo [bamboo] Statelet, a vassal of ex-Shang dynasty. Historian Lv Simian analyzed numerous Guan Zhong-related writings to express doubt about the extent of Qi Lord Huan'gong's campaigns against the barbarians, with a belief that the Shan-rong or the mountain Rong barbarians could be the same as the Bei-rong or the northern Rong, while the Rong people lived right in the heartland of today's Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong provinces, not in southern Manchuria. Also see this webmaster's discourse on properly interpreting Qi Lord Huan'gong's expedition in crossing 'liu sha [flowing sand or quick sand]' as merely wading across the sandy Sha-he River of Shanxi, not penetrating the Kumtag Desert as historians of the last 2000 years believed in.)
     
    In 661 BC, the Chang Di barbarians who were located near today's Ji'nan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong (r. BC 668-660 ?) who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he'. (Chang Di, literally meaning the tall Di barbarian, could be the ancestors of some Mongoloid group which carried the mutated genes that regressively popped out every few hundreds of years, like the Yao Ming type.)
     
    In 661 BC approx, Jin (Jinn) Principality eliminated Huo (Huozhou, Shanxi Prov), Wei and Geng fiefdoms. Jinn Xian'gong built the city of Quwo for Prince Shensheng, conferred General Bi-wan the domain of Wei and General Zhao Su the domain of Geng. Shiwei advised Prince Shensheng to flee as Zhou King Wenwang's uncles did. Jinn minister Po-yan advised against the conferral of Wei land onto Bi-wan. The next year, Prince Shensheng was ordered on a new campaign against Dongshan-Chidi barbarians. Shensheng sought advice with Li'ke as to his crown prince status. (Scholar Liu Qiyu pointed out that in southwestern Shanxi Prov, a statelet called Ji-guo, possible of Xia Dynasty descendants, with ancient Ji-zhou character embedded, had at one time attacked Jinn Principality and hence it should be looked at as a considerable power. Ji-guo, subsequently quelled by Jinn, had become the fiefs of several Jinn ministers consecutively, from 650 BC to 627 BC. Liu Qiyu mentioned excavations of Zeng-guo to prove that various powers had existed quite independently at the ancient times.) In 658 BC approx (i.e., 2nd year of Lu Lord Xigong), Jinn borrowed a path from Yu-guo and attacked Xiangyang of Guo-guo. In 656 BC approx, Li-ji conspired to put poison into the meat Shensheng gave to his father; Li-ji pasted honey onto her body to attract bees, asked Shensheng help her drive away the bees, and then accused Shensheng of trying to take advantage of her. Shensheng fled to Xincheng city and committed suicide. Jinn Lord Xian'gong (?-651 B.C.) hence fell under the trick of his concubine (a Li-rong woman), and Prince Chong'e (Chong Er, ?-628 BC) escaped to the Di(2) Statelet in 655 BC. (Prince Chong Er's birth mother was from the Di barbarian, with the Hu-shi surname which was said to have origin in Zhou Prince Tang-shu. Here is a way to differentiate the Chinese from the barbarians, namely, the culture, not the bloodline.) This year, Jinn borrowed path from Yu-guo again by sending Jinn Xian'gong stallion as a gift. A Yu-guo minister, Gong Zhiqi, advised against it, saying Yu-guo and Guo-guo were like lips and teeth to each other. Gong Zhiqi led his whole family away from the Yu-guo. Jinn Principality eliminated Guo and Yu statelets in the winter of 655 BC. Guo-gong fled to Zhou court. Yu-gong and his minister Baili Xi were captured and the stallion was found by Xunxi and delivered back to Jinn Xian'gong. In 654 BC approx, Jinn attacked Prince Yiwu at Quwo land, and Yiwu fled to a different statelet, Shaoliang land, at the advice of Ji-rui. Ji-rui said that should Yiwu flee to Di2 barbarians, Jinn would attack Di because Chong'er was already there. Two years later, Jinn attacked Di2, and Di counter-attacked Jinn; hence, Jinn withdrew from their siege. Concubine Li-ji's brother had a son called Dao-zi in this year.
     
    Zhou King Xiangwang (Ji Zheng, reign 651-619 B.C.)
    Lord Qi Huangong held a meeting at Kuiqiu in 651 B.C. as a demonstration of his hegemony status. Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria in 664 BC, campaigned against Bai-di barbarians in the west in 651 BC, occupied 'da xia' (i.e., Grand Xia land) and crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., western Yu-shi clan's land).
     
    After the death of Jinn Lord Xian'gong, Li-ji's son, Xiqi, was erected, but a minister (Li'ke) killed Xiqi; after minister Xunxi erected another cousin of Xiqi (Dao-zi), Li'ke killed the new lord and Xunxi, consecutively. Li-ji was killed on the streets. Li'ke first sought for Prince Chong'er as the new Jinn lord, but Chong'er declined. Li'ke then went to Prince Yiwu. Jinn Prince Yiwu sought for help from Qin Lord Mugong (r. BC 659-621) in escorting him to the throne at Jinn, with a promise of secceding to Qin 8 cities to the west of Yellow River. Qi Huan'gong sent forces to help Yiwu as well, and Qi forces stopped marching at Gaoliang after finding out that Qin already delivered Yiwu, i.e., Jinn Huigong (r. 650-637 BC). Yiwu ate his words, and killed Li'ke instead of conferring him the land of Fengyang. Yiwu's emissary to Qin, Pi-zheng, being afraid of returning to Jinn to receive the same fate as Li'ke, would incite Qin Lord Mugong in having Jinn Prince Chong'er replace Yiwu. (In Sima Qian's self account of his lineage, Pi-zheng appeared to be a remote ancestor.) Pi-zheng was killed upon returning to Jinn, and his son (Pi-bao) fled to Qin. During 12th year reign, i.e., 648 BC, counsellor Guan Zhong of Qi passed away.
     
    The invitation of the barbarians to the heartland of Zhou China caused some havoc. During the 3rd year of Zhou King Xiangwang's reign, a half brother, by the name of Shu-dai [Zi-dai], colluded with the Rong and Di barbarians in attacking King Xiangwang. (The Rong-di barbarians had come to aid Shu-dai as a conspiracy of Shu-dai's mother, ex-queen Huihou.) The Jinn Principality attacked the Rong to help the Zhou court. Shu-dai fled to the Qi Principality. The Qi Principality also helped the Zhou court by sending Guan Zhong on a campaign against the Rong people. At the Zhou court, King Xiangwang expressed gratitude to Guan Zhong, mentioning the fact that Zhou King Wuwang had married the daughter of Jiang Taigong (founder of the Qi Principality) as wife. Three years after the death of Qi Lord Huan'gong, Shu-dai returned to the Zhou court from the Qi Principality at the request of Zhou King Xiangwang.
     
    During the 12th year reign of Qin Lord Mugong, i.e., 648 BC, Guan Zhong of Qi passed away.
     
    Around 648 BC, when Jinn had a drought-related famine, Qin, against the proposal of Pi-bao in attacking Jinn, would dispatch ships with grains to Jinn, passing from Qin capital of Yong to Jinn capital of Jiang(4). Two years later, Qin had a famine, but Jinn refused to lend grains, and moreover attacked Qin in 645 BC. Qin Lord Mugong and Pi-bao fought against Jinn army at a place called Han-yuan in September. (See The Battle Of Han-Yuan). When Mugong saw Yiwu and his horse trapped in the mud, Mugong intended to capture Yiwu. But the Jinn army came to aid Yiwu and encircled Mugong. Three hundred 'yeren' (countryside people) solders, who were spared death by Mugong for eating the good horses as meat, would rush to rescue Mugong, and moreover captured Yiwu. When Mugong intended to sacrifice Yiwu for Lord Highness, i.e., the Heaven, the Zhou court came to petition for mercy, and Mugong's wife would beg for mercy for his brother (Yiwu). Mugong released Yiwu in November for sake of frustrating the Jinn ministers' attempt to erect Yiqu's son as the new Jinn lord.
     
    Yiwu, upon return to Jinn, killed Qingzheng who refused to rescue him during the prior war, surrendered 8 cities to the west of the Yellow River to Qin, and sent his son (Zi-yu) to Qin as a hostage. Yiwu, fearing that Prince Chong'er might stir trouble, sent an assasin to the Di statelet and forced Chong'er into fleeing to Qi after a stay of 12 years with the Di people. Qin gave Zi-yu a royal family girl for marriage.
     
    In 642 BC, Qi Huan'gong passed away. Around 641 BC, Qin exterminated Liang and Rui statelets. (Zi-yu's mother was the daughter of Liang-bo, and hence Zi-yu was angry with Qin.) Another two years later, Jinn Prince Zi-yu fled the Qin capital, without taking his Qin wife, when he heard that his father was getting ill. Zi-yu's wife did not report his fleeing to the Qin court but refused to follow Zi-yu. Jinn Lord Yiwu passed away the next year, i.e., in 637 BC, and Zi-yu was enthroned as Jinn Huaigong (r. 637-636 BC). Zi-yu killed a minister called Hu-tu for not recalling his two sons from Chong'er's enrourage. Qin Lord Mugong, hating Zi-yu for his fleeing home, would retrieve ex-Jinn Prince Chong'er from Chu, and further gave the ex-wife of Zi-yu to Chong'er. In 636 BC, Qin Mugong, with 500 chariots, 2000 cavalry, and 50,000 field soldiers, escorted Prince Chong'er to the Jinn capital to become Jinn Lord Wengong (r. 636-628 BC), and Chong'er sent an assasin to have Zi-yu (Jinn Lord Huaigong) killed at Gaoliang. At the age of 62, Chong'er returned to Jinn after an exile of 19 years.
     
    In 639 BC, during the 13th year reign of King Xiangwang, the Zheng Principality attacked the Hua-guo fief for its defection of loyalty to the Wey Principality. (The Hua-guo fief was of Lord Huangdi's surname and it was subservient to Jinn and Zheng. It was later exterminated by the Qin Principality.) When King Xiangwang sent two 'da fu' ministers to mediate on behalf of Hua-guo, Zheng Lord Ligong imprisoned the two ministers for his unhappiness over Zhou King Xiangwang's bestowing gifts on the lord of the Guo Fief. Against the advice of a minister called Fuchen (who said that the Zhou court had enjoyed protection from Zheng for the past four generations), King Xiangwang campaigned against the Zheng Principality in collaboration with the Rong-di barbarians in 637 BC. King Xiangwang, to show his favor for the Rong-di, took in the daughter of the Rong-di ruler as his queen. But in the next year, King Xiangwang abandoned the queen of the Rong-di origin, and the Rong-di came to attack the Zhou court in revenge. In the autumn of 636 BC, the brother of Zhou King Xiangwang, Shu-dai, hired the Di barbarians in attacking the Zhou court. King Xiangwang fled to the Zheng Principality. When the Rong-di sacked the Zhou capital, King Xiangwang fled to Zheng. Shu-dai was made into a king, and Shu-dai took over King Xiangwang's Rong-di queen as his concubine. The Rong-di hence moved to live next to the Zhou capital. The Rong-di extended their domain as eastward as the Wey Principality.
     
    Chong'er [double ears or ear loops], at the age of 17, possessed five tutors: Zhao Shuai, Huyan Jiufan (uncle-in-law), Jia Tuo, Xian Zhen, and Wei Wu-zi. (Later, one follower, by the name of Jie Zi-tui, went to the mountains to be a hermit instead of accepting Chong'er awards. Jie might have perished after Jinn lord burnt the mountain to force him out of hermitage.) At the Di statelet, he was given a Jiuru-Chidi (Gaoru-Chidi) woman of Kui surname; and a sister of the woman married with Zhao Shuai and later bore Zhao Dun. After staying in the Di statelet for 12 years, Chong'er was forced into an exile tour of various Zhou vassal statelets. Passing through Wey, Chong'er was mistreated by Wey Wengong, and left Wey. At the Wey land of Wulu, Chong'er begged for food from peasants who poured mud into the food. At Qi, Chong'er was given a royal girl and twenty carts for marriage. Chong'er stayed in Qi for five years, and under the collusion of Zhao Shuai, Huyan Jiufan and his Qi wife, Chong'er was fed a lot of wine and carried out of the Qi capital in an intoxicated status. Chong'er wife had asked him to think more about recovering his country than staying stuck with a woman for life and doing nothing good. Passing through the Cao statelet, Chong'er was mistreated by Cao Gonggong, but received assistance from a Cao minister. Passing through Soong, Chong'er was received by Soong Xianggong in the rituals of a lord. (Soong Lord Xianggong was the 17th generation grandson of Soong Duke Wei-zi, and Soong Xianggong died of an arrow wound incurred during the Battle Of Hong-shui.) Passing through the Zheng statelet, Chong'er was mistreated by Zheng Wengong. At Chu, Chong'er was given the vassal treatment by Chu King Chengwang. When Qin wanted to retrieve Chong'er, the Chu King escorted Chong'er with big gifts to Qin. Qin gave Chong'er 5 royal family girls, including Zi-yu's wife. At the age of 62, Chong'er returned to Jinn after an exile of 19 years. When two ministers (Lv Sheng and Qie Rui) planned to rebell against Jinn Wengong, an eunuch, Lvti, who previously tried to assasinate Chong'er twice, informed Chong'er of the plot. Chong'er received the assiatance of Qin Mugong in having the rebels killed over the river. Qin Mugong dispatched 3,000 soldiers as Jinn Wengong's bodyguards.
     
    In 635 BC, Zhou King Xiangwang sought help with Qin/Jinn. This is during Jinn Wengong's 2nd year reign. Qin Mugong led an army against Zhou prince Shu-dai and reached the Yellow River during the spring. Zhao Shuai advised that Jinn Wengong should aid the Zhou court, too, and the Qin-Jinn armies killed Shu-dai in April of the year. King Xiangwang conferred onto the Jinn Lord the title of Count and the land of Yangfan or 'he nei' (pronounced as He-rui in ancient Chinese to mean the winding section of the Yellow River or equivalent 'Hanoi' ["Inside the Riverbend" in Vietnamese] for the meaning of the innerside of the Yellow River, i.e., northern Henan Province where the Yellow River flows to the east with a 90 degree turn).
     
    In 633 BC, Chu led its vassals on a siege of Soong. Xian Zhen advised Jinn Wengong that Jinn should aid Soong as requital. Huyan proposed that Jinn attack Chu's two allies, i.e., Cao and Wey. Jinn dispatched three columns of army, with Qie Hu in the middle, Huyan in charge of the upper column, and Luan Zhi the lower column. In 632 BC, Jinn Wengong was refused a path by Wey for attacking Cao. Then, the Jinn army crossed the river elsewhere and attacked both Cao and Wey, taking over Wulu in Jan of 632 BC. In Feb, Jinn and Qi made an alliance at the Wey land, and refused Wey's request for being a member. When the Wey lord intended to ally with Chu, the Wey ministers ousted him. Chu was defeated for aiding Wey. Jinn then sieged Cao. In March, Jinn took over Cao's capital but spared a Cao minister's home as requital for the early help received during Chonger's exile. Chu then lay a siege of Soong. Jinn Wengong intended to attack Chu to help Soong, but he was hesitant since the Chu king had given him a lot of favor before. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn capture Cao-bo and divide the Cao & Wey's land for sake of Soong so that Chu would release Soong to aid Cao/Wey. Hence, the Chu army withdrew the siege of the Soong capital.
     
    Chu General Zi-yue adamantly insisted on a fight with the Jinn army, and the Chu King allocated less soldiers. Jinn have Chu da fu Wan-chun retained under custody to anger Zi-yue and Jinn privately made peace with Cao/Wey for sake of making them defect to Jinn. Hence, Zi-yue was angered into a fight, and Jinn retreated three times as a fulfillment of promise that Chong'er made to the Chu king while duirng the exile stay at Chu. In April, the Song-Qi-Qin-Jinn armies had a campaign against Chu at Chengpu (a Wey city), burnt the Chu army for days, and defeated Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. (See The Battle Of Chengpu). (Zi-yue was ordered to commit suicide by the Chu king later.) Zhou King Xiangwang personally went to the Jinn camp to confer Marquisdom onto Jinn Wengong, and Jinn made a convenience palace of the king. Zheng, seeing Chu's defeat, went to ally with Jinn. In May, Jinn sent the Chu prisoners to the Zhou court. Zhou king dispatched da fu Wang Zi-hu to Jinn, conferred 'bo' (Count) onto Jin Wengong, and offered royal arrows/bows and 300 royal guards to Jinn. Wang Zi-hu held an assembly of vassals. In June, Jinn restored the Wey lord. In the winter of 632 BC, Jinn Lord Wengong assembled vassals at a place called Wen (near Zhengzhou, Henan Prov) and called on the Zhou king to have a hunting party. Jinn restored the Cao lord. Jinn first devised three columns of armies, with Xun Linfu in charge of the middle column, Xian Hu the right column, and Xian Mie the left column.
     
    In 630 BC, Jinn Wengong wanted to punish Zheng for not helping him while he was in exile years ago, and Jinn Wengong sought help from Qin. The Jinn/Qin army lay a siege of Zheng and forced a Zheng minister to commit suicide. But Jinn refused to back off. Zheng dispatched Zhu Zhi-wu to Qin Mugong and successfully persuaded Qin into a withdrawal. Qin left three da fu and a small army at the north gate of Zheng. Jinn withdrew its army, too.
     
    Two years later, 628 BC, Jinn Wengong passed away. Zheng-bo, the lord of Zheng, also died. A Qin da fu at the north gate of Zheng sent a message to Qin Mugong, stating that Zheng could be taken over by a surprise attack. This would be during the 24th year reign of Zhou King Xiangwang. Qin Mugong, against the advice of Jian Shu and Baili Xi, dispatched Mengmingshi (Baili Xi's son), Xiqishu (Jian Shu's son), and Baiyibin on a long distance campaign against Zheng. Baili Xi and Jian Shu were reprimanded for crying for their sons before the march, and the two old men said to their sons that Qin might suffer defeat at Xiao'er (Xiaoshan Mountain). In Dec of 627 BC, when the Qin army passed through the front of the north gate of the Zhou capital, Wangsun Man, still a kid at the time, commented that the Qin army lacked respect for the Zhou court and would for sure lose the war. At a place near Hua-guo, a Zheng merchant, by the name of Xuan Gao, donated his 12 buffalos to the Qin army by pretending to do so under the order of the Zheng lord. Three Jinn generals were surprised to know that Zheng had advance knowledge of the Qin attack, stopped at the Hua-guo Fief, and exterminated Count Hua's fief instead. Hearing of Qin's attack on Hua-guo of Ji surname, Jinn Wengong's son, Jinn Xianggong (r. 627-621)), in the spring of 627 BC, sent an army to have the Qin army ambushed at Xiao'er. Three Qin generals were captured, while their soldiers were all killed. Jinn Wengong's dowager wife requested with Jinn Xianggong to have the three guys released. Jinn Wengong later changed mind when Xian Zheng objected to the release, but Xian Zhen failed to chase the three guys who had been inside the ship in the middle of crossing the river. Qin Mugong wore mourning clothing and received the three generals at the outskirts of the Qin capital. (The statelets of Yu, Guo, Jiao, Hua, Huo, Yang, Haan, and Wei were all Ji-surnamed as the Zhou and Jinn families.)
     
    In 626 BC, Chu Prince Shang Chen assassinated his father King Chu Chengwang. Two years after Xiao'er defeat, in 625 BC, Qin Mugong dispatched Mengmingshi on another campaign against Jinn. Meantime, Qin Lord Mugong began to conquer the Western Rong tribes. Qin Lord Mugong began his expansion by attracting talents around China. Earlier, he played a trick to trade with Chu Principality for Baili Xi at the price of 5 sheep skins, claiming that Baili Xi was wanted for a crime in Qin Principality. Baili Xi was titled 'Five Sheep Da Fu'. Baili Xi later recommended his best friend, Jian Shu, for the position as a prime minister. Qin Mugong sent a minister disguised as a merchant on a trek to the Song Principality for Jian Shu. Qin Mugong's emissary, Gongzi Zhi, found Jian Shu in the countryside of Song and invited him over to Qin Court. Jian Su was titled 'Shang Da Fu', i.e., highest Dafu.
     
    Qin Mugong heard of the fame of a talent called You Yu who deserted the Jin (Jinn) Principality for the Xirong (Western Rong) nomads, and he played a trick of dissension and managed to hire over this person when Xi-rong sent You Yu to Qin as an emissary. Qin Mugong and You Yu had an exchange of opinions on China's system, law, music/rituals and the lack of such things in Xi-rong Statelet. You Yu rebutted the dilapidation of China's systems and laws that occurred after Huangdi and commented that Xi-rong had reached governance without knowing a sophisticated system via their king's self-perfection into a saint and that Xi-rong did not have to undergo the patricides and usurpations as Chinese did. Qin Mugong deliberately retained You Yu for one year while he sent some beauties and music to Xi-rong King as gifts. When You Yu went back to Xi-rong, Xi-rong king was indulgent in women and music. Hence, You Yu deserted Xi-rong for Qin at several invitations of Qin Mugong.
     
    In 624 BC, Qin Mugong dispatched Mengmingshi against Jinn again. Qin armied burned their ships after crossing the river, and defeated Jinn and captured one of their outskirts palaces. Then, Qin armies crossed river at Maojin and buried Qin soldier's bodies at Xiao'er. Qin armies mourned for three days at Xiao'er, and Qin Mugong again expressed regrets about not taking the advice of Jian Shu and Baili Xi. The next year, in 623 BC, Jinn counter-attacked Qin and took over Xincheng.
     
    In 623 BC, Qin Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong nomads and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban. Once Chi Ban submitted to Qin, the rest of Western Rong nomads in the west acknolwedged the Qin overlordship. Qin Mugong would conquer altogether a dozen (12) states in Gansu-Shaanxi areas and controlled the western China of the times. Zhou King dispatched Duke Zhaogong to congratulate Qin with a gold drum.
     
    In 622 BC, Jinn's ministers, Zhao Shuai (Zhao Shuai-cheng-zi), Luan Zhi (Luan Zhen-zi), Jiuji Zifan and Huobo, all passed away. Zhao Dun assumed Zhao Shuai's post. Lord Qin Mugong passed away in 621 BC, and 177 persons were buried live, including three Ziche brothers who, being distinguished ministers, had at one time promised to live and die with Qin lord together during a banquet. Historians commented that Qin could not campaign to the east because their best ministers were buried as funerial objects. Qin Mugong's son, Kanggong, succeeded the throne.
     
    Jinn Lord Xianggong died in 621 BC, too. This would be during the 31st year reign of Zhou King Xiangwang.
     
    Jinn Minister Zhao Dun sought for Jinn Lord Xianggong's brother (Yong) for Jinn Lord. Yong was born by the mother of Qin royal heritage and lived in Qin land. Qin sent Yong to Jinn and arrived at a place called Linghu, east of the river. At this time, Jinn had decided to select Jinn Xianggong's son as their lord. Zhao Dun attacked Qin at Linghu for sake of stopping Yong from coming back to Jinn, and Qin retreated with Zhao Dun's emissaries (Sui Hui and Xian Mie). The second year, Qin counter-attacked Jinn and took over Wucheng city.
     
    In 619 BC, King Xiangwang passed away.
     
    Zhou King Qingwang (Ji Renchen, reign 618-613 B.C.)
    In 617 BC, Jinn attacked Qin and took over Shaoliang; Qin counter-attacked Jinn. Two years later, i.e., 615 BC approx, Qin Kanggong attacked Jinn and took over Jima. Jinn Linggong ordered Zhao Chuan, Zhao Dun and Qie Que on a counter-attack and defeated Jinn at He-qu (winding area of Yellow River). The next year, i.e., 614 BC approx, six prominent ministers of Jinn managed to have their general Wei Shouyu pretend to surrender to Qin; when Sui Hui came to see Wei Souyu, Jinn would have Sui Hui captured and brought back to Jinn.
     
    King Qingwang passed away in 613 BC after a reign of only 6 years. In this year, Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591) was enthroned.
     
    Zhou King Kuangwang (Ji Ban, reign 612-607 B.C.)
    Zhou ministers, [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong (Yue) and Wangsun Su had disputes. Jinn dispatched Zhao Dun and 800 chriots to Zhou court, and Zhou King Kuangwang was selected.
     
    In 611 BC (i.e., 16th year of Lu Lord Wengong), Yong-guo of today's northwestern Hubei Prov, a vassal who had participated in Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against Shang Dyansty in 12th cent BC, would rally numerous barbarian statelets against Chu Principality. Chu was defeated seven times and had at one time planned to relocate their capital. Chu King sought alliance with Qin, Ba-guo of Sichuan Prov and other barbarian statelets and exterminated Yong-guo statelet.
     
    In 609 BC approx, Qi Lord Yigong (r. BC 612-609) was assasinated. Qin Kanggong was succeeded by his son, Qin Gonggong (r. BC 608-604) who was enthroned next for 5 years.
     
    In 607 BC, Jinn Lord Ligong had previously tried to assasinate Zhao Dun several times and caused Zhao Dun into fleeing the country. Ligong used bows to shoot people and killed his cook and other servants at random. An assasin, Chu Mi, committed suicide by bumping his head against a tree near Zhao Dun's house. When Ligong released a dog to bite Zhao Dun, a cook (who was previously saved from hunger by Zhao Dun) would fight off the dog. Zhao Dun's brother, Zhao Chuan, killed Ligong at Daoyuan Garden (i.e., Peach Garden) and sent a messenger to recall Zhao Dun. Zhao Dun dispatched Zhao Chuan to the Zhou court and then retrieved Jinn Xianggong's brother as Jinn Lord Chenggong (r. BC 606-600).
     
    Zhou King Kuangwang passed away after a reign of only 6 years. His brother, Ji Yu, was selected as the king.
     
    Zhou King Dingwang (Ji Yu, reign 606-586 B.C.)
    During the first year, i.e., 606 BC, Lord Chu Zhuangwang campaigned northward against the Luhun-rong barbarians. Luhun-rong barbarians, according to Hou Han Shu, had relocated to northern China from ancient Gua-zhou prefecture of Gansu Prov. Alternatively speaking, per ancient scholar Du Yu, Luhun-rong barbarians, with clan name of Yun-shi, originally dwelled to the northwest of Qin and Jinn principalities, but Qin/Jinn seducingly relocated them to Yichuan area (i.e, Xincheng, Henan Prov) during the 22nd year reign of Lu Lord Xigong (r. BC 659-627), i.e., in 638 BC. Luhun-rong remnants were later known as Ma-shi where the surname of 'Ma' was said to have mutated from the word 'man(2)' for barbarians.
     
    When passing through Luoyi (Luoyang), Lord Chu Zhuangwang inquired about the nine bronze ding or cauldrons of the Zhou court, which was a sign of usurpation in the eyes of the Zhou court. Zhou King Dingwang dispatched a minister, Wangsun Man, to the Chu camp to disuade Chu Zhuangwang from an attempt at seeing the bronze cauldrons. (This episode would be termed 'inquiring about cauldrons'.)
     
    In 606 BC, Jinn attacked Zheng for betraying Jinn. Two years later, in 604 BC approx, Chu attacked Zheng for betraying Chu for Jinn. Jinn came to the relief of Zheng. Qin Gonggong died in 604 BC.
     
    Lao-zi, i.e., Li Dan, was born in 604 B.C. at Lixiang, near Wo-he River, with his names deriving from Li for peachtree and Dan for big ears. Lao-zi was said to have carried white beard since birth, and at old age, he was called the Yellow Elderly for his white hair possibly turning yellowish.
     
    Three years later, in 601 BC approx, Jinn defeated, captured and killed one Qin general by the name of 'Chi'. In 600 BC, Jinn Chenggong competed against Chu for hegemony by calling an assembly of vassals at Hu(4), and Chen refused to attend for fearing Chu. Jinn Chenggong dispatched Zhongxing Huanzi against Chen statelet as well as rescued Zheng from Chu attack. Jinn defeated Chu. Jinn Chenggong (r. BC 606-600) died in 600 BC. Two years later, in 598 BC, Chu attacked Chen because a Chen minister killed their lord one year ago. Chu launched the attack by taking advantage of the Xia Zhengshu's killing Chen Lord Linggong for the adultery with his widow-mother Xia-ji [i.e., daughter of Zheng Lord Mugong]. The next year, in 597 BC, Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591) lay siege on Zheng, and Count Zheng surrendered to Chu army. Jinn dispatched three armies led by Xunlinfu, Sui Hui and Zhao Suo to the relief of Zheng. Before crossing the Yellow River in June, Zheng had surrendered to Chu. Chu defeated Jinn. In 595 BC, Jinn attacked Zheng for surrendering to Chu. Chu Zhuangwang defeated Zheng, and went north to defeat Jinn on the bank of Yellow River. The next year, Chu attacked Song, and Song requested help with Jinn. Chu Zhuangwang held a hegemony assembly of Zhou vassals. In 593 BC, Jinn dispatched Sui Hui against the Chi-di statelet and exterminated it. (To explain the possible link of the ancient Chi-di and Bai-di barbarians to the later well-known barbarians, the Chinese classics hinted that the Kirghiz people in today's TUVA area had a custom of wearing the red clothes while the Xianbei had a custom of wearing the white clothes.) Chu Zhuangwang passed away in 591 BC. Jinn attacked Qi, and Qi sent in a prince as a hostage.
     
    Another two years, Qi attacked Lu; Lu requested help with Wey. Jinn sent 800 chariots, with Qie Ke, Luan Shu and HaanJue in charge, against Qi, defeated Qi Qinggong (r. BC 598-582) during the summer and pursued Qi back to their statelet. In this year, Chu minister Shen'gong Wuchen fled to Jinn with one of the Chu king's concubines.
     
    The next year, in 588 BC, the Qi lord went to Jinn and proposed that Jinn Jinggong be the king. Jinn Jinggong declined it, but he re-organized his armies into six columns in the same fashion as the Zhou court. One year later, Lu lord Chenggong (r. BC 590-573) went to Jinn, but he betrayed Jinn later because Qi did not respect him. Jinn attacked Zheng in this year. In 586 BC, earthquake ocurred.
     
    Zhou King Jianwang (Ji Yi, reign 585-572 B.C.)
    In 584 BC, Jinn and Wu began to ally against Chu. In 583 BC, the Zhao Tong and Zhao Gua families were exterminated in the Jinn principality. In 580 BC, Jinn Lord Ligong had an alliance meeting with Qin Lord Huan'gong across the Yellow River. However, Qin Lord Huan'gong tore apart the alliance agreement after returning home, and then cooperated with Di barbarians in attacking Jinn. Two years later, Jinn led vassals against Qin, pursued Qin to Jing River and captured a Qin general by the name of Chengchai.
     
    In spring of 575 BC, Zheng betrayed Jinn for Chu. Jinn minister Luan Shu proposed a war with Chu. Jinn Ligong personally led troops across the river in May. Against the advice of Fan Wen-zi, Jinn Ligong fought with Chu, shot at the eye of Chu king, and defeated Chu King Gongwang (r. BC 590-560) at the Battle of Yanling (a place in southeastern Zheng). Chu General Zi-fan, who previously caused Chu king in killing Shen'gong Wuchen family, would be killed by Chu king.
     
    During the 13th year reign of King Jianwang, Jinn Lord Ligong was killed by Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan, and Jinn dispatched emissaries (led by a Zhi family member) to the Zhou court to retrieve Zi-zhou as Lord Daogong. Jinn Lord Daogong would attack Zheng in the autumn of 572 BC and reached Chen statelet.
     
    Zhou King Lingwang (Ji Xiexin, reign 571-545 B.C.)
    In 562 BC, Jinn Ligong commented that Wei-zi (Wei Jiang) had big contributions in assembling vassals 9 times and pacifying Rong/Di. In this year, Qin rescued Zheng from Jinn Lord Daogong's attack at Yangdi County, Henan Prov.
     
    In 559 BC, Jinn Lord Daogong ordered that his six ministers assemble vassals and campaigned against Qin. Jinn pursued Qin across the Jing-shui River. In 558 BC, Jinn Lord Daogong inquired about governance with his blind-musician, Shi Kuang.
     
    In 557 BC, Jinn attacked Qi. Qi Linggong (r. BC 581-554) retreated with the advice of Yan Ying. Jinn sieged Linzi and burnt city walls, and went as east as Jiao and as south as Yi on Shandong Peninsula.
     
    In 552 BC, Lu Lord Xianggong (r. BC 572-542) came to Jinn court. Jinn minister Luan Cheng (Luan Shu's grandson) fled to Qi.
     
    Confucius [Kong-zi] was born in 551 BC, i.e., 21st year of Zhou King Lingwang or 22nd (?) year of Lu Lord Xianggong.
     
    In 550 BC, Qi Zhuanggong (r. BC 553-548) escorted Luan Cheng back to Jinn and almost sacked the Jinn city of Jiang. Fan Xian-zi advised against Jinn Pinggong's suicide attempt, fought off Luan Cheng, and killed him near Quwo. Luan family was exterminated. Qi took over Chaoge and then retreated. In 548 BC, Cui Zhu assasinated Qi Zhuanggong, and Jinn defeated Qi at the Battle of Gaotang. In 544 BC, a Wu prince came to Jinn and commented to Zhao Wen-zi, HaanXuan-zi and Wei Xian-zi that 'Jinn governance will lie in the hands of you three families."
     
    Zhou King Jing(3)-wang (Ji Gui, reign 544- 520 B.C.)
    After the death of King Jing(3)-wang, three princes fought each other for the throne. Jinn people attacked Prince Zi-chao who killed elder prince Meng earlier. Prince Meng was made King Daowang posthumously. Jinn people erected Prince Gai as King Jing(4)-wang. at the time Prince Zi-chao fled the Zhou capital, he would trick Lao-zi the librarian via an invitation elsewhere and truck away the Zhou Dynasty classics to the southern statelet of Chu.
     
    In 541 BC, Chu prince assassinated his father to become Chu King Lingwang (r. BC 540-529). In 538 BC, Chu King Lingwang assembled "hegemony meeting" at Shen (Nanyang, Henan Prov). Qin Jinggong passed way during the 40th year reign, i.e., 537 BC. In 536 BC, Jinn campaigned against Yan. Jinn Pinggong died in 532 BC.
     
    529 BC, Chu prince assassinated Chu King Lingwang and became Chu King Pingwang (r. BC 528-516). In 526 BC, Chu King Pingwang sought Qin royal family girl for his son's wife, but Chu King Pingwang later took in Qin girl as his own concubine.
     
    Jinn Qinggong (r. BC 525-512) was enthroned in 525 BC. Six prominent families of Jinn, Haan, Zhao, Wei, Fan, Zhongxing & Zhi, began to overpower Jinn court. (I deliberately spelled Han2 as Haan here.)
     
    In 522 BC, Chu Elder Prince Jian fled to Zheng where he was killed. Wu Zixu fled to Wu after his father and brother were arrested and later put to death by the Chu king.
     
    In 520 BC, Zhou King Jingwang died. Six ministers of Jinn went to Zhou court and quelled internal prince turmoils. Zhou King Jing4-wang was selected.
     
    Six Jinn prominent families began to attack each other for control of Jinn. Jinn and Qin had peace for this time period.
     
    Zhou King Jing(4)-wang (Ji Gai, reign 519-477 B.C.)
    In 517 BC, the Ji(4) family of Lu drove Lu Lord Zhaogong (r. BC 541-510) away from the capital.
     
    When Prince Zi-chao still opposed King Jing(4)-wang, Jinn Principality led various vassals on a march to the Zhou court during the 4th year reign of King Jing(4)-wang. Prince Zi-chao hence acknowledged himself as a minister, but he would rebel again during the 16th year reign of King Jing(4)-wang. King Jing(4)-wang fled to Jinn court and would not return till Jinn Lord Dinggong escorted him back to the throne the next year. Prince Zi-chao fled to Chu Principality. King Jing(4)-wang moved his capital to Chengzhou city.
     
    In 515 BC, Wey and Song petiitoned with Jinn to have Lu Lord Zhaogong restored. Ji Ping-zi bribed Fan Xian-zi, and Fan said to Jinn Qinggong that the Ji(4) family of Lu had no fault.
     
    He-lu became the Lord of Wu Principality in 514 BC. Sun Wu, i.e., Sun Tzu or Sun Zi (536-484 per Chu Bosi), began to assist He-lu.
     
    In 514 BC, 6 families of Jinn exterminated Jinn royal relatives, i.e., the families of Qi-xi-sun and Shu-xiang-zi. Two years later, Jinn Qinggong died.
     
    In 506 BC, Wu King He-lu and Wu Zixu attacked Chu. Wu defeated Chu at the Battle of Yuzhang. Chu King Zhaowang (r. BC 515-489) fled to Sui Fief; Wu army occupied Chu capital; Wu Zixu dug up the dead body of Chu Pingwang (r. BC 526-516) and lynched it; and Chu Minister Shen Baoxu went to seek help with Qin and cried for seven days and nights. Qin Lord Aigong hence dispatched Zi Pu & Zi Hu, with 500 chariots, to Chu in 504 BC. Qin army defeated Wu army at Junxiang. Chu King Zhaowang returned to the capital.
     
    King of Wu Fu-Chai (?-473 BC ?) defeated King of Yue Gou-jian in 494 BC (?). In 482 BC, Jinn Dinggong competed with King Wu Fu-chai for hegemony at Huangchi. Yue King Gou-jian attacked Wu by taking advantage of Fu-chai's absence from his country, and Wu secretly made peace with Gou-jian to prevent vassals from hearing about Wu defeat back at home. Zi Lu (Zhong You), i.e., Confucius's student, was killed in 480 BC (?).
     
    Zhen-zi (505 - 436 BC ?) was born in 505 BC (?). Mo-zi (Mo Zhai, 480-390 BC ?) was born in 480 BC (?). [Scholar Liang Qichao claimed that Mo-zi was born in early years of Zhou King Dingwang (Ji Jie, reign 468-441 B.C.) and died in the middle of Zhou King Anwang (Ji Jiao, reign 401-376 B.C.) Mo-zi was from the country of Xiao-zhu-guo [i.e., small spider totem country] which, also known as "gentlemen country", was later exterminated by Lu Principality in 325 BC (?). Mencius had high regards for the school of thoughts propogated by Yang Zhu & Mo-zi.
     
    In 481 BC, Qi minister Tian Chang assassinated his lord Qi Jian'gong. Kong-zi (Confucius) stopped the recording of Chun Qiu (i.e., Springs and Autums) in 481 B.C., two years before his death. Confucius passed away in 479 BC. In 478 BC, King Jing(4)-wang passed away.
     
    Zhou King Yuanwang (Ji Ren, reign 476-469 B.C.)
    In 475 BC, Jinn Dinggong died, and his son would be Jinn Lord Chugong (r. BC 474-457). Zhan Guo or Warring States time period began to count.
     
    King of Yue, Gou-jian, who had undertaken secretive preparations and defeated Wu in 482 BC, would launch another attack at Wu Principality in 475 BC. Fu-chai had caused his best minister, Wu Zixu, to commit suicide. (Wu Zixu, the junior son of an ex-Chu official, had earlier sought asylum with Wu and then asked Wu King in successfully attacking Chu Principality. Wu Zixu was famous for his exile stories as well as digging up Chu King's dead body for lynching.) Gou-jian sieged the Wu capital for 3 years, and by 473 BC (?), and King of Wu Fu-Chai committed suicide. Zhou King Yuanwang upgraded Gou-jian's title to Count from viscount. Fan Li left Yue for Qi, saying to another Yue minister, Zhong, that he should retire to avoid the purge fate by citation that hunters ate their running dogs after dogs caught the rabbits.
     
    King Yuanwang passed away after a reign of eight years.
     
    Zhou King Zhendingwang (Ji Jie, reign 468-441 B.C.)
    Qin Principality attacked Dali-rong barbarians in 461 BC and took over Dali-rong capital.
     
    In 458 BC, Zhi-bo colluded with Zhao-Haan-Wei families in dividing the land of Fan and Zhongxing. Jinn Chugong planned to petition for help with Qi/Lu in restricting the 4 families. The four families hence attacked Jinn Chugong, and Chugong died on the road to Qi. Zhi-bo selected the great grandson of Jinn Zhaogong as Jinn Aigong (r. BC 456-439 ?). Zhi-bo became the main minister governing Jinn and controlled the land that belonged previously to the families of Fan and Zhongxing.
     
    In 456 BC, Jinn took over the city of Wucheng.
     
    In 453 BC, three Jinn prominent families (three separate states of Han(2), Zhao, and Wei)), under Zhao Xiang-zi, Haan Kang-zi and Wei Huan-zi, destroyed an opponent called Zhi-bo and split Zhi-bo's ex-Jinn land into three parts. Zhi-bo's son, Zhi Kai, fled to Qin in 452 BC.
     
    In 444 BC, Qin Lord Ligong attacked Yiqu-rong barbarians in the areas of later Qingzhou and Ningzhou and captured the Yiqu-rong king. In 443 BC, Sun eclipse ocurredand Qin Lord Ligong died and was succeded by Qin Lord Zaogong.
     
    Zhou King Aiwang (Ji Quji, reign 441-441 B.C.)
    King Aiwang was killed by his brother after a reign of three months.
     
    Zhou King Siwang
    (Ji Shu-xi, reign 441-440 B.C.)
    King Siwang was killed by his junior brother after a reign of five months.
     
    Zhou King Kaowang (Ji Wei, reign 440-426 B.C.)
    In 439 BC, Jinn Aigong died, and Jinn Yougong (r. 438-421 BC ?) was erected as a puppet. Jinn held only the cities of Quwo and Jiang.
     
    King Kaowang had a reign of 15 years. King Kaowang conferred the land south of the Yellow River onto his brother (Ji Jie) for sake of continuing Archduke Zhougong's officialdom. Ji Jie would be Lord Xizhou Huangong where Xizhou meant for 'Western Zhou'. Since King Jing(4)-wang moved his capital to Chengzhou city, the official Zhou court would be called Dongzhou or 'Eastern Zhou'.
     
    Lord Xizhou Huangong would be succeeded by his son, Lord Xizhou Weigong. Lord Xizhou Weigong's son would be Lord Xizhou Huigong. During the 2nd year reign of later Zhou King Xianwang, i.e., 367 B.C., Lord Xizhou Huigong made his son, Ji Ban, the so-called Lord Dongzhou Huigong for sake of supporting the official Zhou court at the old capital of Luoyang. Lord Dongzhou Huigong's son, i.e., Lord Dongzhou Wugong would be destroyed by Qin Principality. Note that Zhou Kingdom now possessed a king in Chengzhou, an eastern duke (Lord Dongzhou) in Luoyang, and a western duke (Lord Xizhou) in the land south of the Yellow River.
     
    Chu Principality eliminated Lu Principality in 431 B.C.(?) Yiqu-rong barbarians counter-attacked Qin in 431 BC (?). Qin Lord Zaogong's brother, Huangong, succeeded in 430 BC (?).
     
    Zhou King Weiliewang (Ji Wu, reign 425-402 B.C.)
    During the 23rd year of Zhou King Weiliwang’s reign, i.e., 403 B.C., the nine bronze utensils had vibrations. King Weiliewang conferred Marquisdom onto three Jinn statelets, Han-Zhao-Wei, i.e., Wei Si, Zhao Ji, and HaanQian. 'Zhan Guo' or Warring States time period started. History book 'Zi Zhi Tong Jian' record of history started in this year. The next year, King Weiliewang passed away and Chu King Shengwang was killed by a robber.
     
    Zhou King Anwang (Ji Jiao, reign 401-376 B.C.)
    King Anwang passed away after a reign of 26 years. King of Chu made Wu Qi the prime minister (384 BC ?).
     
    Zhou King Liewang (Ji Xi, reign 375-369 B.C.)
    King Liewang dispatched his civil and military officials to Qin Principality to show harmony. A Zhou chronicle official (Dan) went to see Qin Lord Xiangong and mentioned a necromency note that Qin and Zhou had a fate of re-union and that Qin would produce a hegemony lord (i.e., Qin Lord Xiaogong) within 17 years. King Liewang passed away after a reign of ten years, and his brother succeeded him.
     
    Meng-zi (Mencius, 372-289 BC ?) was born in 372 BC (?). Zhuang-zi (Chuang Tzu, 369-286 BC ?) was born in 369 BC (?).
     
    Zhou King Xianwang (Ji Bian, reign 368-321 B.C.)
    King Xianwang, during his 5th year reign, had congratulated Qin Lord Xiangong. During his 9th year reign, i.e., 360 BC, King Xianwang dispatched his civil and military officials as well as 'royal bestowal meat' to Qin Lord Xiaogong. Shang Yang (?-338 B.C.) served Qin beginning from 361 BC. Qin made Xian'yang the capital and instated agriculture-related tax system in 350 BC and farming soldier rules. During King Xianwang's 25th year reign, Qin assembled all vassals on the Zhou domain. During King Xianwang's 33rd year reign, i.e, 336 BC, Zhou court congratulated Qin King Huiwang. Su Qin persuaded six principalities into an alliance to fight the Qin in 334 BC (?). Qin defeated Wei Principality in 333 BC (?). In 333 B.C, Zhou court dispatched the civil and military officials to Qin court to show respect. Zhang Yi (?-309 B.C.) served Qin Kingdom in 329 B.C.(?) During King Xianwang's 44th year reign, i.e., 325 B.C., Qin King Huiwang officially proclaimed himself a king. All vassals, Han-Wei-Qi-Zhao, followed suit by claiming to be kings as well.
     
    Zhou King Shenjingwang (Ji Ding, reign 320-315 B.C.)
    King Shenjingwang passed away after a reign of 6 years. Qin eliminated the Shu Kingdom in 316 B.C.(?)
     
    Chu, Zhao, Han, Wei and Yan failed in their attack on Qin. Qi executed Su Qin, and made Zhang Yi the prime minister (317 BC ?).
     
    Zhou King Nanwang (Ji Yan, reign 314-256 B.C.)
    King Nanwang relocated his capital westward to Xizhou, i.e., the land south of the Yellow River, from Chengzhou in the east. Xizhou land would be where Duke Wugong (i.e., Xizhou-jun) dwelled. Xizhou-jun had more power and prestige than Zhou King Nanwang. This time period showed the pace of conquest picking up and the ultimate emergence of Qin as the hegemony. Qi Lord Xuan'gong eliminated the Yan in 314 B.C.(?) and Yan Lord Zhaowang was selected as lord of Yan in 312 B.C.(?) Xun-zi (Hsun Tzu, 300-230 B.C.?) was born in 300 BC (?).
     
    When Xizhou-jun's elder son died, Chu Principality would give up some land to Prince Jiu of Xizhou-jun for sake of making Jiu the crown prince of Xizhou-jun. In 307 BC, Qin attacked Haan(2) land of Yiyang city. Chu came to the aid of Haan(2). Zhou court sent relief to Haan as well. Chu mis-took Zhou court as having sided with Qin and hence attacked Zhou court. A minister by the name of Su Dai went to Chu camp and explained the intricacies of the relationship between Zhou court and Qin-Chu statelets. When Qin tried to borrow a path from Xizhou-jun for sake of attacking Haan(2), a minister suggested that Xizhou-jun dispatched some hostages to Chu so that Qin would worry about Chu-Zhou alliance. When Qin King invited Xizhou-jun for a state visit, Xizhou-jun sent someone to Haan for sake of having Haan send troops to Nanyang; then, Xizhou-jun made a pretext to Qin saying that he could not make the trip because Haan troops had invaded the Nanyang area. When the two Zhou fiefs, Xizhou and Dongzhou, fought each other, Haan sent troops to aid Xizhou but was disuaded from doing so by Dongzhou. When Chu army lay a siege of Yangdi for three months, Haan sought for weaponry and grains from Dongzhou. Dongzhou-jun dispatched Su Dai to Haan and successfully persuaded Haan's prime minister from burdening Dongzhou; Su Dai claimed that Chu army must be ill for not taking Yangdi after three months and that Haan would show its illness should Haan have to appropriate weaponry and grains from Dongzhou.
     
    Prince Mengchang-jun served the Qin in 299 B.C.(?) Prince Xinling-jun rescued the Zhao from the Qin attack. A Chu minister, by the name of Qu Yuan (343-289 B.C.), committed suicide by jumping into the Mi-Lou River. (Qu Yuan was a descendant of the son Xia of Chu King Wuwang and obtained the family name from the fief of 'Qu'.)
     
    After Qin General Bai Qi successfully defeated Haan-Wei armies, a Zhou minister, Su Li, fearing that Bai Qi would pose a threat to Zhou court, would go to see Bai Qi in 281 BC and successfully persuaded Bai Qi into claiming sickness to Qin King: Su Li told Bai Qi that he could not afford to lose a battle and forfeit his past glorious military records should Bai Qi lose his campaigns against Wei Principality. In 273 BC, Qin army took over Hua'yang from Wei (Liang).
     
    Tian Dan re-established the Qi in 279 B.C.(?).
     
    Fearing the Qin encroahment, a Zhou minister (Ma Fan) went to see Wei (Liang) King and persuaded Wei from sending soldiers to Zhou for sake of guarding the Zhou court. Ma Fan, to balance off Wei's threat to Zhou court, then went to see Qin King and asked Qin send troops to the border areas to check the Wei (Liang) armies. In 270 BC, when Qin intended to attack Zhou court, a minister somehow disuaded Qin from launching an attack on the pretext that should Qin attack Zhou, there would be nothing to gain since Zhou domain was small and vassals would all defect to Qi in the east as a result of fear for Qin.
     
    Qin General Bai Qi defeated the Zhao in the Battle of Changping in 260 B.C.(?) and buried alive all Zhao prisoners of war.
     
    In 257 BC, three Jinn statelets, Haan-Zhao-Wei, made an alliance against the Qin attack and Zhou court mediated over this war. In 256 BC, Qin took over Yangcheng (today's Yangcheng, Shanxi Prov) city of Haan Principality. Xizhou-jun, breaking peace treaty with Qin, allied with various vassals against Qin and marched out of Longmen Gorge area to cut off Qin armies in Yangcheng. Qin King Zhaowang got enraged and attacked Xizhou. Xizhou-jun (Duke Wugong) went to Qin camp to make an apology and surrendered his 36 cities and 30,000 population. Qin set free Xizhou-jun thereafter.
     
    When both Xizhou-jun (Duke Wugong) and Zhou King Nanwang passed away, the Zhou people fled to the east. Qin retrieved the nine bronze utensils from the Zhou court and shipped them to Xian'yang. Qin relocated Xizhou-jun's son, Duke Xizhou Wengong, to a place near Luoyang of Henan Prov. An ancient scholar claimed that Zhou court had a domain of seven counties at the time of its demise: Henan, Luoyang, Gucheng, Pingyin, Yanshi, Gong, and Koushi (Yanshi, Henan Prov). After the death of Zhou King Nanwang, there was no king for 35 years, till Qin reunited China. 7 years later, Qin King Zhuangxiangwang exterminated Dongzhou fief. (Zhan Guo Ce mentioned the name of Zhou-wen-jun as the lord of Dongzhou fief at the time of its demise.)
     
    The Zhou family heritage would not ensue till Han Emperor Wudi located a Zhou heir (Ji Jia) during the 4th year of the Yuanding Era (i.e., 113 BC) and conferred a title of Zhou-zi-nan-jun, over 90 years after the Zhou demise. Han Emperor Yuandi, during the 5th year of the Chuyuan Era (i.e., 48 BC), had conferred the Marquisdom onto the grandson of Ji Jia. Han Emperor Pingdi upgraded the title to 'Duke Zheng', and Latter Han Emperor Guangwudi conferred the title of 'Duke Wey' onto the Zhou heir.
     
     
    Spring & Autumn
     
    In Shang and early Zhou times, there are two seasons on record, spring and autumn. Confucius, who wrote the first private annals in history, had adopted the name "Chun-Qiu" (i.e., "Spring & Autumn") for his 18,000 character book which had a span of 242 years about the history of the Lu Principality, from Lord Lu Yingong (BC 722) to Lord Lu Aigong (BC 481).
     
    Scholars claimed that various principalities had compiled their royal chronicles entitled "Spring & Autumn". However, only Lu Principality's version had survived as a result of Confucius' editing as well as Zuo Qiuming's version of Zuo-shi Chun-qiu Zhuan (i.e., Zuo Zhuan).
    Map linked from http://www.friesian.com
    Zhou's royal house, after it relocated to today's Luoyang, declined in its power as well as prestige. Major powers among the subordinate statelets or principalities asserted their status by proclaiming successively the slogan of 'Aiding Zhou Royal House By Policing Those Rulers Who Conducted Patricides'. The five hegemon marquis or dukes of the Spring and Autumn Period
     
    Despite the dynasty's decline, Zhou endured for another five and half centuries as a result of power checking among the competing statelets or principalities. Petty city-states were swallowed by bigger powers during the process, though. By the end of the Spring and Autumn Period (771-401 BC), China was left with about 10 states that would soon evolve into 7 states, called the 'Seven Strong Nations' of the Warring States (401 BC and 221 BC).

     
     
    Warring States
     
    Map linked from http://www.friesian.com
    In 473 B.C., The Wu Principality was annexed by Yueh.
     
    Chu Principality exterminated Yueh in 344 B.C. and Lu Principality in 249 B.C.
     
    Qi annexed the state of Song in 286 B.C.
     
    Qin exterminated the Zhou Dynasty in 256 B.C.
     
    The years between 401 BC and 221 BC were known as the Warring States Period. Unlike the Spring and Autumn Period, warlords were keen on destroying each other instead of the old tradition of maintaining royal lines should some fiefs or principalities be overthrown by rivals. At the early times of the Warring States Period, ten states battled for supremacy. Soon, seven statelets were left, and that would be Qin, Chu, Haan Zhao, Wei, Yan and Qi.
     
    A new class would be born during this time period: the speculators who were attracted to various princes or kings of the statelets or principalities. Most famous would be the "Four Grand Princes", namely, Prince Xinling-jun, Lord of Wei; Prince Mengchang-jun, Lord of Qi; Prince Pingyuan-jun, Lord of Zhao; and Prince Chunshen-jun, Lord of Chu.  

     
    Major Wars & Campaigns
     
    The Battle of Ruge (707 BC) - Zhou Kingdom versus Zheng
     
    Zhou King Huanwang (Ji Lin, reign 719-697 B.C.) was not respectful to the Zheng Count. During the fifth year of Huanwang's reign, Count Zheng, without Zhou court's approval, had exchanged the royal veneration site of 'Xu-tian' (near today's Xuchang, Henan) for another patch of land from Lu Principality. Xu-tian was the place given to Duke Zhougong by King Chenwang, and later Zhou court used this land for venerating Mount Taishan. (Count Zheng's ancestor would be the brother of King Xuanwang, Ji You, and King Xuanwang conferred Ji You the land of Zheng as Zheng Lord Huangong.) During the 13th year of his reign, King Huanwang campaigned against Zheng Principality, but incurred an arrow wound in the hands of a Zheng general by the name of Zhu Dan. This would be called the Battle of Ruge in 707 BC. Zhou court had rallied very little support during the campaign, and Zhou prestige was said to have been gone by that time.
     
    The Battle of Han-yuan ( 645 B.C.) - Qin vs Jinn
     
    After the death of Jinn Lord Xiangong, Li-ji's son, Xiqi, was erected, but a minister (Li'ke) killed Xiqi; after minister Xunxi erected another cousin of Xiqi (Dao-zi), Li'ke killed the new lord and Xunxi, consecutively. Li-ji was killed on the streets. Li'ke first sought for Prince Chong'er, but Chong'er declined. Li'ke then went to Prince Yiwu. Jinn Prince Yiwu sought for help from Qin Lord Mugong in escorting him to the throne at Jinn, with a promise of seceding to Qin 8 cities to the west of Yellow River. Qi Huangong sent forces to help Yiwu as well, and Qi forces stopped marching at Gaoliang. Yiwu ate his words, and killed Li'ke instead of conferring him the land of Fengyang. Yiwu's emissary to Qin, Pi-zheng, being afraid of returning to Jinn to receive the same fate as Li'ke, would incite Qin Lord Mugong in having Jinn Prince Chong'er replace Yiwu. Pi-zheng was killed upon returning to Jinn, and his son (Pi-bao) fled to Qin.
     
    Around 648 BC, when Jinn had a dry weather related famine, Qin, against the proposal of Pi-bao to attack Jinn, would dispatch ships with grains to Jinn, passing from Qin capital of Yong to Jinn capital of Jiang(4). Two years later, Qin had a famine, but Jinn refused to lend grains, and moreover attacked Qin in 645 BC. Qin Lord Mugong and Pi-bao fought against Jinn army at a place called Han-yuan in September. When Mugong saw Yiwu and his horse trapped in the mud, Mugong intended to capture Yiwu. But Jinn army came to aid Yiwu and encirlced Mugong. Three hundreds 'yeren' (countryside people) solders, who were spared death by Mugong for eating good horses, would rush to rescue Mugong, and moreover captured Yiwu. When Mugong intended to sacrifice Yiwu for Lord Highhess, i.e., Heaven, Zhou court came to petition for mercy, and Mugong's wife would beg for mercy for his brother (Yiwu). Mugong released Yiwu in November for sake of frustrating Jinn ministers' attempt to erect Yiqu's son.
     
    The Battle of Chengpu (632 B.C.) - Song-Qi-Qin-Jinn vs Chu
     
    In 633 BC, Chu led its vassals on a siege of Song. Xian Zhen advised Jinn Wengong that Jinn should aid Song as requital. Huyan proposed that Jinn attack Chu's two allies of Cao and Wey. Jinn dispatched three columns of army, with Qie Hu in the middle, Huyan in charge of the upper column, and Luan Zhi the lower column. During Jinn Wengong's 5th year reign, i.e., in 632 BC, Jinn Wengong was refused a path by Wey for attacking Cao. Then, Jinn crossed the river elsewhere and attacked both Cao and Wey, taking over Wulu in Jan of 632 BC. In Feb, Jinn and Qi made an alliance at Wey land, and refused Wey's request for being a member. When Wey lord intended to ally with Chu, Wey ministers ousted him. Chu was defeated for aiding Wey. Jinn then sieged Cao. In March, Jinn took over Cao capital but spared a Cao minister's home as a requital for the early help during Chong'er exile. Chu then lay a siege of Song. Jinn Wengong intended to attack Chu to help Song, but he was hesitant since Chu king had given him a lot of favor before. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn capture Cao-bo and divide Cao & Wey land for sake of Song so that Chu would release Song to aid Cao/Wey. Hence, Chu army withdrew the siege of Song capital.
     
    Chu General Zi-yue adamantly insisted on a fight with Jinn, and Chu King allocated less soldiers. Zi-yue sent an emissary (Wan-chun) to Jinn in request for restoration of Cao/Wey. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn have Chu da fu Wan-chun retained under custody to anger Zi-yue and that Jinn privately made peace with Cao/Wey for sake of making them defect to Jinn. Hence, Zi-yue was angered into a fight, and Jinn retreated three times as a fulfillment of promise that Chong'er made to Chu king while duirng exile stay at Chu. In April, Song-Qi-Qin-Jinn armies had a campaign against Chu at Chengpu (a Wey city), burnt Chu army for days, and defeated Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. (Zi-yue was ordered to commit suicide by Chu king later.) Zhou King Xiangwang personally went to Jinn camp to confer Marquisdom onto Jinn Wengong, and Jinn made a convenience palace of the king. Zheng, seeing Chu defeat, went to ally with Jinn. In May, Jinn sent Chu prisoners to Zhou court. Zhou king dispatched da fu Wang Zi-hu to Jinn, conferred 'bo' (Count) onto Jin Wengong, and offered royal arrows/bows and 300 royal guards to Jinn. Wang Zi-hu held an assembly of vassals. In June, Jinn restored Wey lord. In the winter of 632 BC, Jinn Lord Wengong assembled vassals at a place called Wen (near Zhengzhou, Hena Prov) and called on the Zhou king to have a hunting party. Jinn restored Cao lord. Jinn first devised three columns of armies, with Xun Linfu in charge of the middle column, Xian Hu the right column, and Xian Mie the left column.
     
    The Battle of Xiaoshan (627 B.C.) - Jinn vs Qin
     
    The Battle of Yuzhang (508 B.C.)- Wu vs Chu
     
    The Battle of Boju (627 B.C.) - Wu vs Chu (506 BC)
     
    The Battle of Guiling (354 B.C.) - Qi versus Wei on behalf of Zhao
     
    The Battle of Maling (342 B.C.) - Qi versus Wei on behalf of Haan
     
    The Battle of Changping ( B.C.) - Qin vs Zhao
     
    The Battle of Handan ( 262 B.C.) - Qin vs Zhao
     

     
    Demise Of Zhou Kingdom
     
    Qin Principality, under Qin King Zhaoxiangwang, continued wars against its neighbors, Wei & Zhao principalities. Duke Wugong of Zhou Kingdom, i.e., Xizhoujun, colluded with the other principalities. In 264 B.C., Qin army attacked Zhou Kingdom, and Zhou King Nanwang personally went to Qin army, bowed his head, and surrendered 36 cities and 30,000 people to Qin. The next year, Zhou people fled to the east. Qin acquired nine bronze untensils of Zhou Kingdom, supposedly embodiment of the ancient Nine Prefectures of China as decribed in Yu Gong (Lord Yv's Tributes). On the way of being shipped to Xian'yang, Qin's capital, one of the nine untensils fell into River Sisui and never ever was recovered again. When Xizhou-jun colluded with various marquis for sake of restricting Qin's expansion, Qin King Zhuangxiangwang sent his prime minister, Lu Buwei, to attack Zhou capital and relocated Zhou king and Xizhou-jun to today's Liangxian County, Henan Province. Zhou Kingdom officially ended in this year, 256 BC, after Zhou King Nanwang was on the throne for 59 years. In this year, both Duke Wugong of Zhou Kingdom (Xizhoujun) and Zhou King Nanwang passed away.
     
    The wars of conquest already took place. In 473 BC, the Wu Principality was annexed by Yue (Yveh). Chu Principality exterminated Yue in 344 BC and Lu Principality in 249 BC. Qi annexed the state of Song in 286 BC. And, Qin exterminated the Zhou Dynasty in 256 BC. Qin Lord Zhuangxiangwang became the king of the Qin in 249 BC (?). Shihuangdi (259-210 BC ?) became King of Qin in 246 BC.
     
    The Unification of China
    The wars for unifying China now fell to the shoulder of Ying Zhen (Emperor Shihuangdi). At this time, Qin already took over today's Sichuan Province and the land between Sichuan and Shenxi Province and named it Nan Jun (Nanjun or Southern Commandary). Qin also took over the two Zhou fiefs and named the area San Chuan Jun (Three River Commandary), and the land of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province and made them into Shangdang, Taiyuan and Hedong commandaries. Shihuangdi gained power at the age of 13. Lv Buwei would be responsible for all political and military matters of Qin court for the 13 years in between.
     
    In 244 BC, General Meng Ao grabbed 13 cities from Haan Principality. In 242 BC, Meng Ao grabbed 20 cities from Wei Principality and set up Dong-jun (East) Commandary. In 241 BC, a five statelet joint army attacked Qin. In 240 BC, comet was observed in the sky. General Meng Ao died in this year. Qin Queen Dowager (Zi-chu's mother) died as well. In 239 BC, Prince Chang'anjun (Cheng Jiao), while under order to attack Zhao Principality, rebelled against his half brother Qin King. Eunuch Lao-Ai (Marquis Changxin-hou) rebelled in 238 BC and got quelled by Qin's prime ministers (Prince Changping-jun and Prince Changwen-jun, all princes of Chu Principality), with two sons (Shihuangdi's half brothers) ordered killed by throwing them onto the ground in bags. Lv Buwei was deprived of his post and titles for being implicated to Lao-Ai. A Qi person, by the name of Mao Jiao, somehow persuaded Shihuangdi into welcoming his birth mother back from banishment.
     
    One legalist, Li Si, would play a role in Shihuangdi's political belief. Li Si once stopped Qin King from driving non-Qin people out of Qin capital. In face of allied attacks by various principalities, a person called Liao from Daliang (today's Kaifeng) would propose to Qin King to sow dissension among various principalities via bribing the ministers of the principalities. At one time, Liao fled Qin as a result of fearing for his life because he thought that Qin King, with long eyes and leopard voice, was ferocious and might someday kill him. Qin King caught Liao and conferred him the title of 'wei', equivalent to commander-in-charge. (Liao was hence referred to as 'Wei-liao'.) In 236 BC, General Wang Jian was ordered to attack Shanxi Province. In 235 BC, Lv Buwei died. His thousand followers were reprimanded by Qin King for mourning for Lv Buwei's death. In 234-233 BC, Qin army attacked Zhao. Haan(2) King sent his prince, Hanfei-zi, to Qin. Hanfei-zi (Haan Fei Zi), who admired the works of Shang Yang, was the prince of the state of Haan. When Hanfei-zi came over to Qin, his classmate, Li Si, would plot to have Qin King retain Hanfei-zi. Hanfei-zi was later killed by Li Si out of envy for the favor that Shihuangdi had shown to Hanfei-zi. Haan(2) King requested for vassalage with Qin. In 232 BC, Qin attacked Haan Principality again. Earthquake was recorded in this year. In 231 BC, both Haan and Wei surrendered some of their lands to Qin. In 230 BC, Haan was converted into Yinchuan Commandary and Haan King An surrendered to Qin. Earthquake was recorded again this year.
     
    In a series of campaigns between 230 to 221 B.C., Qin, unified China and founded the Qin Empire in 211 B.C. From 230-221 BC., Qin Emperor Shihuangdi crushed Haan, Zhao, Wei, Yen, Chu, and Qi one by one. In 230 BC, Haan King An surrendered. In 239 BC, General Wang Jian attacked Zhao. In 228 BC, Zhao King Qian surrendered. Qin King went to Handan the Zhao's capital and killed all those Zhao people who offended Ying Zhen while he was a hostage in Zhao. In this year, Qin King's birth mother died. One Zhao prince, Jia(1), went to the ancient Dai Prefecture and declared himself King of Dai. Prince Jia allied with Yan Principality. In 227 BC, Prince Yan-Dan, i.e., a childhood pal of Qin King while serving as hostages in Zhao capital, sent an assasin called Jing Ke to abduct Qin King. Jing Ke, who borrowed the head of ex-Qin defector general Fan Yuqi, brought along a teenage called Qin Wuyang as his assistant. Jing Ke hid a knife inside the maps of Yan Principality and attempted to abduct and/or assasin Qin King while he was showing the maps, but Qin King somehow escaped alive. Qin King sent General Wang Jian to attack Yan as a retaliation. In 226 BC, General Wang Ben, son of Wang Jian, took over the capital [i.e., Beijing area] and killed Prince Yan. General Wang Jian retired. In 225, General Wang Ben attacked Wei Principality and flooded Kaifeng. In this year, Wei King Jia(3) surrendered. In 224 BC, General Wang Jian was recalled for attacking Chu. Chu King Fu-Chu surrendered. Chu General Xiang Yan erected Prince Changpingjun as the new Chu King and counter-attacked Qin south of the Huai River. In 223 BC, General Wang Jian and General Meng Wu defeated Chu and killed Changpingjun. General Xiang Yan committed suicide. In 222 BC, General Wang Fen pursued Yan King who fled to the east Liaoning Province. Yan King Xi surrendered. On the way back, General Wang Ben attacked King of Dai, Jia, and captured him. Meanwhile, General Wang Jian went on to conquer the Yue land which was part of Chu at the time and set up Kuaiji Commandary. In 221 BC, Qi King Jian closed off the border with Qin. General Wang Ben went to attack Qi, and Jian surrendered.
     
    During the 26th year of his reign, by 221 BC, Shihuangdi completed the unification of China and he established the so-called 'Jun-Xian System', namely, commandary-county system, at the advice of his prime minister, Li Si (Li Szu). Shihuangdi rezoned his country into 36 commandaries in lieu of conferring dukes and kings to his sons.
     

     

     
    Written by Ah Xiang
     
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