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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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SOUTH-NORTH DYNASTIES


 
Continuing the section on Sixteen Nations would be the time period called South-North Dynasties. Most historians classified it as Southern-Northern Dynasties to emphasize that both the northern and southern dynasties were part of one whole China. The division between the two time periods will be the demise of Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 317-420) and the usurpation by Eastern Jin General Liu Yu.
 
The Hunnic-Xianbei rebellions against Western Jin Chinese led to the turmoils in northern China called 'Sixteen Nations' or 'Five Nomadic Groups Ravaging China'. The rebellions were the result of internal turmoils among Jin Chinese princes. The late Jin China period was known as the 'Turmoils of Eight Horses' because the eight Jin princes were named Sima, carrying the last character 'ma' (meaning 'horse'). When Sima princes almost finished off each other, a border general at today's Beijing, Wang Jun, would collude with Xianbei in the attempt of fighting Jin Court. Liu Yuan, a Hun hostage at Jin Court, would be released for organizing anti-Xianbei forces among the Southern Huns. Soon after that, Liu Yuan proclaimed the founding of Hunnic Han Dynasty (AD 304-329), and went on to route two Jin capitals of Luoyang and Xi'an, respectively. A Jiehu nomad under Hunnic Han (alternativel named Zhao) Dynasty would set up Posterior Zhao Dynasty. Ran Min, the adopted son of Shi Le, would kill all Jiehu and set up a Wei Dynasty, alternatively called Ran Wei. Some Chinese general on the Silk Road would set up Anterior Liang (AD 317-376). A Xianbei by the name of Murong Jun would rebel against Ran Min's Ran Wei, caught Ran Min, and set up Anterior Yan (AD 337-370). Murong Jun's brother, Murong Chui, would defeat the northern expedition led by Eastern Jin China's Heng Wen, but Murong Chui was not trusted by the nephew emperor. Hence, Murong Chui fled to Fu Jian's Di (1) nomads. Fu Jian, whose ancestor served under Jiehu's Posterior Zhao, would defeat Anterior Yan and set up Anterior Qin (AD 351-394). After the fall of Di's Anterior Qin, Xianbei re-established Posterior Yan (AD 384-409) and Qiangs would set up Posterior Qin (AD 384-417). Among Western Xianbei, Qifu would set up Western Qin (AD 385-431), and Tufa would set up Southern Liang (AD 397-414). Numerous statlets, like Posterior Liang, Northern Liang, Southern Yan, Western Liang, Hunnic Xia and Northern Yan would follow.
 
Eastern Jin Dynasty's army, under general Liu Yu, would renew northern expeditions and finally destroyed the Posterior Qin Dynasty of the Qiangs (AD 384-417) in Xi'an and Posterior Yan Dynasty of Xianbei
(AD 384-409) south of the Yellow River area. Before this campaign, Southern Chinese had staged quite a few northern campaigns. Zu Di, organizing refugees and civilians with minimal Eastern Jin Court support, would cross the Yangtze to mount a campaign against nomads in the northern China. General Heng Wen would continue the campaigns to the north and he met Wang Meng who later served Anterior Qin ruler (Fu Jian).
 
General Liu Yu of Jin Dynasty first attacked the Xianbei in today's Jiangsu-Shandong provinces, and then attacked the Qiangic nomads in today's Luoyang-Xi'an areas. However, General Liu was eager to return to Nanking to usurp the Jin Dynasty, and his army in Luoyang-Xi'an areas were defeated by the Hunnic Xia. The Hunnic Xia, however, would soon be replaced by the Tuobas who had steadily built up their power base in today's Shanxi-Hebei areas. The Hunnic Xia had once requested aid from another Hunnic people, the Ruruans in the Altai Mountains, but the Tuobas had been able to defeat them both. Tuoba would set up their Tuoba Wei or Northern Wei Dynasty, lasting through AD 386-534, till it split into Eastern Wei (AD 534-550) and Western Wei (AD 535-557). Eastern Wei and Western Wei would be usurped by two generals of Xianbei origin, respectively, who set up Northern Qi (AD 550-577) and Northern Zhou (AD 557-581). The three Tuoba Wei dynasties, plus Northern Qi and Northern Zhou, would be called Northern Dynasties (AD 386-581).

 
In AD 420, General Liu Yu (who claimed Han heritage) would usurp the power by proclaimg the Southern Song Dyasty (AD 420-479) in place of Eastern Jin Dynasty. In southern China, the so-called South Dynasties (AD 420-589) would include three more Han Chinese dynasties, namely Southern Qi (AD 479-502), Southern Liang (AD 502-557), and Southern Chen (AD 557-589). The last one, Chen, would be swallowed by the Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618) which had replaced the nomadic dynasties in Northern China. 
 
 
Buddhism Taking Root In China
 

 
 
Tuoba Northern Wei Dynasty
 
In Jan of AD 386, Tuoba Gui, namely, Tuoba Wei Emperor Daowudi, declared the founding of Dai Dynasty. Three months later, he renamed it to Wei Dynasty. Tuoba Wei defeated the Northern Liang Dynasty in AD 439 and reunited northern China. The Tuoba people, who claimed a descent from the ancient Chinese lord, saying that they had joined the Huns and Xianbei in pillaging China in the last few thousands of years because they remembered that they were the descendants of the Yellow Overlord. Northern Wei moved its capital southward to Loyang in A.D. 493 and the Tuobas changed their family name to the Chinese name of "Yuan" [i.e., meaning the very origin].
 
 
Tuoba Western Wei Dynasty
 
Dugu Xin at one time single-handedly escorted Tuoba Emperor Xiaowudi on a trip of fleeing to Yuwen Tai's camp for seeking asylum. Xiaowudi re-established the Wei dynasty, which came to be known as Western Wei that had four emperors and lasted 22 years.
 
 
Tuoba Eastern Wei Dynasty
 

 
 
Liu Song
 

 
 
Southern Qi Dynasty
 

 
 
Southern Liang Wei Dynasty
 

 
 
Southern Chen Dynasty
 

 
TO BE CONTINUED !
 

 
Written by Ah Xiang
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country.

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