*** Translation, Tradducion, Ubersetzung , Chinese ***
HomePage Huns Turks & Uygurs Tibetans Koreans Khitans Manchus Mongols Taiwanese Ryukyu Japanese Vietnamese  
Pre-History Xia-Shang Zhou Qin Han 3 States Jinn 16 Nations South-North Sui-Tang 5 Plus 10 States Soong Liao Xi Xia Jurchen Yuan Ming Qing  
Tragedy Of Chinese Revolution Terrors Wars China: Caste Society Anti-Rightists Cultural Revolution 6-4 Massacre Land Enclosure FaLunGong  
Videos about China's Resistance War: The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking; Bombing of Chungking; The Burma Road (in English)
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Nanchang Mutiny; Canton Commune; Korean/Chinese Communists & the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria; Communist-instigated Fujian Chinese Republic
Communist-instigated Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Enemy From Within; Huangqiao Battle; N4C Incident
1945-1949 Civil War
Liao-Shen, Xu-Beng, Ping-Jin Yangtze Campaigns
Siege of Taiyuan - w/1000+ Soviet Artillery Pieces (Video)
The Korean War The Vietnam War

*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
Antiquity The Prehistory
Fiery Lord
Chi-you
Yellow Lord
Xia Dynasty 1991-1959 BC 1
2070-1600 BC 2
2207-1766 BC 3
Shang Dynasty 1559-1050 BC 1
1600-1046 BC 2
1765-1122 BC 3
Western Zhou 1050 - 771 BC 1
1046 - 771 BC 2
1121 - 771 BC 3
Eastern Zhou 770-256 BC
770-249 BC 3
Sping & Autumn 722-481 BC
770-476 BC 3
Warring States 403-221 BC
476-221 BC 3
Qin Statelet 900s?-221 BC
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
248-207 BC 3
Western Han 206 BC-23 AD
Xin (New) 9-23 AD
Western Han 23-25 AD
Eastern Han 25-220
Three Kingdoms Wei 220-265
Three Kingdoms Shu 221-263
Three Kingdoms Wu 222-280
Western Jinn 265-316
Eastern Jinn 317-420
16 Nations 304-420
Cheng Han Di 301-347
Hun Han (Zhao) Hun 304-329 ss
Anterior Liang Chinese 317-376
Posterior Zhao Jiehu 319-352 ss
Anterior Qin Di 351-394 ss
Anterior Yan Xianbei 337-370
Posterior Yan Xianbei 384-409
Posterior Qin Qiang 384-417 ss
Western Qin ss Xianbei 385-431
Posterior Liang Di 386-403
Southern Liang Xianbei 397-414
Northern Liang Hun 397-439
Southern Yan Xianbei 398-410
Western Liang Chinese 400-421
Hunnic Xia Hun 407-431 ss
Northern Yan Chinese 409-436
North Dynasties 386-581
Northern Wei 386-534
Eastern Wei 534-550
Western Wei 535-557
Northern Qi 550-577
Northern Zhou 557-581
South Dynasties 420-589
Liu Song 420-479
Southern Qi 479-502
Liang 502-557
Chen 557-589
Sui Dynasty 581-618
Tang Dynasty 618-690
Wu Zhou 690-705
Tang Dynasty 705-907
Five Dynasties 907-960
Posterior Liang 907-923
Posterior Tang 923-936
Posterior Jinn 936-946
Posterior Han 947-950
Posterior Zhou 951-960
10 Kingdoms 902-979
Wu 902-937 Nanking
Shu 907-925 Sichuan
Nan-Ping 907-963 Hubei
Wu-Yue 907-978 Zhejiang
Min 907-946 Fukien
Southern Han 907-971 Canton
Chu 927-956 Hunan
Later Shu 934-965 Sichuan
Southern Tang 937-975 Nanking
Northern Han 951-979 Shanxi
Khitan Liao 907-1125
Northern Song 960-1127
Southern Song 1127-1279
Western Xia 1032-1227
Jurchen Jin (Gold) 1115-1234
Mongol Yuan 1279-1368
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Manchu Qing 1644-1912
R.O.C. 1912-1949
R.O.C. Taiwan 1949-present
P.R.C. 1949-present

 

 
   

ZHOU DYNASTY


 
The people of Zhou Dynasty lived in an area that was considered to be the dwelling place of the Xirong & Rongdi, somewhere in western Shaanxi Province, near today's Gansu/Sichuan border. In another sense, the original Chinese 3000 years ago could not be much different from the Xirong & Rongdi at all. While the ancient Chinese were considered sedentary with fixing places like the cities and castles, the Xirong & Rongdi barbarians remained nomadic, constantly on the move. In both Shenxi (Shaanxi) and Shanxi Province, records had shown that the Xirong & Rongdi barbarians and the ancient Chinese co-habitated in an interspersing way. Charles Hucker, in "China's Imperial Past", made speculation about the distinction between the sedentary and nomadic ways of life in China's northwestern areas, around the Yellow River line, at the time of early history: That is, the two ways of life had existed among both the Xia-ren or the Chinese and the nomadic people; both groups of people had partial agriculture and partial husbandry in the area; it was due to the Xia Chinese building up the walled states that led to the polarization of the two ways of life. This webmaster, though, would paraphrase it in one more way: Namely, every change of the dynasties of Xia or Shang would see the former rulers and their clansmen fleeing to the northern or western border to be the new generation of the barbarians. The later Qin dynasty remnants could have become the so-called Qin-hu barbarians to the west and the Qin-han statelet on the Korean peninsula.
 
The Zhou people, counted as a vassal of the Shang Chinese, were living among the barbaric west. According to SHI JI, the Zhou people's ancestor could be traced to Houji, the Chinese guardian or father of agriculture. Houji, like Shang ancestor Xie, was the son of ancient overlord Diku. Houji's mother was named Jiang Yuan, a You-tai-shi (Fufeng and Wugong, Shenxi Province) woman, carrying the Fiery Lord tribal name. The Zhou people, said to be descendants of the Xia people, had intermarriage with the Jiang-surname Qiangic Fiery Lord tribe, which would be a prevalent way of Ji-Jiang marriage among the early Chinese. (The later statelets of Qi, Shen, Xu and Lv all belonged to the Jiang family. Lu Lord Xigong's 21st year stated that the clans of 'Ren', 'Su', 'Xugou' and 'Zhuanyu' [i.e., ordained to guard Mt. Mengshan] were Feng-surnamed, i.e., the wind surnamed statelets.)
 
The legend said that Houji was born after his mother stepped onto the footprints of a giant. The footprints of a 'giant', when mapping the Di1-Qiangic legends about Fu Jian's mother dreaming about a big bear before pregnancy, could be an ancient euphemistic way of hinting at the footprints of a brown bear, i.e., the equivalent Big Foot story among the North American Indians. Houji, being deserted to the moutains and lakes by his mother, was taken care of by the beasts and birds. As a result of being abandoned when born with an unbroken placenta, he was called by 'Qi4' or the abandoned boy. SHI JING, in the section SHENG MIN (bearing of the people), described Hou-ji as being born like a baby sheep in an intact placenta. Both Lord Yao and Lord Shun used 'Qi4' as the master of agriculture, with Lord Shun assigning him to the land of Tai as his fief and naming him by the agricultural title 'Hou-ji', one of the three agricultural titles as carried in ZHOU YU of GUO YU. The name 'houji' then became a standard title as the "agriculture minister". Lord Yao conferred Hou-ji the last name of 'Ji', meaning origin in one way of interpretation. Confucius had commented on the story of the You-ji-shi clan. Literally, for the name Hou-ji, the prefix 'hou' meant a descendant in the modern sense, but a possibly "imperial-grandiose" title like Hou-tu, said to be one of the Gong-gong-shi dynasty sons, with 'hou' meaning more than a descendant but an adjective in parallel to the combination 'huang{imperial-grandiose}-tian{heaven}', as well as Hou-yi, the legendary sun-shooting leader who usurped the Xia dynasty rule. The character 'ji' itself had its confusion, with Lord Yao possessing a so-called Zhou-dynasty-era 'ji-guan' or the grains official, with all the future references combining the character 'she4' {literally meaning mud} for the oblation temple and the character 'ji' for the grains, to mean a country's foundation or pillars. The 'ji-guan' or the grains official, of course, did not start with Hou-ji as agricultural/prehistoric China, per LU YU of GUO YU, possessed someone called Zhu4, a son of the Lie-shan-shi clan [i.e., equivalent to Shen-nong-yi {the Divine Farmer} or Yandi {the Fiery Lord}], renowned for planting hundreds of grains and hundreds of vegetables. Note that the later Zhou people had adopted a different character 'Ji1' for their clan's surname, which was the name used by the Yellow Lord. This Yellow Lord's character 'ji", per BAI HU TONG [white tiger compendium], was implied to have the same soundex as the footprints of a giant. Using the Di1-Qiangic legends, we could say that the woman from the Qiangic or the sheep totem tribe had married someone from the brown bear totem tribe, i.e., one of the animal totem tribes of Northwest China. Per SHAN HAN JING [The Legends of Mountains and Seas], Hou-ji was buried in the land of today's Sichuan basin after death, which in an alternative perspective shed light on the nature of the Sinitic people as from the west of China versus the prehistoric Jiang-surnamed people and the Nine Yi people to the east. Cao Pi, emperor of the Wei Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms time period, in eulogizing minister Du Ji, likened Hou-ji's dying in the mountains while working as Lord Shun/Lord Yu's agricultural minister to Shang ancestor Marquis Ming's dying in the waters of the Yellow River as the irrigation minister for the Xia dynasty.
 
After Xia King Taikang lost his throne, Buzhu, i.e., Houji's son or [possibly] "multi-generational" descendant [by citation of the ambiguity about the generational gaps in GUO YU], left for the west in the aftermath of the abandonment of the agriculture post by the [usurped] Xia Dynasty court. There was some confusion about where Buzhu went, and it could be a move to today's southern Shanxi from western Shandong, i.e., the original Grand Xia land, not the Rong & Di land in today's Shenxi Province. Another two generations will be Gongliu who renewed agriculture in the Rong & Di land. This renewal would be a basis for a claim that the Zhou people had consecutively changed their modes of life. Ancestor Gongliu then relocated the Zhou clan to Bin. Gongliu's son (Qingjie) set up a statelet in a place called 'Bin'. The 'Bin' here was disputed by some scholars to be still in Shanxi Prov rather than Shenxi Province. 'Bin' was commonly taken to be in today's central Shenxi Province, a place belonging to the Xirong later , i.e., today's Xunyi where Liu Zhidan's communist Red Army banditry sought safe haven. Another eight generations or three hundred years would be Zhou Dynasty's founder, Gugong (aka Danfu [Tanfu]). Ancestor Gugong-tanfu, under the attacks of the barbarians, relocated southwestward to Zhouyuan, south of Mt. Qishan. The Zhou people, on basis of the ancient poems SHI JING, had constant battles and fights against the Rong & Di people, and moved around possibly in southern Shenxi and along the We-Shui, Luo-he and Yi-shui rivers area, not the present Bin-xian County area, which was the banditry den of Liu Zhidan's Red Army of central Shenxi. Gugong, being attacked by the Rong & Di and Xunyu barbarians, would relocate to Mount Qishan. The people of 'Bin' followed him to Qishan. Gugong abolished the Rong & Di customs, built a city in a plain area called Zhou-yuan under the foot of Mt. Qishan, and devised five posts of si tu, si ma, si kong, si shi, & si kou per Shang Dynasty's court system. Though, Some scholars disputed the five posts since bronze inscription did not add up to the five counts. Gugong declared their statelet 'Zhou'. From this definite statement, some historians deduce that the character 'Zhou' which the Shang people had described about in the Oracle bones prior to this event was not the same as the Zhou statelet that Gugong had launched. Gugong, known as 'Zhou King Taiwang' (i.e., the grand king) posthumously, was said by the poem to be unmarried at the time. SHI JING, in the poem on the ivy, eulogized Gugong's move, with a claim that mankind was born from the gourd kind of cucumbers. SHI JING [classics of the poems], had the 'MIAN' poem to the effect that "mianmian [un-interrupted ivy lines of] gua [large gourd or melon] die [small gourd or melon], min zhi chusheng [the initial birth of mankind]".
 
Both Gugong-tanfu and his descendant, Zhou Lord Ji Li [Ji-li or Jili], lived during the reign years of Shang King Wuyi. Ji Li's son, born by a Zhi-ren-shi or Zhi-zhong-shi woman, would be Ji Chang, i.e., Zhou King Wenwang or Count Xibo was said to have possessed four nipples. Zhou King Wenwang was recorded to be bird-nosed, tiger-shouldered, and dragon-faced. Ji Li's mother was called Tai-jiang, a Jiang surname woman of the You-tai-shi clan. Xu Zhuoyun cited scholar Liu Qiyi's research of 'jin wen' or bronze inscription in stating that 12 kings of the Western Zhou dynasty had inter-married with the Jiang-surname women consecutively. Gugong's elder son, 'Tai Bo', went to the Yantze Delta (Meili Village, Wuxi County, Changzhou, Jiangsu) for sake of launching own statelet. Tai Bo wanted to yield the succession to his brother because the ancient mandate said that the son of Tai Bo's brother (Ji Li) would be the future lord of the Zhou people. (Xu Zhuoyun speculated that Tai Bo was deliberately dispatched to the Yangtze Delta as a tactic move to circumvent and attack Shang Dynasty from both directions.)
 
A mediocre sinologist error would be to claim that the Zhou people originated from the west or 'Central Asia'. The 'west' story could have derived from two inputs: the Zhou people's locality to the west of the Xia and Shang people, and Zhou King Wuwang's claim as people from the west. As we detailed below, when Zhou Lord Wuwang campaigned against last Shang King Zhouwang, he eulogized his alliance's bravery by calling his armies the "people from the west". Scholar Liu Qiyu, in anthology The Hua Xia Civilization, tackled the issue of 'xi' or west. His validation pointed to the land of 'he qu' (i.e., the inflexion point of the Yellow River Bends) as the 'land of the west', i.e, the later land between the Qin and Jinn principalities. (Zhou King Wuwang's alliance also pointed to the fact that the Zhou people, by the timeframe of the 11th century B.C.E., had basically surrounded the Shang people from north, west and south. In the WU-CHENG section of ZHOU SHU of SHANG SHU, a statement was made to refer to the alliance of people from the Hua [Mt. Hua-shan] land of the west), the Xia people of the central plains, the 'Man' people of the south and the 'Mo' people of the north, all converging under the banner of the Zhou leadership.)
Liu Qiyu cited Guo Yu's statement in regards to You-yu-shi as proof that the Yu clan had deep connection with the Xia people. The statement from Guo Yu could be paraphrased like this: "In ancient times, Count Chong-bo Gun also reigned in the land of the You-yu-shi clan." Count Chong-bo Gun was the father of Lord Yu and dwelled in southern or southwestern Shanxi Province, i.e., the east bank of today's East Yellow River Bend. The You-yu-shi clan's locality, considered the second 'Xia Ruins' in archaeology, would be in today's eastern Shenxi Province, i.e., Hancheng (west bank of the today's East Yellow River Bend) and Pucheng (west bank of Luo-shui River). This shows that the Xia people had in fact dwelled on both banks of the Yellow River plus the inflexion point in today's northeastern Henan Province. Today's East Yellow River Bend was known as 'Xi-he' or the western river because the Yellow River did not flow horizontally into the sea via Shandong Prov but made an eastern bend northward for exit into the sea in today's Hebei Province. Liu Qiyu researched into ancient classics Mu Shi (i.e., the Oath of War at Muye) and concluded that Zhou King Wuwang's reference to 'xi tu' would be the land to the west of the later Tongguan Pass of eastern Shenxi Province.
 
The Zhou People's Origin
The Zhou people traced their ancestor to Houji who was buried in the land of Sichuan-Gansu border per SHAN HAN JING. That was of course the era of the Five Sovereigns. After the Xia Dyansty was launched, the Zhou people were living in the heartland of China as hereditary agricultural ministers. Zhou ancestor Buzhu, i.e., Houji's son or [possibly] "multi-generational" descendant [by citation of the ambiguity about generational gap in GUO YU], left for the west after the [Dong-yi-usurped] Xia Dynasty abandoned the agriculture post. Per historical records, the Zhou people acted as "agriculture minister" for the Xia court, from ancestor Qi4 to ancestor Buzhu, which meant that the Zhou clan dwelled most likely in today's Henan-Shandong border line, with the naming of a place by 'Tai2', south of today's Zhangqiu of Shandong. Some confusion existed as to the place Buzhu had left for, either somewhere still in southwestern Shanxi Prov or somewhere across the Yellow River in Shenxi Province. Roughly, the Zhou people, from ancestor Buzhu to ancestor Gongliu, dwelled in southern Shanxi and then southeast of today's Xi'an, Shenxi. Xu Zhuoyun, in Xi Zhou Shi (i.e., The History of Western Zhou Dynasty, 1973 edition, Lianjing Publishing House, Taipei, Taiwan), stated that the Zhou ancestors, per scholar Qian Mu's 1931 dissertation, migrated westward to Shenxi Prov from Shanxi Province. Xu Zhuoyun cited Ban Gu's HOU HAN SHU in stating that the Fen-yin area of southern Shanxi Province, possessing a temple in the name of Zhou ancestor Houji, should be the Zhou people's original habitation area. Xu Zhuoyun listed 16 sentences in Shang Dynasty's divination and oracle records to prove that the Shang people, at the reign of Shang Dynasty King Aoding, had instructed the subordinate tribes in campaiging against the Zhou people and speculated that the Zhou ancestors must have lived around southern Shanxi province, a place to the northeast of the inflexion point of the Yellow River. Liu Qiyu pointed out that after the demise of Xia, whoever stayed in Shanxi/Shenxi provinces continued to call themselves the 'Xia' people. First Zhou King Wenwang eulogized the eastward flow of the Fen-shui River to Lord Yu's accomplishment and numerous Zhou Dynasty records stated that they were descendants of Xia Dynasty founder Lord Yu. (There were two citation in ZUO ZHUAN that contradicted this claim, with the Ji-lineage principality lords distancing themselves from the people of Qi3-guo [i.e., the Xia descendants], and calling the Qi3-guo people by 'Qi3-yi' or the eastern Yi people of Qi3; though, alternative explanation was made to the effect that Qi3 Lord Chenggong had adopted the [Eastern] Yi customs and practiced it to the day of his death, and that the Wey-guo minister was actually stating that it was not Wey-guo's fault to not have reverance for the Xia Dynasty lord Xiang because the ghosts-gods [i.e., spirits] had deserted the Xia lords, not the common interpretation that the Wey-guo people did not revere the Xia lord Xiang's oblation because the Ji-surnamed Wey people did not belong to the same lineage as the Xia people.)
 
The Shang & Zhou Relations
Often neglected would be the oracle or divination inscriptions on the bronze utensils left by the Zhou people at Mt Qishan. During the earlier reign of Shang King Aoding, the Zhou people were often campaigned against by Shang Dynasty. But later on, Zhou began to submitt to Shang and assist Shang in numerous campaigns against the barbarians in today's Shanxi and Gansu Provinces. In Shang Dynasty's oracle bones, two vassals, i.e., the Zhou statelet and Marquis Jiu-hou [Gui-hou], which was speculated to be the Gui-fang statelet, had taken charge of fighting the proto-Qiangic Rong barbarians on behalf of Shang, and furthermore surrendered the Qiangic prisoners to Shang for live burial. This speculation of equating Jiu-hou to the Gui-fang statelet was just one though, with the surname books pointing to the ancient Jiu-wu-shi clan to be the orogin of Jiu-hou, which had theie descendants including the 'Chou' or 'Qiu' last name. (Shang Dynasty's tombs, per ROC-era scholars Li Ji and Yang Ximei, had purportedly produced a diverfied range of skulls, with limited numbers ascertained to be sacrificial nature of people of the Caucasoid type, and of the Austronesian pigmy type, and etc. However, Yu Jinquan and Zang Zhenhua reversed their predecessor's conclusion to state that the measure on the skulls using the pure visual judgment was incorrect, and on basis of the shovel-shaped teeth, concluded that those Shang tomb victims were all Mongoloid in the sense of physical anthropology.)
 
Xu Zhuoyun cited Chen Mengjia's research in pointing out that Zhou Taiwang, during Shang King Wuyi's reign, relocated to Mt Qishan under the pressure of the Doggy Rong; that Zhou Lord Ji Li [Ji-li or Jili], during the 34th year reign of Shang King Wuyi, paid pilgrimage to the Shang court; that Jili defeated the Xiluo-Gui-rong barbarians and captured 20 Di[2] kings the next year [i.e., the 35th year of Shang King Wu-yi]on behalf of the Shang court but Shang King Wuyi was killed by a lightening around the Wei-shui River when the Shang king was hunting in the area of the Yellow River and Wei River; that Jili campaigned against the Yanjing-rong (Yan-rong) barbarians but got defeated during the 2nd year reign of Shang King Taiding (Wending), an event that pointed to the fact that the Zhou army, acting as a mercenary army for Shang, had in fact transferred to today's Shanxi-Hebei area from western China to fight the mountain Rong; that Jili, two years thereafter, i.e., the 4th year of Shang King Wending, defeated Wuyu-rong (Yuwu-rong) barbarians and received conferral as 'mu shi' (shepherd chancellor) from the Shang king; that Jili first campaigned against the Shihu-rong barbarians during the 7th year reign of Shang King Taiding and against the Yitu-rong barbarians during the 11th year reign of Shang King Taiding, and defeated three "da fu' of the barbarians; that Jili was killed by Shang King Wending (Taiding) thereafter, when Ji-li defeated and captured three da-fu of the Yitu-rong and came to the Shang court to surrender the prisoners of war, with historians commenting in THE BAMBOO ANNALS that the Shang king put Ji-li under the house arrest at the Shang capital where Ji-li was pressed [pressured or stressed] to death; and that the Zhou people began to attack Shang Dynasty during the 2nd year reign of Shang King Di-yi (Yili) [- which was not shown in THE BAMBOO ANNALS as it recorded that Count Xi-bo (Ji Chang) began to attack Di2 in the 17th year of Shang King Xin]. Xu Zhuoyun speculated that Shang King Wu-yi most likely died in the hands of the Zhou people rather than a lightening strike in a similar coverup as later Zhou King Zhaowang's death on the Huai-shui River in a conflict with the southern barbarians [? the Jing people who dwelled in the same land as the ancient Sanmiao, a linkage area to the Shu & Ba states in today's Sichuan]. However, the Shang-Zhou relationship had improved since Jili's successor, Ji Chang, i.e., posthumous Zhou King Wenwang, had again married with the Shang princess. Both the mother and the wife of Zhou King Wenwang, per scholar Fu Sinian, were princesses of the Shang royal house. The Zhou people were conferred the title of 'Xi Bo' (Count of the West) by Shang Dynasty King Zhouwang as a buffer state against the western and northwestern barbarians. The barbarians here could be very likely the remnants of the Xia people who were overthrown by the Shang people, as well as the mountain Rong people who dwelled at today's Shanxi-Hebei-Chahar border area.
 
 
Zhou's Feudal System
 
Charles Hucker had another point, namely, the Zhou Dynasty's system is exactly the same feudal system as Medieval Europe, except for one distinction: Zhou's feudal statelets shared a blood relationship with the Zhou king, either through hereditary rights or the inter-marriage. This assertion has its historical merits because China's academics, under the influence of the so-called 'historical materialism', treats the first Chinese Empire of Qin as the start of the feudal society while anything preceding it as the 'slave society'. Zhou's feudal system, in fact, never fully died away, except for a short time period of the Qin Empire during which time the 'Jun-Xian System' (namely the Commandary-County System) was erected after Emperor Shihuangdi first united China under an autocratic centralized rule. The end of Qin marked a restoration of the various Zhou statelets or dukedoms, and early Han Dynasty continued with the conferral of Kings and Dukes. Emperors of later dynasties frequently played with the game of upgrade and downgrade of the feudal titles between king and duke.
 
The Zhou Kings As Moral, Political, Military & Familial Leaders:
Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against Shang Dynasty in the 11th century BC was said to have been glorified by the later historians and rulers. Charles Hucker treated the success in capturing Chaoge (the Shang capital) as nothing other than a looting.
www.chinaknowledge.de also disputed Shang China's influence as extending nowhere beyong its capital which we called by the name of the 'Shang Wastes' or 'Shang Ruins'. This webmaster's opinion is that we should treat the ancient Chinese overlords as moral, political, military and familial leaders; hence, both the Shang and Zhou government had adopted a kind of 'laissez fair' attitude in governing the domain and vassals. Zhou King Wuwang, after his success in defeating Shang, went back to his home in western China. Further, he allowed two of his brothers (Guan-shu and Cai-shu) to stay on in the Shang capital district together with the the Shang prince. The actual order was to have Xian (Guan-shu) and Du (Cai-shu) act as the prime minister for ex-Shang prince Wugeng-lufu. Alternatively speaking, King Wuwang allocated the northern, eastern and southern outskirts of the Zhou capital as fiefs for uncles Chuan-shu, Cai-shu and Huo-shu. While Zhou King Wuwang showed leniency to the ex-Shang order, his successor, Zhougong, had taken a drastic measure to rezone the country after quelling the rebellion.
 
After King Wuwang's death, Zhou-gong (Duke Zhou) - who was commonly taken to be King Wuwang's brother but could be possibly a maternal cousin of King Wuwang, would assume the post of a regent. This led to the rebellion of the Shang people (under Shang Prince Wugeng) and the three Zhou brothers. From the excavated articles, there was sign that Zhougong actually issued decrees in the name of a king. It would be Duke Zhou who would be responsible for quelling the rebellion, after a campaign of three years. Further Duke Zhou took measures to exert the Zhou influence throughout China proper. Zhougong reached possibly the land of 'Yi2' and 'Xi1' and drove the Yi rebels to the south of the Yangtze per LV-SHI-CHUN-QIU, extending influence and ruling via the re-zoning of vassalage and the conferring of duke and marquis titles. For the first time, Duke Zhou (Zhougong) laid out the blueprint of a relatively uniform society that will continue on for one millennium. Xun-zi commented that Zhougong had re-zoned the land into 71 vassals, with 53 carrying the Zhou surname of 'Ji(1)'. --Though, the ridddle here is that ZUO ZHUAN stated clearly that the mother of Zhou King Wuwang, who was a daughter of Jiang-surnamed counsellor Jiang Taigong, had eight brothers, including Zhou-gong et al., while SHI JI etc could be wrong in saying that Zhou King Wenwang had ten sons. The widely-recorded names among Zhou King Wenwang's sons were Ji Boyikao, and Ji Fa (Zhou King Wenwang), while Zhou King Wuwang's sons included Ji Geng and Ji Song (i.e., Zhou King Chenwang). SHI JI stated that Wenwang had several wives, including Tai-jiang, Tai-ren, and Tai-si, et als., with Tai-si enjoying the last name 'Si' of Lord Yu's lineage; that Tai-si born Bo-Yikao, Fa, Xian (Guan-shu), Dan (Zhou-gong), Du (Cai-shu), Zhenduo (Cao-shu), Wu (Cheng-shu), Chu, (Huo-shu), Feng (Kang-shu) and Zai (Ya Ji-zai; Ran Ji-zai of the Ran Principality in today's Huyang, Annhui Province). Alternatively, historians who compared the records from books and excavation had pointed out that among Zhou King Wenwang's sons, fifteen enjoyed conferral of fiefdoms, such as Shen-guo or Dan-guo under Ji Zhai, Gao-guo, and Cao-guo under Ji-zhenduo; and among King Wuwang's sons, four enjoyed conferral of fiefdoms. The controversy here is that ZUO ZHUAN stated that Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang, had set up fifteen "brotherly" statelets, and among all the new fiefs, there were forty states that were Ji-surnamed. The "brotherly" states could be those held by blood brother, cousins, and uncles, in fact.
 
The early Zhou kings were the true commander-in-chief. They were in constant wars with the barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called 'guo', namely, the statelet or principality. Charles Hucker noted that Zhou had 14 standing royal armies, with 6 stationed in Haojing, near today's Xi'an, and 8 armies stationed in the east. Other than the 'xi-liu-shi' (the western six armies) and 'Chengzhou-ba-shi" (eight armies at Chengzhou), the Zhou court had retained eight Shang armies ("Yin-ba-shi") which, under the command of Count Bo-maofu, participated in the campaigns against the Yi people to the east. Zhou King Zhaowang (r. 1052-1001 BC) was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze and Han-shui Rivers area and died in his last action. Zhou King Muwang (r. 1001-946 BC; 962-908 per BAMBOO) was a legendary figure famous for fightings in the west. King Muwang was rumored to have travelled to today's Central Asia where he met and rondevous on Kunlun Mountain with so-called Xi Wang Mu, namely, Queen Mother of the West. Western historians, including Charles Hucker, claimed this queen mother to be Queen of Sheba. (The actual place for the Kunlun Mountains would be somewhere close to today's Jiuquan County, Gansu Province. Mt. Kunlun, extending for almost 2000 miles, from the Kara-Kunlun bordering Tibet in the west to the Qilian Mountain in the east, was a source of many Chinese myths and legends. For the fictional travelogue Mu-tian-zi, see http://www.imperialchina.org/Dynasties/?p=43)
 
The later kings' campaigns were less effective. King Liwang (r. 878 - 827 BC) led 14 armies against the barbarians in the south but failed to achieve any victory. King Xuanwang (r 827-782 BC) was said to have fought the Jiang-rong barbarians in vain; however, SHI JING gloriously eulogized Xuanwang's victorious campaigns against the barbarians to the north and to the south. King Youwang was killed by the Quanrong, and the Zhou capital city of Haojing was sacked, ending the Western Zhou Dynasty phase.
 
 
Zigzags With the Rong & Di Barbarians
 
In the hun.htm section, this webmaster had expounded the ethnic nature of various Rong-di people, cleared the dispute in regards to the ethnicity of the 'Rong' people, and proven that the Rong people, being mainly Sino-Tibetan speaking Qiangic people, shared the same blood-line as the Xia Chinese but differred in 'Culture' such as cuisine, clothing, money and language. At times of Zhou Dynasty, pockets of barbarian tribes and statelets still existed in the hearts of the Yellow River area and on the Shandong Peninsula, as in the case of the Di Statelet, the Chi Di Statelet & Sou Man's Chang-di Statelet etc. (Those barbarian statelets could have moved into central China at the invitation of the Qin and Jinn principalities, as we were to detail later. Also, during the Zhou Dynasty time period, the naming for the barbarians had changed to the Rong-di/Jiang-rong/Quan-rong/Xi-rong and Yi designation from that of Yi-di as might have existed during the Xia Dynasty time period.)
 
Count of West, Xibo, namely, Zhou ancestor Ji Chang, once attacked the Doggy Rongs (said to be same as the Yun-surnamed Xianyun barbarians). Dozen years later, Zhou King Wuwang exiled the Rongs north of the Jing & Luo Rivers. The Rongs were also called Huangfu at the time, a name to mean their 'erratic submission'. 200 years later, during the 17th year reign [i.e., 956 BC per THE BAMBOO ANNALS], Zhou King Muwang was noted for defeating the barbarians, reaching the Qinhai-Gansu regions in the west, meeting with Queen Mother of West on Mt Kunlun [possibly around the Dunhuang area], and then relocating the barbarians eastward to Tai-yuan, i.e., the starting point of the Jing-shui River for better management [in a similar fashion to Han Emperr Wudi's relocating the Southern Huns to the south of the north Yellow River Bend]. Zhou King Muwang resettled the barbarians at the origin of the Jingshui River, among them, Yiqu, Yuzhi, Wuzhi, Xuyan and Penglu, namely, the five Rongs as noted in history -- which could be the origin for the misnomer 'Indo-European' Yuezhi. History recorded that King Muwang captured four white wolves & four white deers (white deer and white wolf being the titles of ministers of Rongdi barbarians) during his campaign. The Huangfu (Doggy Rong) people then no longer sent in yearly gifts and tributes. Zhou King Yiwang, the grandson of King Muwang (r. 1,001 - 946 BC; 962-908 per BAMBOO), would be attacked by the Rongs. King Yiwang ordered Guo-gong to attack the Taiyuan-rong. The great grandson, King Xuanwang (reign 827 - 782 per BAMBOO), finally fought back against the Rongs. SHI JIng eulogized King Xuanwang's reaching Tai-yuan (original Tai-yuan being not the appropriated one in the central Shanxi Prov of today). Thereafter, King Youwang (reign 781-771) was killed by the Doggy Rongs at the foothill of the Lishan Mountain and capital Haojing was sacked. The Rongs who stayed on at Lishan were called the Li-rong. The Rongs moved to live between the Jing & Wei Rivers. Lord Qin Xianggong was conferred the old land of Zhou by Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720). Zhou King Pingwang encouraged the Qin Lord to drive out the Quan-rongs.
 
65 years later, in the east, the Shan-rong or Mountain Rongs, who were of the Tungunsic stock, went across the Yan Principality of Hebei Province to attack the Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province. 44 years later, the Mountain Rongs attacked the Yan Principality. Around 664 BC, the Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. The story of 'old horses knew the way home' would be about the joint army being lost after they penetrated deep into the Shanrong land. Hence, Yan Statelet extended by 500 li to the northwest, in addition to the eastward 50 li which was given to Count Yan for his escorting Marquis Qi all the way into the Qi Statelet. During the 16th year of Zhou King Huiwang (reign 676-652), namely, 661 BC, the Chang Di barbarians who were located near today's Jinan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Chang Di barbarians, hearing of the Qi army's counter-attacks against the Shanrong, embarked on a pillage in central China by attacking Wey (spelled in same way as
www.chinaknowledge.de for sake of differentiation from the former Wei eliminated by Jinn and the later Wei that was split from Jinn) and Xing statelets. The Chang Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he' (cranes), and they cut him into pieces. A Wey minister would later find Yigong's liver to be intact, and hence he committed suicide by cutting apart his chest and saving Yigong's liver inside of his body.
 
20 years later, the Rong-di barbarians attacked Zhou King Xiangwang (reign 651-619) at the encouragement of Zhou Queen who was a daughter of the Rongdi ruler. By this time, the Rong-di had moved into central China at the invitation of the Qin and Jinn principalities. The later Zhou court put blame on the Jinn royal family for inviting the barbarians to the heartland of China. Per section "Qi Yu" of "Guo Yu", Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria [depending on how you interpret the localities of the two statelets] in 664 BC, had campaigned against the Bai-di barbarians in the west [i.e., the area of central Shanxi] in 651 BC (i.e., the 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Huan'gong was recorded to have occupied 'da xia' (i.e., the Grand Xia land) in today's southern/central Shanxi Province and might have crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., the western Yu-shi clan's land) in today's Shenxi Province. (Senior scholar Wei Juxian, with wild imagination, speculated that Qi Huan'gong had at one time reached the Bering Straits where the ex-Shang remnants had dwelled since the Shang-Zhou transition time period and that it was due to Qi Huan'gong's contacts with the Shang remnants that the American Indians or the Shang people paid a visit to China with tributes of humming birds that were recorded in the Soong Principality's chronicles. This was certainly an overblown reading of some latter-day add-on books, such as YI ZHOU SHU, which this webmaster had pointed out to be products from the post 3rd century B.C. Yuezhi-Hun War, not before that. It appeared that the descendants of the original Sinitic Chinese were marginalized towards the north, where they could have mixed up the with the Di3 barbarians. This webmaster had analyzed historian Lv Simian's writings several times and agreed with the statement that the Shan-rong could be the same as the Bei-rong/Wuzhong, and that those Rong people had in fact dwelled in the areas of today's Shanxi, Hebei and Shandong. Further, this webmaster believed that what the records stated about Qi Lord's trekking 'liu sha' or the flowing sand could be nothing more than wading the sandy Sha-he River to climb the Mt. Taihangshan of today, not what 'liu sha' [moving sand/quick sand] historically referred to as the Kumtag Desert.)
 
The Jin (Jinn) Principality also helped the Zhou King by attacking the Rongs and then escorted the king back to his throne 4 years after the king went into exile. The Rong-di moved to live in a place called Luhun, and they would later be forced to relocate elsewhere by the Qin-Jinn principalities. When Qin intended to get rid of the Luhun-rong & Jiang-rong around the Qin capital of Yong in 638 BC, the Jinn Principality adopted a policy of allowing the remotely-related barbarian clan to stay closer to the land between Qin, Jinn and Zhou Dynasty capitals: Jinn Lord Huigong, for his mother's tie with the Luhun-rong clan, relocated the Luhun-rong to Yi-chuan [i.e., the Yi-shui River area] and the Jiang-rong to southern Shanxi Province, i.e., namely, the southward migration to the Mt. Songshan area of the Yun-surnamed Xianyun [Huns] clan whose Qiangic nature was validated about 80 years later by the dialogue between Fan Xuan-zi of the Jinn Principality and the descendant of Jiang-rong. The Jinn Principality began the process of expansion that would merge and conquer dozens of barbarian statelets to the east of east Yellow River Bend, with Jinn Lord Xiangong merging 17 statelets and subjugating 38 others [per "Haan Fei-zi"]. After the defeat in the hands of Jinn, the Rongs moved to the land between the Xi-he (today's east segment of the Yellow River loop or bend) and the Luo River, and two groups were known at the time, Chidi (Red Di) and Baidi (White Di). (Note that Ancient West Yellow River Bend is the same as today's East Yellow River Bend. Ancient Yellow River Bend did not equate to today's inverse U-shaped course with the North Bend lying inside the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, but the U-shaped Bend with the South Bend in southern Shanxi Prov and then a south-to-north turn in Hebei Province for exit into the sea.) Baidi (White Di) dwelled in ancient Yanzhou (today's Yan'an), Suizhou (today's Suide) and Yinzhou. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated Jinn defeated the Baidi and the remnants were know as Bai-bu-hu later. Chidi (Red Di) dwelled in a place called Lu(4), near today's Shangdang. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated that the Jinn Principality destroyed the Lu(4) tribe of the Chidi, and the remnants were know as Chi-she-hu later. Details about the barbarians were also covered at prehistory section and the Huns section. [Here, I had deliberately spelled Jin(4) into Jinn for sake of distinction from Jurchen Jin(1) Dynasty. Jin(4) is spelled Tsin in Wade-Giles.]
 
In 623 BC, i.e., during the 37th year reign, Qin Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong nomads and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban [i.e., likely the historical Yiqu-rong statelet or the future Yuezhi people]. Qin Lord Mugong conquered 12 Western Rong tribes. As to the barbarian groups, by the later Zhou Dynasty, there were Mianzu, Gun-rong, Di [2], and Huan-rong to the west of the Qin Principality, Yiqu-Dali-Wuzhi-Xuyan to the north of the Qin Principality, Linhu-Loufan to the north of Jin (Jinn) Principality, and Donghu-Shanrong to the north of Yan Principality. Mianzu could be pronounced Raozhu. Gun-rong (Quanrong) was know as Kunrong or Hunrong or Hunyi. The character 'hun4' for Hunyi or Hun-yi is the same one as Hunnic King Hunye or Kunye and could mean the word of mixing-up. Yiqu was one of the Xirong or Western rong stateles in the ancient Qingzhou and Ningzhou areas. Dali-rong dwelled in today's Fengxu County. Wuzhi was originally part of Zhou land, but it was taken over by the Rong people. Qin King Huiwang took it back from the Rong later and launched the Wuzhi county. Linhu was later destroyed by General Li Mu. Li Mu (?-229 B.C.), a Zhao Principality general who was counted as one of the four famous [together with Bai Qi, Wang Jian and Lian Po) during the Warring States time period, in mid-240s B.C. induced the Huns into invading south and throughly defeated about 100,000 Huns in the Yanmen [swan gate] area. Loufan belonged to today's Yanmen'guan Pass area (Ningwu of Shanxi).
 
One hundred years later, Lord Jinn Daogong made peace with the Rongdi (who attacked Zhou King Xiangwang earlier), and the Rongdi sent in gifts and tributes to Jin (Jinn). This was seen in a statement from Lu Lord Xianggong (r. BC 572-542) 4th year, to the effect that in 569 B.C.E. Jinn Lord Daogong, a marquis, was dissuaded by minister Wei Jiang (Wei Zhuang-zi) from attacking Baron Jiafu (Zi-jiafu) of the Wuzhong statelet with a claim that the Jinn state would lose the Zhu-hua statelets to the Chu Principality to the south while attacking the barbarian statelets to the north. At the time, the Jinn Principality mainly faced off with an enemy called Wuzhong to the north. At one time, General Zhongxing Wu (Xun Wu, ?-519 B.C.) battled against the Wuzhong statelet and the miscellaneous barbarian Di2 tribes at today's Taiyuan, Shanxi. (Liu Qiyu pointed out that original places for Taiyuan and Jinyang etc would be in southern Shanxi Province and that they did not get appropriated to central and northern Shanxi Prov until after Jinn Lord Daogong quelled the various 'Di2' statelets to the north. This did not explain the records about the Battle of Taiyuan waged by Zhongxing Wu.)
 
Jin (Jinn) later split into the three states of Haan(2), Zhao & Wei. The two successive Jinn states which bordered the northern barbarians, Wei & Zhao, plus Qin and Yan, would be busy fighting the barbarians for hundreds of years, and they built the separate walls to drive the barbarians out. Another one hundred years, Zhao Xiang-zi of the Zhao Principality took over the Bing and Dai areas near the Yanmenguan Pass. Zhao, together with the Haan and Wei families, destroyed another opponent called Zhi-bo and split Jin (Jinn) into the three states of Haan, Zhao & Wei.
 
The barbarian statelets like Dali & Yiqu built dozens of castles to counter the Qin principality. The Yiqu-Rong built castles to counter Qin. After about one century of relative peace, Qin began to expand by attacking Dali & Yiqu. Qin King Huiwang took over 25 cities from the Yiqu-rong. At the time of Qin King Zhaowang, Qin Queen Xuantaihou killed the Yiqu-rong King. (King Zhaoxiangwang's mother, Queen Dowager Xuantaihou, adultered with the Rong king from the Yiqu Statelet, with two sons born.)
 
On the western bank of today's Eastern Yellow River Bend, Qin took over Shangjun Commandary from the Wei principality. Zhao King Wulingwang adopted reforms by wearing the Hu nomads' cavalry clothing and he defeated Linhu and Loufan and built the Great Wall from Dai to Yinshan Mountain. Zhao King Wulingwang, in 300 B.C.E., about 100 years ahead of Han Dynasaty Emperor Gaozu's war with the Huns, took over the so-called "he-nan" land or the land south of the Yellow River, i.e., the sheath area. Zhao set up Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai prefectures (commandaries). Zhao set up the Jiuyuan (nine plains) Commandary in the sheath area. Qin took over Longxi of Gansu, Beidi and Shangjun of Shenxi, and built the Great Wall. A Yan Principality General by the name of Qin-kai, after returning from the Donghu [Eastern Hu] barbarians as a hostage, would attack the Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance. Yan built the Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. The Qin State founded the first united empire of Qin in 221 BC. After Qin's unification of China, Emperor Shihuangdi, in 214 B.C.E., ordered General Meng Tian on a campaign that would drive the so-called Hu nomads or the Huns out of the areas south of the Yellow River. Qin set up thirty-four counties in the "he-nan" land, including the names of former barbarian groups such as Qusou and Xuyan etc, termed the newly-acquired territory by the new-Qin-land, which would be the Shuofang and Wuyuan commandaries in Han Dynasty's time period. Qin lost the land south of the Yellow River when it had to recall troops for cracking down on the rebellions in late Qin time period. The Huns under Mote's father, Tou-man, fled northward and would not return till General Meng Tian died ten years later. Speculation about the nature of Rong & Di People, Qiang, Sanmiao & Yuezhi was given in the Qin section and Hun section.
 
Major Wars against the Barbarians
The Battle of Qianmu
During the 39th year of his reign, or 789 B.C., King Xuanwang attacked the Jiang-rong barbarians (a race of Xi Yi or western Yi barbarians, said to be descendants of ancient minister 'Si Yue' or 'four mountains' under Lord Yu), but he was defeated by Jiang-Rong and lost his Nan-ren (i.e., the southern soldiers from today's Nanyang, Henan Province).
 
Qi Lord Huan'gong Campaigning against the Barbarian Statelets
Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in today's Manchuria [depending on how you interpret the localities of the two statelets] in 664 BC, had campaigned against the Bai-di barbarians in the west [i.e., the area of central Shanxi] in 651 BC (i.e., the 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Lord Huan'gong and his minister Guan Zhong was credited with rescuing "zhong guo", i.e., the central statelet, from the barbarians. The dire situation at the time was termed by the sentence that fate of the central [Hua and Xia] statelets of Sinitic China descending into demise was like hanging by a thread. Confucius was recorded to have commented on the status of hanging by a thread, saying that without Guan Zhong [and the Qi king], everbody would be wrapping the clothes and carrying the hair like the barbarians, i.e., "bei4? pi1?[dangling] fa1 [hair] zuo3 [left] REN4 [overlapping part of Chinese gown]". Han Dynasty-edited book, GONGYANG [CHUNQIU] ZHUAN also carried the sentence about the precarious Sitic China's status of hanging by a thread.
 
Changdi versus Wey
In 661 BC, the Chang-Di barbarians who were located near today's Ji'nan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong (r. BC 668-660 ?)
 
The Battle of Taiyuan
General Zhongxing Wu (Xun Wu, ?-519 B.C.) battled against the Wuzhong statelet and the miscellaneous barbarian Di2 tribes at today's Taiyuan, Shanxi. Jinn continuously battled against the Wuzhong barbarian statelet and "Qun-di" [various Di2 barbarians] throughout the 6th century B.C.E.
 
Yan versus Dong-hu
In 283 B.C., Yan dispatched General Qin Kai against the Dong-hu [eastern Hu] barbarians. The Yan army moved eastward from the Gui-shui River (Yanqing, near Peking) area. Yan wrestled over large patches of land and extended 2000-li distance towards the ancient Korean territory at the Man-fan-han border, near today's Yalu-jiang rivermouth.
 
For further discussions on Barbarians & Chinese, please refer to
The Mandate of Heaven
 
The concept of 'Heaven' as an ancient 'Di(4)' or overlord had been with the Chinese since the eras of the Eight Ancient Lords. 'San Huang', termed the Three Sovereigns, were more likely mythical and non-human-entity titles at the time the first emperor of Qin coined his title about 2200-2300 hundreds ago, were later mixed up with fables to become Fuxi, Yandi the Fiery Lord, and Huangdi the Yellow Emperor, or varying orders. The point was that in ancient China, we did have the saying of the 'Heaven Huang', the 'Land Huang', and the 'Taishan Mountain Huang' [which was mutated to the 'Human Huang' at some later time but before the Han dynasty scholars mixed it with the Zhuang-zi and Lie-zi fables to become the 'Human Huang']. The 'Heaven' concept was widely adopted by the Euroasian nomadic people and incorporated in their shamanism, where 'Heaven' was equivalent to 'Tengri'. There is no definite way to tell where the original concept of 'heaven' had originated. However, Shang Dynasty's founder, Shang-Tang, claimed that Lord Highness (Heaven) instructed him to campaign against Xia Dynasty' Lord Jie because of Jie's corruption, lasciviousness and cruelty. Shang-Tang was also named 'Tian Yi' or the 'Heavenly Yi'. Since 'Heaven' was considerd a Di(4), Shang-Tang was called by the 'Heavenly Yi'. The last Shang ruler, Jie, had refused to take admonition and claimed that the 'mandate' was with him the minute he was born. Later, Confucius would term it by the 'Cheng Tang Revolution' or 'Shang Tang Revolution', a word that would be used by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in his efforts at overthrowing the Manchu rule.
 
Professor Lock Hoe had commented that China's dynastic changes and revolution (as seen in the saying 'Every 50 Years, A Cycle In Cathay') had served as an illuminating guide for the Jesuits who visited China in the 16-17th centuries, and it was due to the Jesuits who propagated the egalitarian and revolutionary ideas in Europe that led to the conclusion that the French or British royal houses could be overthrown by a 'revolution'.
 
The citation of the 'Mandate of Heaven' could be seen in Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against the Shang Dynasty ruler in the 11th century BC. Zhou was a small tribal state in today's Shaanxi Provice, southwest of the Mount Qishan, in a place called 'Zhouyuan' [the plateau of Zhou]. Ji Chang, i.e., King Wuwang's father, managed his statelet so well that the old people went there for retirement, and two princes of the Guzhu Statelet (of the Mo-tai-shi clan) in today's southern Manchuria, Bo-yi and Shu-qi, came to live in Zhou's land during the 21st year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). Two lords of the ancient Yu and Rui statelets had disputes over a patch of land and they decided to have Ji Chang arbitrate it; but once they entered the Zhou land, they felt guilty about litigation after observing the civility of the Zhou people; and they called off their trip and returned to their home statelets, and vacated the land that was disputed. Some Shang ministers defected to Zhou. Over 40 statelets defected to Zhou and proposed that Ji Chang be the king. Ji Chang attacked the Di[2] people during the 17th year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). The vassals came to pay respect to the Zhou people during the 21st year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang).
 
The last Shang ruler, Zhouwang, was said to be a despotic ruler. He killed one marquis (Jiuhou or Jiu Hou) and the marquis' daughter because the marqui's daughter was not lewd to him. Another marquis (Er Hou or Er'hou) was killed when he tried to protect Jiuhou. Prince Bigan, son of Shang King Zhouwang, would be deposed for admonishing Zhouwang on the deeds. (Though, some leftover passages in Sima Qian's SHI JI painted Shang King Zhouwang as someone who was intelligent and strengthful, and who accomplished the feats of ruling the eastern part of China in a series of military campaigns. We could see from the history chronicle that the Shang king had a reign of over half a century, an unprecedented record of ruling, which meant that he must had been wise enough to have carried on for so long.)
 
Count Xibo, i.e., Ji Chang, sighed about the killings. At the vilification of Shang minister Chonghouhu, Ji Chang was imprisoned by Shang King Zhouwang during the 23rd year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). [The true reason could be Zhou's aggressive military actions against the various statelets.] Zhouwang would kill Count Xibo's elder son, Boyikao, and made a dish out of Boyikao's flesh for Xibo to eat. Zhouwang laughed when Xibo ate it without knowing that it was his son's flesh. When imprisoned in a place called Youli (in Henan Province), Ji Chang renovated the ancient Fu-xi '8 Gua' into '64 Gua', a divinity method called 'milfoil divination' (Yi Jing, Book of Changes). Ji Chang was released during the 29th year reign of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang). Count Xibo was set free only after Xibo's minister bribed Zhouwang through a Shang minister (Fei Zhong) by presenting a beauty from the You-xin-shi clan, a stallion from the Li[4]-rong Statelet [not the future Li-rong who sacked Zhou capital Haojing] and other treasures. (Xibo was titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou. Ancient title for 'Count' might not be of same level as that in Europe and could be higher than marquis in Zhou times.) In year 29 of Shang King Xin (Zhou-wang), vassals defected from Zhou. The next year, Zhou, together with the vassals, came to the Shang capital to pay tributes.
 
Per BAMBOO, in year 31 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), Ji Chang obtained Jiang Shang as military counsellor. The next year, year 32, five planets converged per THE BAMBOO ANNALS, and the Zhou people attacked the Mi statelet. The next year, when Count Xibo invaded another Shang vassal called the Ji-guo (also pronounced as Li2 or Qi2) Statelet, somewhere near Shangdang of eastern Shanxi Province, Zu Yi, a Shang minister, expressed the worry that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' might be changed. Shang King Zhouwang rebutted Zu Yi, saying that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' was with him the minute he was born. In the next two years consecutively, Xibo then invaded Yu-guo fief (Qinyang of Henan Province, next to Shang capital), and then conquered Chong-guo fief (i.e., Chonghouhu's fief at Songxian County of Henan Province) after two sieges within 30 days. Per BAMBOO, in year 33 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), the Mi people surrendered to Zhou. Xibo invaded the Shang vassal called Mixu-guo Fief (Lingtai of Gansu Prov) and took over the Mixu drums as bounty for Tang-shu. The pretext of various wars that the Zhou people launched was a mandate from the Shang king to contain the rebellions, i.e., an imperial Shang order dated the 33rd year of Shang King Xin. In year 34 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), Zhou attacked Qi, Yu and Chong. In year 36 of Shang King Xin (Zhouwang), the vassals came to show respect for Zhou, and Zhou attacked Kun-yi. Xibo would attack Quanrong or Doggy Rong (said to be descendants of Panhu, i.e., the southern barbarians in Wuling, Changsha Commandary, and possibly hinting the relocation to western China of the early San-Miao people. The later Chidi was said to be of the same family as Quanrong).
 
Xibo then built city at Feng-yi [Yunxian county of Shenxi Prov] after relocating there from Cheng in year 35 of Shang King Xin, and relocated the Zhou capital there from Zhou-yuan of Qishan Mountain. In year 41 of Shang King Xin, Ji Chang died. Xibo died at age 97, with a claim of the king's title for 9 years. (Ancient scholars disputed Xibo or Zhou King Wenwang's king title since the Zhou king could not have existed at the same time as the Shang king. Or, it was a Zhou challenge against the Shang rule to claim to be a king on the same footing.)
 
Jiang Taigong (i.e., Luu Shang of the Lv-shi clan or Jiang Ziya with the Jiang surname, aka Taigongwang) abandoned his post of 'da fu' with the Shang King for the west. (Mencius said that Luu Shang, i.e., a descendant of the Luu-shi clan from the Yao-Shun time period, first fled to the east sea coastline to evade the Shang rule after last Shang King Zhouwang enthroned and refused to take admonition, then came back to capital Chaoge as a buffalo butcher, then went to Mengjin as a peddler, and finally went to the northwest to fish on the Wei-shui river bank.) Lv Shang was against the extravagent task of building the 'Lu Tai' (deer platform) palace for Shang King Zhouwang. Lv Shang then left with his wife Ma-shi and went to the Wei-shui River for fishing till Zhou King Wenwang came along and met him. Wenwang commented that his father, Zhou ancestor Taigong, was in anticipation of Lv Shang for a long time. Other capable men who came to serve Wenwang would include Tai-dian, Hong-yao, San-yi-sheng and Nangong Gua.
 
Wuwang, named Ji (last name) Fa (first name), expanded his influence on basis of 50 years of management by his father Ji Chang who was conferred the title of Xibo (Count West) by last Shang King Xin (Zhouwang). Year 42 of Shang King Xin was Zhou Wuwang Ji-fa's 1st year. In year 44 of Shang King Xin, Ji Fa attacked Lih. In year 48, two suns appeared in the sky per BAMBOO. After Xibo passed away, Zhou King Wuwang would rally eight hundred Shang vassals on the bank of the Yellow River, Mengjin. In November of year 51 of Shang King Xin, the date of wu-zi [Gregorian Nov 11, 1052; Shang Nov 17, year 51; Zhou Dec 17, year 10; Xia calendar October], Ji Fa crossed the Yellow River at Mengjin, and returned across the river after the military show-off. Bo-yi & Shu-qi came to rebuke Wuwang as to the military campaign while father was not properly buried yet. (Scholars disputed the number of 800 vassals as unrealistic.) In this year, Shang King Xin imprisoned Ji-zi and killed Bi-gan. Prince Wei-zi fled the Shang capital per BAMBOO. Alternative saying is that Zhouwang's brother, Wei-zi, first fled the Shang Dynasty capital. Zhouwang's son, Prince Bigan, seeing the departure of Wei-zi, would try to admonish Zhouwang again, but he was ordered to be killed by Zhouwang to see how many compartments Bigan's heart had. Zhouwang's uncle, Prince Ji-zi, pretended to have gone mentally ill for sake of avoiding Zhouwang's persecution, but he was still imprisoned by Zhouwang.
 
When Zhou King Wuwang called upon various tribes to rebel against Shang, he stated that he was carrying out the order from the Heaven to penalize the Shang king who had disrupted his kingdom by killing his elder son (Bigan) and imprisoning the uncle (Ji-zi) under the influence of the witch-like Shang queen (Daji, a woman whom the Shang king obtained from You-su during a campaign in year 9 of his reign). While crossing the Yellow River, a white fish jumped aboard. Fish was interpreted as a sign of war for carrying the scales or shields on its body, while the color of whiteness was the embodiment of Shang. Interpreting the white fish as an omen, he called off the first campaign on the Yellow River bank after rallying 800 Shang vassals. The vassals said to Wenwang, "Zhouwang could be campaigned against by now." Wuwang said, "You guys did not know the 'Mandate Of Heaven' yet."
 
Per BAMBOO, Shang official Nei-shi fled to Zhou in year 47. When Shang's chief history, ritual and music ministers, Tai-Shi (grand 'shi') and Shao-Shi (junior 'shi'), fled to Zhou with Shang's ritual instruments, Zhou King Wuwang now orderd a campaign against Shang, two {? ten per Chu Bosi) years after the Mengjin Assembly. Per BAMBOO, Zhou began the campaign against Shang King Zhouwang in Shang King's reign year 52, i.e., Geng-yin, or 1051 B.C.E., or Zhou King Ji Fa's reign year 11. With the help of counsellor Jiang Taigong, Zhou Lord Wuwang launched an attack at Shang Dynasty which controlled central China at the time. In autumn, the Zhou army amassed at Xianyuan, which was south of Mt Qishan per SHIJING-DAYA. In [Zhou] December, Ji fa preyed to the heavenly god. Vassals followed Zhou. In [Zhou] December the Zhou allied army reached the Mengjin river crossing, which was taken to be Gregorian Jan 10 of 1050 B.C.E. [or Shang Dec 28, year 52; Zhou Jan 28, year 12 - since the Zhou calendar was one month ahead of the Shang calendar]. Wuwang assembled 300 chariots, 3000 brave soldiers, and an army of 45000 and crossed the Yellow River at Mengjin on the [Shang] Wuwu day of Dec of the 12th year reign (Gregorian Feb 4, 1050 b.c.e.; Shang Jan 24, year 53; Zhou Feb 24, year 12). "SHI JI" recorded that Wuwang called his troops by the name of the 'people from the west', and that his allies included eight barbarian statelets, the Qiangs from Gansu, the Shu-Sou-Mao-Wei statelets in today's Hubei-Sichuan Provinces, Lu and Peng from the northwest, and Yong and Pu south of the Han-shui River. Per BAMBOO, during Ji Fa's 12th year, in the year of Xin-mao, the Zhou alliance defeated the Shang army at Mu-ye, i.e., the outskirts of Mu. Before the battle, Shang King Zhouwang was validated to have preyed to the heavenly god as well. In the outskirts of the Shang capital Chaoge, north of the Yellow River, [which had a similar naming locality along the narrow riverside road between today's Xi'an and Luoyang, i.e., Jixian county of Henan Province, south of the Yellow River,] a place called Muye, he met his alliance who had joined him with 4000 more chariots. The allied army confronted the Shang army of 700 thousand and defeated them. The battle occurred on the [Shang] jia-zi date [Gregorian Feb 10, 1050 b.c.e.; Shang Jan 30, year 53; Zhou Feb 30, year 12]. (Some scholar disputed the Shang army's number of 700,000 as unrealistic, and Xu Zhuoyun cited Mencius' statement of 'weapons floating above the blood stream' in disputing the popular claim that the Shang army defected to Zhou during the battle. Scholar Xu Zhuoyun and Wei Juxian both cited the ancient classics in attributing last Shang King's exhaustion in the earlier eastward campaign against the Dong-yi or Huai-yi barbarians to his losing control in the west.)
 
Scholar Luo Xianglin claimed that the Zhou people had asserted control over the Shang people via advanced weaponry of chariots. Luo Xianglin further pointed out that Zhou had special ministry in charge of standardization, materials, quality of chariot manufacturing.
 
Ji Fa hence proclaimed the founding of Zhou Dynasty under the 'Mandate of Heaven'. The 'Mandate of Heaven' became a norm for the substitution of Chinese dynasties. To enforce the concept, some legends would be made to support the claim of the will of the Heaven. For Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang, there was the legend that his mother had dreamt about some dragon flying into the house when she gave birth to his son. Even nomadic rulers, like the Hunnic king Liu Yuan of Hunnic Zhao Dynasty (A.D. 304-329) would proclaim himself emperor in A.D. 308 and declared his dynasty as 'Han' on basis of one sound logic that the Hunnic kings had historically ackowledged that they were the nephews of the Han Dynasty Chinese emperors. By designating his dynasty as 'Han', he intended to play the card of asserting the so-called 'Mandate of Heaven'.
 
To lend legitimacy to the dynastic change, Zhou King Wuwang revived the fiefs of discontinued lineages as well as revived fiefs of some of the legendary clans. King Wuwang built a tomb for Shang Prince Bigan. Wuwang went back to the west in April of his 12th year reign. Wuwang made further conferral, and made the descendant of Shen-nong-shi (Lord Yandi, Fiery Lord, or the Devine Farmer) inherit the land of Jiao (Shanxian County, Shenxi), the descendant of Lord Huangdi [Yellow Lord] inherit the land of Zhu4, the descendant of Lord Yao inherit the land of Ji (a statelet to the southwest of today's Beijing, Hebei which was taken over by Yan later), the Gui-surnamed descendant of Lord Shun inherit the land of Chen (Wanqiu County), and the Si-surnamed descendant of Lord Yu inherit [i.e., continue the rule of] the land of Qih (Yongqiu, Bianzhou, near Kaifeng of Henan) with the title of Donglougong (whose 21st generation grandson was exterminated by the Chu Principality). Remnants of Chen, which was pronounced as 'dan' in ancient Chinese and in today's Fujian dialect, later fled to the Qi Principality, changed their name to Tian, and ultimately usurped the Qi principality of the Jiang-surnamed lineage. The Jiang-surnamed Jiao statelet was later pressed on a flee to the east. Duke Zhougong and Duke Zhaogong, in rezoning the fiefdoms, assigned the land of Jiao, namely, the Yellow River inflexion point or today's Sanmenxia that was innundated by the reservoir, to the Ji-surnamed son of Duke Zhaogong. (Here, we could tell that the known history of Zhou Dynasty had acknowledgement of the ancient lords who were properly titled the Five Sovereigns, without any pretentious claims about the mythic Three 'Huang' godly figures.)
 
In year 13, Que-bo, i.e., Count Bo as known in the Shang oracle bones, came to pay respect to Zhou King Wuwang. Wuwang allowed the Shang ancestral oblation palace to continue. Wuwang, in this year, doled out massive conferrals onto the vassals. In year 15, Sushen-shi came to pay respect, and Wuwang moved the nine cauldrons to Luo-yi. In year 16, ex-Shang prince Ji-zi came to pay respect. In year 17, Wuwang passed away.
 
 
Rankings Of the Zhou Lords & Principalities
 
Prior to Zhou Dynasty, the rulers of Xia and Shang Dynasties called themselves 'Di(4)' posthumously, namely, the word that would denote the equivalent of legendary overlords for Heaven, Earth and Mount Taishan in Chinese history or 'emperor' in the western sense. Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang Dynasty , decided to adopt the title of 'wang' or king to show his humbleness in front of the legendary overlords. They were called 'wang' posthumously as well.
 
In Chinese, there exists a fixed phrase called 'wang hou jiang xiang' which means the four titles of king, marquis, general and prime minister. Though the rulers of dozens of the Zhou principalities called themselves 'Gong', a word that denotes the title of 'Duke', this word was more like a general title to mean a ruler or a lord or simply a complimentary title. A similar word to be found in English would be probably 'Sir' or 'Grandpa'. Scholar Fu Sinian studied the bronze inscriptions, i.e., jin wen, from the Zhou times and concluded that the ancient five rankings of duke, marquis, count, viscount, and baron did not conform with the bronze inscription or the classics such as Shang Shu or SHI JIng. Fu Sinian stated that duke-gong, count-bo, viscount-zi, and baron-nan were originally used within a royal family as rankings; governmentally, 'bo' or count was the leader of a conferred fief while 'hou' or marquis was for denoting the vassal guarding the border posts. The ancient title for 'Count' might not be of the same level as that used in medieval Europe and should be higher than marquis in Shang-Zhou times. Zhou King Wenwang, i.e., Xibo or Count Of West, originally titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou, received the conferral of count from the last Shang King. (Historians who analyzed the Shang system pointed out that the Shang king, who did not have the five rankings as the later Zhou court had, possessed The Three Dukes system, with Xibo, Jiuhou and Erhou being the three rulers to the west, north and south of the Shang heartland.) The Zhou court conferred the title of count on the descendants of the two uncles of Zhou King Wenwang. The ancestor of the Chu Principaility, Xiong Yi, who was Mi-surnamed, was conferred by Zhou King Chenwang the title of count and the land of Dan'yang (Xichuan, Henan). Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for the crackdown on the Rong barbarians. During the 10th year of the reign, Zhou King Huiwang conferred onto Lord Qi, i.e., Marquis Qi Huan'gong, the title of Count. King Xiangwang conferred onto Jinn Lord the title of Count and the land of Yangfan or 'he nei' (pronounced as He-rui in ancient Chinese [or Hanoi in Vietnamese] to mean the winding section of the Yellow River).
 
In the Zhou times, some of the 'gong' lords were indeed titled as equivalent to the dukes. The brothers [and/or cousins] of Zhou King were entitled 'Duke'. The Shang capital areas were divided into three parts, Bei (Tangying, Henan or north of Jixian county per Chu Bosi) to the north, Yong to the west, and Wey to the east. Three brothers, Cai-shu, Guan-shu & Huo-shu, were named three superintendents over the Shang remnants. Guan-shu, i.e., brother Shu-xian, was conferred Duke of Guan (Zhenzhou, Henan) as well as the superintendent of Yong. Cai-shu, i.e., brother Shu-du, was conferred Duke of Cai (Shangcai, Henan) as well as the superintendent of Wey. Bei was left with Shang Prince Wugeng, but under the supervision of brother Huo-shu. Brother Dan, i.e., Zhougong, was conferred the title of Duke Zhou of Qufu, Shandong Province. (Duke Zhougong would later send his son, Boqin, to Qufu, and Boqin built the city of Qufu, apparently after the quelling of the Shang rebellion.) Boqin's statelet would be Lu. Brother Shi, i.e., Zhaogong (Shaogong), was conferred the land of Yan (Jixian County, Tianjin, Hebei Province), and he was referred to as 'Yan-bo' or count of Yan. --The speculation that the brothers here could be on the maternal side, could invalidate the claim that the Zhou principalities were Ji-surnamed as the maternal brothers could be related to counsellor Jiang Taigong, a Jiang-surnamed clan.
 
As previously stated, ZUO ZHUAN stated that Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang, had set up fifteen "brotherly" statelets, and among all the new fiefs, there were forty states that were Ji-surnamed, including the Zhongshan-guo [central mountain] that was destroyed at about 490 B.C., relaunched in 453 B.C. with the help of Zhao Xiangzi, again relaunched in 414 B.C. under Zhongshan-wugong at Gu, destroyed by Wei in 407 B.C., relaunched in 380 B.C. at Lingshou, and destroyed by the Zhao statelet in 296 B.C. The "brotherly" states could be those held by blood brother, cousins, and uncles, in fact. Zhougong, after quelling the Shang rebellion, again launched a round of conferrals, with Xun Zi stating that Zhougong rezoned the county into seventy-one states, with the Ji-surnamed states numbering by fifty-three.
 
Duke Zhougong's taking over regency after King Wuwang's death triggered a rebellion by brothers Guan-shu & Cai-shu. Guan-shu & Cai-shu allied with Wugeng, Yan3 [Qufu of Shandong Prov], Pugu [Boxing of Shandong], Xu-yi [in today's northern Jiangsu] & Huai-yi [in today's northern Anhui] for a rebellion. Zhougong mounted an eastern campaign that lasted three years. Per Mencius, Zhougong drove King Feilian [i.e., ancestor of the Qin Dynasty founders] of the eastern people to the coast and killed him. Altogether 50 statelets were routed. Zhougong killed Wugeng and Guan-shu, exiled Cai-shu, and revoked Huo-shu's ranking and nobility. To the northeast of Luoyang, Zhougong built a city called Chengzhou and relocated the Shang people of Bei-Yong-Wey to Chengzhou (Luoyi). Alternatively, Duke Zhaogong was said to be responsible for building the Chengzhou city [the accomplished Zhou capital] under the order of Zhou King Wuwang, while the original Zhou capital in today's Shenxi Prov was named 'Zongzhou' or the ancestral Zhou capital. Zhougong devised a new 'jing [square-shaped] tian [land]' system on basis of the Xia and Shang experiences, and endorsed the elder-son inheritance system. Zhougong conferred onto the younger brother the title of Wey-kang-shu, i.e., Marquis of Wey or Marquis of Meng. (The 16th generation descendant of Wey-kang-shu would be Wey Lord Yigong who died in the hands of the Chang-Di barbarians. Qi Lord Huan'gong, after defeating the Chang-di, erected Wey Lord Wen'gong and relocated the Wey capital to Chuqiu of today's Henan Province.)
 
The rest of the lords are mostly marquis, and this include Marquis Shenhou. (One of the Marquis Shenhou was the father-in-law of the last Western Zhou king.) Zhou King Wuwang, to thank his counsellor Jiang Taigong for the efforts in overthrowing Shang, had conferred the land of Yingqiu (today's Linzi, Shandong Province) as the Qi Principality. Lord Qi Huan'gong was the first of the five hegemony lords during the Spring and Autumn time period. The Jin (Jinn) Principality, i.e., today's Shanxi Province or the land of the Tao-tang-shi clan, was conferred onto Shu-yu (Uncle Yu) by Zhou King Chengwang after Zhou Duke Zhougong quelled the Tao-tang-shi people who joined the Shang rebellion. King Chengwang was the son of King Wuwang and Yi-jiang (a daughter of Jiang Taigong). Shu-yu's son, Ji Xie, was called Marquis Jinnhou by citation of the Jinn-shui River of today's Shanxi Province. (Scholar Liu Qiyu stated that the ancient Jinn-shui River was near Pingyang County of southern Shanxi Prov and later approriated to northern Shanxi Province's Taiyuan area, i.e., an area where the future Jinn lord continuously battled against the Wuzhong barbarian statelet and "Qun-di" [various Di2 barbarians] throughout the 6th century B.C.E. Tao-tang-shi was a vassal of the Xia/Shang Dynasties and had a history of over 1100 years.) Shu-yu made the city of Yi[4] (i.e., Lord Yao's capital), a word that could mean a bird's wing, as his capital. His son changed the name to Jinn from Tang. Also note that Jinn, down the road, had elimintated numerous Ji-surnamed fiefs from Zhou King Wuwang and Duke Zhougong's eras. After the Jinn Principality split into three states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 475 B.C., the Zhou court had conferred the titles of marquis onto all three rulers, respectively.
 
While Marquis Wei Wenhou was a marquis, his son, King Wei Huiwang, called himself by 'king'. But this was during the Warring States time period. The lords who called themselves kings during the Spring and Autumn time periods would be those in southern and southeastern China, namely, the states of Chu, Wu and Yue.
 
The ex-Shang Prince Wei-Zi (Qi) was made the duke of Soong. The inheritor of the Shang(1) Dynasty heritage was given the title of 'Shang(4) Gong', namely, the Highest Duke. This would be after Duke Zhougong quelled the rebellion of Shang Prince Wugeng and two Zhou family brothers (Guan-shu and Cai-shu) in a matter of three years. Lord Soong Xianggong was one of the five hegemonies, too.
 
The Chu Principality to the South
SHI JI stated that the Chu ancestors derived from Lord Zhuanxu, i.e., Lord Huangdi's grandson. The great grandson of Lord Zhuanxu would be called Chongli who was named 'Zhu Rong' or the god of fire by Lord Diku. One brother, by the name of Wu-hui, inherited his brother's title of 'Zhu Rong'. Wu-hui born a son called Lu Zhong, and Lu Zhong married a woman from the 'Gui-fang-shi' (ghost domain family) and born six sons, including Kunwu, Canhu, Pengzu, and Jilian et al., the youngest of whom would be the traceable ancestor of Chu. At the end of Shang Dynasty, a Chu descendant, by the name of Yu-zi (Xiong), after admonishing on Shang King Zhouwang 57 times in vain, left for the Zhou statelet. Zhou King Wenwang conferred him the land of Shangdang and the post of 'gong qing' (court minister). Yu-xiong, who served the Zhou court, was a Ji-lian descendant. The great grandson of Yu-xiong would be Xiong Yi, i.e., the founder of the Chu Statelet.
 
The ancestors of Chu, Xiong Yi, were originally conferred by Zhou King Chenwang the title of viscount and the land of Dan'yang. The Chu ancestors carried the last name of Xiong [i.e., bear]. Chu was the first state to declare themselves a king during the Spring and Autumn time period [apparently not counting King Xu-yan-wang (Ying Dan), a person of the [misnomer] Yi background, who rebelled against Zhou King Muwang]. It was said that Xiong Tong was enraged into declaring himself a king after Zhou King Pingwang refused to elevate his ranking above viscount. Xiong Tong in 704 B.C. declared himself Chu King Wuwang. Chu King Wuwang, in his 51st year reign, died in the army camp while campaigning against the Sui statelet, a possibly Hundred Pu [or modern sense Mon-khmer] nation. His son, Xiong Zi, i.e., Chu King Wenwang, relocated the capital city to Ying-du (Jiangling, Hubei).
 
During the first year of Zhou King Dingwang (Ji Yu, reign 606-586 B.C), i.e., 606 BC, the Lord of Chu, i.e., Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591) campaigned northward against the Luhun-rong barbarians and displayed the military might at the Zhou capital city border. The Chu king wanted to see the nine bronze cauldrons. Zhou King Dingwang dispatched a minister, Wangsun [king's grandson] Maan, to the Chu army camp to dissuade Chu Lord Zhuangwang from this attempt. In Lu Lord Xuan'gong 3rd year of ZUO ZHUAN, Wangsun Maan told the Chu viscount that the weight of cauldrons lied in the possession of virtues, hinting that the cauldrons had the image of 'bai wu', i.e., hundreds of objects. Here, we have the direct evidence that Lord Yu's actual cauldrons, that were passed down from thousands of years ago, might not be heavy at all, meaning that they could be possibly non-bronze. There was another episode, after the Chu viscount's attempt at seeing the cauldrons, about the Zhou court dissuading the Qi state from an attempt at moving the cauldrons, with a wild claim of innumerable carts and manpower being exerted to moving the cauldrons to the Zhou capital from the Shang Ruins. Shortly afterwards, the Chu Kingdom manufactured three shelves of ritual-purpose bronze bells, with the nine top bells weighing 10,000 jin [i.e., 5000 kg in today's measure]. Maan was the grandson of Zhou King Xiangwang (Ji Zheng, reign 651-619 B.C).
 
In 530 B.C., in the section Lu Lord Zhaogong 12th year of ZUO ZHUAN, Chu King Lingwang (reign 539-529 B.C.) had complained about some historical event. This was about Xiong-yi, the Chu founding ancestor, together with Qi Lord Dinggong Lv Ji (Jiang Taigong's son), Wangsun-Mou (the Wey lord or the Zhou King Wenwang's grandson, i.e., Wey Count Kangbo or Moubo), Xie-fu (the Jinn marquis Jinn-Hou-xie) and Qin-fu (Count Bo-qin or Duke Zhougong's son, i.e., Lugong-boqin) serving Zhou King Xuanwang who only bestowed the royal utensils onto the other four lords.
 
The Wu Principality at the Yantze Delta
The Wu State was founded by two uncles of King Zhou Wenwang. The two uncles, headed by Tai Bo, decided to go to the Yantze Delta to launch a state because they did not want to contend with the necromancy note which stated that their nephew (Zhou King Wenwang) would revive Zhou. The Zhou court later conferred, on the descendants of the two uncles, the title of count. The Wa Japanese, who came to Han China in the first century A.D., claimed to be descendants of Tai Bo, the uncle of Zhou King Wenwang (posthumously). The Wa Japanese called themselves by the ancient title of 'Da Fu'. (The Wa Japanese of the Tai-bo lineage were later apparently conquered by the Paekche people of the Fu-yu lineage from today's Inner-Mongolia/Manchuria.)
 
Tai-bo passed the rule to Zhong-yong; Zhong-yong born son Ji-jian; Ji-jian born Shu-da; and Shu-da born Zhou-zhang. Zhou-zhang's brother was conferred by Zhou King Wuwang the land of Yu, i.e., the Xia Ruins (Yuncheng, Shanxi), and was hence called Yu-zhong. Zhou-zhang's son would be Xiong-sui; Xiong-sui's son would be Ke-xiang.
 
Ke-xiang's son would be Qiang-jiu-yi; Qiang-jiu-yi's son would be Yu-qiao-yi-wu. Son Ke-lu succeeded. Ke-lu's son was Zhou-yao; Zhou-yao's son was Qu-yu; and Qu-yu's son was Yi-wu. The succession continued with Qin-chu, Zhuan, Po-gao, Gou-bei, Qu-qi, and Shou-meng who proclaimed himself a king. The Wu Principality continued till Fu-chai when the Yue Principality conquered it.
 
The Yue Principality at the Yantze Delta
Lord Yu's tomb, on Mount Kuaijishan, in today's Shaoxing, Zhejiang, was a good monument validating the stories of Lord Yu. Wu-yu, one of the sons of King Shaokang of Xia Dynasty, was permanently assigned to the Kuaiji land to guard the tomb, and the later Yue Principality was said to have descended from this lineage. The Yue Principality continued till Wu-jiang when the Chu Principality conquered it.
 
 
The Timeline of Zhou Dynasty
 
The first part of Zhou, Western Zhou, with its capital near today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, ended in 771 BC when King Youwang was killed by the Quanrong (i.e., the Doggy Rong) barbarians who were invited by Marquis Shenhou of the Shen Principality to avenge the king for deposing his daughter-queen and crown prince. The son of Youwang, King Pingwang, moved his capital to today's Luoyang, Henan Province in 770 BC, with the help of the ancestors of the later Qin Empire. Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for assisting Zhou King Pingwang in the crackdown on the Rongs and relocation of the Zhou capital. Zhou King Pingwang also conferred Qin the old Zhou land of Qishan and Feng should Qin receover it from the Rongs. Historians named the later part of Zhou as Eastern Zhou and it ended in 256 BC when the great grandfather of First Qin Emperor Shihuangdi invaded the Zhou capital and removed all Zhou Kingdom's bronze utensils (i.e., ding or cauldron).
 
Eastern Zhou, however, was further sub-divided into the two time periods of 1) the Spring and Autumn and 2) the Warring States. This division was based on the emergence of six prominent families in determing the politics of the Jinn Principality in 475 BC.
 
 
Western Zhou (1134 - 771 BC; 1122 - 771 BC {Liu Xin's mistake in adding an extra 60 years on top of 1062 B.C.E}; per THE BAMBOO ANNALS 1050 - 771 BC)
 
Zhou King Wuwang (Ji Fa, reign approx 1134-1115 BC; reign 1061-1045 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS)
Wuwang established the Zhou dynasty with the help of Jiang Ziya (Jiang Taigong, l. 1212-1073 BC per Chu Bosi who had the Zhou years zeroed down to be closer to the years shown on THE BAMBOO ANNALS). King Wuwang married the daughter of Jiang Ziya. King Wuwang conferred the land of Linzi [Shandong Prov] onto Jiang Ziya as the Qi Principality. Qi continued their lineage till the Tian family usurped it. What was hinted in the ancient records was that though both Qi and Lu were ordained to be set up on the Shandong peninsula, the Jiang clan successfully merged with the Yi locals for their possible pre-Zhou affinity but the Lu people had continuous conflicts with the locals on enforcing the Zhou system and rule. Details about King Wuwang were provided in the topic on the conquest above.
 
An ex-Shang royal family member, Ji-zi (Qi Zi or Kija), was conferred the land of southern Manchuria and northern Korea in 1,121 BC (? more likely after 1050 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS). More, Ji-zi was recorded to have departed first for the Yang-yi or the sun Yi land which was construed to be somewhere on the Shandong peninsula, east of the Qi and Lu principalities.
 
Per THE BAMBOO ANNALS, the Shang-Zhou transition happened in 1050 B.C.E., not 1122 B.C.E. {Liu Xin's mistake in adding an extra 60 years on top of 1062 B.C.E}. The year 1122 B.C. {Liu Xin's mistake in adding an extra 60 years on top of 1062 B.C.E} was commonly treated as the year when Shang Dynasty ended. Using the first full year as the reign for a new dynasty, Zhou Dynasty counts 1121 B.C. [1049 B.C.E. per THE BAMBOO ANNALS] as the first year of existence. In the ancient times, two derivation approaches had been used to determine the exact year the Shang Dynasty ended. Ancient Scholar Liu Xin derived 1122 BC {mistake in adding an extra 60 years on top of 1062 B.C.E}, while some others, including Seng Yixing's version in "The New History of Tang Dynasty", derived 1111 BC {mistake in adding an extra 60 years on top of 1051 B.C.E} instead. The majority of the ancient [Confucian] scholars, who were against THE BAMBOO ANNALS for its tell-truth historical accounts about dynastic usurpation, had overlooked the only history book that survived the Qin's book-burning. The Han Dynasty scholars, during the recompilation, were influenced by the Confucian political correctness.
 
Zhou King Chengwang (Ji Song, reign approx 1,115-1,078 B.C.; 1044-1008 per THE BAMBOO ANNALS)
Zhou King Wuwang died after 7 years of reign. Another version stated that the king died two years after defeating the Shang Dynasty, which would be in conflict with the year 1045 B.C.E. per THE BAMBOO ANNALS. Archduke Zhougong (Dan) took over the regency and did not return the regency till King Chenwang grew up in 7 years. Ji Song (i.e., Zhou King Chenwang) was said to be born in the year Zhou King Wuwang conquered the Shang dynasty.
 
The eastern capital was established at Luoyi (Luoyang). Zhougong (Duke of Zhou), under the order of King Chengwang, fulfilled the wish of King Wuwang in building the city of Luoyi (Luoyang) for moving the nine bronze utensils there. Zhou King Chengwang moved the cauldrons during the 18th year reign, or 1027 B.C.E. [which conformed with the dates of THE BAMBOO ANNALS, as well as the magic necromancy note. According to Lu Lord Xuan'gong 3rd year, Wangsun Maan claimed that the Zhou rule should extend for 700 years under the mandate of Heaven as Zhou King Chenwang, at the time of relocating the cauldrons to Jiaru (the eastern capital city of Luoyang), was told by the necromancy teller [i.e., 'tai-shi-ling' Mei-zhong-xuan] that Zhou would have 30 kings' rule and 700 years in reign years. This turned out to be correct should we count from King Chengwang's 18th year [1027 B.C.E.] to King Xianwang's 42nd year [327 B.C.E.] - when the nine cauldrons were lost in the Si-shui River. (The nine cauldrons, which were said to have been made by Overlord Yu in the 3rd millennium B.C.E., could have been repeatedly re-cast over the history, and might contain the actual maps for the book SHAN HAN JING [The Legends of Mountains and Seas]. HAN SHU pointed that the nine caudlrons had the 'xiang' or image of the nine prefectures. MO ZI, in a detailed account, stated that Xia Lord Kai [Qi] ordered Fei-lian to colect the metal [copper], cast the cauldrons at the foot of Mt. Jingshan, and drew the pictures at the Kunwu[-xu] Ruins. SHI YI JI pointed that five cauldrons denoted the 'yang' [male] side while four the 'yin' [female] side of nature.)
 
Duke Zhougong defeated the rebellion of two brothers and Shang Prince Wugeng. The ex-Shang Prince Wei-Zi (Qi) was made into the duke of the Soong Principality to inherit the lineage, after the quelling of the rebellion. Duke Zhougong and King Chengwang further attacked the Huai-yi (ancient Xu-guo statelet) people around the Huai River, and attacked the ex-Shang Marquisdom of An-guo fief and relocated the An-guo marquis away from the area of today's Qufu County, Shandong Province. After King Chengwang attacked the Dong-yi barbarians, a statelet called Xi-shen (Sushen of today's Manchuria) came to pay pilgrimage.
 
When King Chengwang was a kid, he at one time joked with Shu-yu (Uncle Yu, i.e., a possible wrongly-speculated Jiang-surnamed brother of Chengwang's mother, who was said to be a brother of King Chengwang's mother in HAN SHU), King Chengwang's brother, that he was to confer the land of Tang onto Shu-yu. Per ZUO ZHUAN, Lu Lord Zhaogong 1st year carried a statement to the effect that Zhou King Wuwang had a dream during Yi-jiang's pregnancy that the to-be-born child would inherit the land of Uncle Tang. This is however another puzzle as this webmaster tried to think in the shoes of the necromancy note believers to assume that the more correct interpretation here was that Shu-yu was more likely a Jiang-surnamed brother of King Chengwang's mother, rather than King Chengwang's brother or King Wuwang's posthumous son. Why so? A prophesy statement was made in ZUO ZHUAN to the effect that Tang-shu or Uncle Tang would inherit the spirits of the Shang dynasty [after it was to be overthrown by what happened to be the successor Zhou dynasty] for the inherent reason that the Shang people could be of the same family as clans of the 'Jiang3', 'Ren4' and 'Su4' surnames, namely, lineages from the ancient Yandi or the Fiery Lord tribe [versus the Ji-surnamed Huangdi or the Yellow Lord tribe that substituted the rule of the former]. (Lu Lord Xigong's 21st year stated that the clans of 'Ren', 'Su', 'Xugou' and 'Zhuanyu' [i.e., ordained to guard Mt. Mengshan] were Feng-surnamed, i.e., the Feng[wind]-surnamed statelets; that they worshipped the pilgrimage of Taihao and Youji [i.e., the river god of the ancient Ji-shui River, near today's Ji'nan, Shandong Province]; and that they served the various Xia lords in a subordinate position.) After more back and forth thoughts, this webmaster realized that the necromancy note had no faultiness as the prophesy was fulfilled on the maternal side as a result of Uncle Shu-yu being actually born, with the character 'yu' ingrained in the palm, by a Jiang-surnamed woman, i.e., Wuwang-yi-jiang [a woman's full name with king's postmortem name prefixed].
 
The land of Tang, i.e., a hereditary fief of ancient overlord Tang-yao, was near the Xia Ruins in today's [central and] southern Shanxi Province. SHI JI stated that it was hundred li distance to the east of the Fen-shui River. Duke Zhougong quelled the Tang statelet and relocated them to the land of Du in today's Shenxi as a result of the Tang peope, who were Ji-surnamed as lord Tang-yao was, joining the Shang prince's rebellion against the Zhou rule. If this is not enough, ZUO ZHUAN, in section on the 1st year of Lu Lord Zhaogong, carried a record about the four sons of Gaoxin-shi, saying the elder son (E-bo) and the 4th son (Shi-chen), for their constant fightings against each other, were forced to separate, with the elder son relocating to Shangqiu to become the ancestors of Shang while the fourth son relocating to Daxia [the grand Xia land] to become the ancestors of Tang. Since Gaoxin-shi (Di-ku) actually was the father of Yao, the source of Uncle Tang could be said to be the same. The alternative saying was that lord Yao was a junior son who first assisted elder brother Zhi; that Lord Yao was conferred the land of Tang and called himself Tao-tang-shi, and that Lord Yao substituted the elder brother as the overlord. ZUO ZHUAN, however, further stated that elder son (E-bo) acted as the fire guardian for Tao-tang-shi. Give and take here, someone from the Gaoxin-shi lineage carried on the Uncle Tang hereditary title till Zhou King Chengwang dispatched Uncle Yu (Shu-yu) to the Tang land to be the new ruler, after quelling the rebellion of the Tang people, namely, the Shang dynasty remnants - who shared the brotherly or blood relationship with the Shang dynasty royal house apparently.
 
--Here, there was an interesting story about the later White Di [linked to the later white-clothed Xianbei] or Red Di [linked to the later red-clothed Kirghiz] barbarians being descendants of Tang-shu or Uncle Tang. While this webmaster attributed the designation Tang-shu to Shu-yu's descendants who launched the Jinn Principality, the most likely case would be that it was the descendants of the original Tang-shu who fled to the barbarian tribes to become the Red and/or White Di in lieu of being forcefully relocated to the Du land by the Zhou people. As history said, the son of Shu-yu would soon change the name of his fief to Jinn. (Tang-shu or Uncle Tang was similar to He-bo [Elder Uncle of the River] or Count of the Yellow River, namely, titles that continued their lineage for thousands of years. Later, when the Jinn Principality princes married with the Di barbarian women, they often hesitated about marrying women with the Ji-surname[, with one likelihood being that Prince Chong'er worried more about double-marrying the Ji-surnamed barbarian Di woman because his mother had come from this Ji-surnamed barbarian tribe]. Further, the father of Prince Chong'er had married a Li-ji woman, with the character 'li' meaning from the Mt. Lishan Di[2] barbarian tribe which was said to have stayed on at Lishan after coming east to join the campaign to overthrow the Western Zhou dynasty rule.)
 
Per ZUO ZHUAN, when Duke Zhougong rezoned the fiefs, he made arrangement for the barbarian, the non-Sinitic, and the non-Ji/non-Jiang-surnamed tribes and clans to be dispersed across the country. For the Lu-guo on the Shandong peninsula, the six clans of Tiao-shi, Xu-shi, Xiao-shi, Suo-shi, Changshao-shi and Weishao-shi, were piggybacked; for the Wey-guo statelet that was to administer half of the people of the Shang dynasty's capital district, the seven clans of Tao-shi, Shi-shi, Fan-shi, Qi-shi, Fan4-shi, Ji-shi, and Zhongkui-shi were piggybacked; and for Shu-yu or Uncle Yu's Tang-guo (later Jinn-guo), the Huai-surnamed eight clans were piggybacked. The Huai surname was commonly taken as the same as the Kui surname and postulated to be the same as Jiuhou/Guifang of the Shang era. The new settlers would arrive at their fiefs as the so-called "guo-ren" or the city people, while the original inhabitants in the countryside outside of the citywalls would be called "ye-ren" or the countryside people.
 
Qin's ancestors, i.e., the great grandson of Ji Sheng (Feilian's junior son), Meng Zhen, was hired by Zhou King Chengwang. Previously, the Qin ancestors were 'imperial garrison' generals under the last Shang Dynasty overlord and resisted the Zhou invasion. The Qin people, who relocated to Northwest China from the eastern Chinese coast, carried on the customs of the ancient Nine Yi barbarians of the coast, such as the bended-feet burial. King Chenwang also conferred on the descendent of Bo Yi the title of Marquis of Shen(1) or Shenhou. (Here, both the Qin people and Marquis Shen-hou's people appeared to be the Jiang-surnamed people who relocated to Northwest China from the eastern Chinese coast.)
 
At one time, Zhougong fled to seek asylum in the Chu Principality's land. King Chenwang, who discovered a pray by Zhougong in the royal records, dispelled his suspicion of Zhougong's loyalty and fetched Zhougong back home. Zhougong was said to have authored admonition WU YI (no indulgence) for King Chengwang. King Chengwang, prior to death, decreed that Duke Zhaogong (Ji Shi) and Duke Bigong (Ji Gao, the 15th son of King Wenwang) be responsible for assisting crown prince Ji Zhao. Prince Ji Gao (Bigong Gao) would see his descendants adopting the 'wang' or the king title for their surname.
 
Zhou King Kangwang (Ji Zhao, reign approx 1,078 - 1,052 B.C.; 1007-982 B.C.E. per BAMBOO)
King Kangwang, during his 40 [? contradicting THE BAMBOO ANNALS records] year reign, had ruled the country in the spirits of King Wenwang and King Wuwang. Penalization tools were never called upon to punish the people. King Kangwang asked Duke Bigong dwell in the east. Jiang Taigong [l. 1212-1073 per Chu Bosi] died after a life of over 100 years, during the 6th year reign of King Kangwang per "THE BAMBOO ANNALS". Jiang Taigong was renowned for writing the first military strategy and tactics books, i.e., the six-volume "Liu Tao", a book that the future tacticans and strategicians, like Guan Zhong, Sun Wu, Wu Qi, Sun Bin, Su Qin, Huang-shi-gong [yellow rock grandpa, i.e., Zhang Liang's master], Zhang Liang, and Zhuge Liang et als., had inherited.
 
Per inscription on the Xiao Meng Ding cauldron, the Zhou people, during Kangwang's 25th year reign, launched two attacks against the Gui-fang "barbarians" who colluded with the deposed Shang Dynasty remnants against Zhou. The cauldron claimed to have captured 13,811 prisoners of war.
 
Zhou King Zhaowang (Ji Xia, reign approx 1,052 - 1,001 B.C.; 982-963 per BAMBOO)
King Zhaowang was hated for his lack of so-called 'De', i.e., virtues. He campaigned in the south. When he crossed the Huai River, sailors deliberately used rubber to seam the boat for King Zhaowang to use. The rubber-seamed boat melted mid-stream, and King Zhaowang, Duke Jigong and the entourage all fell into the river. King Zhaowang died of drowning. According to the Xu family lineage book [from the Yingshan area], the Xu statelet's 38th generation ancestor, Xu Chang, who was hired by the Zhou court as minister in charge of shipbuilding, had schemed to make the ships lose the bottom for avenging on behalf of his father.
 
Zhou King Muwang (Ji Man, reign approx 1,001 - 946 B.C.; 962-908 per BAMBOO)
Zhou King Muwang was said by SHI JI to be already 50 years old, when he ascended to the thone. THE BAMBOO ANNALS, which was buried underground hundreds of years ahead of SHI JI, recorded that when Zhou King Muwang ascended the throne, it was the 100th reign year since the Zhou people was empowered with the mandate of Heaven, a date dating to Zhou King Wenwang and Zhou King Wuwang. That is, it was not Zhou King Muwang who reached the age of over hundred years.
 
King Muwang would set up several posts, including the position of 'tai pu', for sake of restoring the Zhou kingdom's prestige and power. Against the advice of counsellor Duke Jigong, King Muwang attacked the Rong-di people. Hence, the Rongdi no longer came to pay pilgrimage to the Zhou court. King Muwang, after defeating the Quan-Rong (Rong-di), exiled the Quanrong to Taiyuan, the origin of the Jing-shui and Wei-shui Rivers. Muwang was said to be indulgent in travelling to the west. In the 17th year of his reign, he visited the Kun Lun Mountain. When he was toasting with Queen Mother of the West at the Yao-Ci Lake on Mount Kunlun, the Xu statelet rebelled against Zhou. His chauffeur, Zaofu (or Zao Fu, i.e., Qin's ancestoral relative), drove him home to quell the Xu-yan-wang rebellion, in an eight-horse chariot.
 
King Xu-yan-wang, which was a king's title versus the viscount conferral from the Zhou court, was a ruler of the Xu Principality which had a long history as a Xia Dynasty vassal, famous for production of copper and tin. According to the records on surnames, the Xu name derived from [Ying] Ruomu, a son of Bo-yi from Lord Yu's timeframe, which is to say that it shared the same origin as the Qin Dynasty ancestors. HAAN-FEI_ZI claimed that Xu had 36 vassals around it. The Xu state, under King Ju-wan, was a counter-weight against the Zhou dynasty. Xu King Ju-wang was said to have pushed against the Zhou army all the way to the Yellow River and furthermore crossed the river during the rebellion of the Shang remnants and Shang Prine Wugeng against Arch-duke Zhou-gong's regency. Lu Lord Bo-qin, who at one time dared not open its city gate under the threat of the Xu state, was eulogized by SHI JING to have occupied the land of Xu after a long years of attrition wars against the Xu state. It would be Zhou King Muwang who counterattacked and finally subdued the Xu state. The XU viscount then served the Zhou court and took charge of building the canals linking the Huai River and the Yellow River in the Chen and Cai territories.
 
Paraphrased from THE BAMBOO ANNALS (For the fiction travelogue Mu-tian-zi, see http://www.imperialchina.org/Dynasties/?p=43):
 
  • In the first year of King Muwang's reign, the king ordered the building of the Zhao-gong Palace after ascending the throne in the first lunar month, and in the month of October, ordered to build the Qi-gong Palace in Nanzheng. In this year, King Muwang made a conferral onto Yu-mi (Count Xin-bo) who previously rescued Zhou King Zhaowang in the Han-shui River while the Zhou army was campaigning against the Jing-ren people.
  • In the sixth year, Zi-dan (? Viscount Dan) of Xu of the Xu-an statelet, one of the [?] Yi people, came to the Zhou court, and was conferred the title of Bo (Count).
  • In the spring of the 8th year reign, Bei-tang (i.e., North Tang, some Northwestern Rong statelet), came to deliver a black-colored horse as tribute, which later gave birth to one of King Muwang's chariot horses, Lu-er.
  • In the 9th year, King Muwang ordered to construct the Chun-gong [spring] Palace.
  • In the eleventh year, King Muwang made a conferral on 'Qing-shi' [minister] Moufu, i.e., Lord (Duke) Ji-gong.
  • In the twelfth year, Ban (Lord Mao-gong), Li4 (Lord Gong-gong), and Gu3 (Lord Pang-gong [?Feng-gong]) commanded the army to campaign against the Quan-rong barbarians under the helm of King Muwang. In October, King Muwang went north [i.e., northwest] on a hunting trip and attacked the Quanrong [in today's Guyuan area of Ningxia]. (King Muwang attacked the Quan-rong against the advice of Ji-gong, which led to the barbarians' cessation of the tribute relationship with the Zhou court.)
  • In the spring of the thirteenth year, Ji-gong commanded an army on a western expedition under the helm of King Muwang, and reached the land of Yangyu [which was north of the Northern Yellow River Bend per Mu-tian-zi]. In July, the Xi-Rong [western Rong] sent an emissary to seeing Zhou King Muwang. While King Muwang was campaigning in the west, the Xu-Rong people under self-proclaimed King Xu-yan-wang [i.e., Zhou-sanctified Count Zi-dan] invaded the Luo-he River area from the east. In October, Zhou King Muwang, riding on the chariot commandeered by Zao-fu, returned to the Zong-zhou capital for quelling the [fake] King Xu-yan-wang rebellion. (According to THE BAMBOO ANNALS, Zhou King Muwang met with Queen Mother of the West during the 17th year's reign. According to Mu-tian-zi, i.e., Zhou King Muwang's Travelogue, King Muwang departed the capital one year earlier, and travelled to the north of the Northern Yellow River Bend, where Mount Yangyu was said to be located, and continued on the trip to seeing the Queen Mother in July of the 17th year of the reign. Hence, the two accounts had conflict, meaning that Mu-tian-zi or the tervelogue was a fiction written in the 4th century B.C.E. on basis of the limited records available in THE BAMBOO ANNALS.)
  • In the fourteenth year, King Muwang[, having obtained another stallion Ji-luo,] travelled south to the Chu land, ordered Chu-zi (Viscount Chu) [ i.e., Chu King Wenwang per HOU HAN SHU] to attack the Xu rebels. The Xu rebellion was quelled. [Alternative historical records stated that the Xu people were a group of peace-loving people and that the king of the Xu people abdicated for the Yangtze River area in lieu of organizing the resistance against the Zhou army.] In April, King Muwang went hunting at Jinqiu; in May, ordered to construct the Fan-gong Palace. In September, the Di-ren (? Zhai-ren) invaded the Bi statelet. In winter, King Muwang went hunting at the Ping-ze Lake. After a tiger was caught, King Muwang ordered to build a tiger cage, i.e., the future Hulao [tiger cage] Pass in today's Yingyang, Henan Province.
  • In the spring of the 15th year reign, the Liu-kun-shi people came to pay pilgrimage. King Muwang ordered to make Chongbi-tai (a double wall terrace). In winter, King Muwang stayed at the Yian-ze (the salt lake).
  • In the 16th year, Marquis Huo-hou, Jiu, passed away. King Muwang conferred onto Zao-fu the land of Zao, i.e., a fief for the ancestors of both the future Zhao Principality and the Qin people.
  • In the 17th year reign, King Muwang made an expedition to Kunlun-qiu (Kunlun Hill), and visited Queen Mother of the West. In this year, Queen Mother of the West made a return visit to Zhou to show respect, and dwelled at the Zhao-gong Palace. In Autumn, in August, Zhou King Muwang relocated the [Quan-]Rong barbarians to the land of Tai-yuan [grand plateau, i.e., the land of the origin of the Jing-shui and Wei-shui Rivers]. (The barbarians would continue to move east, became part of the Li-rong barbarians at Mount Lishan after sacking Haojing the Zhou capital and killing Zhou King Youwang, and then crossed the Yellow River to reach today's Shanxi, where they were said to have split into the Bai-di and Chi-di barbarians and intermarried with the Jinn principality - possibly the hint as to the imaginary meeting between Zhou King Muwang and the Quan-rong in the fictional travelogue Mu-tian-zi of the 4th century B.C.E.) (Per HOU HAN SHU, King Muwang caught five barbarian chieftans in this campaign.)
  • In the spring of the eighteenth year, King Muwang lived at the Qi-gong Palace, where he received the visits of the vassals.
  • In the 21st year, Ji-gong [posthumously Ji-wen-gong] passed away.
  • In the twenty-fourth year, King Muwang ordered Zuo-shi [leftside history or court music minister, i.e., one of the three elderly dukes], to take charge of compiling the history of the king's commandments and the past dynastic events. This would be treated as the beginning of the compilation of history on the Zhou people.
  • In the thirty-fifth year, the Jing-ren people, who were in today's Hanzhong plains and had defeated predecessor Zhou King Zhaowang, intruded into the Xu land. Count Mao-bo, i.e., Qian, commanded the Zhou army to defeat the Jing-ren at Zi (? Zigui, near today's Yangtze gorges and the Han-shui River estuary).
  • In the thirty-seventh year, King Muwang raised nine armies to attack south, reaching as far as Jiujiang (the nine rivers), with turtles caught to make a bridge. This would be the area of the historical three-river conversion as recorded in Lord Yu's Tributes. The Zhou army attacked the Yue statelet [at the lowerstream Yangtze], and reached the place of Yu. The Jing-ren people [who were to the upper reach of the Yangtze], [upon hearing of the Zhou army's campaign towards southeastern China,] came to submit tributes.
  • In the 39th year, King Muwang assembled vassals at Mount Tushan, where Lord Yu, the Xia dynasty founder, married with the Tu-shan-shi woman who was noted in legends to have the shape of the nine-tail fox.
  • In the forty-fifth year, Marquis Lu-hou passed away.
  • In the 51st year, King Muwang made the penal code "Lv Xing" after reflecting on his 100 plus years of life.
  • In the fifty-fifth year, King Muwang passed away at the Yu-gong [? Zhi-gong] Palace.
     
    Zhou King Gongwang (Ji Yihu, reign approx 946 - 934 B.C.; 907-896 per BAMBOO)
    King Wuwang died after a reign of 50 years. King Gongwang visited the Mi-guo Statelet at the Jingzhou Prefecture and saw three beautilful women in Mi-guo Lord Kanggong's residence. Kanggong's mother asked his son to surrender the three beauties, but Kanggong refused. One year later, King Gongwang attacked the Mi-guo Statelet and exterminated it.
     
    Zhou King Yiwang (Ji Jian, reign approx 934 - 909 B.C.; 895-871 per BAMBOO)
    King Yiwang relocated the Zhou capital from Hao (Haojing or Chongzhou) to Quanqiu (i.e., Feiqiu). The Zhou Kingdom degraded in its ruling, and poets began to record events via poems.
     
    Zhou King Xiaowang (Ji Pifang, reign approx 909 - 894 B.C.; 870-862 per BAMBOO)
    King Xiaowang ordered Marquis Shen (Shenhou) to attack the Quan-Rong barbarians around 909 BC. Qin's ancestor, Fei Zi, lived in a place called Quanqiu (a place near Fufeng of Shenxi), and he was good at raising horses around the Wei-shui River. Marquis Shenhou, whose daughter married Daluo (Fei Zi's father), somehow persuaded Zhou King Xiaowang into bestowing the last name of 'Ying' on Daluo's descendant for sake of pacifying or controlling the Xi-Rong or Western Rong people. (This shows the influence of Daluo's descendants in this barbaric West area.)
     
    Marquis Shenhou was quoted to have mentioned to Zhou King Xiaowang that his ancestor had married their woman to 'Rong Xuxuan' where Rong meant for the barbarians and 'Xuxuan' was the great grandson of Zhongyan. (In the eyes of Marquis Shenhou, the Qin people might be equivalent to the 'rong' people.) SHI JI was ambiguous in this section: Interpretation would be that Daluo had another son born with Marquis Shenhou's daughter, called 'Cheng'; Fei-zi, not Cheng, was conferred the ancestral name of 'Ying'. Note my general designation of 'Daluo's descendants' below in lieu of either Fei-zi or Cheng.
     
    Zhou King Xiaowang conferred them the land of Qin (today's eastern Gansu Province) as a vassal, and hence Daluo's son was know as 'Qin Ying'. Qin became the vassal which was situated to the western-most part of then China. History records that two more groups of people dwelled to the west of Qin and Zhou Chinese, namely, the Western Rong nomads and the Yveh-chih people.
     
    Zhou King Yi(2)-wang (Ji Xie, reign approx 894 - 878 B.C.; 861 - 854 per BAMBOO)
    King Yiwang was another son of King Yiwang. He steam-killed Marquis Qi Aigong in a bronze utensil called 'ding' or cauldron.
     
    Zhou King Liwang (Ji Hu, reign approx 878 - 827 B.C.; 853 - 828 per BAMBOO)
    King Liwang was in reign for 26 years per BAMBOO. He paid attention to material interests and used a minister called Rongyi-gong as his prime minister. Duke Zhaogong (descendant of Zhaokanggong Mugonghu) admonished him by saying that the civilians had complaints. King Liwang then hired a witch from the Wey-guo fief to report on the populace. King Liwang killed those who talked about him. The Vassals did not come to the Zhou court to show respect. Liwang prohibited admonition in year 8 per BAMBOO.
     
    [Alternative records claimed that during his ?? 34th reign, the people, while walking on the streets, dared not talk to each other.] Liwang gloated, saying to Zhaogong that nobody dared to villify him any more. Zhaogong cited i) that controlling the mouth of the populace would be more difficult than controlling the mountain torrents, ii) that floods could kill lots of people once a dam was broken, and iii) that the populace would not be kept under control once their dissatisfaction broke out. King Liwang refused to take Zhaogong's advice. Three years later, i.e, the 12th reign per BAMBOO, ministers colluded with each other and attacked King Liwang; King Liwang fled to a place called Zhi (Huoyi or Yong'an in Shanxi), east of the East Yellow River Bend. Liwang's son fled to Zhaogong's home for asylum and when being attacked by the Guo-ren or civilians, Zhaogong said he would be willing to substitute his own son for the life of the prince because it was his fault that King Liwang did not take his advice. Per BAMBOO, during the 13th reign, Count Gong-bo, He, ruled as a regent till Zhou-gong and Zhao-gong selected prince Jing as the new ruler after Liwang's death.
     
    While Zhou King Liwang was ruling despotically, the Xi-Rong (Xirong or Western Rong) people had rebelled in the west and killed most of the Daluo lineage of the Qin people. Later, Zhou King Xuanwang conferred Qin Zhong (r. BC 845-822 ?) the title of 'Da Fu' and ordered him to quell the Xirong. Qin Zhong got killed by the Xirong people during the 6th year of Zhou King Xuanwang's reign or 822 B.C.E. per BAMBOO, after being a Qin ruler for 23 years. Qin Zhong's five sons, under the elder son (Qin Lord Zhuanggong), would defeat Xirong with 7000 reinforcement army from the Zhou court. Qin Lord Zhuanggong (r. BC 821-778) hence recovered the territories called Quanqiu and enjoyed the Zhou court's conferral of the title of 'Xi Chui Da Fu', i.e., the 'Da Fu' on the western-most border. (The Qin ancestors' tombs had been discovered in Li-xian county of Gansu Province.)
     
    Interregnum, i.e., the Republican Administrative Period (841 - 828 B.C., commonly known as 'gong he' or the modern-sense republican administrative period but alternatively known as the collective leadership by the royal court uncles - as here we might just have one person called 'he' who was count Gong-bo). From here onward, THE BAMBOO ANNALS' records and all the rest of history books which survived the book burning of Qin Emperor Shihuangdi, had converged.
    [hereditary titled] Duke Zhaogong and [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong took the regency as "interregnum". During the 14th of "interregnum", King Liwang passed away in Zhi, east of the Yellow River. Prince Jing, who spent the years in Zhaogong's home, was selected as the new Zhou king.
     
    Zhou King Xuanwang (Ji Jing, reign 827 - 782 B.C.)
    Zhou King Xuanwang was born by a Shen-guo woman, for which Count Shen-bo enjoyed the special imperial favor. With two dukes as prime ministers, King Xuanwang renewed the Zhou spirits. Vassals began to come to show respect. During the 12th year of the reign, Lu Lord Wugong (r. BC 825-816) came to the Zhou court. King Xuanwang, against the advice of Guo-fief Lord Wen'gong (descendant of Guo Zhong or Guo-shu, a brother of King Wenwang), did not take care of Qianmu, i.e., the thousand-acre royal field. Qianmu was supposed to be an imperial farming garden, similar to Xu-tian [near today's Xuchang]. SHI JI stated that Zhou King Xuanwang, who did not listen to Guo Lord Wen'gong's admonishment, let Qianmu dilapidate. (This Guo-fief was the so-called West Guo Statelet in Chencang, Shenxi Province.)
     
    Jinn marquis Muhou married a Jiang-surname woman from the Qi state in 808 B.C. Three years later, the Jinn army campaigned against Tiao, possibly a state near today's Zhongtiaoshan Mountain, and born elder prince Chou (i.e., enemy). In his 10th year reign, or Zhou King Xuanwang's 26th year, Jinn Muhou campaigned against Qianmu, which was possibly taken over by the Jiang-rong barbarians after the Zhou king very much abandoned it in the earlier years. In this year, the Jinn lord born his junior son, named 'Cheng-shi' or the victorious army in commemoration of the Qianmu Campaign. Son 'Cheng-shi' would be later Quwo-huan-shu, i.e., Uncle Huan of Quwo. (Shi-fu, a Jinn wise man, commented that the Jinn lord used the inverse way of making a propitious name for his two sons, which could spell troubles for the nation. The Quwo lineage later usurped the Jinn throne.)
     
    King Xuanwang (r 827-782 BC) was said to have fought the Jiang-rong barbarians in vain. SHI JING eulogized King Xuanwang's reaching Tai-yuan (original Tai-yuan being not the appropriated one in the central Shanxi Province of today). Per ZHU SHU JI NIAN, Zhou King Xuanwang campaigned against the Shen-rong barbarians in 790 B.C., one year ahead of his conflict with the Jiang-rong barbarians.
     
    ZHOU YU of GUO YU recorded that Zhou King Xuanwang fought against Jiang-rong at Qianmu [thousand acre] during his 39th year reign. During the 39th year of his reign, or 789 B.C., King Xuanwang attacked the Jiang-rong barbarians (a race of Xi Yi or western Yi barbarians, said to be descendants of ancient minister 'Si Yue' or 'four mountains' under Lord Yu), but he was defeated by Jiang-Rong and per historian Wei Zhao, lost his Nan-ren troops(i.e., the southern soldiers from today's Nanyang, Henan Province). Modern historian Yang Kuan claimed that the loss of his southern troops was from a different war. The loss of his southern troops, according to history, led to King Xuanwang's conducting a census at Tai-yuan, which showed the weakness of the Zhou state and harbingered the start of the Western Zhou dynastic decline. (Qianmu, per JINN SHI-JIA of SHI JI, was disputed to be possibly a place inside of the Jinn domain, not the Zhou domain, as Jinn marquis Muhou had at one time in 802 B.C. campaigned against Qianmu. Also note that in the Battle of Xiaoshan, the Jinn state mobilized the Jiang-rong barbarians, who might have dwelled at Qianmu, to ambush the Qin army at Mt. Xiaoshan, between the Zhou capital city of Luoyi and the Zheng capital city of today's Zhengzhou. This could mean that Qianmu could be somewhere near the Zhou capital city of Luoyi, not north of the Yellow River or near today's Jiexiu, Shanxi Province.)
     
    King Xuanwang ordered Bo Yi to attack the west. He made his brother, Ji You, the inheritor of Zheng (i.e., Zheng Lord Huan'gong). King Xuanwang refused to listen to advice from a minister called Zhongshanfu of the Fan-guo fief. King Xuanwang killed another minister called Du Bo for no reason. Legends said that three years later, in his 46th reign, King Xuanwang died of an arrow shot by the ghost of Count Du Bo.
     
    Later in 530 B.C., in the section Lu Lord Zhaogong 12th year of ZUO ZHUAN, Chu King Lingwang (reign 539-529 B.C.) claimed in a dialogue with minister 'you-yin' Zi-ge that Xiong-yi, the Chu founding ancestor, together with Qi Lord Dinggong Lv Ji (Jiang Taigong's son), Wangsun-Mou (the Wey lord or the Zhou King Wenwang's grandson, i.e., Wey Count Kangbo or Moubo), Xie-fu (the Jinn marquis Jinn-Hou-xie) and Qin-fu (Count Bo-qin or Duke Zhougong's son, i.e., Lugong-boqin) had served Zhou King Xuanwang together, but Zhou King Xuanwang only bestowed the royal utensils onto the other four lords. Chu King Lingwang had complained about this event hundreds of years after.
     
    Zhou King Youwang (Ji Gongnie, reign 781 - 771 B.C.)
    During the 2nd year of his reign, the San-Chuan area, i.e., three rivers areas of the Jing-Wei-Luo & the Yellow River, had a big earthquake. The Qishan Mountain shook during the quake, and the rivers dried up. A Zhou minister, Boyangfu, commented that the Zhou Kingdom might have bad fate. Zhou King Youwang used Guozhifu as his minister. During the 3rd year, Youwang took in Baoshi (a woman from the Shi family, of the Xia heritage, who was adopted by a civilian couple of the Bao-guo fief) as the new queen and then bore a son called Bo-fu. At one time, King Youwang, for sake of making Bao-shi laugh, played mischief with the vassals by lighting the fire on the beacon towers that were designed for the national defence. When King Youwang deposed the prince born from the old queen, the father-in-law, Marquis Shenhou, invited the Quan-rong barbarians, the Zeng-guo fief (descendants of Lord Yu of the former Xia dynasty) and Xi-Yi (the western Yi barbarians) to help him in attacking the Zhou king. Since the vassals no longer responded to Youwang's beacon signal as a result of earlier ridiculing, King Youwang was killed by Quanrong at Lishan Mountain (today's Lantian, Shenxi). The Rong people who stayed on in the Lishan Mountain areas were said to have bee called Li-rong, and later the Jinn Principality had married a woman called Li-ji who caused Prince Chong'er to go into exile for 19 years. With King Youwang's death, the Western Zhou Dynasty ended after a duration of 257 years. Later, poets signed about the dilapidated Western Zhou dynastic capital city of Haojing in a poem SHU LI of SHI JING, which was an equivalent poem to Shang prince Ji-zi's poem "MAI [wheat and other grains] XIU [blossoming and earing up] GE [song]" which was about observing the dilapidated Shang palaces at Chaoge (Qixian), north of the Yellow River.
     
     
    Eastern Zhou (770-256 BC)
     
    The Zhou Dynasty's royal house, after it relocated to today's Luoyang, declined in its power as well as prestige. The Eastern Zhou dynasty was further divided into The Spring and Autumn (770-476 B.C.) and Warring States (475-221 B.C.) periods. Despite the dynasty's decline, the Zhou Dynasty endured for another five and half centuries as a result of power checking among the competing statelets or principalities.
     
    The petty city-states were swallowed by bigger powers during the process. There were over 1,800 "states" during the Zhou Dynasty (11th century-771 B.C.). After war and absorption, the number dwindled to about 100 by the Spring and Autumn Period, and would further decline during the belligerent Warring States time period. Major powers among the subordinate statelets or principalities asserted their status by proclaiming successively the slogan of 'Aiding the Zhou Royal House By Policing Those Rulers Who Conducted Patricides'. During the Spring and Autumn Period, there were five hegemon marquis or dukes. At the end of the Warring States period, out of the hundred or so states, only seven remained. Those states all declared themselves kings on an equal footing as the Zhou court.
     
    There are two historical countings of the states and principalities about this latter part of the Zhou Dynasty. One historical version would be named "The History of Twelve Sassal States", with the Lu Principality as the core and the rest of major powers counted as a total of twelve states ('zhu-hou guo', i.e., the Zhou vassals). For this last episode of history, the historical records were compiled and named as "The History of Six States (Principalities)", with the Qin state, which united China as a whole, counted as the core while the remaining six out of the seven bellligerent states forming the body of the history of the six states.
     
    The Spring & Autumn Time Period
    In the Shang and early Zhou times, there were two seasons on record, spring and autumn. Confucius, who wrote the first private annals in history, had adopted the name "Chun-Qiu" (i.e., the "Spring & Autumn") for his 18,000 character book which had a span of 242 years about the history of the Lu Principality, from Lord Lu Yin'gong (BC 722) to Lord Lu Aigong (BC 481).
     
    Scholars claimed that the various principalities had compiled their royal chronicles entitled the "Spring & Autumn". However, only the Lu Principality's version had survived as a result of Confucius' editing as well as Zuo-qiu Ming's compiling of Zuo-shi Chun-qiu Zhuan (i.e., ZUO ZHUAN). It would be during the Western Jinn dynasty that a Wei Principality version of the history annals, i.e., THE BAMBOO ANNALS (ZHU SHU JI NIAN), was excavated.
    Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

     
    Zhou King Pingwang (Ji Yijiu, reign 770-720 B.C.)
    Zhou King Pingwang moved eastward to Luoyi in 770 BC under the escort of the Qin lord. King Pingwang promised to Qin the land of Feng and Qishan should Qin defeat Quanrong and recover the territories. Zhou King Pingwang conferred Ying Kai the title of count.
     
    Qin Lord Xianggong (Ying Kai, reign BC 777-766) assisted Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720) in cracking down on both the Western Rongs and the Dogggy Rongs. Ying Kai came to the aid of Marquis Shen after Marquis Shen wrote four letters, including requests to: i) Ying Kai, ii) Marquis Jinn (Ji Chou), iii) Marquis Wey (Ji He, Wey Lord Wugong, over 80 years old at the time) and iv) the son of count Zheng, requesting for help in driving the Doggy Rong barbarians out of the Zhou capital, Haojing. The Zhou court had to rely upon vassals, such as Qin, Chu, Qi and Jinn, for governance. The title given for the vassal would be 'Fang-bo', i.e., the elder count or the count of a certain domain.
     
    Ying Kai died during the 12th year of his reign (766 BC ) when he campaigned against the Rongs at Qishan. After Ying Kai would be Qin Lord Wen'gong (r. BC 765-716). Wengong, during his 3rd year reign, had a hunting in the east, and the next year, he selected the Qishan area for building a city as the capital. During his 13th year reign, Wengong began the chronicle recording, and during his 16th year reign, Qin Wengong defeated Rong at Qishan. Qin Wengong would give the land east of Qishan back to the Zhou court.
     
    The records of 'Chun Qiu', the Springs and Autumns, started in the Lu Principality in 722 BC when Lord Lu Yin'gong (r. BC 722-712) got enthroned. The reason that Confucius started the abr1degement of the history chronicles from Lord Lu Yin'gong could be related to the Lu lord's virtues. Lord Lu Yin'gong, in fact, took over the rule as a regent, not an official lord, and observed the rituals as a regent. When the young Lu lord grew up, he got Lord Lu Yin'gong killed. (SHI JI was wrong about the year Lord Lu Yin'gong was killed.) The later interpretation books, like ZUO ZHUAN, made special emphasis on the nature of Lord Lu Yin'gong's regency.
     
    In the Soong Principality, Soong lord Shanggong (Zi-yuyi, 750-710 B.C.) was noted for waging wars yearly. Minister 'tai zhai' Hua-du (grandson of Soong lord Daigong), who envied the beauty of 'si ma' Kong-fu-jia's wife, instigated to get Kong-fu-jia killed on the pretext of belligerence, i.e., encouraging the Soong lord to wage ten wars against neighbors within eleven years. Hua-du further killed lord Shanggong in 710 B.C., and fetched Prince Mu-gongzi-feng from the Zheng state as Soong Lord Zhuanggong. (Mu-gongzi-feng was sent to Zheng by father, Soong lord Mugong in 720 B.C., as requital for Soong lord Xuangong's yielding the throne to him in lieu of crown prince Zi-yuyi. That is, Soong Mugong yielded the thone to nephew Soong Shanggong. Kong-fu-jia was the 6th generation grandson of Soong lord Min'gong. Son Mu-jin-fu fled to Zou-yi of the Lu state. Kong-fu-jia was the 6th generation grandpa of Confucius. There was some conflict about the years involved here in different records like SHI JI versus ZUO ZHUAN/CHUN QIU, with the latter more accurate than the former.)
     
    Zhou King Huanwang (Ji Lin, reign 719-697 B.C.)
    When King Pingwang died, his son, Xiefu, also passed away. A grandson by the name of Ji Lin was selected. During the 3rd year of his reign, count Zheng Zhuanggong came to the court. Zhou King Huanwang was not respectful to the Zheng count. Count Zheng was angry. During the fifth year of Huanwang's reign, Count Zheng, without the Zhou court's approval, had exchanged the royal veneration site of 'Xu-tian' (near today's Xuchang, Henan) for another patch of land from the Lu Principality. Xu-tian was the place given to Duke Zhougong by King Chenwang, and later the Zhou court used this land for venerating Mount Taishan. (Count Zheng's ancestor would be the brother of King Xuanwang, Ji You. King Xuanwang conferred Ji You the land of Zheng as Zheng Lord Huan'gong.)
     
    During the 8th year of his reign, i.e., 712 BC, Lord Lu Yin'gong was killed and Lu Lord Huan'gong was enthroned. During the 13th year of his reign, King Huanwang campaigned against the Zheng Principality, but incurred an arrow wound in the hands of a Zheng general by the name of Zhu Dan. This would be called the Battle of Ruge in 707 BC. The Zhou court had rallied very little support during the campaign. The Zhou prestige was said to have been gone by that time.
     
    The son of Jinn's Quwo Zhuang-bo, a relative of the Jinn marquis, would attack, capture and kill Marquis Jinn Aihou (r 717-710 BC) in 710 BC. Qin Lord Ninggong (r. BC 715-704) defeated King Bo and drove King Bo towards the Rong people in 713 BC. Ninggong conquered King Bo's Dang-shi {? Du-bo) clan in 704 BC. (The ancient records claimed that the Dang-shi people carried the Shang founder's name and could be related to the royals of the Shang dynasty, who fled to to the border area after the demise of the Shang dynasty rule.)
     
    In the Chen Principality, in 706 B.C., three younger brothers of late crown prince Mian colluded with the Cai Principality in killing their uncle lord Chen Tuo. Before that, Chen Tuo usurped the fiefdom by killing the crown prince Mian after the death of Chen Lord Huan'gong. The new Chen lord, Chen Ligong, when meeting with the Zhou dynastic chronicle official 'Tai-shi', was told of a prophesy that his descendant would someday take over a Jiang-surnamed country as lord, which turned out to be the usurpation of the Qin Principality by Tian He in the early 4th century B.C. The three younger Chen brothers consecutively ruled the Chen principality. Later in 672 B.C., Chen Lord Xuangong, the youngest of the three brothers, killed his own son, which caused Prince Chen Wan, the son of late Chen Ligong, to flee to the Qi principality for seeking asylum with Qi Lord Huan'gong. Prince Wan changed his surname to Tian, and was appointed the post of "gong zheng" [engineering chief] at the Qi court. Tian He, who usurped the Qin state almost three hundred years later, was a descendant of Prince Wan.
     
    In 703 BC approx, the Soong captured the Zheng lord and erected a new Zheng lord. In the Qi principality, Qi Lord Xigong made Guan Zhong and Bao-shu-ya into tutors for his two princes, Jiu and Xiaobai.
     
    Zhou King Zhuangwang (Ji Tuo, reign 696-682 B.C.)
    [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong, Heijian, wanted to kill Zhou King Zhuangwang for sake of having Prince Ke (King Zhuangwang's brother, Ziyi) enthroned. A minister by the name of Xin-bo informed the Zhou king of Heijian's scheme. King Zhuangwang killed [hereditary titled] Zhougong. Prince Ke fled to the Yan Principality.
     
    Qin Lord Ninggong's elder son (Wugong) was deposed, and Chu-zi, the son of Ninggong's junior son, was enthroned by three ministers at the age of 5. Chu-zi was killed 6 years later and Qin Lord Wugong (r. BC 697-677) was selected. About this time, Qin Wugong campaigned against the 'Pengxian-shi Rong' and reached the foot of Huashan Mountain. Qin Lord Wugong, in 688 BC, exterminated the two barbarians states of Gui-rong (Shanggui of Longxi) and Ji-rong (Tiansui Commandary), and the next year, exterminated the Du-bo Fief (southeast of Xi'an), Zheng-guo Fief (Zheng-xian County) and Xiao-guo Fief (an alternative Guo Fief from the domain conferred by Zhou King Wenwang onto Uncle Guo-shu).
     
    At the Zheng Principality, a minister by the name of Gaoqumi killed his lord Zheng Zhaogong (r. BC 696-695) in 695 BC. Qi Lord Xianggong (r. 697-686 BC) was assassinated by his minister (Guan Zhifu) in 686 BC; Jinn exterminated the fief statelets of Geng, Huo and Wei; another assassination in Qi would see Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC) selected in 685 BC.
     
    In the Qi principality, Qi Lord Xianggong ascended the throne in 694 B.C. When Lu Lord Huan'gong and wife Wen-jiang came to Qi, the Qi lord had adultery with his sister, had prince Peng-sheng drive the cart for the Lu lord, and killed Lu Lord Huan'gong on the cart. In 692 B.C., both princes Jiu and Xiaobai fled the country with tutors Guan Zhong and Bao-shu-ya, respectively. Qi Lord Huan'gong, son of Qi Lord Xigong and brother of Qi Lord Xianggong, had a tutor named Bao-shu-ya. Opposing prince Gongzi-jiu had tutor named Guan Zhong. The two tutors Guan Zhong and Bao-shu-ya were like blood-sworn brothers. When the Qi state was chotic, the two tutors escroted their princes to the Lu and Ju states for asylum.
     
    In 686 B.C., or the 12th year of Qi Lord Xianggong, ministers Lian-chen and Guan-zhi-fu murdered the Qi lord, and selected a cousin, Gongsun-wuzhi, who was a son of half-brother Yi-zhong-nian of late Qi LOrd Xigong. In 685 B.C., minister Yong-lin killed Gongsun-wuzhi, and fetched Prince Xiaobai from the Ju-guo state. Lu meantime escorted Prince Jiu back to Qi. Prince Xiaobai reached the Qi capital ahead of Prince Jiu to become Qi Lord Huan'gong. The Qi army attacked Lu and defeated the Lu army at Qianshi (Huantai, Shandong). Lu was forced by Qi to kill Jiu. Guan Zhong was extradited to Qi. In 684, the Qi army was defeated by Lu at Changshao. In 681, Qi defeated Lu. In 681, the Qi lord called for an assembly with Soong, Chen, Cai and Zhu etc at Bei-xing for sake of quelling the internal turmoil of Soong. Sui refused to attend the meeting. Qi eliminated the small states of Tan, Sui (Feicheng, Shandong) and Zhang (Dongping, Shandong). Lu, under presure, joined the Lu lord at the Ke-di (Feicheng) assembly. At this meeting to have Lu cede the Sui-yi land, Lu minister Cao Mo (Cao Gui) used a daggar to coerce Qi Lord Huan'gong into returning the Wen-yang land. In 680 B.C., the Qi lord led Chen and Cao against Soong for the betral of the Bei-xing Alliance.
     
    In the Soong principality, Soong lord Min'gong was defeated by Lu at the 684 B.C. Battle of Chengqiu (Juye, Shandong), with minister Nan'gong-changwan captured. The next year, Soong invaded Lu again but was defeated at Zi-yi (south of Qufu). In 682 B.C., Nan'gong-changwan (Nan'gong Wan ), who was released by Lu, killed Soong lord Min'gong and Hua-du for being ridiculed at, and made prince Zi-you as lord. The rest of princes borrowed the Cao-guo army to topple prince Zi-you, and made Min'gong's brother Yu-shui as Soong lord Huan'gong.
     
    At the Lu Principality, an elder son, Lu Lord Zhuanggong (693-662 B.C.), succeeded Lu Lord Huan'gong's throne but three junior brothers, Qingfu, Shuya and Jiyou, became the powerful 'qing' ministers with fiefdoms. Qingfu (Mengsun, or Zhongsun, or Meng), Shuya (Shusun) and Jiyou (Jisun, or Ji) continued the power-sharing rotating arrangement with the Lu lord till Lu Lord Mugong (415-383 B.C.), when the Lu lord used Gong-yi-xiu as prime minister to take back the power from the three families.
     
    Zhou King Xiwang (Ji Huqi, reign 681-677 B.C.)
    Lord Qi Huan'gong made Guan Zhong (l. 715-645 BC per Chu Bosi) the counsellor in 685 BC. Guan Zhong proposed a system of militarization for administration, with the zoning of the nation into five areas under the control of five 'da fu' ministers; each 'da fu' waas to control ten counties, while each county was to have three shires, each shire was to have ten 'zu', each 'zu' ws to have ten 'yi', each 'yi' was to control thirty households. On the parallel, level, there would be five shires producing 10,000 troops as one army, while each shire/'lv' was to have 2000 men as a brigade, under which one company was to have 200 men, one 'li'/'shu' was to have 50 men, one 'gui'/'wu' was to have 5 men, and one household was to produce one able-bodied person. Qi Huan'gong (Xiao-Bai, ?-643 BC) rose to prominence in vassal politics beginning in 679 BC. The Qi state returned some lands to the neighbors, such as Lu, Wey and Yan. During the 3rd year of the Zhou King Xiwang's reign, i.e., 679 BC, Qi Lord Huan'gong assembled the Zhou vassals of Soong, Chen, Cai and Zhu at Yan (Yancheng, Shandong) and proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord'. In 680 B.C., when Soong backed off from the alliance, Qi led the allied army against Soong in its first of nine coalition military actions. In 678 B.C., the Qi lord led the allied army of Qi, Wey, and Soong against Zheng for the betrayl of the Yan Alliance Later in the year, a multi-state diplomatic summit was held at Youdi.
     
    Guan Zhong, skillful at accumulating wealth [by ironically endorsing prostitution as a means of the tax revenue collection], had helped Qi Lord Huan'gong in assembling vassals for nine times. Qi Huan'gong called Guang Zhong by 'zhong fu', i.e., proxy father. In the authentic section XIAO-KUANG of GUAN-Zi, there was a statement to the effect that Qi Lord Huan'gong had built the south-to-north [Cai-Yanling-Peixia{?Fuxia}-Lingfuqiu{Lingfu Hill; ?Lingqiu}], and west-to-east [Wulu{five deer;Qingfeng of Hebei}-Zhongmou-Ye-Gaiyu{Heshun of Shanxi}-Muqiu{peony hill:Zhuangping of Shandong}] defense lines to guard the Zhu-xia statelets against the Rong-di barbarians (Rong to the west and Di2 to the north) and the non-Sinitic Chu statelet to the south.
     
    Also in 679 BC, Marquis Jinn Min-hou was killed by Jinn Quwo Wugong. Zhou King Xiwang conferred the marquisdom onto Quwo Wugong. Quwo Wugong called himself Lord Jinn Wugong and died two years later. Qin Lord Wugong passed away in 677 BC, and 66 persons followed to his tomb as live burial.
     
    Zhou King Huiwang (Ji Lang, reign 676-652 B.C.)
    During the second year of Zhou King Huiwang's reign, i.e., 675 B.C., an uncle by the name of Tui rebelled against Zhou King Huiwang. Zhou King Huiwang sought asylum in Zheng's capital, i.e., today's Yangdi County, Henan Province. During the 4th year of the reign, Count Zheng Ligong and Lord of Guo-fief (Guogong Linfu) aided Zhou King Huiwang by killing Tui and restoring Huiwang's kingdom. During the 10th year of the reign, King Huiwang conferred onto the Lord of Qi, i.e., Marquis Qi Huan'gong, the title of Count. (Count, an honorary title, was apparently higher in ranking than marquis during the Zhou kingdom time period.)
     
    In 675 B.C., the Qi lord led the allied army of Soong and Chen against Lu. In 671 B.C., the Qi lord and Lu Lord Zhuanggong had a diplomatic summit at Hu-di. In 668 B.C., the Qi lord led the Soong and Lu armies against Xu. In 667 B.C., Qi, Lu, Soong, Chen and Zheng had a multi-state assembly at You-di. Zhou King Huiwang conferred the title of 'hou-bo', namely, marquisdom count, onto the Qi lord. Guan Zhong devised the policy of revering teh Zhou royal house and expelling the barbarians. in 666, the Qi lord attacked Wey at the order of the Zhou king.
     
    Jinn Wugong's successor, Jinn Xian'gong (r. 676-651 BC), attacked the Li-rong (Xi Rong) barbarians in 672 BC approx, and captured a Li-rong woman called Li-ji. Jinn Xian'gong killed most of the princes from the deposed Jinn Marquisdom lineage, and one such prince fled to the Guo-guo statelet. Wars erupted between Jinn and Guo-guo. In 665 BC approx, Li-ji born Xiqi and then conspired to have Jinn Xian'gong's elder princes deposed or killed, pushing Jinn into another round of turmoil. It appears that Liji was bent on wreaking havoc on Jinn to avenge on the Li-rong's elimination.
     
    In 664 BC, the Shan-rong barbarians (i.e., non-Sinitic) attacked the Yan state. Yan requested aid with Qi. Qi sent an army against Shan-rong. In 663 B.C., Qi Lord Huan'gong destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu. The Qi army was said to have sacked Wuzhongshan (Qian'an, Hebei), forcing the Shan-rong king into escape to Gu-zhu. Hence, the Yan-Qi army pushed north to take out the Gu-zhu state as well. (Guzhu was formerly the Zhu-guo [bamboo] Statelet, a vassal of ex-Shang dynasty. In Jinn Dynasty writer Ge Hong's book BAO PU ZI, the word Gu-zhu, a special bamboo for making the pipe musical instruments, was juxtaposed with the land of Da-xia [i.e., Taiyuan, Shanxi]. Historian Lv Simian analyzed numerous Guan Zhong-related writings to express doubt about the extent of Qi Lord Huan'gong's campaigns against the barbarians, with a belief that the Shan-rong or the mountain Rong barbarians could be the same as the Bei-rong or the northern Rong, while the Rong people lived right in the heartland of today's Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong provinces, not in southern Manchuria. Also see this webmaster's discourse on properly interpreting Qi Lord Huan'gong's expedition in crossing 'liu sha [flowing sand or quick sand]' as merely wading across the sandy Sha-he River of Shanxi, not penetrating the Kumtag Desert as historians of the last 2000 years believed in. More, Jinn was recorded to have engaged in numerous battles in today's Taiyuan area against the Wuzhong statelet and its numerous allies of the Di nature, which meant that the Wuzhong barbarians might have mixed up with Sinitic Uncle Tang-shu's descendants.)
     
    The books GUAN ZI, SHI JI, and QI YU of GUO YU, claimed that the Qi lord had campaigned north and destroyed Shan-rong, Li-zhi (Ling-zhi) and Gu-zhu. Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu [in southern Manchuria], was said to have further campaigned against the Bai-di barbarians in the west and occupied 'da xia' (i.e., the Grand Xia land) and crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., the western Yu-shi clan's land). --This could be wading across the sandy Sha-he River of today's Shanxi Province, merely, and had nothing to do with Kumtag or the quick sand as all China's and world's sinologists had mistaken to be.
     
    In 661 BC, the Chang-Di barbarians who were said to be located near today's Ji'nan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong (r. BC 668-660 ?) who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he' (cranes). Qi Lord Huan'gong escorted Wey prince Hui home to be Wey lord Wen'gong. In 660 B.C., the Qi lord, while helping to quell the Qingfu turmoil in the Lu state, dispatched Prince Wukui to the Wey state to defeat the [Chi-]Di barbarians. (Chang Di, literally meaning the tall Di2 barbarian, could be the ancestors of some Mongoloid group which carried the mutated genes that regressively popped out every few hundreds of years, like the Yao Ming type. Confucius was said to have made comments on the origin and history of the tall people as recorded in China's history.)
     
    In 658 BC, the [Chi-]Di barbarians attacked Xing. The Qi lord, commanding an allied army with Soong and Cao, defeated the barbarians, and built a fort at Yiyi. In 658 BC, Qi Lord Huan'gong aided Wey lord Wen'gong in defeating the Di barbarians. The Qi lord built the Chu-qiu fort for Wey.
     
    In 661 BC approx, the Jinn Principality eliminated the Huo (Huozhou, Shanxi Province), Wei and Geng fiefdoms, i.e., all Ji-surnamed Zhou royal fiefs. Jinn Xian'gong built the city of Quwo for Prince Shensheng, conferred General Bi-wan the domain of Wei and General Zhao Su the domain of Geng. Shiwei advised Prince Shensheng to flee as Zhou King Wenwang's uncles did. Jinn minister Po-yan advised against the conferral of the Wei land onto Bi-wan. The next year, Prince Shensheng was ordered on a new campaign against the Dongshan-Chidi barbarians. Shensheng sought advice with Li'ke as to his crown prince status. (Scholar Liu Qiyu pointed out that in southwestern Shanxi Province, a statelet called Ji-guo, possible of the Xia Dynasty descendants, with ancient Ji-zhou character embedded, had at one time attacked the Jinn Principality and hence it should be looked at as a considerable power on par with Jinn. Ji-guo, which was subsequently quelled by Jinn, had become the fiefs of several Jinn ministers consecutively, from 650 BC to 627 BC. Liu Qiyu mentioned excavation of the Zeng-guo artifacts to prove that various powers had existed quite independently in the ancient times.)
     
    In the Lu Principality, Lu Lord Zhuanggong died in 662 B.C. Among the three families of Qingfu (Mengsun, or Zhongsun, or Meng), Shuya (Shusun) and Jiyou (Jisun, or Ji), there was some power struggle. Shuya wanted to make Qingfu into the new lord, for which the younger brother, Jiyou, poisoned Shuya to death in the name of the dead Lu lord. Qingfu, colluding and adultering with Ai-jiang (Zhuanggong's dowager, and a daughter of Qi Lord Huan'gong), killed prince Ban who succeeded the Lu throne. Another prince, Qifang, who was born by Shu-jiang [or Ai-jiang's younger sister], was selected as Lu lord Min'gong. In 660 B.C., Qingfu colluded with Ai-jiang, and killed Lord Min'gong so as to make himself a lord. Jiyou, returning from the Chen-guo state with prince Shen (or Ji Shen, a brother of the late lord Min'gong), scared Qingfu into fleeing to Ju. Qingfu committed suicide en route of deportation to Lu, while Qi Lord Huan'gong killed his niece Ai-jiang at the Zhu-guo domain for the adultery and murderous schemes in Lu. This was the story of Qingfu being the source of the Lu's disasters if not dead. Prince Shen, who became Lu Lord Xigong, allowed Qingfu's son, Gongsun-ao, to take charge of the Cheng-yi land as Mengsun-shi. The power-sharing rotating arrangement with the Lu lord continued till Lu Lord Mugong.
     
    In 658 BC approx (i.e., the 2nd year of Lu Lord Xigong), Jinn borrowed a path from Yu-guo and attacked Xiangyang of the Guo-guo statelet. In 656 BC approx, Li-ji conspired to put poison into the meat that Shensheng gave to his father; Li-ji pasted honey onto her body to attract bees, asked Shensheng to help her to drive away the bees, and then accused Shensheng of trying to take advantage of her. Shensheng fled to the Xincheng city and committed suicide. Jinn Lord Xian'gong (?-651 B.C.) hence fell under the trick of his concubine (a Li-rong woman). Prince Chong'e (Chong Er, ?-628 BC) escaped to the Di(2) Statelet in 655 B.C., commencing an exile history of dozens of years, which could be properly termed China's Homeric Odessey. (Prince Chong Er's birth mother was from the Di barbarian, with the Hu-shi surname which was said to have origin in Tang-shu or Uncle Tang. Here is a way to differentiate the Chinese from the barbarians, namely, the culture, not the bloodline. For further readings of China's epics, also compare with China's Homeric Iliad.)
     
    In this year, Jinn borrowed a path from Yu-guo again by sending in Jinn Xian'gong's stallion as gift. A Yu-guo minister, Gong Zhiqi, advised his lord against taking the stallion, saying Yu-guo and Guo-guo were like lips and teeth to each other. Gong Zhiqi led his whole family away from the Yu-guo fief to escape the coming disaster. The Jinn Principality consecutively eliminated the Guo and Yu statelets in the winter of 655 BC. Lord Guo-gong fled to the Zhou court. Lord Yu-gong and his minister Baili Xi were captured and the stallion was found by Xunxi and delivered back to Jinn Lord Xian'gong. With the control of the Guo-guo land, the Jinn army took over the Xiao-han bottleneck, which obstructed the Qin state from expansion towards the east along the southern bank of the Yellow River.
     
    In 654 BC approximately, Jinn attacked Prince Yiwu at the Quwo land, and Yiwu fled to a different statelet, in the Shaoliang land, at the advice of Ji-rui. Ji-rui said that should Yiwu flee to the Di2 barbarians, Jinn would attack Di because Chong'er was already there. Two years later, Jinn attacked Di2, and Di counter-attacked Jinn; hence, Jinn withdrew from their siege of the Gaoliang land. Concubine Li-ji's brother had a son called Dao-zi in this year.
     
    Lord Qi Huan'gong, who returned concubine Cai-ji to the Cai state in 657 B.C., was angered by the Cai lord's marrying the woman to the Chu state. Hence, in 656 B.C., the Qi lord assembled the seven states of Lu, Soong, Chen, Wey, Zheng, Xu and Cao against Cai. Chu King Chenwang demanded an explanation from Qi. Guan Zhong made up some pretexts, stating that Zhou Duke Zhao-kang-gong (Zhao-gong) had empowered Qi founder Jiang Taigong to police the domain from the sea to the Yellow River, and from Muling to Wudi (Bingzhou, Shandong), and that the Chu king failed to surrender the Hyparrhenia bracteata plant to the Zhou kings, not to mention that Zhou King Zhaowang had died on a southern campaign. The Chu king replied to say that it was his fault not to offer tributes but the Zhou king's death on the Han-shui River was something that Guan Zhong should go to the river side to inquire about. The Chu army, under Qu Wan, resisted the allied army, forcing the allied army to retreat to Zhaoling (Luohe, Henan), where Qu Wan managed to have the Qi lord take pride in the alliance and make a swear to end the war. Qu Wan clained to use the Fangcheng-shan as the city wall and the Han-shui River as moat to defend against the invaders. (Zhaoling was noted in GUAN ZI as part of the Qi lord's military campaigns across Sinitic China, as juxtaposed with the wading of 'liu sha' [quick sand] against the barbarians in the Da-xia [grand Xia] land.)
     
    After the 656 B.C. Zhaoling Assembly, there was the 655 B.C. Shouzhi Summit, during which time the Qi lord made a swear with Zhou crown prince Zheng-ding. Zhou King Huiwang, however, authorized the Zheng lord to befriend Chu so as to weaken the Shouzhi Alliance. In 654, Qi Lord Huan'gong, on the pretext that Zheng Lord Wen'gong betrayed the Shouzhi alliance for Chu, attacked Zheng. In 653, the Qi lord convened another assembly at Ningmu (Yutai, Shandong).
     
    In winter of 653 B.C., Zhou King Huiwang died. Zhou King Xiangwang, being afraid that half-brother, Prince Zi-dai, could compete for power, petitioned with Qi for aid. With the Qi lord's assistance, Zhou King Xiangwang announced the death of Zhou King Huiwang and ascended the throne. ZUO ZHUAN pointed out that the announcement was delayed. Hence, year 652, which was Zhou King Huiwang's 25th year, was still the old era. In this year, the vassals assembled in Tao (Yancheng, Heze, Shandong), with the Zhou court sending over an emissary for attending the conference. The Zheng count also sent a representive to request for being a party to the alliance. The Tao alliance was for talking about defending the Zhou court. Once the dust settled, the announcement was made about Zhou King Huiwang's death.
     
    Zhou King Xiangwang (Ji Zheng, reign 651-619 B.C.)
    Zhou King Xiangwang dispatched 'tai zhai' to award the Qi lord some imperial sacrificial meat, bows, and a pilgrimage chariot. Lord Qi Huan'gong held a meeting at Kuiqiu (Minquan, Henan) in 651 B.C. in demonstration of his hegemony status while pretentiously expressing gratitude to the imperial bestowal. In 650, the Di barbarians attacked Wey. The Qi lord aided Wey. In 648 B.C., the Qi lord built a fort for Wey. In 647 B.C., the Qi lord called an summit at Xian about defense against the barbarians. In 645 B.C., the Qi lord called an summit at Muqiu (Liaocheng/Zhuangping, SHandong) in regards to campaigning against Chu for rescuing the Xu-guo state. This was part of the west-to-east defense line linking up Wulu{five deer;Qingfeng of Hebei}-Zhongmou-Ye-Gaiyu{Heshun of Shanxi}-Muqiu{peony hill:Liaocheng/Zhuangping of Shandong}.
     
    After the death of Jinn Lord Xian'gong, Li-ji's son, Xiqi, was erected, but a minister (Li'ke) killed Xiqi; after minister Xunxi erected another cousin of Xiqi (Dao-zi), Li'ke killed the new lord and Xunxi, consecutively. Li-ji was killed on the streets. Li'ke first sought for Prince Chong'er as the new Jinn lord, but Chong'er declined. Li'ke then went to Prince Yiwu. Jinn Prince Yiwu sought for help from Qin Lord Mugong (r. BC 659-621) in escorting him to the throne at Jinn, with a promise of secceding to Qin a total of 8 cities to the west of the Yellow River. Qi Huan'gong sent forces to help Yiwu as well. The Qi forces stopped marching at Gaoliang after finding out that Qin already delivered Yiwu, i.e., Jinn Huigong (r. 650-637 BC), to the Jinn throne. Yiwu ate his words that were promised to Qin, and killed Li'ke instead of conferring him the land of Fengyang. Yiwu's emissary to Qin, Pi-zheng, being afraid of returning to Jinn to receive the same fate as Li'ke, would incite Qin Lord Mugong in having Jinn Prince Chong'er replace Yiwu. (In Sima Qian's self account of his lineage, Pi-zheng appeared to be a remote ancestor.) Pi-zheng was killed upon returning to Jinn, and his son (Pi-bao) fled to Qin.
     
    The invitation of the barbarians to the heartland of Zhou China caused some havoc. During the 3rd year of Zhou King Xiangwang's reign, a half brother, by the name of Shu-dai [Zi-dai], colluded with the Rong and Di barbarians in attacking Zhou King Xiangwang. (The Rong-di barbarians had come to aid Shu-dai as a conspiracy of Shu-dai's mother, ex-queen Huihou.) The Jinn Principality attacked the Rong to help the Zhou court. Shu-dai fled to the Qi Principality. The Qi Principality also helped the Zhou court by sending Guan Zhong on a campaign against the Rong people. At the Zhou court, King Xiangwang expressed gratitude to Guan Zhong, mentioning the fact that Zhou King Wuwang had married the daughter of Jiang Taigong (founder of the Qi Principality) as wife. Three years after the death of Qi Lord Huan'gong, Shu-dai returned to the Zhou court from the Qi Principality at the request of Zhou King Xiangwang.
     
    Around 648 BC, when Jinn had a drought-related famine, Qin, against Pi-bao's proposal of attacking Jinn, would instead dispatch ships with the grains to Jinn, passing from the Qin capital of Yong to the Jinn capital of Jiang(4). Two years later, Qin had a famine, but Jinn refused to lend grains, and moreover attacked Qin in 645 BC. Qin Lord Mugong and Pi-bao fought against the Jinn army at a place called Han-yuan in September. (See The Battle Of Han-Yuan). When Mugong saw Yiwu and his horse trapped in the mud, Mugong intended to capture Yiwu. But the Jinn army came to aid Yiwu and encircled Mugong. Three hundred 'yeren' (countryside people) solders, who were spared death by Mugong for eating the good horses as meat, would rush to rescue Mugong, and moreover captured Yiwu. When Mugong intended to sacrifice Yiwu for Lord Highness, i.e., the Heaven, the Zhou court came to petition for mercy, and Mugong's wife would beg for mercy for his brother (Yiwu). Mugong released Yiwu in November for sake of frustrating the Jinn ministers' attempt to erect Yiqu's son as the new Jinn lord.
     
    Yiwu, upon return to Jinn, killed Qingzheng who refused to rescue him during the prior war, surrendered 8 cities to the west of the Yellow River to Qin, and sent his son (Zi-yu) to Qin as hostage. Yiwu, fearing that Prince Chong'er might stir trouble, sent an assassin to the Di statelet and forced Chong'er into fleeing to Qi after his stay of 12 years with the Di people. Qin gave Zi-yu a royal family girl for marriage.
     
    In 645 BC, counsellor Guan Zhong of Qi passed away. Qi Lord Huan'gong, not taking Guan Zhong's advice, had taken in Yi-ya, Kai-fang, and Shu-diao as intimate ministers. Yi-ya at one time steamed his baby son as food for Qi Lord Huan'gong. In 643 BC, Qi Huan'gong fell ill. Five princes fought against each other for power. Qi lord Huan'gong, who was locked up in a palace, passed away, with the corpse on the bed for 67 days. Yi-ya and Shu-diao supported prince Wu-kui. Prince Zhao fled to Soong. In spring of 642 B.C., Soong lord Xianggong allied with Cao, Wey and Zhu-guo to attack Qi for restoring prince Zhao. Qi ministers killed prince Wu-kui to welcome prince Zhao. The other four princes counterattacked Prince Zhao, and expelled prince Zhao back to Soon. In May, the Soong army invaded Qi again, and escorted prince Zhao to Linzi to become Qi Lord Xiaogong. (Qi Huan'gong called for the 8-nation assembly to aid the ancient silk state of Zeng-guo [Cangshan/Lanling, Linyi, Shandong], which was being attacked by the Huai-yi [non-Sinitic] barbarians. ZUO ZHUAN recorded that in 643 B.C. or the 9th year of Zhou King Xiangwang, Lu lord Xigong joined this diplomatic meeting at Huai (Xuyi, Jiangsu), and eliminated the Xiang [Xiangcheng, Henan] state. The Zeng-guo state, i.e., Zeng-zi's ancestral land, was later in 567 B.C. eliminated by the Ju-guo state. Alternatively speaking, a Ju woman-born grandson usurped the Zeng state.)
     
    Around 641 BC, Qin exterminated the Liang and Rui statelets. (Zi-yu's mother was the daughter of Liang-bo, and hence Zi-yu was angry with Qin.) Another two years later, Jinn Prince Zi-yu fled the Qin capital, without taking his Qin wife, when he heard that his father was getting ill. Zi-yu's wife did not report his fleeing to the Qin court but refused to follow Zi-yu. Jinn Lord Yiwu passed away the next year, i.e., in 637 BC, and Zi-yu was enthroned as Jinn Huaigong (r. 637-636 BC). Zi-yu killed a minister called Hu-tu for not recalling his two sons from Chong'er's enrourage. Qin Lord Mugong, hating Zi-yu for his fleeing home, retrieved ex-Jinn Prince Chong'er from Chu, and further gave the ex-wife of Zi-yu to Chong'er. In 636 BC, Qin Mugong, with 500 chariots, 2000 cavalry, and 50,000 field soldiers, escorted Prince Chong'er to the Jinn capital to become Jinn Lord Wen'gong (r. 636-628 BC), and Chong'er sent an assassin to have Zi-yu (Jinn Lord Huaigong) killed at Gaoliang. At the age of 62, Chong'er returned to Jinn after an exile of 19 years.
     
    In 639 BC, during the 13th year reign of King Xiangwang, the Zheng Principality attacked the Hua-guo fief for its defection of loyalty to the Wey Principality. (The Hua-guo fief was of Lord Huangdi's surname and it was subservient to Jinn and Zheng. It was later exterminated by the Qin Principality.) When King Xiangwang sent two 'da fu' ministers to mediate on behalf of Hua-guo, Zheng Lord Ligong imprisoned the two ministers for his unhappiness over Zhou King Xiangwang's bestowing gifts on the lord of the Guo Fief. Against the advice of a minister called Fuchen (who said that the Zhou court had enjoyed protection from Zheng for the past four generations), King Xiangwang campaigned against the Zheng Principality in collaboration with the Rong-di barbarians in 637 BC. King Xiangwang, to show his favor for the Rong-di, took in a daughter of the Rong-di ruler as his queen. But in the next year, King Xiangwang abandoned the queen of the Rong-di origin, and the Rong-di came to attack the Zhou court in revenge. In the autumn of 636 BC, the brother of Zhou King Xiangwang, Shu-dai, hired the Di barbarians in attacking the Zhou court. King Xiangwang fled to the Zheng Principality. When the Rong-di barbarians sacked the Zhou capital, King Xiangwang fled to Zheng. Shu-dai (Uncle Dai) was made into a king. Shu-dai took over King Xiangwang's Rong-di queen as his concubine. The Rong-di barbarians hence moved to live next to the Zhou capital. The Rong-di barbarians extended their domain as eastward as the Wey Principality.
     
    Chong'er [double ears or ear loops], at the age of 17, possessed five tutors: Zhao Shuai, Huyan Jiufan (uncle-in-law), Jia Tuo, Xian Zhen, and Wei Wu-zi. (Later, one follower, by the name of Jie Zi-tui, went to the mountains to be a hermit instead of accepting Chong'er awards. Jie might have perished after the Jinn lord burnt the mountain in the attempt to force him out of hermitage.) At the Di statelet, he was given a Jiuru-Chidi (Gaoru-Chidi) woman of the Kui [which was postulated to be the same as the Marquis Jiuhou people or uncle Tang-shu clan] surname; and a sister of the woman married with Zhao Shuai and later bore Zhao Dun. After staying in the Di statelet for 12 years, Chong'er was forced into an exile tour of various Zhou vassal statelets. Passing through Wey, Chong'er was mistreated by Wey Wengong, and left Wey. At the Wey land of Wulu, Chong'er begged for food from peasants who poured mud into the food. At Qi, Chong'er was given a royal girl and twenty carts for marriage. Chong'er stayed in Qi for five years, and under the collusion of Zhao Shuai, Huyan Jiufan and his Qi wife, Chong'er was fed a lot of wine and carried out of the Qi capital in an intoxicated status. Chong'er wife had asked him to think more about recovering his country than staying stuck with a woman for life and doing nothing good. Passing through the Cao statelet, Chong'er was mistreated by Cao Gonggong, but received assistance from a Cao minister. Passing through Soong, Chong'er was received by Soong Xianggong in the rituals of a lord. (Soong Lord Xianggong was the 17th generation grandson of Soong Duke Wei-zi, and Soong Xianggong died of an arrow wound incurred during the Battle Of Hong-shui.) Passing through the Zheng statelet, Chong'er was mistreated by Zheng Wengong. At Chu, Chong'er was given the vassal treatment by Chu King Chengwang. When Qin wanted to retrieve Chong'er, the Chu King escorted Chong'er with big gifts to Qin. Qin gave Chong'er 5 royal family girls, including Zi-yu's wife. At the age of 62, Chong'er returned to Jinn after an exile of 19 years. When two ministers (Lv Sheng and Qie Rui) planned to rebel against Jinn Lord Wen'gong, an eunuch, Lvti, who previously tried to assassinate Chong'er twice, informed Chong'er of the plot. Chong'er received the assistance of Qin Lord Mugong in having the rebels killed over the river. Qin Mugong dispatched 3,000 soldiers as Jinn Wengong's bodyguards.
     
    Soong lord Xianggong, in 638 B.C., engaged with Chu at the Battle of Hongshui (Zhecheng, Henan). Soong 'da sima' Zi-yu, a brother, suggested to attack the Chu army during the river crossing. The Soong lord declined to attack the enemy when half crossing and then still forming the positions at the riverbank with a claim of upholding benevolence and righteousness. Soong lord Xianggong upheld the duelist combat engagement and arranged engagement ethnics such as no attacking the wounded to cause a second injury, no capturing the elderly enemy conbatants, and no charge at the enemy who had not finalized the battle formation. This was later summaried by HUAI NAN ZI in a statement to the effect that the ancient war practice had a rule of no killing the young soldiers with the yellow mouth [i.e., the yellowish beak of young birds], and no capturing of the elderly enemy soldiers with two hair colors. The Soong lord was wounded in the subsequent battle, and died of the arrow wound in the leg. Son succeeded the throne as Soong lord Chenggong.
     
    In 635 BC, Zhou King Xiangwang sought help with Qin/Jinn. This was during Jinn Lord Wen'gong's 2nd year reign. Qin lord Mugong led an army against Zhou prince Shu-dai and reached the Yellow River during the spring. Zhao Shuai advised that Jinn Lord Wen'gong should aid the Zhou court, too, and the Qin-Jinn armies killed Shu-dai in April of the year. King Xiangwang conferred onto the Jinn Lord the title of Count and the land of Yangfan or 'he nei' (pronounced as He-rui in ancient Chinese to mean the winding section of the Yellow River or equivalent 'Hanoi' ["Inside the Riverbend" in Vietnamese] for the meaning of the innerside of the Yellow River, i.e., northern Henan Province where the Yellow River flows to the east with a 90 degree turn). In this year Wey absorbed the state of Xing (Xingtai, Hebei).
     
    In summer of 634 B.C., i.e., Lu Lord Xigong 26th year, Qi Lord Xiaogong attacked Lu. The Wey army came to attack Qi to show solidarity under the 652 B.C. alliance treaty of Tao (Yancheng, Heze, Shandong). Per LU YU of GUO YU, Zhan Huo (Zhan Qin), known as Liuxia-hui (720-621 B.C.), a saint who won Confucius' praise and who was ranked by Mencius to be on par with Bo-yi and Yi Yin, pointed out to Lu minister Zang-wen-zhong that when a small state like Lu had offended a large state like Qi, whatever diplomatic wording would not work to make the invaders go home. Zhan Xi was sent to the Qi-lu border with food and gifts. Zhan Xi made the Qi army pull back by citing Qi founder Jiang Taigong and Qi lord Huan'gong to point to the Qi contribution to safeguarding the Zhou dynastic rule and the Qi-Lu brotherly relations. After persuading Qi to pull back, the Lu state sent prince Sui (Ji Sui) and Zang-wen-zhong to Chu for seeking military assistance against Qi. In winter, the Chu-Lu allied army defeated Qi and took over the Gu-di land, where they placed Qi lord Huan'gong's prince Yong to pose threat against Qi lord Xiaogong.
     
    In 633 BC, Chu led its vassals on a siege of Soong. Xian Zhen advised Jinn Wen'gong that Jinn should aid Soong as requital. Huyan proposed that Jinn attack Chu's two allies, i.e., Cao and Wey. Jinn dispatched three columns of army, with Qie Hu in charge of the middle army, Huyan in charge of the upper column, and Luan Zhi the lower column. In 632 BC, Jinn Wen'gong was declined a request of lending a path through Wey for attacking Cao. Then, the Jinn army crossed the river elsewhere and attacked both Cao and Wey, taking over Wulu in Jan of 632 BC. In Feb, Jinn and Qi made an alliance at the Wey land, and declined Wey's request for joining the alliance as a member. When the Wey lord intended to ally with Chu, the Wey ministers ousted him. Chu was defeated for aiding Wey. Jinn then sieged Cao. In March, Jinn took over Cao's capital but spared a Cao minister's home as requital for the early help that the Jinn lord Chong'er received during his exile. Chu then lay a siege of Soong. Jinn Wen'gong intended to attack Chu to help Soong, but he was hesitant since the Chu king had given him a lot of favor before. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn capture lord Cao-bo and divide the Cao & Wey's land for sake of Soong so that Chu would release the siege of Soong to aid Cao/Wey. Hence, the Chu army withdrew the siege of the Soong capital.
     
    Chu General Zi-yue adamantly insisted on fighting the Jinn army. But the Chu King allocated less soldiers. Jinn have Chu da fu Wan-chun retained under custody to anger Zi-yue. Jinn privately made peace with Cao/Wey for sake of making them defect to Jinn. Hence, Zi-yue was angered into a fight. Jinn retreated three times as fulfillment of the early promise that Chong'er made to the Chu king while duirng the exile stay at Chu. In April, the Soong-Qi-Qin-Jinn armies had a campaign against Chu at Chengpu (a Wey city), burnt the Chu army for days, and defeated Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. (See The Battle Of Chengpu). (Zi-yue [De-chen] was ordered to commit suicide by the Chu king over the Chengpu debacle. Lu lord Xigong killed prince Mai [Zi-cong] to change fence during the Jinn-Chu war. Lu prince Mai was garrisoning at a Wey city to help the Wey state.)
     
    Zhou King Xiangwang personally went to the Jinn camp to confer marquisdom onto Jinn Lord Wen'gong. Jinn made a convenience palace for the king. Zheng, seeing Chu's defeat, went to ally with Jinn. In May, Jinn sent the Chu prisoners to the Zhou court. Zhou king dispatched da fu Wang Zi-hu to Jinn, conferred 'bo' (Count, i.e., an honorary title) onto Jin Lord Wen'gong, and offered the royal arrows/bows and 300 royal guards to Jinn. Wang Zi-hu held an assembly of vassals. In June, Jinn restored the Wey lord. In the winter of 632 BC, Jinn Lord Wen'gong assembled vassals at a place called Wen (near Zhengzhou, Henan Province) and called on the Zhou king to have a hunting party. Jinn restored the Cao lord's statelet. Jinn first devised three columns of armies, with Xun Linfu in charge of the middle column, Xian Hu the right column, and Xian Mie the left column.
     
    In 630 BC, Jinn Lord Wen'gong wanted to punish Zheng for not helping him while he was in exile years ago, and Jinn Wengong sought help from Qin. The Jinn/Qin army lay a siege of Zheng and forced a Zheng minister to commit suicide. But Jinn refused to back off. Zheng dispatched Zhuo-zhi-wu to Qin Mugong for sowing dissension. Zhou-zhi-wu successfully persuaded Qin into withdrawal of its army. Qin left three da fu, Qi-zi, Feng-sun and Yang-sun, and a small army at the north gate of Zheng. Then, Jinn, seeing the departure of the Qin army, withdrew its army, too.
     
    Two years later, 628 BC, Jinn Lord Wen'gong passed away. Count Zheng-bo, the lord of Zheng, also died. A Qin da fu at the north gate of Zheng, Qi-zi, sent a message to Qin Lord Mugong, stating that Zheng could be taken over by a surprise attack while it was in the mourning status. This would be during the 24th year reign of Zhou King Xiangwang. Qin minister Jian-shu (uncle Jian) was against it. Jian-shu told his son that the Jinn army could ambush the Qin army at Mt. Xiao, between the southern hill (tomb) of Xia-hou-gao [Xia king Gao] and the northern hill where Zhou King Wenwang at one time sought safe haven from some heavy rain. Qin lord Mugong, against the advice of Jian Shu and Baili Xi, dispatched Mengmingshi (Baili Xi's son), Xiqishu (Jian Shu's son), and Baiyibin on a long distance campaign against Zheng. Baili Xi and Jian Shu were reprimanded for crying for their sons before the march. The two old men said to their sons that Qin might suffer defeat at Xiao'er (Xiaoshan Mountain). In Dec of 627 BC or the spring of Lu Lord Xigong's 33rd year, when the Qin convoy, about 300 over-crowded chariots, passed through the front of the north gate of the Zhou capital, Wangsun [grandson] Maan, still a kid at the time, commented that the Qin army lacked respect for the Zhou court and would for sure lose the war. At a place near the Hua-guo statelet, a Zheng merchant, by the name of Xuan Gao, donated 4 cooked buffalo skin and 12 buffalos to the Qin army by pretending to do so under the order of the Zheng lord. After receiving the news from Xuan-gao, Zheng lord Mugong had Huang-wu-zi divulge the news to Qi-zi and the other Qin resident leaders, scaring Qizi into fleeing to Qi and Feng-sun and Yang-sun fleeing to Soong. Three Jinn generals were surprised to know that Zheng had advance knowledge of the Qin attack, stopped at the Hua-guo Fief, and exterminated Count Hua's fief instead. (The statelets of Yu, Guo, Jiao, Hua, Huo, Yang, Haan, and Wei were all Ji-surnamed as the Zhou and Jinn families. Those were properly called the various 'Hua' {Mt. Huashan} statelets, or "Zhu-hua" versus "Zhu-xia" the non-Ji-surnamed vassals.)
     
    Hearing of Qin's attack on Hua-guo of the royal Zhou's Ji surname, Jinn Wengong's son, Jinn Xianggong (r. 627-621)), in the spring of 627 BC, at the suggestion of Yuan-zhen, sent an army to have the Qin army ambushed at Xiao'er. Jinn Xianggong dyed his white mourning clothes into black. Jinn minister Luan-zhi was against the attack at the Qin army. The Jinn lord mobilized the Jiang-rong barbarians for attacking the Qin army. Per ZUO ZHUAN, in the summer month of April and on the date of the 13th, the Jinn army, with Liang Hong and Lai-ju in charge of the Jinn lord's chariot, ambushed the Qin army. Three Qin generals were captured, while their soldiers were all killed.
     
    After the victory, Jinn then buried their late lord Wen'gong, with the color of 'mo' [blackness] initiated as the mourning clothes since. Jinn Wen'gong's dowager wife (Wen-ying) requested with Jinn Lord Xianggong to have the three guys released. The Jinn lord later changed mind when minister Xian Zheng objected to the release. Xian Zheng spat in front of the Jinn lord, mentioning that the release of the Qin generals betrayed the soldiers' sacrifice and would doom the Jinn state. Yang-chu-fu failed to chase the three guys who had been inside a ship in the middle of crossing the river. Yang-chu-fu, saying the Jinn lord like to give them a horse as a gift, also failed to trick the Qin generals into returning to the shore. Qin Count Mugong wore the mourning clothing and received the three generals at the outskirts of the Qin capital.
     
    In August of the year of the Battle of Xiao-er, the Jinn army, under Xian Zhen, also attacked the Bai-di barbarians, and defeated Bai-di at Ji-di, which could be possibly the original conferred land of Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi. Jinn general Xi Que captured the Di king. Xian Zhen, not wearing armour, was killed when intruding into the Di army camp.
     
    Jinn lord Xianggong (?-621 B.C.), other than the Battle of Xiao[-shan], also defeated Qin at the Battle of Pengya two years later. The Qin army, under Meng-ming-shi, to avenge the humiliation of Xiaoshan, attacked Jinn in spring of Zhou King Xiangwang's 28th year or 626 B.C.. At Pengya (Baishui, Shenxi), the Jinn army defeated Qin after general Lang-tan led two hundred brave men in disrupting the Qin army's formation. In winter, the Jinn army, commadning the Soong, Chen and Zheng allies, attacked Qin and took over Wang4 (Chengcheng, Shenxi) and Pengya from Qin.
     
    In 627 B.C., Chu King Chengwang, taking advantage of Jinn lord Wen'gong's state mounring, invaded the Chen, Cai and Zheng states. Jinn general Yang-chu-fu invaded Cai. Chu 'ling-yin' Zi-shang came to render relief to Cai. Yang-chu-fu, who wanted to pull back, tricked the Chu army with a claim to allow the Chu army to cross the Di-shui River, but the Chu army decided to allow the Jinn army to cross the Di-shui River. Yang-chu-fu spread the word tha the Chu army fled. Chu Prince Shang Chen, to whom Zi-shang objected as crown prince, hence accused Zi-shang of taking the Jinn bribe to avoid war. The Chu king killed Zi-shang. In 626 BC, Chu Prince Shang Chen assassinated his father King Chu Chengwang to become Chu King Muwang.
     
    Two years after the Xiao'er debacle, in 625 BC, Qin Mugong dispatched Mengmingshi on another campaign against Jinn, i.e., the Battle of Pengya. Meantime, Qin Lord Mugong began to conquer the Western Rong tribes. Qin Lord Mugong began his expansion by attracting talents around China. Earlier, he played a trick to trade with the Chu Principality for Baili Xi at the price of 5 sheep skins, claiming that Baili Xi was wanted for a crime in the Qin Principality. Baili Xi was hence titled the 'Five Sheep Da Fu' minister. Baili Xi later recommended his best friend, Jian Shu, for the position as prime minister. Qin Mugong sent a minister disguised as merchant on a trek to the Soong Principality for fetching Jian Shu. Qin Mugong's emissary, Gongzi Zhi, found Jian Shu in the countryside of Soong and invited him over to the Qin Court. Jian Su was titled 'Shang Da Fu', i.e., the highest Dafu.
     
    Qin Mugong heard of the fame of a talent called You Yu who deserted the Jin (Jinn) Principality for the Xirong (Western Rong) barbarians, and he played a trick of dissension and managed to hire over this person when Xi-rong sent You Yu to Qin as an emissary. Qin Mugong and You Yu had an exchange of opinions on China's system, law, music/rituals and the lack of such things in the Xi-rong Statelet. You Yu rebutted the dilapidation of China's systems and laws that occurred after Huangdi and commented that Xi-rong had reached governance without knowing a sophisticated system via their king's self-perfection into a saint and that Xi-rong did not have to undergo the patricide and usurpation as the Chinese did. Qin Mugong deliberately retained You Yu for one year while he sent some beauties and music to the Xi-rong King as gifts. When You Yu went back to Xi-rong, the Xi-rong king was indulgent in women and music. Hence, You Yu deserted Xi-rong for Qin at several invitation of Qin Mugong.
     
    In 624 BC, Qin Mugong dispatched Mengmingshi against Jinn again. The Qin armies burned their ships after crossing the river, which was for solidifying the fighting will, defeated Jinn and captured Jiao (Wenxi, Shanxi) and Wanggong (king's palace, near today's Wenxi, Shanxi). Then, the Qin armies crossed river again at Maojin to the southern bank, and buried the former Qin soldier's corpses at Xiao'er. The Qin armies mourned for three days at Xiao'er. Qin Mugong again expressed regret about not taking the advice of Jian Shu and Baili Xi, aspeech carried in QI SHI (oath) of SHANG SHU. The next year, in 623 BC, Jinn counter-attacked Qin and took over Xincheng.
     
    In 623 BC, Qin lord Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong barbarians and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban. Once Chi Ban submitted to Qin, the rest Western Rongs in the west acknolwedged the Qin overlordship. Qin Mugong would conquer altogether a dozen (12) states in today's Gansu-Shaanxi areas and controlled the western China of the times. Zhou King dispatched Duke Zhaogong to congratulate Qin with a gold drum. The Qin army's campaign in the west could also have something to do with the Qiangs who dwelled to the south of Mt. Qilianshan, which led to the split of the Western Qiangs and the ultimate migration of the ancestors of the Tibetans to the Roof of the earth where they acquired the high plateau genes of the D-haplogroup natives.
     
    In 622 BC, Jinn's veteran ministers, Zhao Shuai (Zhao Shuai-cheng-zi), Luan Zhi (Luan Zhen-zi), Jiuji Zifan and Huobo, all passed away. Zhao Dun assumed Zhao Shuai's post. With the death of veterans, Xian-qie-ju, Zhao Shuai, Luan Zhi and Xu-chen, the Jinn entered a power reshuffle period. In 621, the Jinn lord had an military parade at Mianshang. The new six ministers would be Hu-she-gu and Zhao Dun commanding the middle column, Xian Ke and Ji-zheng-fu the upper column, and Xien Mi and Xun-lin-fu the lower column. At the advice of Yang-chu-fu, the Jinn lord replaced Hu-she-gu and Zhao Dun with Zhao Dun and Jia Ji for the middle column army. Jinn Lord Xianggong died in 621 BC. This would be during the 31st year reign of Zhou King Xiangwang. In August, son Yi-gao succeeded as Jinn Lord Linggong. Zhao DUn originally planned to make the late Jinn lord's brother, prince Yong, as lord, and hence dispatched Shi Hui and Xian Mie to Qin. After Zhao DUn was forced to choose Yi-gao, Shi Hui, being afraid for his lief, stayed on in Qin.
     
    Lord Qin Mugong passed away in 621 BC, and 177 persons were buried live, including three Ziche brothers who, being distinguished ministers, had at one time promised to live and die with the Qin lord together during a banquet. Historians commented that Qin could not campaign to the east because their best ministers were buried as funerial objects. Qin Mugong's son, Kanggong, succeeded the throne.
     
    Jinn Minister Zhao Dun sought for Jinn Lord Xianggong's brother (Yong) for Jinn Lord. Yong was born by a woman of the Qin royal heritage and lived in the Qin land. Qin sent Yong to Jinn and arrived at a place called Linghu, east of the river. At this time, Jinn had decided to select Jinn Xianggong's son as their lord. Zhao Dun attacked Qin at Linghu for sake of stopping Yong from coming back to Jinn, and Qin retreated with Zhao Dun's emissaries (Sui Hui and Xian Mie). The second year, Qin counter-attacked Jinn and took over the Wucheng city.
     
    In 619 BC, King Xiangwang passed away.
     
    Zhou King Qing[1]wang (Ji Renchen, reign 618-613 B.C.)
    In 617 BC, Jinn attacked Qin and took over Shaoliang; Qin counter-attacked Jinn. Two years later, i.e., 615 BC, Qin Kanggong attacked Jinn and took over Jima. Jinn Linggong ordered Zhao Chuan, Luan Dun and Xi Que on a counter-attack. Jinn minister Yu Pian suggested to wait out the Qin army's grain supply; however, Zhao Chuan advocated for a fight. Sui Hui, a Jinn defector, induced Zhao Chuan to charge out, which caused Zhao Dun to push the army out to support Zhao Chuan. The Jinn army was defeated by Qin at the Battle of He-qu (winding area of the Yellow River, i.e., Yongji, Shanxi). At night, the Qin army pulled out of the battlefield while the Jinn army failed to heed Yu Pian's suggestion to attck the Qin camp after he detected the Qin military messenger's wavering eyesight. The next year, i.e., 614 BC approx, six prominent ministers of Jinn managed to have their general Wei Shouyu pretend to surrender to Qin; when Sui Hui came to see Wei Souyu, Jinn would have Sui Hui captured and brought back to Jinn. This was Zhao Dun's scheme to take Shi Hui back from Qin, knowing that Shi Hui was a wise person. Shi Hui was to become one of six 'qing' ministers of Jinn.
     
    Zhou King Qingwang passed away in 613 BC after a reign of only 6 years. In this year, Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591) was enthroned.
     
    Zhou King Kuangwang (Ji Ban, reign 612-607 B.C.)
    Among the Zhou ministers, [hereditary titled] Duke Zhougong (Yue) and Wangsun [king's grandson] Su had disputes. Jinn dispatched Zhao Dun and 800 chriots to the Zhou court. Zhou King Kuangwang was selected.
     
    In 611 BC (i.e., 16th year of Lu Lord Wen'gong), Yong-guo of today's northwestern Hubei Province, a vassal who had participated in Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against the Shang Dynasty in the 11th cent BC, rallied numerous 'barbarian' [i.e., non-Sinitic/non-Chu] statelets against the Chu Principality. Chu was defeated seven times and had at one time planned to relocate their capital. The Chu King sought alliance with Qin, Ba-guo of today's Sichuan Province and other barbarian statelets, and exterminated the Yong-guo statelet. After that, the Chu domain expanded southward along the Han-shui River to the Yangtze River gorges.
     
    In the Lu Principality, Lu lord Wen'gong died in February of 609 B.C. Dowager Jing-ying, who had collusion with 'zheng qing' minister Dongmen-xiang-zhong, wanted to make her son into a lord. Dongmen-xiangzhong and Shusun-zhuang-shu travelled to Qi to petition for Qi Lord Huigong's support. With the Qi support, Dongmen-xiangzhong killed prince E and prince Shi, two elder sons of Lu Lord Wen'gong and dowager Chu-jiang. Dowager Chu-jiang, on the way to home country, cried aloud about the murder of two sons. Lu lord Xuan'gong was erected.
     
    In 609 BC approx, Qi Lord Yigong (r. BC 612-609) was assassinated. Qin Kanggong was succeeded by his son, Qin Gonggong (r. BC 608-604) who was enthroned next for 5 years.
     
    In 607 BC, Jinn Lord Linggong had previously tried to assassinate Zhao Dun several times and caused Zhao Dun into fleeing the country. Per GONGYANG CHUN QIU ZHUAN, Linggong used bows to shoot at the ministers at the palace meetings, killed and dismembered his cook and other servants at random. An assassin, Chu Mi, committed suicide by bumping his head against a tree near Zhao Dun's house. When Linggong released a dog to bite Zhao Dun, Zhao Dun's Samson-like bodyguard fought off the dog and kicked to break the dog's mouth. An royal garrison guard, who was previously saved from hunger by Zhao Dun, rescued Zhao Dun and together with the other guards, allowed Zhao Dun to drive away from the palace. Zhao Dun's brother, Zhao Chuan, killed Linggong at the Taoyuan Garden (i.e., the Peach Garden) and sent a messenger to recall Zhao Dun. Zhao Dun dispatched Zhao Chuan to the Zhou court and then retrieved Jinn Xianggong's brother, prince Hei-tun (black buttocks), as Jinn Lord Chenggong (r. BC 606-600). Chronicle official, Dong Hu, blamed the killing on Zhao Dun, for which Confucius had compliments on the truthful recording.
     
    Zhou King Kuangwang passed away after a reign of only 6 years. His brother, Ji Yu, was selected as the king.
     
    Zhou King Dingwang (Ji Yu, reign 606-586 B.C.)
    During the first year, i.e., 606 BC, the Lord of Chu, i.e., Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591), who succeeded Chu King Muwang, campaigned northward against the Luhun-rong barbarians. The Luhun-rong barbarians, according to HOU HAN SHU, had relocated to northern China from the ancient Gua-zhou prefecture of today's Gansu Province, on the Western Corridor. Alternatively speaking, per ancient scholar Du Yu, the Luhun-rong barbarians, with a clan name of Yun-shi, originally dwelled to the northwest of the Qin and Jinn principalities, but Qin/Jinn inducingly relocated them to the Yichuan area (i.e, Xincheng, Henan Province) during the 22nd year reign of Lu Lord Xigong (r. BC 659-627), i.e., in 638 BC. The Luhun-rong remnants were later known as Ma-shi where the surname of 'Ma' was said to have mutated from the word 'man(2)' for the barbarians.
     
    When passing through Luoyi (Luoyang), Lord Chu Zhuangwang inquired about the nine bronze ding or cauldrons of the Zhou court, which was a sign of usurpation in the eyes of the Zhou court. Zhou King Dingwang dispatched a minister, Wangsun [grandson] Maan, to the Chu camp to dissuade Chu Zhuangwang from an attempt at seeing the bronze cauldrons. (This episode would be termed 'wen ding {inquiring about the cauldrons}'. According to Lu Lord Xuan'gong 3rd year, Wangsun Maan claimed that the Zhou rule should extend for 700 years under the mandate of Heaven as Zhou King Chenwang, at the time of relocating the cauldrons to the eastern capital city, was told by the necromancy teller that Zhou would have 30 kings' rule and 700 years in reign years. This turned out to be correct should we count from King Chengwang's 18th year [1027 B.C.E.] to King Xianwang's 42nd year [327 B.C.E.] - when the nine cauldrons were lost in the Si-shui River.)
     
    Lao-zi, i.e., Li Dan, was born in 604 B.C. at Lixiang, near the Wo-he River, with his names deriving from Li for peachtree and Dan for the big ears. Lao-zi was said to have carried the white beard since birth, and at old age, he was called the Yellow Elderly for his white hair possibly turning yellowish [or a combination of the Yellow Emperor's name and lao-zi's thoughts as founders of the Dao {way} School].
     
    From 608 to 606 B.C., Jinn attacked Zheng four times. In 607, Zheng attacked Soong. At the Battle of Daji (big thorn), driver Yang Zhen, for his not distributed a slice of the lamb meat, delivered minister Hua Yuan to the enemy's camp. In 606 BC, Jinn attacked Zheng for betraying Jinn. Two years later, in 604 BC approx, Chu attacked Zheng for betraying Chu for Jinn. Jinn came to the relief of Zheng. Chu and Jinn were enbroiled in the fight over the control of Zheng. From 606 to 598 B.C., Chu attacked Zheng seven times.
     
    Qin Gonggong died in 604 BC. Three years later, in 601 BC approx, Jinn defeated, captured and killed one Qin general by the name of 'Chi'. In 600 BC, Jinn Chenggong competed against Chu for hegemony by calling an assembly of vassals at Hu(4), and Chen refused to attend for fearing Chu. Jinn Lord Chenggong dispatched Zhongxing Huanzi against the Chen statelet as well as rescued Zheng from the Chu attack. Jinn defeated Chu. Jinn Chenggong (r. BC 606-600) died in 600 BC. Two years later, in 598 BC, Chu attacked Chen because a Chen minister (Xia Zhengshu) killed their lord (Chen Linggong) one year before. Chu launched the attack by taking advantage of the Xia Zhengshu's killing Chen Lord Linggong for the adultery with his widow-mother Chen-xia-ji [a woman's full name with son's name prefixed] or Xia-ji [i.e., daughter of Zheng Lord Mugong]. Chen Linggong offended Xia Zhengshu as a result of displaying at the palace meeting the clothes which was a gift from Xia-ji. The next year, in spring of 597 BC, Chu King Zhuangwang (r. BC 613-591) lay siege on Zheng for three months, and Count Zheng Xianggong surrendered to the Chu army. Zheng sent Zi-liang to Chu as hostage. In June, Jinn dispatched three armies led by Xunlinfu, Sui Hui and Zhao Suo to the relief of Zheng. Before crossing the Yellow River in June, Zheng had surrendered to Chu. Since Jinn general Xian Hu crossed the river, Jinn marshal Xun-li-fu, at the advice of Haan Jue, also crossed the river to lend assistance to Xian Hu. Zheng, however, tried to survive the wars by instigating the Chu and Jinn armies into making a duel. Per ZUO ZHUAN, Zheng minister Shi-zhi, to split Zheng and make prince Yu-chen a lord, had induced the Chu army into invading Zheng, for which the Zheng people killed Yu-chen and Shi Zhi after the war. The Chu army was commanded by Shen-yin in the middle, Zi-zhong at the left and Zi-fan to the right.
     
    The above story related to Chen was due to an extraordinary beauty called Xia-ji who was commented in history to have caused death to three husbands, a king, one son, and leading to the demise of one state and two ministers. Xia-ji, daughter of Zheng Lord Mugong, had incest with prince Maan[2] prior to marriage; was later married with Uncle Xia-yu-shu of the Chen state, who was grandson of late Chen Lord Xuangong; and was courted by Chen lord Linggong. Two Chen ministers Kong Ning and Yi Xingfu, who also had the affairs with the woman, petitioned with Chu King Zhuangwang for attacking Chen to punish Xia Zhengshu. The Chu army killed Xia Zhengshu, i.e., Xia-ji's son [but was said to be Xia-ji's husband in Qinghua University's bamboo strips, some exacavation from a dubious origin]. Chu minister Qu Wu, who secretly liked the woman, persuaded the Chu king from taking in the woman, as well as advised against prime minister Zi-fan's intent to take in the woman. The Chu king gave Xia-ji to a widower called Lian-yin Xiang-lao.
     
    In 597 B.C., during the Jinn-Chu War of Bi (Liang-chang, where the Mi-shui River flew into the Langdang-qu Canal at Xingyang), near today's north of Zhengzhou, Chu defeated Jinn, which was extraction of revenge over the prior defeat at the Battle of Chengpu. The Jinn's defeat was the result of multiple Jinn generals and officials interferring with decision-making.
     
    Zheng sent a messenger, Huang-xu, to the Jinn army camp, requesting for a general attack at the Chu army. The Chu army, to loosen the guard of the Jinn army, pretended to seek truce twice. First, Chu sent a messenger, Fan-ji, to the Jinn camp and found out the discord among Jinn generals like Shi Hui and Xian Hu et als. Chu minister Wu Shen was pro-war, saying that the Chu king could not bak off in front of a Jinn minister, while 'ling-yin' Sun-shu-ao was pro-peace. Chu deliberately sent a truce request a second time to cause further discord among the Jinn leaders. At the Jinn side, the truce request made the Jinn marshals think to quit the war; however, the mid-level generals took initiative to attack the Chu army. Luan Shu, citing the fact that Shang King Zhouwang had ultimately lost his kingdom even though he had won one hundred battles prior, stated that the Chu king possessed the fighting spirits after conquering the Yong-guo state. Jinn marshal Xun-lin-fu wavered over a decision to fight or seek truce. Prior to the truce summit date, the Chu army sent some small contingents of troops to harassing the Jinn army, with Xu-bo, Le-bo and She-shu riding a single chariot into the Jinn positions to kill one solder and capturing one more. Jinn generals Wei Qi & Zhao Zhan led their troops against the Chu army, which drew the main body of the Jinn army into crossing the Yellow River. After one day and one night' small scale battles, the Chu army chased the Jinn army to the north, and when the Chu army spotted the relief Jinn army, Chu 'ling-yin' Sun-shu-ao ordered the Chu armies to form into three blocks for a general attack. Xun-lin-fu, at the middle Jinn column, ordered the troops to retreat across the river, with the middle and lower column troops rushing to the ships at the Yellow River. The soldiers who climbed up first, for escaping across the river, cut off the fingers of those who clung to the ships' freeboards. Only SHi-hui's upper column, which made preparation against the Jin after Wei Qi & Zhao Zhan went to challenge the Chu army the previous day, pulled off without loss. Shi Hui, in face of the allied army of the Chu king and Tang lord Huihou, decided to preserve troops and retreated to share the responsibility of defeat among the six heads. Xun Shou, whose son Xun Ying [Zhi Ying, or Zhi-wu-zi] was captured by Xiong-fuji of the Chu army, staged a counterattack to search for his son's whereabouts. Lian-yin Xiang-lao was killed by Jinn general Zhi-zhuang-zi (Xun Shou) in the Jinn counterattack. Zhi-zhuang-zi (Xun Shou) also shot and captured prince Gu-chen, a brother of Chu King Zhuangwang. The following day, the Chu king entered Hengyong (Yuanyang/Jiantu, Henan) and revered the river god and built the Chu ancestors' pilgrimage. Jinn lord Jinggong later spread Xun-lin-fu from his death request over the debacle at the Battle of Bi. It was Shi-zhen-zi who cited the Chu killing of De-chen after the Chengpu Battle debacle to persuade the Jinn lord into sparing Xun-lin-fu. Xun Ying [Zhi Ying, or Zhi-wu-zi] was later in 588 B.C. exchanged for Chu prisoner Prince Gu-chen, step brother of Chu King Gongwang.
     
    Lian-yin Xiang-lao's son, Hei-yao, not seeking the return of his father's corpse, had adultery with stepmother. Later in 590 B.C., Qu Wu then arranged for Xia-ji to emigrate to Zheng, where Qu Wu pretentiously sought a diplomatic mission [at the time of Chu King Gongwang's enthronement] to leave Chu for union with the woman. Qu Qu then took Xia-ji to Jinn for settlement, where he was conferred the post as 'xing da-fu' and enjoyed the start of surname 'Xing'. Qu Wu's family [plus Hei-yao's family] were exterminted by Chu for his betrayal.
     
    In 595 BC, Chu attacked Soong, and Soong requested help with Jinn. But Jinn could not render assistance. The siege lasted nine months, causing canninalism inside of the Soong capital. In March of 594, Soong surrendered to Chu. Years earlier, when Chu King Zhuangwang, after the Battle of Bi, attacked Xiao-guo, the Soong army, under Hua-jiao, led the allied army of Soong-Cai to assist Xiao-guo. Xiao-guo killed prisoners Xiaoxiang-yiliao and prince Bing, over which the Chu army eliminated the Xiao-guo state. Furthermore, Soong minister Hua Yuan captured and killed Chu diplomatic emissary Shen Zhou in 595 B.C., when the emissary was en route to Qi, on the pretext of lack of applying with Soong for a passport.
     
    Lu sought friendship with Chu. Chu also allied with Qi. Chu King Zhuangwang (Xiong Lv) held a hegemony assembly of the Zhou vassals. The hegemony Chu king died in 591 B.C.
     
    In 593 BC, Jinn dispatched Sui Hui against the Chi-di statelet and exterminated it. Sui Hui, also known as Fan Hui (Fan-wu-zi), took over the Chi-di land. (To explain the possible link of the ancient Chi-di and Bai-di barbarians to the later well-known barbarians, the Chinese classics hinted that the Kirghiz people in today's TUVA area had a custom of wearing the red clothes while the Xianbei had a custom of wearing the white clothes.)
     
    Chu Zhuangwang passed away in 591 BC. Jinn attacked Qi, and Qi sent in a prince as hostage. In the Lu Principality, there was a coup by the three prominent families. Dongmen-xiangzhong's son, i.e., Gongsun-gui-fu, who tried to trim the power of the three Lu royal clans and collected taxes from the three families, was forced out of country while on a diplomatic mission to Jinn, at the time Lu Lord Wen'gong died in 591 B.C. Lu lord Chenggong (r. BC 590-573) was enthroned. Later in 565, Ji-wu-zi proposed to have the three prominent Lu families control three armies.
     
    Another two years, 589 B.C., Qi attacked Lu; Lu requested help with Wey. Jinn sent 800 chariots, with Qie Ke, Luan Shu and Haan Jue in charge, against Qi, defeated Qi lord Qinggong (r. BC 598-582) during the summer and pursued Qi back to their statelet. In this year, Chu minister Shen'gong Wuchen fled to Jinn with one of the Chu king's concubines.
     
    The next year, in 588 BC, the Qi lord went to Jinn and proposed that Jinn Lord Jinggong be the king. Jinn Jinggong declined it, but he re-organized his armies into six columns in the same fashion as the Zhou court. One year later, Lu lord Chenggong (r. BC 590-573) went to Jinn, but he betrayed Jinn later because Qi did not respect him. Jinn attacked Zheng in this year. In 586 BC, an earthquake ocurred.
     
    Zhou King Jianwang (Ji Yi, reign 585-572 B.C.)
    In 584 BC, Jinn and Wu began to ally against Chu. Jinn, earlier, had dispatched Qu Wu (Shen-gong Wu-chen), a Chu asylum seeker, and a convoy of chariots, to Wu for building up a mechanical army. King Shou-meng's Wu army, with a land army and a navy, took over Zhoulai (Fengtai, Anhui) from Chu. Qu Wu, to avenge Chu King Gongwang and ministers Zi-fan and Zi-zhong for killing his family, taught the Jinn lord the scheme of allying with Wu to weaken Chu.
     
    In 583 BC, the Zhao Tong and Zhao Gua families were exterminated in the Jinn principality, i.e., the disaster of Xiagong. In the Jinn principality, Zhao Yingqi, a brother of the Zhao Gua/Zhao Tong brothers, had adultery with Jinn Lord Chenggong's daughter Zhuang-ji, who was wife of nephew Zhao Shuo. Zhuang-ji sowed dissension between the Zhou brothers and the Jinn lord over the exile of Zhao Yingqi. In 583 B.C., the Jinn lord exterminated the Zhao Gua and Zhao Tong families.
     
    In 580 BC, Jinn Lord Ligong, who succeeded Jing(3)gong, had decided on an alliance meeting with Qin Lord Huan'gong at Linghu (Linyi, Shanxi), but the Qin lord refused to cross the Yellow River. However, Qin Lord Huan'gong tore apart the alliance agreement after returning home, and then cooperated with the Chu-guo and Di barbarians in attacking Jinn. In 579, Qin and Bai-di allied to attack Jinn. Jinn defeated Bai-di at Jiaogang. In 578 B.C., two years later, Jinn assembled an alliance including Qi, Soong, Wei, Lu, Zheng, Cao, Zhu and Teng. One year ealier, in 579 B.C., the Jinn army and Chu army, i.e., representatives peace summit between Jinn minister Shi Xie and Chu prince Ba, had an alliance meeting at the western outskirts of the Soong city, under the mediation of Soong 'da fu' Huan Yuan. In 578 B.C., the Jinn lord personally led the four armies, i.e., the middle (Luan Shu & Xun Geng), upper (Shi Xie & Xi Yi), lower (Haan Jue & Xun Ying [Zhi Ying, or Zhi-wu-zi]) and new (Zhao Zhan & Xi Zhi) columns, against Qin. The Jinn alliance met near the Zhou capital city of Luoyang. Zhou King Jianwang dispatched Liu-kang-gong and Chen-su-gong as a token force. Jinn sent Wei-xiang to severe diplomacy with Qin, placing blame of betrayal on the three successive Qin lords of Mugong, Kanggong and Gonggong, and led vassals against Qin. The Jinn army defeated Qin at the Battle of Masui (Jingyang, Shenxi) pursued the Qin army across the Jing-shui River to Houli (Liquan, Shenxi) and captured two Qin generals by the name of Chengchai and Bugengnvfu. During the battle, Cao lord Xuan'gong was killed. At this time, Xun Ying [Zhi Ying, or Zhi-wu-zi] served as "xia jun zuo", a Jinn commanding captain of the lower military column. Later in 574, he was made "shang jun zuo", a Jinn commanding captain of the upper military column, after the death of Shi Xie and the killing of three Xi ministers in the hands of Xu-tong and Chang-yu-jiao.
     
    In spring of 575 B.C., Zheng betrayed Jinn for Chu. Jinn minister Luan Shu proposed a war with Chu. Jinn Lord Ligong personally led the troops across the river in May. Against the advice of Fan Wen-zi, Jinn Ligong fought with Chu, shot at one eye of the Chu king, and defeated Chu King Gongwang (r. BC 590-560) at the Battle of Yanling (a place in southeastern Zheng, between Xinzheng and Wanqiu, and east of today's Xuchang). Chu General Zi-fan, who previously caused the Chu king to kill Shen'gong Wuchen's family, was killed by the Chu king.
     
    During the 13th year reign of King Jianwang, 573 B.C., Jinn Lord Li[4]gong was killed by Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan [Xun Yan, a cousin of Xun Ying {Zhi Ying or Zhiwu-zi}]. The cause was Li(4)gong's killing, one year earlier, of Xi-zhi and his cousin and uncle for the arrogance related to the victorious war at the Battle of Yanling. Jinn dispatched emissaries (led by Xun Ying {Zhi Ying or Zhiwu-zi}, a Zhi family member) to the Zhou court to retrieve Zi-zhou as Jinn Lord Daogong. Jinn Lord Daogong attacked Zheng in the autumn of 572 BC and reached the Chen statelet. In 571, Xun Ying {Zhi Ying or Zhiwu-zi}, commanding an allied army with Lu (Zhong-sun-mie, a.k.a. Meng-xian-zi), Qi (Cui Zhu), Wey (Sun-lin-fu) and Soong (Hua Yuan), etc., attacked Zheng after Zheng lord Chenggong died in June, with Zi-han taking over the regency. The Jinn army built the Hulao [tiger cage] fort at the Zheng-guo border as a detente.
     
    Zhou King Lingwang (Ji Xiexin, reign 571-545 B.C.)
    In 570, Jinn attacked Xu-guo for threating Chu. In April, Jinn Lord Daogong and Lu Lord Xianggong had an summit at Changchu, during which Meng-xian-zi attempted to have Jinn counter Qi. In 568, Chu attacked Chen over betrayal, but kiled Chu 'ling yin' Zi-xin to appease Chen. Chu selected Zi-nang as the new 'ling yin' or prime minister.
     
    In 566 B.C., the Jinn lord, at the advice of Xun Ying {Zhi Ying or Zhiwu-zi}, reorganized the Jinn army into four columns, with the addition of a 'xin jun' or new army column. In 566 B.C., Xun Ying {Zhi Ying or Zhiwu-zi}, who was 'ci qing' [deputy 'qing'] and 'zhong jun zuo' [commanding captain of the middle column], succeed the posts of retired Haan Jue to be 'zhneg qing' [official 'qing'] and 'zhong jun jiang' [commanding general of the middle column]. (The Xun family, starting with Xun Xi, was originally conferred by Jinn lord Wugong the land of the former Xun-guo state, i.e., today's Yongji/Linyi, Shanxi. Xun Lin-fu was made into the general in charge of the 'zhongxing' or the middle military column by Jinn lord Wen'gong, for which he carried the Zhongxing surname. Xun Ling-fu's brother, i.e., Xun Shou, was further conferred the land of Zhi by Jinn lord Chen'gong. However, the future Zhi-bo and his family were eliminated by the rest of the powerful non-Jinn-royal families.
     
    In 564 B.C., i.e., Lu lord Xianggong 11th year, Zi-zhan of the Zheng state proposed a strategy of challenging the Soong state for sake of drawing in the Jinn and Chu powers to have a duel. Xiang-xu of the Soong state counterattacked Zheng. In summer, Zi-zhan intruded into Soong. The Jinn and allies came to Zheng, with the Qi crown prince and Soong army arriving first. In July, Zheng was forced to sign a treaty with Jinn and its allies at Bo. Zi-nang of the Chu state petitioned with Qin for joint actions against Zheng. The Qin-Chu armies pacified Zheng and invaded Soong. Jinn and the allies returned to attack Zheng. Jinn and Zheng made an oath at Xiaoyu in December. Zheng surrendered women and precious gifts to Jinn. Jinn lord Daogong distributed some gifts, including music, to Wei Jiang. The Jinn Lord at one time commented that Wei-zi (Wei Jiang) had big contribution in assembling vassals 9 times and pacifying the Rong/Di barbarians. In December, the Qim army, under two 'shu-zhang' generals, Bao and Wu, attacked Jinn to aid Zheng. On Dec 12, the Qin defeated Jinn at Li-di (oak tree land).
     
    In 563, the Jinn lord held another assembly of vassals at Zha (Pixian, Jiangsu), including Wu King Shouwang, for sake of countering Chu. The notables included the Lu-gong duke, Soong-gong duke, Wey-hou marquis, Cao-bo count, Ju-zi viscount, Zhu-zi viscount, Teng-zi viscount, Xue-bo count, Qi-bo count, Xiao-zhu-zi viscount, and Qi crown prince Guang. A thirteen-state allied army, under the Jinn command, laid siege of Biyang (Taierzhuang, Shandong), also known as the pro-Chu Yun2-surnamed Fuyang-guo state, for close to one month, and destroyed it. The Biyang fort was given to Soong lord Pinggong, with its original residents exiled to the Jinn land. During this battle, Confucius' father, Shu-liang-he, a Hercules-like brave man, shouldered the city gate to allow the Lu army soldiers escape from being trapped inside of the city, over which Meng-xian-zi commented that Shu-liang-he was like what SHI JING described as someone with the strength of a tiger. In 562 BC, Qin rescued Zheng from Jinn Lord Daogong's attack at today's Yangdi County, Henan Province.
     
    In 559 BC, Jinn Lord Daogong ordered that his six ministers assemble vassals and campaign against Qin. The Jinn state made an alliance with 13 states, including Qi(2), Lu, Soong, Wei, Zheng, Cao, Ju, Zhu, Teng, Xue, Qi(3), and Xiao-zhu. Jinn pursued the Qin army across the Jing-shui River. During the battle, Shi-yang (Fan Yang) survived, over which he was forced into exile in Qin by Luan-huan-zi over the death of his brother. Shi-yang (Fan Yang), after return to Jinn, persecuted the Luan family, forcing Luan-huan-zi into escape to Qi. In 558 BC, Jinn Lord Daogong inquired about governance with his blind-musician, Shi Kuang.
     
    In 557 BC, Jinn Lord Pinggong was enthroned. Jinn attacked Qi. Qi Lord Linggong (r. BC 581-554) retreated with the advice of Yan Ying. The Jinn army sieged Linzi and burnt the city walls, and went as east as Jiao and as south as Yi on the Shandong Peninsula. In 556 BC, Qi lord Linggong attacked Lu and at one time encircled Zang-wu-zhong. Shu-liang-he and three hundred armored soldiers rescued the Lu noble from the Qi army's encirclement.
     
    In May of 555 B.C., Qi ministers conspired to make crown prince Guang into a lord, i.e., the Coup of Wenche. Prince Guang was Qi Lord Zhuanggong. In 555 B.C., Jinn attacked Qi again on the pretext of the palace coup. Fan Mian persuaded Jinn Lord Pinggong into ending the war, and Qi minister Yan Ying advocated for peace with Jinn.
     
    In 552 BC, Lu Lord Xianggong (r. BC 572-542) came to the Jinn court. Jinn minister Luan-huan-zi, also known as Luan Cheng in Han Dynasty for writing into a different character from Han emperor Huidi, i.e., Luan Shu's grandson, fled to Qi, as a result of Shi-yang (Fan Yang)'s persecution. This was the result of Luan-huan-zi's attempt at stopping his mother's adultery with family minister Zhou-bin, but his mother, Luan-qi, a daughter of the Fan family, colluded with brother Fan Yang to persecute own son. Qi Lord Zhuanggong, to help Luan-huai-zi, led an invasion against Jinn. This, however, was a scheme of Qi minister Cui Zhu who encouraged the Qi king to pincer-attack Jinn from Puyang so as to borrow a knife to kill the Qi king for avenging on the king's adultery with his wife Dong-guo-jiang. In 550 B.C., Qi Lord Zhuanggong (r. BC 553-548) escorted Luan Cheng back to Jinn and almost sacked the Jinn city of Jiang. The Qi army and Luan-huai-zi intruded into Quwo and the capital city of Jiang. Fan-xuan-zi, overpowering the Wei-xian-zi family, combined forced to quell the Luan family. Fan Xian-zi advised against Jinn Lord Pinggong's suicide attempt, and fought off Luan Cheng. With the help of people in Quwo, the Fan and Wei families destroyed the Luan family, and killed Luan-huan-zi near Quwo. The Luan family was exterminated. The Qi army took over Chaoge and then retreated. In this year, Jinn defeated Qi at the Battle of Gaotang. Later in 548, Cui Zhu refused to go to the palace when the Ju-guo lord visited the Qi lord, and when the Qi lord came to Cui's house, Cui Zhu locked up the door and killed the Qi lord. Cui Zhu spared Yan Ying who cried over the corpse of the Qi lord. A brother of Qi lord Zhuanggong, Prince Chujiu, was made into Qi Lord Jinggong. For the 548 BC murder of Qi Lord Zhuanggong, the three Qi chronicle officials kept on writing the entries about the muder, with the two elder brothers killed by Cui Zhu. Cui Zhu later committed suicdie over the turmoil related to his multiple sons.
     
    Confucius [Kong-zi] was born as Kong-zhong-ni [with zhong meaning the second son] in 551 BC, i.e., the 21st year of Zhou King Lingwang or 22nd (?) year of Lu Lord Xianggong. At the time of his birth, father Shu-liang-he (Kong He) was 72 years old while mother Yan-zhi-zai was 18. Confucius, for his father's Samson-like stature, grew to be nine Chinese feet and six inches tall, which was equivalent to 191.136 centimeters. In 525 B.C., Lu Lord Zhaogong 17th year, when Dan-zi visited the Lu state, Confucius asked to learn from Dan-zi. Confucius further took studies under Lao-zi, Shi-xiang-zi and Chang-hong (Chang-shu).
     
    In the Soong principality, minister Xiang Xu, following Hua Yuan's example of the 579 B.C. peace summit at the west gate of the Soong capital city between Jinn minister Shi Xie and Chu prince Ba, organized a 14-nation Mi-bing [stopping war] assembly in 546 B.C. The league'a agreements included the requirement to have Jinn's vassals submit tributes to Chu and the CHu's vassals to submit the same to Jinn, but excluding Qi for its status as Jinn's ally and Qin for its status as Chu's ally. Zhu-guo and Teng-guo were excluded from the meeting. The next year, vassals paid respect to Jinn lord Pinggong and Chu King Kangwang, respectively.
     
    In 544 BC, Wu prince Ji-zha came to Jinn and commented to Zhao Wen-zi, Haan Xuan-zi and Wei Xian-zi that the 'Jinn governance will lie in the hands of you three families." Wu Prince Ji-zha, an emissary of the Wu Principality, had advised Shu-xiang [uncle Shu of the Jinn royal house, i.e., the only Jinn royal branch left] to yield the power to the Haan, Zhao & Wei families so as to avoid the disaster of extermination. (In the Wu Principality, Wu King Shou-meng had four sons: Chu-fan, Yu-ji, Yu-mei, and Ji-zha. The brothers consecutively passed the throne to the younger brother, till Prince Ji-zha refused to accept the lordship. Brother Yu-mei passed the rule to son Liao. Prince Guang, who was Yu-mei's son [but was said to be Chu-fan's son by Sima Qian], schemed to usurp the throne. Prince Ji-zha himself had yielded his turn of ruling the Wu state twice, and at one time self-exiled him to an island in the Yangtze for yielding to his elder brother {Ye, Chu-fan [Zhu-fan], Wu King Shunwang [reign 560-548 B.C.]}, for which he enjoyed the title of the 4th Prince at Yanling, i.e., modern Changzhou. Yu-ji died in the 4th year rule or 544 B.C., while Wu King Yimei [Yumei] was on the throne for 14 years till 527 B.C. Per CHUNQIU GONGYANG ZHUAN, Chu-fan had asked all his same-mother brothers to pass throne to each other till finally the reign was to be passed onto the son of Ji-zha.)
     
    Prince Ji-zha, a wise person, en route of his northern trip to Jinn, had listened to the Zhou dynastic music, i.e., popular poems prior to Confucius' abridgement, in the Lu Principality during the 29th year of Lu Lord Xianggong. Ji-zha had a famous act of leaving his sword on a tree at the tomb of the Xu Principality lord on his return trip south, with a comment that he would have gifted the sword earlier to the Xu lord if not for his unaccomplished northern mission under the Wu Statelet lord's order. Later in the Soong Dynasty, a prodigy poet, Yuan She, when he was to die at age 34, wrote a self-elegy [qi shui gua baojian] about Ji-zha's hanging the treasured sword, in expectation of a bosom friend knocking on his tomb that was darkened by the thick mists in the depth of the mountains.
     
    Zhou King Jing(3)-wang (Ji Gui, reign 544- 520 B.C.)
    After the death of King Jing(3)-wang, three princes fought each other for the throne. The Jinn people attacked Prince Zi-chao who killed elder prince Meng earlier. Prince Meng was made King Daowang posthumously. The Jinn people erected Prince Gai as King Jing(4)-wang. At the time Prince Zi-chao fled the Zhou capital, he would trick Lao-zi the librarian via an invitation elsewhere and trucked away the Zhou Dynasty classics to the southern statelet of Chu.
     
    In 541 BC, a Chu prince assassinated his father to become Chu King Lingwang (r. BC 540-529). In 538 BC, Chu King Lingwang assembled a "hegemony meeting" at Shen (Nanyang, Henan Province).
     
    Qin Lord Jinggong passed way during the 40th year reign, i.e., 537 BC. In 536 BC, Jinn campaigned against Yan. Jinn Lord Pinggong died in 532 BC.
     
    529 BC, a Chu prince assassinated Chu King Lingwang and became Chu King Pingwang (r. BC 528-516). Chu King Lingwang, leaving brother Qi-ji at Cai, pushed on against the Xu-guo state. Qi-ji, adopting the advice of Chao-wu, led the army to the Chu capital and killed the crown prince. Chu King Lingwang committed suicide upon the news. Qi-ji then killed the younger prince, i.e., his nephew, and made himself a king. Later, Han Dynasty king of Huai-nan, Liu Ann, commented on this episode as well as Jinn lord Xian'gong's killing his crown price, as something like cutting short own feet and toes to suit the size of shoes. In 526 BC, Chu King Pingwang sought a Qin royal family girl for his son (Prince Jian), but Chu King Pingwang later took in the Qin girl as his own concubine. Chu King Pingwang born prince Zhen with this Qin royal family girl. At the deathbed, Chu King Pingwang asked 'ling-yin' (prime minister) Nang-wa to make prince Zhen as the king, to which Nang-wa initially rejected but was asked by Elder Prince Shen to observe. Prince Zhen was to be Chu King Zhaowang.
     
    Jinn Qinggong (r. BC 525-512) was enthroned in 525 BC. Six prominent families of Jinn, Haan, Zhao, Wei, Fan, Zhongxing & Zhi, began to overpower the Jinn court. (I deliberately spelled Han2 as Haan here.)
     
    In 522 BC, Chu's Elder Prince Jian(4) first fled to Soong and then fled to Zheng where he was killed by Zheng lord Dinggong for some conspiracy. Wu Zixu (?-484 B.C.) fled to Wu after his father Wu She and brother Wu Shang were arrested and later put to death by the Chu king. Wu She was Chu Prince Jian's tutor ('tai fu'), and was accused by minister Fei Wuji of consipring with the crown prince against the Chu king. In 516 B.C., the 5th year of the Wu king, Wu Zixu disguised himself to sneak out of the Zhao-guan Pass, with hair turning white overnight, to escape to Wu, while his brother Wu Shang surrendered himself to die with his father.
     
    In 520 BC, Zhou King Jing(3)wang died while he was contemplating on making Prince Zi-chao a king. Six ministers of Jinn went to the Zhou court and quelled the internal princeling turmoil. Zhou King Jing4-wang was selected. The cause and effect was related to two barbarian-nature viscount lords' killing Zhou minister Bing-qi for sake of making the elder Zhou prince Zi-meng as Zhou King Daowang. They were viscount Liu Wengong of Liu-guo and viscount Shan Mugong of Shan-guo. Mao-bo-de, Yin-wen-gong and Zhao-zhuang-gong, who supported junior Zhou prince Zi-chao, expelled Zhou King Daowang. The Jinn army escorted Daowang back to the capital. Months later, in November of 520 B.C., Zi-chao killed Zhou King Daowang. The Jinn army attacked Zi-chao and selected a Zhou princeling brother as Zhou King Jing[4]wang. Prince Zi-chao hence acknowledged himself as a minister, but he rebelled again later. King Jing(4)-wang fled to the Jinn court and would not return till Jinn Lord Dinggong escorted him back to the throne the next year. The Jinn army drove Prince Zi-chao to Jingcheng, southwest of today's Luoyang. Zi-chao counterattacked the Zhou king and took over the capital. Zi-chao was termed the west king while Zhou King Jing(4)wang the east king at Diquan. The two parties fought against each other for three years near the Zhou capital.
     
    The six Jinn prominent families began to attack each other for control of Jinn. Jinn and Qin had peace for this time period.
     
    Prime Minister of the Zheng Principality, Zi Chan, ordered to cast the caldrons and engraved the penal codes on them. Zi-chan proposed the legalist way of administering a nation, for which Shu-xiang of the Jinn Principality expressed objection. Before that, Prince Ji-zha, i.e., the Wu Principality emissary, had at one time admonished Zi-chan on adopting the rituals in managing a country and expressed concern that the Zheng state could have upheavals.
     
    In the Wu Principality, in 525 B.C., Wu King Liao dispatched Prince Guang to attacking the Chu state. When Wu Zixu fled to Wu from the Chu state, Prince Guang treated the refugee well. In 519 B.C., the 8th year of the Wu king, the Wu army, under Prince Guang, attacked the Chu state again, and fetched the ex-Chu-prince Jian's mother for residency at Jucao; and furthermore, attacked the Chen and Cai statelets in a northern expedition.
     
    Zhou King Jing(4)-wang (Ji Gai, reign 519-477 B.C.)
    In 518 B.C., the Wu army took over Jucao and Zhongli from Chu. Wu Zixu, in order to instigate the Wu army into a full invasion of Chu, conspired with Prince Guang to assassinate the Wu king. In 514 B.C., Wu Zixu hired a cook by the name of Zhuan-chu who hid a dagger sword inside of a cooked fish's belly and killed the Wu king at a banquet. Prince Guang ascended the throne as King He-lu (reign 514-496 B.C.). King Liao's son, Qing-ji, was killed by sending another assassin to the ship where Qing-ji was commanding the Wu navy. At Wu Zixu's recommendation, the new Wu king hired military strategician Sun Wu of the Qi principality. (He-lu became Lord of the Wu Principality in 514 BC. Sun Wu, i.e., Sun Tzu or Sun Zi (536-484 per Chu Bosi), i.e., the great military master, began to assist He-lu.)
     
    In 517 BC, the Ji(4) family of Lu drove Lu Lord Zhaogong (r. BC 541-510), the 24th ruler of Lu, away from the capital. What happened was that Lu Lord Zhaogong [Ji Chou, 541-510 B.C.], after taking rein in 542 B.C., attempted to balance power against the rotating prominent Ji-sun-shi, Shu-sun-shi and Zhong-sun-shi royal family members. Ji-sun-shi, Shu-sun-shi and Zhong-sun-shi, who were named three 'huan', descended from the three junior sons of Lu Lord Huan'gong, a power-sharing arrangement with Lu Lord Zhuanggong (693-662 B.C.), an elder prince. In 519 B.C., Shu-sun-zhao-zi passed the administration to Ji-sun-yi-ru. In 517 B.C., Lu Lord Zhaogong attacked Ji-ping-zi of the Jisun-shi clan, but was defeated after Zhong-sun-he-ji (i.e., Meng-yi-zi) lent support to Ji-ping-zi who was besieged on a high terrace. Lu Zhaogong fled to the Yun[-cheng] land bordering Qi for asylum. Zhong-sun-he-ji (i.e., Meng-yi-zi), at the time of his father's death in 535 B.C., was asked to revere Confucius as a teacher.
     
    When Zhou Prince Zi-chao still opposed Zhou King Jing(4)-wang, the Jinn Principality led various vassals on a march to the Zhou court during the 4th year reign of King Jing(4)-wang. In winter of 516 B.C., Jinn generals Zhi-wen-zi and Zhao-jian-zi defeated the Zi-chao gang. The Jinn army, under Zhao-jian-zi (Zhao Yang), again expelled Zi-chao out of the capital. Prince Zi-chao, Mao-bo-de and Yin-wen-gong fled to the Chu Principality. Zi-chao was recorded to have ransacked the whole Zhou imperial library and archives when fleeing to Chu, which paved the way for the precious and rare history documents to be disspiating to the commoners' walks and indirectly propelled the flourishing of the Hundred Schools of Thoughts. Zhou King Jing(4)-wang moved his capital to the Chengzhou city. Zhou King Jing(4)-wang, later in 513, solidified his power by killing Zhao-jian-gong, Zi-chao's elder son Ji Xiu, and et als., and further in 505 B.C. sent an assassin to the Chu capital to have Prince Zi-chao killed - by taking advantage of the Wu army's successful campaign against the Chu state.
     
    In 515 BC, Wey and Soong petitioned with Jinn to restore Lu Lord Zhaogong. Ji Ping-zi bribed Fan Xian-zi, and Fan said to Jinn Lord Qinggong that the Ji(4)-sun family of Lu had no fault.
     
    In the 9th year of Lu Lord Dinggong, i.e., 501 B.C., Confucius, at age 51, was invited by Ji-huan-zi and Lu Lord Dinggong to be 'zhai' (county magistrate) for Zhongdu. Confucius enjoyed a good name for declining the job for serving Yang-hu and Gongshan-bu-niu, i.e., the housekeeper ministers of the three resident prominent Lu family heads at the Lu capital of Qufu. Confucius was promoted to be 'si yi' and 'si kong', respectively, namely assistant interior minister for the Meng-sun-shi clan chief. At the turn of 500 B.C., Confucius was further promoted to be "[da-]sikou" [justice minister]. Confucius contributed to the 500 B.C. Jia-gu diplomatic summit of Lu Lord Dinggong and Qi Lord Jinggong at Jia-gu, ensuing in the return of some land to Lu from Qi. Confucius acted as justice minister for about three years, till the 13th year of the Lu lord. Qi lord Jinggong later sent in beauty and gifts to infatuate the Lu lord and the three prominent ministers so as to weaken Confucius' administration. (Confucius, who tacked on the post as concurrent assistant prime minister, was said by XUN-Zi and SHI JI to have ordered the execution of 'da fu' Shao-zheng-mao, a rival who at one time attracted Confucius' students to his lectures. Alternatively, Shao-zheng-mao was said to have been killed in 500 B.C., namely, in the immediate days after Confucius tacked on the justice minister's post. The records on Shao-zheng-mao were scarce, with many scholars questioning the authenticity of this episode of history. The actual year that Confucius ordered the execution was not clear, with some records claiming that the execution order was issued after Confucius, as justice minister, tacked on the concurrent prime minister post, which was years after tacking on the justice minister job.)
     
    Confucius, as 'da-sikou', to strengthen the Lu king's power, ordered to demolish the city walls of the cities and forts of the three prominent Lu families of Ji-sun-shi in Fei-yi [Feixian, Shandong], Shu-sun-shi in Hou-yi [Dongping, Shandong] and Meng-sun-shi in Cheng-yi [Ningyang, Shandong]. The Shusun-shi clan demolished the walls. Confucius' favourite deciple, Zi-lu, was ordered into the demolition operation in 498 B.C., in the 12th year of Lu Lord Dinggong. In the Fei-yi domain, 'zhai' Gongshanbuniu, a Jisun-shi family court minister, and Shusun-zhe, objected to the demolition, and launched an invasion into the Lu capital city of Qufu. Lu Lord Dinggong was scared into fleeing to the Jisun-shi or Ji-shi palace for asylum. Confucius sent Shen-ju-xu and Le-suo to expelling the Fei-yi rebels out of the capital and further defeating the Fei-yi rebels at Gumie. Gongshanbuniu, and Shusun-zhe fled to Qi before continuing on to Wu, where the latter supported a war against the home country and former refused. The Lu troops under Dinggong failed to sack the Cheng-yi city in December of 498 B.C. Mengsun-shi family minister Gong-lian-chu-fu defended Cheng-yi with a claim to Meng-yi-zi that Cheng-yi was the citadel against the possible Qi invasion from the north. The Meng-sun-shi family successfully resisted the demolition at Cheng-yi while the other two families were initially forced into demolition. Hence Confucius' action aborted when the two other families changed mind to side with the Meng-sun-shi clan.
     
    After the citywall demolition failure, Confucius then conducted the tour of nations to spread his teachings. The tour took fourteen years, which could be considered another Homeric Odessey in China's history, that was comparable to Prince Chong'er's exile. Zi-lu (Zhong You), i.e., Confucius's student who was killed in 480 BC, followed Confucius throughout his life, and was the only student by the side of Confucius on one occasion when Confucius' entourage was attacked and dispersed.
     
    In 514 BC, 6 families of Jinn exterminated the Jinn royal relatives, i.e., the families of Qi-xi-sun and Shu-xiang-zi. Two years later, Jinn Lord Qinggong died.
     
    In 512 B.C., i.e., the 3rd year of King He-lu, the Wu army consecutively eliminated the Zhongwu-guo (Suqian, Jiangsu) and Xu-guo statelets, both viscount statelets. The Wu army took over Shu-yi from Chu, and killed two brothers of ex-Wu king Liao. Earlier, the two brothers were set free by the Xu-guo statelet (Si-xian, Anhui/Sihong, Jiangsu), and were accepted by the Chu state to be in charge of the Yang-di place (Shenqiu, Henan). The Xu Principality had at one time taken in two sons of a deposed Wu king for their maternal inlaw relationship. The Xu lord's mother was a bribe from the Wu state. Xu, lasting over 1500 years, had 44 rulers in history.
     
    In the Chu statelet, 'ling yin' Nang-wa killed 'si ma' Xi Wan and Bo Lizhou at the instigation of 'shao fu' minister Fei Wuji, and caused Bo Pi (Bo Lizhou's grandson) to flee to the Wu statelet. In 510 B.C., Tang lord Chenggong and Cai lord Zhao-hou (a marquis) came to Chu. Nang-wa, who failed to wrestle over the guests' treasured horses and jades, had the two marquis put under house arrest for three years, on the pretext that the two could serve as guide for the Wu army should they be released. After bribery to get released, Marquis Cai Zhao-hou sent in the elder son to Jinn for support against the Chu state. After failing to get the Jinn army to attack Chu, Cai lord Zhao-hou turned around to seek for the Wu statelet's assistance.
     
    In the Qi principality, minister Yan-zi died in 505 BC (?). Before his death, Yan-zi (Yan Ying) once expressed worry that the Tian family, who were of the Chen Principality lineage, would likely swallow up the Qi state soon. Before that, Yan-zi had a conversation with the emissary of the Wu Principality, i.e., Prince Ji-zha, who advised Yan-zi to surrender his power and fiefdom to avoid the fate of extermination of the Luan and Gao royal families in the hands of the Tian [Chen] family.
     
    From 512 B.C. onward, at the advice of Sun Wu and Wu Zixu, the Wu king adopted the strategy of organizing three echelons of armies to harass the Chu state for the following six years so as to weaken the Chu army's morale. In 511 B.C., the Wu army took over Liu-yi and Qian-yi, two places along the Yangtze and near today's Qian-shui River, from Chu. In 510, the Wu army attacked Yue to the south. In 509 B.C., the Chu army, under Zi-chang (Nang-wa), attacked Wu. Wu counterattacked and defeated Chu at the Battle of Yuzhang, and took over Ju-cao. In 507, Cai lord Zhaohou schemed to form an alliance against Chu. After allying with Jinn and 17 other states [Jinn, Qi, Lu, Soong, Cai, Wey, Chen, Zheng, Xu, Cao, Zhu, Zhu, Dun, Hu, Teng, Xue, Qi, Xiao-Zhu], the Zhaoling (Yancheng) Assembly was held. Qi-guo minister Guo-xia attended the meeting. The allied army attacked and eliminated the Shen-guo state, a Chu vassal. The Chu army then attacked Cai. In 506 B.C., Viscount Liu Wen'gong of the Liu-guo fief, who disliked Chu for offering asylum to Elder Zhou Prince Zi-chao, orchestrated with Chang-hong and Fan-xian-zi (Fan Yang) for rallying an alliance against Chu.
     
    In 506 BC, Wu King He-lu, using Sun Wu as the chief commander and Wu Zixu and Bo Pi (another Chu refugee) as deputies, attacked Chu under the guidance of the Cai lord. Moving along the Huai River, the 30,000 Wu army borrowed a path from the Tang-guo and Cai-guo statelets, and moved along the Huai River via ships. At Huai-rui (Huangchuan, Henan), Sun Wu abandoned ships, chose 3500 soldiers as a vanguard army, circumvented around the Mt. Dabieshan range, passed the three passes of Dasui, Zhiyuan and Ming'e (Pingjing-guan, Xinyang, Henan) along today's Henan-Hubei provincial border, and reached the Han-shui River. Nang-wa, at the instigation of Shi-huang and Wu-cheng-hei, crossed the Han-shui River to attack the Wu contingent, instead of waiting for "zuo-sima" Shen Yinshu to pincerattack the Wu army from the Fangcheng direction to the north. The Wu army faked to retreat three times and defeated the Chu army between Xiao-bieshan and Da-bieshan mountains. Fu-gai, i.e., King He-lu's brother, insisted on leading the battle. Commanding a herald army of 5000, Fu-gai raided into the Chu army camp and defeated the Chu army. At the Battle of Boju (Macheng, Hubei), the 30,000 Wu army defeated a Chu army of 200,000 after a long distance trek. Nang-wa fled to Zheng, where he later committed suicide under the pressure of the Wu army's threat of siege of Zheng. The Wu army then conscutively defeated the Chu army in five battles. At the Yun-shui River, the Wu army allowed the Chu army to cross the river in half and then attacked to defeat them. Shen Yinshu's Chu army, coming south in a counterattack, defeated Fu-gai's army before Sun Wu was to re-assemble the Wu army and defeat the Chu army. The Wu army sacked the Chu capital city of Ying-du (Jiangling), pressing Chu King Zhaowang into first fleeing to Yunmeng, then to the Yun-guo state and then fleeing to Sui (Suizhou). Chu King Zhaowang (r. BC 515-489) fled to the Sui Fief; the Wu army occupied the Chu capital; Wu Zixu dug up the dead body of Chu Pingwang (r. BC 526-516) and lynched it.
     
    Chu Minister Shen Baoxu went to seek help with Qin and cried for seven days and nights. Qin Lord Aigong hence dispatched Zi Pu & Zi Hu, with 500 chariots, to Chu. In 505 BC, the Qin army came south to render relief to the Chu army. In June, the Qin army defeated the Wu army at Ji-di (Tongbo of Henan Province), i.e., the Battle of Yi-cheng (Xiangcheng, Xuchang, Henan). Bo Pi, in a counterattack, was defeated by the Qin army. The Qin-Chu allied army eliminated the Tang-guo fief. The Chu army, under Zi-xi, defeated the Wu army at Junxiang. Wu King He-lu retreated home after learning that the Yue army attacked his home by taking advantage of his absence. Further, Fu-gai, who first retreated home, had proclaimed himself a king. He-lu defeated Fu-gai. Brother Fu-gai fled to Chu for asylum. Chu King Zhaowang returned to the capital. (In 504 BC, Chu relocated the capital to Ruo [Yicheng].) Wei-liao-zi later commented on Sun Wu (Wu-zi)'s military feat of defeating the Chu army with a mere expedition force of 30,000.
     
    Zeng-zi (505 - 436 BC) was born in 505 BC at Nanwu (Jiaxiang) of the Lu state. Zeng-zi, a descendant of Lord Yu, was Si-surnamed, and his father Zeng Dian was a disciple of Confucius. Zeng-zi was known for the motto that "shi [a person of integrity] bu-keyi [cannot] by [be not] hongyi [steadfast and willed], renzhong [mission important] er [but] daoyuan [the path being long]." Zeng-zi, who was known as a filial son, had the story of mother-son's hearts linked together as he could feel heartache when his mother bit her finger. Zeng-zi, who was known had the motto for three repentance daily, was touted as the Confucian 'zong shen' or the Confucian ancestral saint. Zeng-zi had declined the invitation from the Qi, Chu and Jinn states to have him tack on some official's job.
     
    Qi-guo minister Guo-xia, in 503 B.C., led an army against the Lu state. In the summer of 502 B.C., the Qi army under Guo-xia and Gao-zhang attacked Lu again. The Jinn state dispatched Shi-yang, Zhao Yang and Xun Yin and a relief army to aiding Lu. Lu Lord Dinggong met the Jinn army at Wa.
     
    In May of 496 B.C., i.e., the 24th year of Zhou King Jingwang, Yue King Yun-chang passed away. Wu King He-lu, taking advantage of the Yue's state mourning, led an army against Yue. King Gou-jian, who succeeded the Yue throne, resisted the Wu army at Zuili (Jiangxing, Zhejiang). Gou-jian, after sending in two dare-to-die commando teams in vain, arranged to have three rows of death convicts to commit suicide in front of the Wu army, and then charged against the Wu army which was shocked at the spectacle. Ling-gu-fo, a Yue 'da fu', cut off some toe from He-lu, which led to the Wu king's death at Jing-di, en route of retreat. King of Wu Fu-Chai (?-473 BC ?) built a tomb for his father at Mt. Huqiu (tiger's hill), with 3,000 swords buried inside, including Zhuan-chu Sword and the Yu-chang (fish belly hidden) Sword. Fu-chai, to avege his father's death, planned to attack Yue in 494 BC. The Yue king, against Fan Li's advice, took initiative to attack Wu. At Mt. Fujiao-shan (Mt. Dongting-shan, Lake Taihu), Fu-chai defeated the King of Yue, Gou-jian. The Yue army remnants retreated to Kuaijishan, where the Wu army encircled the Yue remnants. Fu-chai, at the advice of Bo Pi who took in the Yue bribery and eight beauties from Yue minister Wen-zhong, spared Gou-jian but with a term of putting Gou-jian under servitude for three years. Before that, the Wu king had declined the Yue king's surrender request at the advice of Wu Zixu who claimed that the wise Yue king had two good ministers Fan Li and Wen Zhong and would rebel in the future. In 492 B.C., the Yue king, together with Fan Li and 300 entourage, came to serve as hostage at the Wu court. Fu-chai set free Gou-jian at the instigation of Bo Pi. The Yue king, who borrowed grains from Wu, had returned the cooked seeds to Wu, which led to a famine in Wu. The Wu king was bent on making himself a hegemony king in the competition against the Qi and Jinn statelets of central China, which gave the Yue king an opportunity to revive his state and take revenge on Wu in the future. The Yue state further sent in beauties Xi-shi and Zheng-dan to corrupt the Wu king. Gou-jian himself slept in the firelog's storage room and tasted the bitter bladder daily.
     
    Qi-guo minister Guo-xia, in 492 B.C., and the Wey state organized an army to lay siege of the Qi-land for lending relief to the besieged Zhongshan-guo state. The next year, 491, Guo-xia attached the Jinn state again, and took over large patch of land including Xing-di, Ren-di, Luan-di, etc, and allied with the Xianyu people against Jinn. In 490 B.C., Guo-xia (Guo-hui-zi) and Gao-zhang (Gao-zhao-zi) et als., observing the command of late Qi Lord Jing(3)gong, supported junior prince Tu, while the other ministers, Tian Qi and Bao Mu supported prince Yang-sheng. In 489 B.C., Tian Qi and Bao Mu defeated the rivals, and made prince Yang-sheng as Qi Lord Daogong. Guo-xia fled to Ju, while Gao-zhang was killed.
     
    In 485 B.C., Fu-chai dispatched Xu Cheng and a navy against Qi. The next year, Fu-chai, being instigated by the Lu state, rallied an army from nine prefectures, and joined the Lu army against Qi. The allied army defeated Qi at Ailing (Laiwu/Zibo), and killed Qi marshall Guo-shu. Years later, Fu-chai launched another attack. The Yue king, to exhaust the Wu strength, pretentiously sent in the Yue soldiers to assist with the campaign. On the pretext that Wu Zixu had left his elder son with a Qi minister, Bao-mu, the Wu king ordered Wu Zixu to commit suicide for the objection to the wars against Qi. Earlier, Wu Zixu was sent to Qi for declaring war. Wu always treated Yue as the ultimate enemy at the heart and belly, while taking Qi as merely a disease on the skin. (In the Republican China time period, Chiang Kai-shek was said to have commented that Soviet Russia and the communists were the fatal enemy while the Japanese threat was a disease on the skin.) In 482 BC, Jinn Lord Dinggong competed with King Wu Fu-chai for hegemony at Huangchi. Fu-chai, to compete against Jinn, led a strong army to the north. Yue King Gou-jian attacked Wu by taking advantage of Fu-chai's absence from his country. The total troops consisted of 2000 navy soldiers, 40,000 foot soldiers, 6000 king's guards, and one thousand technical officers. Gou-jian intruded into the Wu capital, and killed the Wu crown prince. Wu secretly made peace with Gou-jian to prevent the vassals from hearing about the Wu defeat back at home.
     
    Zi-lu (Zhong You), i.e., Confucius's student, was killed in 480 BC. Zi-lu, who were younger than Confucius by nine years and followed Confucius throughout the life, including the fourteen-year tour of the nations that started in 498 B.C., was hired as a prefecture official, "zhai" at Pu-yi (Changyuan, Shanxi) of the Wey state, and a family court minister under 'da fu' Kong-li, a grandson of Wey lord Linggong and a nephew of Wey lord Zhuanggong. Zi-lu was killed while trying to keep his hat on during a fight which was for protecting Kong-li from the followers of Kuai-kui. Kuai-kui, who went into exile in Zhao previously, toppled his son, Wey lord Chugong, to become Wey lord Zhuanggong. Later in 478, Zhao Yang invaded Wey to expell Wei lord Zhuanggong, and erected Gongsun-banshi. Wey lord Zhuanggong returned after the pullback of the Zhao army, but was expelled by minister Shi Pu. Wey lord Zhuanggong was killed by the Ji-shi people at Rongzhou. Qi selected prince Qi, a son of Wey lord Linggong, as the new Wey marquis. But Shi Pu expelled prince Qi as well. The former Wey lord Chugong returned from Qi, and expelled Shi Pu. Wey lord Chugong, with 'chu' meaning exile, had several upheavals, till he was expelled to Soong in 470 B.C. again. An uncle, who expelled Chugong's son, became Wey lord Daogong.
     
    Mo-zi (Mo Zhai, 480-390 BC) was born in 480 BC. [Scholar Liang Qichao claimed that Mo-zi was born in the early years of Zhou King Dingwang (Ji Jie, reign 468-441 B.C.) and died in the middle of Zhou King Anwang (Ji Jiao, reign 401-376 B.C.) Mo-zi was from the country of Xiao-zhu-guo [i.e., small spider totem country] which, also known as the "gentlemen country", was later exterminated by the Lu Principality in 325 BC (?). Mencius had high regards for the school of thoughts propagated by Yang Zhu & Mo-zi.
     
    In 481 BC, Qi minister Tian Chang assassinated his lord Qi Jian'gong. Chu King Huiwang (?-432 B.C.), a son of Chu King Zhaowang, attacked Wu in 481 B.C. by taking advantage of the Wu-yue wars. The next year, 480 B.C., Wu counterattacked Chu city Shen (Yingshang, Anhui), but was defeated by Prince Bai-gong-sheng, a son of the former Chu Prince Jian. Prince Sheng, who enjoyed the title Bai-gong-sheng for the Bai-xian-yi fief, led the victorious army into the Chu capital for a rebellion. Prine Sheng placed the Chu king under house arrest, killed 'ling-yin' Zi-xi and 'si ma' Zi-qi. Prine Sheng further killed Prince Lv for his refusal to be king. In 479 BC, Shen-zhu-liang, son of Shen-yin-xu, who was titled Duke Ye-gong (Yexian, Henan) and was the source of the future fable about his pretension of the dragon reverance, led his county's troops to the capital, and defeated the rebels. In 479 BC, the Chu Principality, with Gongsun Chao (son of Zi-xi) as general, exterminated the Chen Principality, and made the Chen land a county. In 478, the Ba-guo stated invaded Chu, but was defeated by Chu. In 478 BC, Zhou King Jing(4)-wang passed away. Later in 477, the Chu army confronted the Yue army at one time, and chased the Yue army to Min. The Yue army had defeated the Wu state and hence bordered with Chu. The Chu army in autumn further attacked the Yue state, made alliance with some of the Yi people against Yue, and intruded towards the southeastern Chinese coast.
     
    Kong-zi (Confucius) was said to have stopped the editing of CHUN QIU (i.e., The Springs and Autums) in 481 B.C., two years before his death, after he was saddened by death of a 'qilin' [giraffe] animal, a legendary "qilin" [giraffe] animal that was equated to the unicorn in the West. Per LI JI - LI YUN, "qilin" [giraffe], phoenix, tortoise, and dragon were four intelligent spirits. CHUN QIU, together with YI[ ZHUAN], was taken to be part of the six classics on par with SHI[-JING], [SHANG-]SHU, LI[-JING] (i.e., YI LI), and LE[-JING]. Confucius passed away in 479 BC. At the time Confucius passed away, i.e., 479 B.C. or Lu Lord Aigong 16th year, Zeng-zi guarded the tomb using the son-father ritual. Sima Qian, in SHI JI, cited Dong Zhongshu in stating that Confucius covered 242 years, up to 481 B.C. or Lu Lord Aigong 14th year, when the legendary "gilin" was killed. Historians commonly believe that Confucius stopped using pen upon the death of "qilin", which means that it was not likely that Confucius had started the editing of CHUN QIU from 481 B.C. That is, Confucius started the editing before 479 B.C., and ended the editing of the book in 479 B.C.
     
    CHUN QIU, a concisely-worded book also known as LIN SHU [i.e., the 'qilin [giraffe] book'], was commonly taken to be an abridged version of the Lu Principality's court chronicle, covering 244 years and 12 lords, from Lu Lord Yin'gong to Lu Lord Aigong. This span of years, with an extra two years, was related to three popular compendium-nature annotation books for CHUN QIU, namely, Zuo-qiu Ming's 30-volume CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN [with one version excavated from Confucius' double-wall mansion, covering 244 years], Gong-yang-gao's 11-volume CHUN QIU GONG-YANG ZHUAN [a Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state], and Gu-liang-chi's 11-volume CHUN QIU GU-LIANG ZHUAN [another Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state]. Other than the three versions, two other CHUN QIU versions of ZOU-SHI and JIA-SHI were lost into oblivion.
     
    The various principalities had compiled their royal chronicles entitled the "Spring & Autumn". However, only the Lu Principality's version had survived as a result of Confucius' editing as well as Zuo-qiu Ming's compiling of CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN [or Zuo-shi Chun-qiu Zhuan (i.e., ZUO ZHUAN)]. ZUO ZHUAN had covered a later time span, from the 49th year [722 B.C.] of Zhou King Pingwang to the 44th year [476 B.C.] of Zhou King Jingwang, about 246 years. It would be during the Western Jinn dynasty that a Wei Principality version of the history annals, i.e., THE BAMBOO ANNALS (ZHU SHU JI NIAN), was excavated. Jinn Dynasty scholars, after the discovery of THE BAMBOO ANNALS, claimed that it covered the period from the Xia dynasty to Zhou King Youwang.
     
    Meantime, Confucius abridged the ancient book SHANG SHU [remotely ancient history], with the inception of recitals starting with Overlord Yao, a descendant of Huangdi. Both Confucius and Mencius expanded on the classical book of SHANG SHU and extolled the virtues of the three remotely-ancient lords ['saints'] Yao, Shun and Yu. ZHOU SHU (i.e., the [upper] Zhou Dynasty Records) was a book that Confucius [551-479 B.C.E.] had purportedly abridged from SHANG SHU [remotely ancient history] as the "wasted films". In ancient China, two chronicle officials of the left and right side were assigned, with the 'zuo' [left] chronicler recording the words of rulers while the 'you' [right] chronicler recording the events. SHANG SHU was of the nature of statements made by the various rulers, while CHUN QIU was of the nature of important events of a state.
     
    Sima Qian, in the section on the Confucius' Lineage of SHI JI, commented that Confucius, in his later life, liked the ancient book I-Ching, i.e., The Book of Changes, and made preface to a series of books including ZHUAN, HAI, XIANG, SHUO-GUA and WEN-YAN. Confucius, who was earlier than Greek historian Herodotus and his book THE HISTORIES, was an idealist living in the Spring-Autum period of Eastern Zhou Dynasty, and had always upheld the ideals of the early saints and the deeds of the Archduke of Zhou Dynasty. Later in Han Dynasty, Confucius' school of thought became the state's teachings. Confucius, for his abridging of the ancient chronicles and writings, had made a comment on himself, saying that in the future, people could both pile praise on him and blame him for abridging such books. That is, Confucius was aware of the selection he made for compilation into SHANG SHU, deleting the materials that were deemed undesirable in his viewpoint.
     
    Zhou King Yuanwang (Ji Ren, reign 476-469 B.C.)
    In 475 BC, Jinn Lord Dinggong died, and his son would be Jinn Lord Chugong (r. BC 474-457). Zhan Guo or the Warring States chronicle time period began to count from this year.
     
    King of Yue, Gou-jian, who had undertaken the secretive military preparation and defeated Wu in 482 BC, would launch another attack at the Wu Principality in 478 BC. Years earlier, Fu-chai had caused his best minister, Wu Zixu (Wu Yuan), to commit suicide. (Wu Zixu, the junior son of an ex-Chu official, had earlier sought asylum with Wu and then asked the Wu king in successfully attacking the Chu Principality. Wu Zixu was famous for his exile stories as well as digging up the Chu king's dead body for lynching.)
     
    In 478 BC, Yue king Gou-jian attacked Wu again, and defeated the Wu army at the Battle of Lize. In 476 BC, Yue attacked Wu again. In 475 BC, Yue laid a siege of Wu. Fu-chai sent an messenger to beg for peace. Fan Li advised Gou-jian against accepting the offer by pointing that the Yue king had triumphed after incurring humiliation for twenty years. Gou-jian (?-465 B.C.) sieged the Wu capital for 3 years. In 473 B.C., the King of Wu, Fu-Chai, who was besieged by the Yue army at Yang-shan, committed suicide. After Gou-jian crossed the Huai-shui River to have a summit with Qi, Soong, Jinn and Lu etc, Xhou King Yuanwang upgraded Gou-jian's title to Count from viscount. Gou-jian, who was known known as Jiu-qian, had his sword excavated among the Chu royals' tomb burials at Jiangling, Hubei Province in 1965.
     
    Fan Li left Yue for Qi, saying to another Yue minister, Zhong, that he should retire to avoid the purge fate by citation that the hunters ate their running dogs after the dogs caught the rabbits. (Gou-jian's 6th generation grandson, Wu-jiang, was to lose the Yue kingdom to the Chu Principality.)
     
    Zhou King Yuanwang passed away after a reign of eight years.
     
    Zhou King Zhendingwang (Ji Jie, reign 468-441 B.C.)
    The Qin Principality attacked the Dali-rong barbarians in 461 BC and took over the Dali-rong capital.
     
    In 458 BC, Zhi-bo colluded with the Zhao-Haan-Wei families in dividing the land of Fan and Zhongxing. Jinn Lord Chugong planned to petition for help with Qi/Lu in restricting the 4 families. The four families hence attacked Jinn Chugong, and Chugong died on the road to Qi. Zhi-bo selected the great grandson of Jinn Zhaogong as Jinn Lord Aigong (r. BC 456-439 ?). Zhi-bo became the main minister governing Jinn and controlled the land that belonged previously to the families of Fan and Zhongxing.
     
    In 456 BC, Jinn took over the city of Wucheng.
     
    In 453 BC, three Jinn prominent families (three separate states of Han(2), Zhao, and Wei)), under Zhao Xiang-zi, Haan Kang-zi and Wei Huan-zi, destroyed an opponent called Zhi-bo and split Zhi-bo's ex-Jinn land into three parts. Zhi-bo's son, Zhi Kai, fled to Qin in 452 BC.
     
    The Chu Principality exterminated the Cai Principality in 448 BC or the 42nd year of Chu king Huiwang. During the 44th year of Chu king Huiwang, Chu took out the Qi-guo state (Anqiu, Shandong). In 444 B.C., Qin Lord Ligong attacked the Yiqu-rong barbarians in the areas of later Qingzhou and Ningzhou and captured the Yiqu-rong king. In 443 BC, a Sun eclipse ocurred and Qin Lord Ligong died and was succeeded by Qin Lord Zaogong.
     
    Chu King Huiwang (?-432 B.C.), a son of Chu King Zhaowang, planned to attack Soongu in 440 B.C. or his 50th year reign, for which the king hired Gongshu Ban (also known as Lu Ban), a Lu state craftsman, for making the "yun [cloud] ti [ladder]" tools. Mo-zi hurried over to stage a mock battle against Gongshu Ban, and successfully persuaded the Chu king into abandoning the war plan. Meantime, his desciple, Qin-gu-li and three hundred followers were said to have gone to the Soong capital to help defend the city. HUAI NAN ZI decribed this ladder as some kind of watch-tower that allowed the observers to see inside of a besieged fort. Per LU WEN of MO ZI, Gongshu-zi, i.e., Gongshu Ban, also helped design the hooks for teh Chu ships to use against the Yue navy on the Yangtze. Gongshu Ban was noted for manufacturing the bamboo-wood bird that could fly in the sky for three days. Mencius had commented that Yang Zhu and Mo-zi had very much taken half of the popular schools of thoughts at the time.
     
    In 413 B.C., the Yue lord (viscount as recorded in THE BAMBOO ANNALS), Zhu-gou (Zhou-gou), who was Gou-jian's great grandson, campaigned against and eliminated the Teng-guo state. In 412 B.C., i.e., the 4th year of Jinn lord Liegong, Zhu-gou campaigned against the Dan-guo state and brough viscount Gu home as a priosner.
     
    The Warring States Time Period
    Map linked from http://www.friesian.com
    In 473 B.C., The Wu Principality was annexed by Yueh.
     
    Chu Principality exterminated Wu-jiang's Yueh Principality in 344 B.C. and the Lu Principality in 249 B.C.
     
    Qi annexed the state of Soong in 286 B.C.
     
    Qin exterminated the Zhou Dynasty in 256 B.C.
     
    The years between 401 BC and 221 BC were known as the Warring States Period. Unlike the Spring and Autumn Period, warlords were keen on destroying each other instead of the old tradition of maintaining the royal lines should some fiefs or principalities be overthrown by the rivals. At the early times of the Warring States Period, ten states battled for supremacy. Soon, seven statelets were left, i.e., Qin, Chu, Haan, Zhao, Wei, Yan and Qi.
     
    A new class would be born during this time period: the strategicians who served various princes or kings of the statelets or principalities. Most famous would be the "Four Grand Princes", namely, Prince Xinling-jun of Wei; Prince Mengchang-jun of Qi; Prince Pingyuan-jun of Zhao; and Prince Chunshen-jun of Chu.

     
    Zhou King Aiwang (Ji Quji, reign 441-441 B.C.)
    King Aiwang was killed by his brother after a reign of three months.
     
    Zhou King Siwang
    (Ji Shu-xi, reign 441-440 B.C.)
    King Siwang was killed by his junior brother after a reign of five months.
     
    Zhou King Kaowang (Ji Wei, reign 440-426 B.C.)
    In 439 BC, Jinn Lord Aigong died, and Jinn Lord Yougong (r. 438-421 BC ?) was erected as a puppet. Jinn held only the cities of Quwo and Jiang, till the three distinguished familes' dismantling the Jinn state altogether.
     
    Zhou King Kaowang (reign 440-426 B.C.) had a reign of 15 years. King Kaowang conferred the land south of the Yellow River onto his brother (Ji Jie) for sake of continuing Archduke Zhougong's officialdom. Ji Jie would be Lord Xizhou Huan'gong where Xizhou meant for the 'Western Zhou' fief. Since King Jing(4)-wang moved his capital to the Chengzhou city, the official Zhou court would be called Dongzhou or the 'Eastern Zhou'.
     
    Lord Xizhou Huan'gong would be succeeded by his son, Lord Xizhou Weigong. Lord Xizhou Weigong's son would be Lord Xizhou Huigong. During the 2nd year reign of later Zhou King Xianwang, i.e., 367 B.C., Lord Xizhou Huigong made his son, Ji Ban, the so-called Lord Dongzhou Huigong for sake of supporting the official Zhou court at the old capital of Luoyang. Lord Dongzhou Huigong's son, i.e., Lord Dongzhou Wugong would be destroyed by the Qin Principality later.
     
    Note that the Zhou Kingdom then possessed a king in Chengzhou, an eastern duke (Lord Dongzhou) in Luoyang, and a western duke (Lord Xizhou) in the land south of the Yellow River.
     
    The Chu Principality eliminated the Lu Principality in 431 B.C.(?) The Yiqu-rong barbarians counter-attacked Qin in 431 BC (?). Qin Lord Zaogong's brother, Huan'gong, succeeded the throne in 430 BC (?).
     
    Zhou King Weiliewang (Ji Wu, reign 425-402 B.C.)
    During the 23rd year of Zhou King Weiliwang’s reign, i.e., 403 B.C., the nine bronze utensils had vibration. King Weiliewang conferred Marquisdom onto the three Jinn statelets, Han-Zhao-Wei, i.e., Wei Si, Zhao Ji, and Haan Qian. 'Zhan Guo' or the Warring States time period started on the chronicle. History book 'Zi Zhi Tong Jian' record of history started in this year. The next year, King Weiliewang passed away and Chu King Shengwang was killed by a robber.
     
    Zhou King Anwang (Ji Jiao, reign 401-376 B.C.)
    Zhou King Anwang passed away after a reign of 26 years. King of Chu made Wu Qi the prime minister (384 BC ?).
     
    In the Qi principality, the Tian family continued to grow in power, and took out the Qin royal houses. Tian He exiled Qi Lord Kanggong to an island in the East CHina Sea. In 386 B.C, Zhou King Anwang of the Zhou court acknowledged Tian He as the new Qi lord, and granted the conferral of marquisdom. Tian He was a descendant of Prince Wan. Tian He passed the throne to Qi Lord Weiwang who proclaimed himself a king among the seven hegemony statelets, after defeating the Wei Principality.
     
    Zhou King Liewang (Ji Xi, reign 375-369 B.C.)
    Zhou King Liewang dispatched his civil and military officials to the Qin Principality to show harmony. A Zhou chronicle official (Dan) went to see Qin Lord Xian'gong and mentioned a necromency note that Qin and Zhou had a fate of re-union and that Qin would produce a hegemony lord (i.e., Qin Lord Xiaogong) within 17 years. Zhou King Liewang passed away after a reign of ten years, and his brother succeeded him.
     
    Meng-zi (Mencius, 372-289 BC ?) was born in 372 BC (?). Zhuang-zi (Chuang Tzu, 369-286 BC ?) was born in 369 BC (?).
     
    Zhou King Xianwang (Ji Bian, reign 368-321 B.C.)
    Zhou King Xianwang, during his 5th year reign, had congratulated Qin Lord Xian'gong. During his 9th year reign, i.e., 360 B.C., Zhou King Xianwang dispatched his civil and military officials as well as disbursed the 'royal bestowal meat' to Qin Lord Xiaogong. Shang Yang (?-338 B.C.) served Qin beginning from 361 B.C.. Qin made Xian'yang the capital and instituted an agriculture-related tax system in 350 B.C. and enacted the farming soldier rules. During Zhou King Xianwang's 25th year reign, Qin assembled all vassals on the Zhou domain. During Zhou King Xianwang's 33rd year reign, i.e, 336 B.C., the Zhou court congratulated Qin King Huiwang. Su Qin, who was said to be a student of Guigu-zi [i.e., a gentleman of the ghost valley, a.k.a. Xuanwei-zi, with original name Wang Xu/Wang Chan {400-320 B.C.}, founder of the Zongheng-jia or the vertical-horizontal school of thought and author of 'Bai-he' {open-close}] and in the same ranks as Zhang Yi, Sun Bin and Pang Juan, persuaded the six principalities into forming an alliance to fight the Qin in 334 BC (?). Qin defeated the Wei Principality in 333 BC (?). In 333 B.C, the Zhou court dispatched the civil and military officials to the Qin court to show respect.
     
    Qin King Huiwenwang, in his 8th year or 330 B.C., dispatched Chu-li-ji against the Wei Principality. Qin took over the Quwo city, and expelled the Wei people. Zhang Yi (?-309 B.C.) served the Qin statelet in 329 B.C.
     
    During King Xianwang's 42nd year [327 B.C.E.], the nine cauldrons were lost in the Si-shui River. This webmaster has the intuition that the Zhou court had deliberately destroyed the cauldrons to fulfill the 700-year necromancy, believing that the nine cauldrons better be destroyed than being taken away by some hegemony lord, and then spread the word that the cauldrons were lost in the nearby Si-shui River. As stated previously, this webmaster also had the intuition that Lord Yu's actual cauldrons, that were passed down from thousands of years ago, might not be heavy at all, as illustrated in Zhou noble Wangsun [king's grandson] Maan's saying to the Chu viscount that the weight of cauldrons lied in the possession of virtues, as well as illustrated in the Zhou court's dissuading the Qi state from an attempt at moving the cauldrons with a wild claim of innumerable carts and manpower being exerted to moving the cauldrons to the Zhou capital from the Shang Ruins. During the Qing Dynasty, scholar Wang Xianqian, in HAN SHU BU ZHU, first proposed the theory of self-destruction. Now, there was a confusion about what kind of cauldron had killed Qin King Wuwang (329-307 B.C.) at the Zhou capital - if all the nine cauldrons were already disposed of. Qin King Wuwang, in order to travel to the Zhou capital in a curtained chariot, had schemed with prime minister Gan Mao to launch an invasion against the Wei Principality to take out the city of Yiyang for making the passage possible. The Qin king could not hold the cauldron which dropped to break his angle as well as cause the blood vessels in the apples of the eyes to break. Later, SHI JI named it by "long [dragon] wen [ingrained] chi [red] ding [cauldron]"; the Tang dynasty poet Haan Yu called it by "long [dragon] wen [ingrained] Bai [hundred] hu [bushel] ding [cauldron]".
     
    During Zhou King Xianwang's 44th year reign, i.e., 325 B.C., Qin King Huiwang officially proclaimed himself a king. All vassals, Haan-Wei-Qi-Zhao, followed suit by claiming to be kings as well. After the death of Qin King Huiwenwang, the new king, Qin King Wuwang expelled Zhang Yi, and used Chu-li-ji and Gan Mao as the leftside and rightside prime ministers.
     
    Zhou King Shenjingwang (Ji Ding, reign 320-315 B.C.)
    Zhou King Shenjingwang passed away after a reign of 6 years. Qin eliminated the Shu Kingdom in 316 B.C.(?)
     
    Chu, Zhao, Haan, Wei and Yan failed in their attack on Qin. The Qi lord executed Su Qin via five horses splitting body, and made Zhang Yi the prime minister (317 BC ?). Su Qin was commonly taken as a spy of the Yan principality, which adopted a strategy of stabbing the Qi state in the back with a trick of having the Qi king command a purported allied army against the Qin state to the west.
     
    Zhou King Nanwang (Ji Yan, reign 314-256 B.C.)
    King Nanwang relocated his capital westward to Xizhou, i.e., the land south of the Yellow River, from Chengzhou in the east. The Xizhou land would be where Zhou Duke Wugong (i.e., Xizhou-jun) dwelled. Xizhou-jun had more power and prestige than Zhou King Nanwang. This time period showed the pace of conquest picking up and the ultimate emergence of Qin as a hegemony state.
     
    Qi Lord Xuan'gong eliminated the Yan state in 314 B.C. The cause was some internal turmoil at Yan, which was related to the two SU brothers. At the Yan state, Yan king Kuai (?-314 B.C.) made a ridiculous decision in 316 B.C. to pass the throne to his prime minister, Zi-zhi, for conducting reform, over which son Ping and general Shi Bei rebelled. (Zi-zhi was a friend of both Su Qin and Su Dai per ZHAN GUO CE.) Qi lord Xuanwang, taking advantage of the Yan turmoil, empowered Zhang-zi with troops from five cities, and invaded Yan at the advice of Meng Ke. Meng Ke (Meng-zi or Mencius, 372-289 B.C.) actually suggested to invade Yan to end the turmoil but to leave the country once things were to settle down; however, the Qi king over-stayed the goodwill, with the Yan people rebelling against him.(Mencius, who was not used by Qi King Minwang and Liang king Huiwang, followed Confucius' example to return to hermitage to write seven articles of MENCIUS.) The Yan state selected prince Ping as lord, and evicted the Qi army. Zhao King Wulingwang fetched Yan prince Zhi from the Haan state to be the new Yan king.
     
    Yan Lord Zhaowang (335-279 B.C.), i.e., Zhi and the younger son of Yan king Kuai, was selected as lord of Yan in 312 B.C. Yan Lord Zhaowang obtained the help of dowager mother-queen Yi-hou, who was a daughter of Qin King Huiwenwang. With the help of the allied Qin-Wei armies, Zhaowang defeated and killed prince Ping in 311 B.C. Yan King Zhaowang hired talents from all over the country. Using minister Guo Wei's scheme, the Yan king, imitating the ancient legend of purchasing the dead stallion's bone with gold, constructed a Huangjin-tai [gold platform] high terrace to house Guo Wei for spreading the generosity word. Talents came from all over the land. To make him pious, the Yan king further ordered the construction of the Jie-shi [tablet stone] Gong [palace] for hosting Zou Yan, a master of the Yin-yang [female-male] Wu-xing [five ways] School of Thought. With General Le Yi (a Wei state resident), a descendant of Le Yang, a five-nation allied army later in 284 B.C. launched a campaign against the Qi state, and at one time took over over 70 cities from Qi, with Qi barely keeping two cities of Ju and Jimo (Pingdu, Shandong).
     
    Qin King Huiwenwang, in his 25th year or 313 B.C., dispatched Chu-li-ji against the Zhao Principality. Chu-li-ji defeated the Zhao army, captured Zhao general Zhuang Bao, and took over the Lin4-yi city. The next year, 312 B.C., Wei Zhang and Chu-li-ji, commanding the Qin army, defeated the Chu army which was headed by Qu Gai, and took over the Hanzhong territory. Gan Mao served under Qin King Huiwenwang under the recommendation of Zhang Yi and Chu-li-ji.
     
    When Xizhou-jun's elder son died, the Chu Principality gave up some land to Prince Jiu of Xizhou-jun for sake of making Jiu the crown prince of Xizhou-jun.
     
    In 307 BC, Qin attacked the Haan(2) land of Yiyang city. Qin King Wuwang (329-307 B.C.) told prime minister Gan Mao that he would suffice to die should be able to personally see the cauldrons at the Zhou capital. Gan Mao suggested to attack the Haan state to clear the passage, and volunteered to travel to the Zhao and Wei states to either neutralize and ally with two of the three -post-Jinn-split states. Gan Mao, after working on the scheme half way, petitioned with the Qin king to make a swear about trusting his loyalty by citation of Zeng-zi (Zeng Shen)'s mother mistaking her son to have murdered someone after being told of the rumor three times. With Chu-li-ji (late Qin lord Xiaogong's on and late Qin king Huiwenwang's brother) commanding a hundred chariots, the Qin king arrived at the Zhou court with three heavy-weight lifters, i.e., men of unusual strength on the par with Hercules and Samson. While Ren-bi and Wu-huo either failed to lift the cauldron or dissauded the king from doing so, Meng-shui barely lifted the cauldron, which served as instigation to make the Qin king emulate to kill himself ultimately.
     
    When in 307 BC, Qin attacked the Haan(2) land of Yiyang city, Chu came to the aid of Haan(2). The Zhou court sent relief to Haan as well. Chu mis-took the Zhou court as having sided with Qin and hence attacked the Zhou court. A minister by the name of Su Dai, a brother of Su Qin, went to the Chu camp and explained the intricacy of the relationship between the Zhou court and the Qin-Chu statelets. When Qin tried to borrow a path from Xizhou-jun for sake of attacking Haan(2), a minister suggested that Xizhou-jun was to dispatch some hostages to Chu so that Qin would worry about the Chu-Zhou alliance. When the Qin King invited Xizhou-jun for a state visit, Xizhou-jun sent someone to Haan for sake of having Haan send the troops to Nanyang; then, Xizhou-jun made a pretext to Qin saying that he could not make the trip because the Haan troops had invaded the Nanyang area. When the two Zhou fiefs, Xizhou and Dongzhou, fought against each other, Haan sent the troops to aiding Xizhou but was dissuaded from doing so by Dongzhou. When the Chu army lay a siege of Yangdi for three months, Haan sought for weaponry and grains from Dongzhou. Dongzhou-jun dispatched Su Dai to Haan and successfully persuaded Haan's prime minister from burdening Dongzhou; Su Dai claimed that the Chu army must be ill for not taking Yangdi after three months and that Haan would show its illness should Haan have to appropriate the weaponry and grains from Dongzhou.
     
    Xun-zi (Hsun Tzu, 300-230 B.C.?) was born in 300 BC (?).
     
    Prince Mengchang-jun served the Qin in 299 B.C. Prince Mengchang-jun (?-279 B.C.), i.e., Tian Wen, with fief at Xue, was a son of Prince Jingguo-jun who was in turn a son of Qi king Weiwang and half brother of Qi king Xuanwang. Per ZI ZHI TONG JIAN, Prince Mengchang-jun fled the Qin capital to escape for his life by bribing the Qin concubine for permission to leave. (ZHAN GUO CE carried a story of Feng Yuan [Feng Xuan], one of the prince's thousand free-lodging hanger-on guests, using tricks to help the prince escape from Qin.) Prince Xinling-jun rescued the Zhao state from the Qin attack. Xinling-jun had bribed the king's concubine to have wrestled over a military decree to aiding Zhao against Qin, for which he had offended the Wei king and hence accepted the Zhao king's offer to stay on in the Zhao land.
     
    A Chu minister, by the name of Qu Yuan (343-289 B.C.), committed suicide by jumping into the Mi-Lou River. (Qu Yuan [Qu Ping] was a descendant of the son Xia of Chu King Wuwang and obtained the family name from the fief of 'Qu'.)
     
    Adopting Le Yi and Zou Yan's advice, the Yan king had previously exerted efforts to over 28 years of self-revival. The Yan state successfully induced the Qi state into several blunders. The Yan king meanwhile sent Le Yi to Zhao to have Zhao king Huiwenwang instigate the Qin state to punish the Qi state. Qi lord Minwang, in 288 B.C., was persuaded by Su Dai to abolish the Qin-Qi military alliance. The Qi lord, at the advice of Su Dai, renounced the emperor's title after merely two days, and sent Lv Li to Qin to demand the Qin state to abolish the emperor's title as well. Earlier, per ZI ZHI TONG JIAN, the Qin kin called himself by 'xi di' [west overlord {emperor}] and sent Wei Ran [Wei Ya] to Qi to ask the Qi king to assume the title of the east overlord {emperor}. (Su Qin, a Yan spy, was said to have been retained as a strategician for several diplomatic missions to the Qi state. ZHAN GUO CE, however, pointed that Su Qing died in Qin after Yan king Kuai was enthroned in 320 B.C., meaning that Su Qin's death was on an earlier occasion than 284 B.C. when he was the Qi capital to suffer the claimed penalty of five horses slicing the body for the espionage work against Qi. Furthermore, SHI JI and ZI ZHI TONG JIAN pointed out that it was Su Dai who played the role making the Qin and Qi into confrontation in 288 B.C.)
     
    Qi was induced to attack and eliminate the Soong state which possessed a commercial hub at Dingtao. Qi was further induced to strike alliance with the former Jinn states of Haan, Zhao and Wei against the Qin state to the west so as to enrage the Qin king. The Qi king was said to have expanded south and west in defeating Chu prime minister Tang Mei at Chongqiu and coerced/pushed the three Jinn states of Haan-Zhao-Wei at Guan-jin [watching the Yellow River crossing], as well as assisted the Zhao state in eliminating the Zhongshan-guo state and destroyed the Soong state, hence competing against the Qin King Zhaowang for the 'emperor' position or the overlordship.
     
    The Qin king's message to the Qi king about the emperor-equivalent overlordship was to encourage Qi in campaigning against Jie-Soong, with the Soog lord's name prefixed with the Shang DYnasty last despotic lord Jie, i.e., King Zhouwang. What happened was that Soong lord Kangwang, who listened to a chronicler's necromancy interpretation of a small bird (possibly cuckoo) hatching a big bird at a corner of the city wall, began to militarily expand the domain. Soong, which boasted of 5000 chariots, went west to defeat the Wei army [about 317 B.C.]. Soong attacked Chu to the south [about 303-301 B.C.] and took over 300-li territory. Soong eliminated Teng (Tengzhou, Shandong) [about 296 B.C.], attacked the Xue-yi land (about 294 B.C.), and attacked and wrestled five cities from Qi. The Soong lord made enemies with all neighbors. The Soong lord demanded all people to shout ten thousand years to solute him. In 286 B.C., Qi King Minwang (Tian Di, 323-284 B.C.), with Haan Nie as general, counterattacked the Soong lord, and expelled him to the Wen-yi land of Wei.
     
    In 284 B.C., General Le Yi (a Wei state resident, i.e., Prince Changguo-jun), who was a descendant of Le Yang, commanded a five-nation allied army under the bearing of the seal of 'prime minister' from the Zhao king, and launched a counterattack against the Qi state. The Qin king sent captain Si-li to the expedition. Meanwhile, the Chu army, from south of the Huai River, made attempt at crossing the river to invade the Qi land. Qi King Minwang, emptying the troops of the whole nation, ordered General Chu4-zi to cross the Ji-shui River to counter the allied army, and was defeated. Qi general Haan Nie was killed. In 284 B.C., Le Yi, a general of the Yan Principality, commanding an allied army of five statelets, thoroughly defeated the Qi Principality. The Yan king personally went to Ji-shang (upperstream Ji-shui River) to congratulate on Le Ying, and conferred him the title of Prince Changguo-jun. The Yan army within five years took over over 70 cities from Qi, with Qi barely keeping two cities of Ju and Jimo which were under siege for over three years. Qi King Minwang fled to Ju from the capital city Zibo, and was later killed at Ju by a Chu General called Zhuochi. The Chu army initially came to Qi on the pretext of aiding Qi but was in fact attempting to carve up Qi with Yan. Qi King Minwang's son, Tian Fazhang, was made into a new king in 283 B.C. by minister Wangsun Jia
     
    Tian Dan, leading his clansmen, escaped to Jimo in the chariots with axis that was covered by the iron-sheet clad. Tian Dan, after defending the last stronghold for five years, counterattacked the Yan army. This was the result of Tian Dan sowing dissension between Le Yi and the new Yan king of Huiwang after the death of Yan King Zhaowang in 279 B.C. Tian Dan defeated the new Yan general, Qi-jie, with five thousand commandos charging at the Yan army behind the oxens with burning tails. The Qi army killed Qi-jie and chased the Yan army nonstop to the Yellow River. Tian Dan then fetched Tian Fazhangf to Linzi from Ju as Qi King Xiangwang. (Per ZHAN GUO CE, Tian Dan at one time fled to Zhao, where he was conferred the title of Prince Du-ping-jun.) Later in February 1952, Chiang Kai-shek, president of the Republic of China, had a "wu [no] wang [forgetting] zai [at] Ju [the Ju fort]" monument inscribed on the Quemoy Island in regards to maintaining the perseverance spirits for counterattacking the communist regime on the mainland.
     
    In 283 B.C., Yan dispatched General Qin Kai against the Dong-hu [eastern Hu] barbarians. The Yan army moved eastward from the Gui-shui River (Yanqing, near Peking) area. Yan wrestled over large patches of land and extended 2000-li distance towards the ancient Korean territory at the Man-fan-han border, near today's Yalu-jiang River. The Yan army also attacked south against the Zhongshan-guo state. Yan King Zhaowang died in 279 B.C., was buried in Mt. Wuzhongshan, near today's Zunhua, and was succeeded by Yan King Huiwang.
     
    Later, Tian Dan led a counterattack against the Yan army, and restored the Qi state. Tian Dan re-established the Qi state in 279 B.C. Tian Dan, in 265 B.C., further intruded into the Yan state, and defeated Yan King Wuchengwang (271-258 B.C.) and took over Zhongyang.
     
    After Qin General Bai Qi successfully defeated the Haan-Wei armies, a Zhou minister, Su Li, also possibly a brother of Su Qin, fearing that Bai Qi could pose a threat to the Zhou court, went to see Bai Qi in 281 BC and successfully persuaded Bai Qi into claiming sickness to the Qin King: Su Li told Bai Qi that he could not afford to lose a battle and forfeit his past glorious military records should Bai Qi lose his campaigns against the Wei Principality. This was the story related to a Chu Principality sharp shooter called Yang-you-ji who could shoot arrows at the willow leaf at a distance of one hundred Chinese yards, but was advised to hold the bow with the left arm and pull the string with the right arm, without exhausting self in an extended posture, which could lead to a miss that could damage the marksmen's reputation. In 273 BC, the Qin army took over Hua'yang from Wei (Liang).
     
    Fearing the Qin encroachment, a Zhou minister (Ma Fan) went to see the Wei (Liang) king and persuaded Wei from sending some soldiers to Zhou for sake of guarding the Zhou court. Ma Fan, to balance off Wei's threat to the Zhou court, then went to see Qin King and asked Qin to send troops to the border areas to check the Wei (Liang) armies. In 270 BC, when Qin intended to attack the Zhou court, a minister somehow dissuaded Qin from launching an attack on the pretext that should Qin attack Zhou, there would be nothing to gain since the Zhou court domain was small and vassals would all defect to Qi in the east as a result of fearing for Qin.
     
    Qin General Bai Qi defeated the Zhao army in the Battle of Changping in 260 B.C.(?) and buried alive all Zhao prisoners of war, causing the Zhao state to mource the loss of their men across the country.
     
    In 257 BC, three Jinn statelets, Haan-Zhao-Wei, made an alliance against the Qin attack and the Zhou court mediated over this war. In 256 BC, Qin took over Yangcheng (today's Yangcheng, Shanxi Proving) city of the Haan Principality. Xizhou-jun, breaking the peace treaty with Qin, allied with various vassals against Qin and marched out of the Longmen Gorge area to cut off the Qin armies in Yangcheng. Qin King Zhaowang got enraged and attacked Xizhou. Xizhou-jun (Duke Wugong) went to the Qin camp to make an apology and surrendered his 36 cities and 30,000 population. Qin set free Xizhou-jun thereafter.
     
    When both Xizhou-jun (Zhou Duke Wugong) and Zhou King Nanwang passed away, the Zhou people fled to the east. (Zhou King Nanwang died in 256 B.C., after over half a century's reign.) Per Cai Dongfan, a ROC-era scholar, the Qin state was said to have retrieved the nine bronze utensils from the Zhou court for shipping them to Xian'yang; however, one of the nine cauldrons were accidentally dropped in the Si-shui River. This would be during the 52nd year of Qin King Zhaowang or the 59th year of Zhou King Nanwang. Sima Qian's SHI JI and Ban Gu's HAN SHU stated that the cauldrons, like in nine totals, were lost in the Si-shui River, with the caveat that both historians did not get the chance to read THE BAMBOO ANNALS to know that the the nine cauldrons were already lost in the Si-shui River at the time of Zhou King Xianwang 42nd year, or 327 B.C. Sima Qian, in SHI JI, hedged himself in mentioning a second theory, namely, the nine [bronze] cauldrons were already lost in the Si-shui River and by the Peng-cheng city [a locality that was mistaken as a place more towards the eastern China in a double jeopardy - unless the ancient Si-shui River flew in parallel to the Yellow River to the east] at the time the Soong 'tai-qiu' [grand hill] pilgrimage temple, also named the Mulberry Tree Temple, had its demise. Ban Gu's HAN SHU, however, carried the correct version about the loss of cauldrons at an earlier date, i.e., Zhou King Xianwang 42nd year, or 327 B.C. Qin Emperor Shihuangdi, during his 28th year reign (219 B.C.), attempted to retrive the cauldrons from the river. In Tang dynasty, Zhang Shoujie, in SHI JI ZHENG YI, made the claim that the Qin state had merely lost one cauldron, a replica that Cai Dongfan had taken for granted. The SI-SHUI River section of SHUI JING ZHU was perhaps the most intuitive of all post-book-burning history books, in that Lih Daoyuan, who had the knowledge of the BAMBOO records, acknowledged the 327 B.C. loss as well as made the remark about Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's attempt at retrieving the cauldrons from the Si-shui River, to which Lih Daoyuan referred as the 'meng-lang' [wildly speculative] legends. The later books, like TAI PING YULAN, invariably carried a statement that 115 years after the loss of the cauldrons, the Qin state was to have unified China. Pushing back 115 years, this would be year 336 B.C., when the Soong Principality's 'tai-qiu' [grand hill] pilgrimage temple had its demise together with a [Soong] cauldron - the source of speculation that Zhou King Chengwang actually shipped only eight cauldrons to the Zhou capital while leaving on at the former Shang Dynasty domain. Not being alone, Sima Guang's ZI ZHI TONG JIAN had a detailed account of the loss of a cauldron at the Soong 'tai-qiu' [grand hill] pilgrimage temple (i.e., the Mulberry Tree Temple) in 336 B.C. In modern times, there was unfounded speculation that the Zhou court had secretly moved all cauldrons back to the Soong land, i.e., 'tai-qiu' (Yongcheng, Henan Province) for safe-keeping.
     
    At the Soong principality, there was a power usurpation by the so-called Dai-shi family as recorded in THE BAMBOO ANALS and HAAN-FEI-ZI. The story about the cauldron loss in the water when moving away from the Soong 'tai-qiu' [grand hill] pilgrimage temple (i.e., the Mulberry Tree Temple) in 336 B.C. was shrouded in mystery. What happened was that Soong lord Huan'gong (Zi Pi/Zi Pibing, ?-356 B.C.; reign 372-370 B.C.), son of Soong lord Xiugong, was usurped by 'si cheng' Zi-han, i.e., Soong Lord Ti-cheng-jun. Zi-han was a descendant of former Soong lord Soong Daigong (Zi Bai, reign 799-766 B.C.), hence carring the Dai surname. (Soong lord Soong Daigong had a minister called Zheng-kao-fu who was the father of Kong-fu-jia or Confucius' 8th generation grandfather.) Zi-han, Zi surnamed, i.e., Soong Lord Ti-cheng-jun, was further usurped by brother Yan (Dai Yan) in 318 B.C., i.e., Soong lord Kangwang. Soong lord Kangwang conducted some reform, and militarily challenged the neighbors till being destroyed by Qi King Minwang in 286 B.C. LV SHI CHUN QIU correctly called the Soong demise in 286 B.C. by the Dai-shi family's demise.
     
    Qin relocated Xizhou-jun's son, Duke Xizhou Wen'gong, to a place near Luoyang of today's Henan Province. An ancient scholar claimed that the Zhou court had a domain of seven counties at the time of its demise: Henan, Luoyang, Gucheng, Pingyin, Yanshi, Gong, and Koushi (Yanshi, Henan Province). After the death of Zhou King Nanwang, there was no king for 35 years, till Qin reunited China. 7 years later, Qin King Zhuangxiangwang exterminated the Dongzhou fief. (Zhan Guo Ce mentioned the name of Zhou-wen-jun as lord of the Dongzhou [eastern Zhou] fief at the time of its demise.)
     
    The Zhou family's heritage would not ensue till Han Emperor Wudi located a Zhou heir (Ji Jia) during the 4th year of the Yuanding Era (i.e., 113 BC) and conferred a title of Zhou-zi-nan-jun, over 90 years after the Zhou demise. Han Emperor Yuandi, during the 5th year of the Chuyuan Era (i.e., 48 BC), had conferred the Marquisdom onto a grandson of Ji Jia. Han Emperor Pingdi upgraded the title to 'Duke Zheng', and Latter Han Emperor Guangwudi conferred the title of 'Duke Wey' onto the Zhou heir.
     
     

     
     
    Major Wars & Campaigns
     
    The Battle of Ruge (707 BC) - Zhou Kingdom versus Zheng
    Zhou King Huanwang (Ji Lin, reign 719-697 B.C.) was not respectful to the Zheng Count. During the fifth year of Huanwang's reign, Count Zheng, without Zhou court's approval, had exchanged the royal veneration site of 'Xu-tian' (near today's Xuchang, Henan) for another patch of land from Lu Principality. Xu-tian was the place given to Duke Zhougong by King Chenwang, and later Zhou court used this land for venerating Mount Taishan. (Count Zheng's ancestor would be the brother of King Xuanwang, Ji You, and King Xuanwang conferred Ji You the land of Zheng as Zheng Lord Huan'gong.) During the 13th year of his reign, King Huanwang campaigned against Zheng Principality, but incurred an arrow wound in the hands of a Zheng general by the name of Zhu Dan. This would be called the Battle of Ruge in 707 BC. Zhou court had rallied very little support during the campaign, and Zhou prestige was said to have been gone by that time.
     
    The Hegemony Lord of Qi
    Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria [depending on how you interpret the localities of the two statelets] in 664 BC, had campaigned against the Bai-di barbarians in the west [i.e., the area of central Shanxi] in 651 BC (i.e., the 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Huan'gong was recorded to have occupied 'da xia' (i.e., the Grand Xia land) in today's southern/central Shanxi Province and might have crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., the western Yu-shi clan's land) in today's Shenxi Province. Qi Huan'gong assembled vassals for nine times. Lord Qi Huan'gong was the first of the five hegemony lords during the Spring and Autumn time period.
     
    The Battle of Han-yuan ( 645 B.C.) - Qin vs Jinn
    After the death of Jinn Lord Xiangong, Li-ji's son, Xiqi, was erected, but a minister (Li'ke) killed Xiqi; after minister Xunxi erected another cousin of Xiqi (Dao-zi), Li'ke killed the new lord and Xunxi, consecutively. Li-ji was killed on the streets. Li'ke first sought for Prince Chong'er, but Chong'er declined. Li'ke then went to Prince Yiwu. Jinn Prince Yiwu sought for help from Qin Lord Mugong in escorting him to the throne at Jinn, with a promise of ceding to Qin 8 cities to the west of Yellow River. Qi lord Huan'gong sent forces to help Yiwu as well, but the Qi forces stopped marching at Gaoliang. Yiwu ate his words, and killed Li'ke instead of conferring him the land of Fengyang. Yiwu's emissary to Qin, Pi-zheng, being afraid of returning to Jinn to receive the same fate as Li'ke, would incite Qin Lord Mugong in having Jinn Prince Chong'er replace Yiwu. Pi-zheng was killed upon returning to Jinn, and his son (Pi-bao) fled to Qin. The Pi family was recorded to be ancestors of later Han dynasty historian Sima Qian.
     
    Around 648 BC, when Jinn had a dry weather related famine, Qin, against the proposal of Pi-bao to attack Jinn, dispatched ships with grains to Jinn, passing from the Qin capital of Yong to the Jinn capital of Jiang(4). Two years later, Qin had a famine, but Jinn refused to lend grains, and moreover attacked Qin in 645 BC. Qin Lord Mugong and Pi-bao fought against the Jinn army at a place called Haan-yuan in September. When Mugong saw Yiwu and his horse trapped in the mud, Mugong intended to capture Yiwu. But the Jinn army came to aid Yiwu and encirlced Mugong instead. Three hundreds 'yeren' (countryside people) solders, who were spared death by Mugong for eating some good horses, would rush to rescue Mugong, and moreover captured Yiwu. When Mugong intended to sacrifice Yiwu for Lord Highhess, i.e., the Heaven, the Zhou court came to petition for mercy, and Mugong's wife begged for mercy on behalf of his brother (Yiwu). Mugong released Yiwu in November for sake of frustrating the Jinn ministers' attempt to erect Yiqu's son as lord.
     
    The Battle of Chengpu (632 B.C.) - Soong-Qi-Qin-Jinn vs Chu
    In 633 BC, Chu led its vassals on a siege of Soong. Xian Zhen advised Jinn lord Wen'gong that Jinn should aid Soong in requital. Huyan proposed that Jinn attack Chu's two allies of Cao and Wey. Jinn dispatched three columns of army, with Qie Hu in the middle, Huyan in charge of the upper column, and Luan Zhi the lower column. During Jinn Wen'gong's 5th year reign, i.e., in 632 BC, Jinn Wen'gong was refused a path by Wey for attacking Cao. Then, Jinn crossed the river elsewhere and attacked both Cao and Wey, taking over Wulu in Jan of 632 BC. In Feb, Jinn and Qi made an alliance at Wey land, and refused Wey's request for being a member. When the Wey lord intended to ally with Chu, Wey ministers ousted him. Chu was defeated for aiding Wey. Jinn then sieged Cao. In March, Jinn took over the Cao capital but spared a Cao minister's home as requital for the early help during Chong'er exile. Chu then lay a siege of Soong. Jinn Wen'gong intended to attack Chu to help Soong, but he was hesitant since the Chu king had given him a lot of favor before. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn capture Cao-bo and divide the Cao & Wey land for sake of Soong so that Chu would release the Soong siege to aid Cao/Wey. Hence, the Chu army withdrew the siege of the Soong capital.
     
    Chu General Zi-yue adamantly insisted on a fight with Jinn, but the Chu King allocated less soldiers. Zi-yue sent an emissary (Wan-chun) to Jinn in request for restoration of Cao/Wey. Xian Zhen proposed that Jinn have Chu da fu Wan-chun retained under custody to anger Zi-yue and that Jinn privately made peace with Cao/Wey for sake of making them defect to Jinn. Hence, Zi-yue was angered into a fight. Jinn retreated three times as a fulfillment of promise that Chong'er made to the Chu king while duirng exile stay at Chu. In April, the Soong-Qi-Qin-Jinn armies had a campaign against Chu at Chengpu (a Wey city). During the battle, Jinn general Shi Hui served as "you-jiangjun". The Jinn army burnt the Chu army for days, and defeated Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. (Zi-yue was ordered to commit suicide by the Chu king later.)
     
    Zhou King Xiangwang personally went to the Jinn camp to confer Marquisdom onto Jinn Wen'gong. Jinn made a convenience palace of the king. Zheng, seeing the Chu defeat, went to ally with Jinn. In May, Jinn sent the Chu prisoners to the Zhou court. The Zhou king dispatched da fu Wang Zi-hu to Jinn, conferred 'bo' (Count), which was head of all marquisdom vassals, onto Jinn Lord Wen'gong, and offered the royal arrows/bows and 300 royal guards to Jinn. Wang Zi-hu held an assembly of vassals. In June, Jinn restored the Wey lord. In the winter of 632 BC, Jinn Lord Wen'gong assembled vassals at a place called Wen (near Zhengzhou, Hena Province) and called on the Zhou king to have a hunting party. Jinn restored the Cao lord. Jinn first devised three columns of armies, with Xun Linfu in charge of the middle column, Xian Hu the right column, and Xian Mie the left column.
     
    The Battle of Xiaoshan (627 B.C.) - Jinn vs Qin
    In Dec of 627 BC or the spring of Lu Lord Xigong's 33rd year, when the Qin convoy, about 300 over-crowded chariots, passed through the front of the north gate of the Zhou capital, Wangsun [grandson] Maan, still a kid at the time, commented that the Qin army lacked respect for the Zhou court and would for sure lose the war. At a place near the Hua-guo statelet, a Zheng merchant, by the name of Xuan Gao, donated 4 cooked buffalo skin and 12 buffalos to the Qin army by pretending to do so under the order of the Zheng lord. After receiving the news from Xuan-gao, Zheng lord Mugong had Huang-wu-zi divulge the news to Qi-zi and the other Qin resident leaders, scaring Qizi into fleeing to Qi and Feng-sun and Yang-sun fleeing to Soong. Three Jinn generals were surprised to know that Zheng had advance knowledge of the Qin attack, stopped at the Hua-guo Fief, and exterminated Count Hua's fief instead. Hearing of Qin's attack on Hua-guo of the royal Zhou's Ji surname, Jinn Wengong's son, Jinn Xianggong (r. 627-621)), in the spring of 627 BC, at the suggestion of Yuan-zhen, sent an army to have the Qin army ambushed at Xiao'er. Jinn Xianggong dyed his white mourning clothes into black. Jinn minister Luan-zhi was against the attack at the Qin army. The Jinn lord mobilized the Jiang-rong barbarians for attacking the Qin army. Per ZUO ZHUAN, in the summer month of April and on the date of the 13th, the Jinn army, with Liang Hong and Lai-ju in charge of the Jinn lord's chariot, ambushed the Qin army. Three Qin generals were captured, while their soldiers were all killed.
     
    The Hegemony Assembly of Jinn Lord Chenggong
    in 601 BC approx, Jinn defeated, captured and killed one Qin general by the name of 'Chi'. In 600 BC, Jinn lord Chenggong competed against Chu for hegemony by calling an assembly of vassals at Hu(4), and Chen refused to attend for fearing Chu. Jinn Lord Chenggong dispatched Zhongxing Huanzi against the Chen statelet as well as rescued Zheng from the Chu attack. Jinn defeated Chu. The Hegemony Assembly of Chu King Zhuangwang
    In 595 BC, Jinn attacked Zheng for surrendering to Chu. Chu Zhuangwang defeated Zheng, and went north to defeat Jinn on the bank of the Yellow River. The next year, Chu attacked Soong, and Soong requested help with Jinn. Chu Zhuangwang held a hegemony assembly of the Zhou vassals
     
    The Battle of Yuzhang (508 B.C.)- Wu vs Chu
    In 509 B.C., the Chu army, under Zi-chang (Nang-wa), attacked Wu. Wu counterattacked and defeated Chu at the Battle of Yuzhang, and took over Ju-cao. In 507, Cai lord Zhaohou, after allying with Jinn and 17 other states [Jinn, Qi, Lu, Soong, Cai, Wey, Chen, Zheng, Xu, Cao, Zhu, Zhu, Dun, Hu, Teng, Xue, Qi, Xiao-Zhu] at the Zhaoling (Yancheng) assembly, attacked and eliminated the Shen-guo state, a Chu vassal. The Chu army then attacked Cai. In 506 BC, Wu King He-lu, using Sun Wu as the chief commander and Wu Zixu and Bo Pi (another Chu refugee) as deputies, attacked Chu under the guidance of the Cai lord.
     
    The Battle of Zuili
    In May of 496 B.C., i.e., the 24th year of Zhou King Jingwang, Yue King Yun-chang passed away. Wu King He-lu, taking advantage of the Yue's state mourning, led an army against Yue. King Gou-jian, who succeeded the Yue throne, resisted the Wu army at Zuili (Jiangxing, Zhejiang). Gou-jian, after sending in two dare-to-die commando teams in vain, arranged to have three rows of death convicts to commit suicide in front of the Wu army, and then charged against the Wu army which was shocked at the spectacle. Ling-gu-fo, a Yue 'da fu', cut off some toe from He-lu, which led to the Wu king's death at Jing-di, en route of retreat.
     
    The Battle of Boju (627 B.C.) - Wu vs Chu (506 BC): 30,000 Wu army defeated 200,000 Chu army.
    Wu King He-lu, using Sun Wu as the chief commander and Wu Zixu and Bo Pi (another Chu refugee) as deputies, attacked Chu under the guidance of the Cai lord. Moving along the Huai River, the 30,000 Wu army borrowed a path from the Tang-guo and Cai-guo statelets, and moved along the Huai River via ships. At Huai-rui (Huangchuan, Henan), Sun Wu abandoned ships, chose 3500 soldiers as a vanguard army, circumvented around the Mt. Dabieshan range, passed the three passes of Dasui, Zhiyuan and Ming'e (Pingjing-guan, Xinyang, Henan) along today's Henan-Hubei provincial border, and reached the Han-shui River. Nang-wa, at the instigation of Shi-huang and Wu-cheng-hei, crossed the Han-shui River to attack the Wu contingent, instead of waiting for "zuo-sima" Shen Yinshu to pincerattack the Wu army from the Fangcheng direction to the north. The Wu army faked to retreat three times and defeated the Chu army between Xiao-bieshan and Da-bieshan mountains. Fu-gai, i.e., King He-lu's brother, insisted on leading the battle. Commanding a herald army of 5000, Fu-gai raided into the Chu army camp and defeated the Chu army. At the Battle of Boju (Macheng, Hubei), the 30,000 Wu army defeated a Chu army of 200,000 after a long distance trek. Nang-wa fled to Zheng. The Wu army then conscutively defeated the Chu army in five battles.
     
    The Hegemony Assembly at Huangchi
    In 482 BC, Jinn Lord Dinggong competed with King Wu Fu-chai for hegemony at Huangchi. Fu-chai, to compete against Jinn, led a strong army to the north. The Battle of Guiling (354 B.C.) - Qi versus Wei on behalf of Zhao
     
    The Battle of Maling (342 B.C.) - Qi versus Wei on behalf of Haan
    The Battle of Yi4-yang (307 B.C.) - Qin versus Haan
    In 307 BC, Qin attacked the Haan(2) land of Yiyang city. Qin King Wuwang (329-307 B.C.) told prime minister Gan Mao that he would suffice to die should be able to personally see the cauldrons at the Zhou capital. Gan Mao suggested to attack the Haan state to clear the passage, and volunteered to travel to the Zhao and Wei states to either neutralize and ally with two of the three -post-Jinn-split states. Gan Mao, after working on the scheme half way, petitioned with the Qin king to make a swear about trusting his loyalty by citation of Zeng-zi's mother mistaking her son to have murdered someone after being told of the rumor three times. Gan Mao launched an invasion against the Wei Principality to take out the city of Yiyang for making the passage possible. Chu came to the aid of Haan(2). The Zhou court sent relief to Haan as well. Chu mis-took the Zhou court as having sided with Qin and hence attacked the Zhou court. A minister by the name of Su Dai, a brother of Su Qin, went to the Chu camp and explained the intricacy of the relationship between the Zhou court and the Qin-Chu statelets.
     
    Qin-Wei Allied Armies Placing Yan King Zhaowang on the Throne
    Yan Lord Zhaowang obtained the help of dowager mother-queen Yi-hou, who was a daughter of Qin King Huiwenwang. With the help of the allied Qin-Wei armies, Zhaowang defeated and killed prince Ping in 311 B.C. Yan King Zhaowang was enthroned.
     
    The Yan Invasion of Qi ( 284 B.C.) - A five-nation allied army vs Qi
    General Le Yi (a Wei state resident), a descendant of Le Yang, led a five-nation allied army later in 284 B.C. in a campaign against the Qi state. Qi King Minwang, emptying the troops of the whole nation, crossed the Ji-shui River to counter the allied army, and was defeated. The Yan allied army at one time took over over 70 cities from Qi, with Qi barely keeping two cities of Ju and Jimo, which were under siege for over three years. Qi King Minwang fled to Ju from the capital city Zibo, and was later killed at Ju.
     
    The Battle of Changping ( 260 B.C.) - Qin vs Zhao
    Qin General Bai Qi defeated the Zhao army in the Battle of Changping in 260 B.C. and buried alive all Zhao prisoners of war, causing the Zhao state to mource the loss of their men across the country.
     
    The Battle of Handan ( 262 B.C.) - Qin vs Zhao
     


     
     
    Demise Of the Zhou Kingdom
     
    Qin Principality, under Qin King Zhaoxiangwang, continued wars against its neighbors, Wei & Zhao principalities. Duke Wugong of Zhou Kingdom, i.e., Xizhoujun, colluded with the other principalities. In 264 B.C., Qin army attacked Zhou Kingdom, and Zhou King Nanwang personally went to Qin army, bowed his head, and surrendered 36 cities and 30,000 people to Qin. The next year, Zhou people fled to the east. Qin acquired nine bronze untensils of Zhou Kingdom, supposedly embodiment of the ancient Nine Prefectures of China as decribed in Yu Gong (Lord Yv's Tributes). On the way of being shipped to Xian'yang, Qin's capital, one of the nine untensils fell into River Sisui and never ever was recovered again. When Xizhou-jun colluded with various marquis for sake of restricting Qin's expansion, Qin King Zhuangxiangwang sent his prime minister, Lu Buwei, to attack Zhou capital and relocated Zhou king and Xizhou-jun to today's Liangxian County, Henan Province. Zhou Kingdom officially ended in this year, 256 BC, after Zhou King Nanwang was on the throne for 59 years. In this year, both Duke Wugong of Zhou Kingdom (Xizhoujun) and Zhou King Nanwang passed away.
     
    The wars of conquest already took place. In 473 BC, the Wu Principality was annexed by Yue (Yveh). Chu Principality exterminated Yue in 344 BC and Lu Principality in 249 BC. Qi annexed the state of Soong in 286 BC. And, Qin exterminated the Zhou Dynasty in 256 BC. Qin Lord Zhuangxiangwang became the king of the Qin in 249 BC (?). Shihuangdi (259-210 BC ?) became King of Qin in 246 BC.
     
    The Unification of China
    The wars for unifying China now fell to the shoulder of Ying Zheng (Emperor Shihuangdi). At this time, Qin already took over today's Sichuan Province and the land between Sichuan and Shenxi Province and named it Nan Jun (Nanjun or Southern Commandary). Qin also took over the two Zhou fiefs and named the area San Chuan Jun (Three River Commandary), and the land of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province and made them into Shangdang, Taiyuan and Hedong commandaries. Shihuangdi gained power at the age of 13. Lv Buwei would be responsible for all political and military matters of Qin court for the 13 years in between.
     
    In 244 BC, General Meng Ao grabbed 13 cities from th Haan Principality. In 242 BC, Meng Ao grabbed 20 cities from the Wei Principality and set up the Dong-jun (East) Commandary. In 241 BC, a five statelet joint army attacked Qin. In 240 BC, a comet was observed in the sky. General Meng Ao died in this year. Qin Queen Dowager (Zi-chu's mother) died as well. In 239 BC, Prince Chang'anjun (Cheng Jiao), while under order to attack the Zhao Principality, rebelled against his half brother, Qin King Ying Zheng. Eunuch Lao-Ai (Marquis Changxin-hou) rebelled in 238 BC and was quelled by Qin's prime ministers (Prince Changping-jun and Prince Changwen-jun, all princes of the Chu Principality), with two sons (Shihuangdi's half brothers) ordered to be killed via throwing them onto the ground in bags. Lv Buwei was deprived of his post and titles for implication to Lao-Ai. Lv recommended the fake eunuch to the dowager queen. A Qi Principality person, by the name of Mao Jiao, somehow persuaded Shihuangdi into welcoming his birth mother back to the capital from banishment.
     
    One legalist, Li Si, played a role in Shihuangdi's political belief. Li Si was later noted for proposing to the Qin emperor to have the books burnt. Li Si once stopped the Qin King from expelling the non-Qin people out of the Qin capital. In face of the allied attacks by the various principalities, a person called Liao [Wei-liao-zi] from Daliang (today's Kaifeng) proposed to theQin King to sow dissension among the various principalities via bribing the ministers of the principalities. At one time, Liao fled Qin as a result of fearing for his life because he thought that the Qin King, with long eyes and leopard voice, was ferocious and might someday kill him. The Qin King caught Liao and conferred him the title of 'wei' [captain], equivalent to a commander-in-charge. (Liao was hence referred to as 'Wei-liao' or captain Liao.) In 236 B.C., General Wang Jian was ordered to attack today's Shanxi Province. In 235 BC, Lv Buwei died. His thousand followers, who secretly moved Lv Buwei's coffin back to the Qin land from today's Sichuan basin, were reprimanded by the Qin King for mourning Lv Buwei's death. (Hundreds of years later, Lv Buwei's coffin was excavated under an imperial order for retrieving the lost classics.) In 234-233 BC, the Qin army attacked Zhao. The Haan(2) King sent his prince, Hanfei-zi, to Qin. Hanfei-zi (Haan Fei Zi), who admired the works of Shang Yang, was the prince of the state of Haan. When Hanfei-zi came over to Qin, his one time classmate, Li Si, plotted to have the Qin King detain Hanfei-zi. But Hanfei-zi was later killed by Li Si out of envy for the favor that Shihuangdi might had shown to Hanfei-zi. The Haan(2) King requested for vassalage with Qin. In 232 BC, Qin attacked the Haan Principality again. Earthquake was recorded in this year. In 231 BC, both Haan and Wei surrendered some of their lands to Qin. In 230 BC, Haan was converted into the Yinchuan Commandary and Haan King An surrendered to Qin. Earthquake was recorded again in this year.
     
    In a series of campaigns between 230 to 221 B.C., Qin unified China and founded the Qin Empire in 211 B.C. From 230-221 BC., Qin Emperor Shihuangdi crushed the states of Haan, Zhao, Wei, Yen, Chu, and Qi one by one. In 230 BC, Haan King An surrendered. In 239 BC, General Wang Jian attacked Zhao. In 228 BC, Zhao King Qian surrendered. Qin King went to Handan the Zhao's capital and killed all those Zhao people who offended Ying Zheng while he was a hostage in Zhao. In this year, Qin King's birth mother died. One Zhao prince, Jia(1), went to the ancient Dai Prefecture and declared himself King of Dai. Prince Jia allied with Yan Principality. In 227 BC, Prince Yan-Dan, i.e., a childhood pal of Qin King while serving as hostages in Zhao capital, sent an assassin called Jing Ke to abduct Qin King. Jing Ke, who borrowed the head of ex-Qin defector general Fan Yuqi, brought along a teenage called Qin Wuyang as his assistant. Jing Ke hid a knife inside the maps of Yan Principality and attempted to abduct and/or assassin Qin King while he was showing the maps, but Qin King somehow escaped alive. Qin King sent General Wang Jian to attack Yan as a retaliation. In 226 BC, General Wang Ben, son of Wang Jian, took over the capital [i.e., Beijing area] and killed Prince Yan. General Wang Jian retired. In 225, General Wang Ben attacked Wei Principality and flooded Kaifeng. In this year, Wei King Jia(3) surrendered. In 224 BC, General Wang Jian was recalled for attacking Chu. Chu King Fu-Chu surrendered. Chu General Xiang Yan selected Prince Changpingjun as the new Chu King and counter-attacked Qin south of the Huai River. In 223 BC, General Wang Jian and General Meng Wu defeated Chu and killed Changpingjun. General Xiang Yan committed suicide. In 222 BC, General Wang Fen pursued the Yan King who fled to today's east Liaoning Province. Yan King Xi surrendered. On the way back, General Wang Ben attacked the King of Dai, Jia, and captured him. Meanwhile, General Wang Jian went on to conquer the Yue land which was part of Chu at the time and set up the Kuaiji Commandary. In 221 BC, Qi King Jian closed off the border with Qin. General Wang Ben went to attack Qi. King Jian surrendered.
     
    During the 26th year of his reign, by 221 BC, Shihuangdi completed the unification of China. Qin established the so-called 'Jun-Xian System', namely, commandary-county system, at the advice of prime minister Li Si (Li Szu). Shihuangdi rezoned his country into 36 commandaries in lieu of conferring the title of dukes and kings onto his sons.
     

     

     
    Written by Ah Xiang
     
  •  


    Copyright 1998-2012:
     
    This website expresses the personal opinions of the webmaster (webmaster@republicanchina.org, webmaster@imperialchina.org, webmaster@uglychinese.org). In addition to the webmaster's comments, extensive citations and quotes of ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing the Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without the prior written permission, on the pre-condition that an acknowledgement or a reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
    WARNING: Some of the pictures, charts and graphs posted on this website came from copyrighted materials. Citation or usage in the print format or for the financial gain could be subject to fine, penalties or sanctions without the original owner's consent.

     
    This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

    Berkshire Profit 64% on Petrochina- Chicom Ultimately to Hold Empty Bag, Plus 200+ Billion Subprime Loss!
    ECON 101: US Interest Rate Down = China Exchange Rate Up !

    Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal

    REAL STORY: A Study Group Is Crushed in China's Grip
    Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal
    Chinese ver

    China The Beautiful

    Huanghuagang Magazine


    Republican China in Blog Format
    Republican China in Blog Format
    Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
    In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
    At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],