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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme. Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of the Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate the American wartime reporters. (More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and The American Involvement in China: the Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
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For details on when the east met with the west, see this webmaster's discussion on the Huns, the Yuezhi, the Tarim Mummies, the Yuezhi-Yushi misnomer, the Mongoloid-Caucasoid admixture at 2000 B.C.E., the fallacy of the Aryan bearing of the Chinese civilization, the fallacy of the Yuezhi jade trade, the Yuezhi migration timeline, as well as the location of the Kunlun Mountain, Queen Mother of the West the legendary proto-Tibetan Qiangic jade trade with the Sinitic Chinese, and the Qiang's possible routes of passage into Chinese Turkestan at http://www.imperialchina.org/Barbarians.htm which was embedded within the Huns.html and Turks_Uygurs.html pages. (The Mt. Kunshan jade was more likely the Mt. Huoshan jade, or the Mt. Yiwulv jade or the Kunlun jade juxtaposed together in the later book HUAI NAN ZI, not related to Queen Mother of the West. Also see this webmaster's discussion on the ethnic nature of the ancient Huns belonging to part of the epic Jiang-rong human migration of the Jiang-surnamed San-miao people and Yun-surnamed Xianyun people.)
Doctorate Li Hui from Fudan University of China had analyzed the Asian DNAs to have derived a conclusion that the ancestors of the Asians possessed a distinctive Mark M89 by the time they arrived in Southeast Asia. About 30,000 years ago, from the launching pad of Southeast Asia, the early Mongoloids went through a genetic mutation to marker M122. Li Hui claimed that the early migrants to the Chinese continent took three routes via two entries of today's Yunnan and Guangxi-Guangdong provinces. More studies done after Li Hui had ascertained the dates of the O1, O2 and O3 haplogroup people, with the the (O1, O2) entrants along the Southeast Chinese coast dated to have split away from the O3-haplogroup people like 20,000 years ago, much earlier than the continental peers, i.e., the Sino-Tibetans (O3a3c1-M117), Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao, O3a3b-M7) and Mon-khmers.
Li Hui commented that one branch of the early Mongoloids, over 10,000 years ago, entered China's southeastern coastline with genetic marker M119. Li Hui, claiming the same ancestry as the Dai-zu and Shui-zu minorities of Southwestern China, firmly believed that his ancestors had dwelled in the Hangzhou Bay and the Yangtze Delta for 7-8 thousand years. The people with M119 marker would be the historical "Hundred Yue People". The interesting theory adopted by Li Hui would be the migration of one Mongoloid branch of people who continued to travel non-stop along the Chinese coastline to reach the Liao-he River area of Manchuria. Li Hui's speculation on basis of the DNA technology was an evolving process. This would be likely the O2-haplogroup people, rather than the C-haplogroup people whose historical presence in Asia could be dated 50,000 year ago, just after the earlier D-haplogroup people who were now mostly restricted in the area of Hokkaido, Japan, and known as the Ainu. The C-haplogroup people developed into what this webmaster called by the Altaic-speaking people, i.e., ancestors of the Mongols and Manchus. What likely happened was that the O2-haplogroup people first travelled along the coast to reach Manchuria, and then traced back towards the south to reach the Yangtze area about 7-8000 years ago, where they evicted the O1-haplogroup people to the Southeast Asian islands. At about the same time, the O3-haplogroup people, moving through the continent, reached today's western Liaoning at least 5000 years ago, or like 11,000 years ago on basis of the evidence of the pottery aging. See the genetical analysis conducted by Li Hongjie of Jirin University on the remains of prehistoric people extracted from the archaeological sites.
  Northeast (southeastern Inner Mongolia)
    Niuheliang, Lingyuan, the Hongshan Culture, 5000 YBP, 4 N, 1 C*, 1 O

   Yuxian County (the Sanguan site), Hebei, the Lower Xiajiadian Culture, 3400-3800 YBP, all O3
Combining Li Hui's study with the pottery excavation, we could see a clear path going north extending from around 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Refer to Yaroslav V. Kuzmin's discourse on potteries to see the path of migration of proto-Mongoloids from southwestern China (approx. 15,120500 BP) to Northeast Asia (Manchuria [13,000 BP, or c. 14,000 - 13,600 cal BC] and Japan [c. 11,80010,500 cal BC (c. 13,800 - 12,500 cal BP)]) to Siberia (11,000 BP, or 11,200 - 10,900 cal BC).
In the timeframe of about 10,000 years, developing a genetic mutation to marker M134, one more branch of people who went direct north, per Li Hui, would penetrate the snowy Hengduan Mountains of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to arrive at the area next to the Yellow River bends. Owning to the cold weather environment, some physique, such as big noses, heavy lips and longer faces, developed among this group of people, i.e., ancestors of the Sino-Tibetans. Splitting out of this northbound migrants would be those who went to the east with a new genetic marker M117, i.e., ancestors of the modern Han [a misnomer as the proper term should be Sino-Tibetan, nor the later Sinitic] Chinese. We could say that our Sino-Tibetan ancestors forgot that they had penetrated northward the Hengduan Mountains from the Indo-China "CORRIDOR" in today's Burma-Vietnam. "Walking down Mt Kunlun", i.e., the "collective memory of the ethnic Han Chinese" throughout China and the Southeast Asian Chinese communities, that was echoed in Guo Xiaochuan's philharmonic-agitated epic, would become the starting point of the eastward migration which our Chinese ancestors remembered. (Li Hui grouped the 3000-year-old Chu and Qi people in the same category as the Han Chinese, albeit meeting the ancient classics' records as to the Qi statelet's lineage from the Qiangic-Tibetan Fiery Lord.)
Li Hui then pointed out that the ancient Wu people, with M7 genetic marker, came to the lower Yangtze area about 3000 years ago. While Li Hui claimed that the M7 Wu people had split away from the northbound M134 Sino-Tibetan people, the historical Chinese classics pointed out that the Wu Statelet was established by two uncles of Zhou Dynasty King Wenwang, i.e., migrants from the Yellow River area. The general layout by Lu Hui seems to have corroborated with Scholar Luo Xianglin's claim that early Sino-Tibetan people originated from the Mt Minshan and upper-stream River Min-jiang areas of today's Sichuan-Gansu provincial borderline and then split into two groups, with one going north to reach the Wei-shui River and upperstream Han-shui River of Shenxi Prov and then eastward to Shanxi Prov by crossing the Yellow River. --Though, this webmaster's analysis of China's prehistory shows that the Sino-Tibetan people who moved to the eastern coast was one group, with the future Tibetans being actually the exiles to Northwest China from eastern and central China during the era of Lord Shun. Namely, the split of the Sinitic and proto-Tibetan people occurred prior and during the exile in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E.
What Li Hui did not touch on in his earliest studies were the cousin tribes of the Sino-Tibetans, namely, the Hmong-miens and Mon-khmers. As noted at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3164178/, "A clear hierarchical structure (annual ring shape) emerged in the network of O3a3b-M7 (Fig. 2B), in which MK (Mon-Khmers) haplotypes lay at the center of the network (immediately next to the origin), HM (Hmong-Mien) haplotypes were distributed at the periphery to the MK haplotypes, and the ST (here the subfamily Tibeto-Burman) haplotypes were only found further away from the origin."

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

In this section on Vietnam, for simplicity's sake, I will lump together various people living to the south of ancient Chinese in lieu of separating them into the Sanmiao (Three Miao) people, the Dian-Yue (Yunnan Yue) People, the Dong-Yue (Eastern Yue) People, the Nan-Yue (Southern Yue) People, the Min-Yue (Fujian Yue) People, the natives living in the mountains of southwestern China, the Nan-Zhao people, the Burmese (Myanmar), the Thai people, the Taiwan natives, and the Vietnamese.
Southwest China, part of the plateau leading to the Himalaya, was validated to be a spot full of traces of ancient homo erectus and homo sapiens. In this very spot, archaeologists had proven that the ancient Yunnan Prov people could be the sole supplier of tin for the bronze of Shang Dynasty and succeeding Chinese dynasties.
(Hair styles of men and women on bronze utensils excavated from the ancient Dian-yue Statelet in Yunnan Prov had proved a continuity of customs among today's Yi-zu minority people. In between today's Southwestern China and the ancient Shang China domain would be today's Sichuan Prov where the Sanxingdui Excavations yielded tremendous amount of bronze articles. Do note that Wei Chu-hsien, who attempted to validate an opposite movement of the Yantze River Chinese towards the north and northwest by deciphering the literal meaning of the town of Wuxi [lietrally meaning "no tin"], had claimed that the tin of the Shang Dynasty Chinese came from a hill near Wuxi in the Yangtze River mouth [where tin mine was purportedly exhausted in the 3rd century B.C.], not from Southwestern China. Wei, who had contributions to the excavation of the Liangzhu Culture ruins in the early 1930s, did not get to know the Sanxingdui bronze culture in Sichuan Prov which apparently served as a venue for the tin of Southwest China to reach the Yellow River area.)
In Prehistory, we mentioned that some advocates for the southern aboriginals claimed that Chiyou (Chi-u) belonged to the southern Chinese who descended from the Liangzhu Culture of the Yangtze River delta and that the southerners had expanded into today's Hebei areas of northern China, instead. Conventional wisdom claimed that the SanMiao was derived from Chiyou's Jiu-li or "Nine Li[2] Tribes". Per Historian Fan Wenlan, Chiyou possessed 9 tribes, with nine sub-tribes each, totalling 81 tribes, and that is how the 81 Chiyou brothers came to be known in Sima Qian's "Shi Ji". Someone by the name of Qin Yanzhou speculated that Chiyou's Jiuli was an alliance of the ox-totem [?] southern proto-Nan-Man people and the bird-totem eastern proto-Dong-Yi people. This speculation was based on the deficient ancient records as to the fightings between the Yellow Overlord, the Fiery Overlord and Chi-you in the weird absence of the powerful Dong-yi [i.e., Eastern Yi] tribal group. The Yi people, i.e., descendants of Tai-hao-shi & Shao-hao-shi that possessed a history earlier than the Yellow Overlord & Fiery Overlord, did not identify themselves in ancient records during the fighting between Huangdi and Chiyou. Hence, it is possible that Chiyou's 9 tribal groups or 81 tribes had included the 'Yi' people. Compounding the perplexity further, Wei Juxian had followed through with a literal interpretation of character 'li' in wildly speculating that the Liangzhu Culture people of the Yangtze River delta, who had manufactured the black-colored potteries as well as adored the black fish [i.e., snake-headed fish] as totem, might belong to the Negroid people.
After the loss of war, Chiyou was said to have been decapitated by the Yellow Overlord. The succeeding southerners recorded in Chinese history would be called San-miao. At the times of Lords Yao-Shun-Yu, the 'Sanmiao' (Three Miao) people had been living in the middle Yangtze River, taking Lake Dongting as their very homeland. The middle Yangtze River would remain marshlands and lakes till the time of the Chu State of the Warring States period (403-221 B.C.). The State of Chu, 1500 years after Xia Dynasty was first established, would still belong to an alien ethnical group, and they were the first group of people to reject the overlordship of Zhou Dynasty by declaring themselves as a king of equal footing. Historic annals repeatedly claimed the SanMiao people were mostly exiled by Lord Shun to San-Wei-Shan Mountain in Gansu Province's Dunhuang to counter the Xirong or Western Rong people. Today's Miao-zu minority, numbering 5 million per 1982 census, are said to be descendants of ancient Lord Chiyou who headed the Nine Li[2] tribes, i.e., ancestors of the SanMiao people. Miao-zu's epic talked about a "westward migration", which pointed to the fact that they had probably dwelled more to the center and east of China in the ancient times. Mainly in today's Guangdong and Hunan provinces would exist Zhuang-zu and Yao-zu minorities, and mainly in today's Guizhou and Guangxi provinces would exist Miao-zu, Zhuang-zu, and Yao-zu minorities. Miao-zu, Zhuang-zu, and Yao-zu, living more closer to central China, should have closer affiliations with ancient San-Miao people, with the same character 'miao' embedded.
However, should we buy Luu Simian's research, then San-miao people would have shared the same origin as the ancient Chinese. In accordance with Luu Simian's dissertation, San-Miao, with 'miao' meaning descendants, could point to three ancient clans and tribes of Dihong-shi, Jinyun-shi, Shaohao-shi as their ancestors. After San-miao, history recorded extensively the people that would come to be known as 'Man[2]' or 'Nan [southern] Man2 [barbarian]'. Scholar Luo Xianglin stated that the five tribal groups of Xia, Qiang, Di[1], Yi, and Man[2] shared the same origin.
Origin of the Yue [Viet] People
The Hua-xia-centric historical accounts then recorded two important events about the ancient migrations from China's central plains to the Yangtze River mouth during the first and third Chinese dynasties of Xia and Zhou,, i.e., the grandson of Lord Yu being assigned to the Kuaiji land to guard the tomb of Lord Yu, and Zhou royal member Tai-bo's launching own statelet in the Yangtze River mouth instead of competing for power against the father of Zhou King Wenwang.
The corroborating fact would be Lord Yu's tomb on Mount Kuaijishan in Shaoxing, Zhejiang. One of the grandsons of Lord Yu was permanently assigned to the Kuaiji land to guard the tomb. The later Yue Principality was said to have descended from this lineage. The Japanese, whom history chronicles repeatedly likened to the tattoo natives of the Yangtze Delta, had an interesting name for one of their four islands, i.e., Kyushu, a name that literally means the "nine prefectures" mapping the nine cauldrons that were supposedly devised by Lord Yu. The ancient books also recorded that Wa Japan must be situated to the east of Kuaiji Commandary. Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi recorded that the rice culture people living on the western coast of Japan around the 2-3rd centuries A.D. were recorded to have tattoos over their body, in a similar fashion to the Zhejiang people in the Yantze Delta where the descendants of King Shaokang of Xia Dynasty (21-16th c. B.C.) had lived. (My speculation is that the ancient Wa Japanese with Tai Bo's lineage had been wiped out or assimilated into the later immigrants or invaders from Korea, i.e., the Yamato invasion.) Another sentence in the early Chinese history would be the record that people from ancient Wa Japan claimed that they were the descendants of 'Tai Bo' [not the grandson of Lord Yu] and called themselves by the ancient title of 'Da Fu'. Tai Bo wanted to yield the succession to his brother because the ancient mandate said that the son of Tai Bo's brother (Ji Li) would be the future lord of the Zhou people. Ji Li's son would be Ji Chang, i.e., Zhou King Wenwang posthumously.
While ancient records repeatedly claimed that the Wa Japanese were the descendants of Tai-bo, the Yue people [who derived from the grandson of Lord Yu's Xia people] would spread across southeastern and southern Chinese coasts as the Yue people. Sima Qian, in "Shi Ji", stated that the people of Nan-yue [Southern Yue] and Min-Yue [Fujian Prov Yue], i.e., descendants of the Gu-yue [Ancient Yue statelet], must have retained the spirits of Lord Yu [the father of Xia Dynasty founder]. In the eyes of Sima Qian and the ancient historians, the Bai-yue [Hundred] Yue people would be traced to the same origin, i.e., the grandson of Lord Yu. [Note that scholar Luo Xianglin linked the ancient Yue people to the Xia people on basis of the common lexicon 'yue' which meant for excavated ancient "stone axe".]
The Southern Minority People
The natives living in the mountains of southwestern China number the most variety in today's China. Especially noteworthy would be Yunnan Prov, i.e., the original habitation of the ancient Nan-zhao & Da-li statelets. Among 56 ascertained ethnic groups, Yunnan Prov was in possession of 26 groups, comprising of one third of the provincial population. Specific to Yunnan Prov would be about 16 groups, while the other 10 lived across multiple provinces and borders.
Dwelling in Yunnan would be the following ethnic groups: Lahu-zu, Pumi-zu, Nu-zu (nu meaning angry, and a river was named Nu-jiang, too), Dulong-zu (i.e., lonely dragon), and Jinuo-zu. Other ethnic groups in Yunnan that span across provinces would be Zang-zu (Tibetan), Hui-zu (Muslim), Miao-zu (the same 'miao' character as SanMiao), Zhuang-zu, and Yao-zu. Separately, the provinces of Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan and Sichuan harbored numerous other ethnic groups. In Guizhou Prov could be found Shui-zu (water), Gelao-zu, and Buyi-zu, in addition to cross-provincial-border groups like Miao-zu, Yi-zu, Dong-zu, Zhuang-zu, and Yao-zu. In Guangxi Prov could be found Mulao-zu, Maonan-zu, Jing-zu, in addition to cross-border groups like Miao-zu, Dong-zu, Zhuang-zu, and Yao-zu. (Jing-zu is the majority ethnic group in today's Vietnam.) Zhuang-zu and Yao-zu also dwelled in Guangdong and Hunan provinces. In the south and southeast, the Hainan-dao Island possesses the Li-zu minority. Fujian & Zhejiang provinces possess the She-zu minority. Gaoshan-zu (high mountain ethnic group) would be in Fujian Prov & the Taiwan Island.
Per Scholar Zhan Quanyou ("The Culture of Nan-zhao & Da-li Statelets", 2002 edition, Sichuan People's Press, Chengdu, Sichuan), Yi-zu's ancestor would be Wu-man (i.e., the black[-teeth?] barbarians); Bai-zu's ancestor would be Bai-man (i.e., the white[-teeth?] barbarian); Dai-zu's or the Thai ancestor would be Jin-chi-man (i.e., the gold teeth barbarian), Yin-chi-man (i.e., the silver teeth barbarian), Hei-chi-man (i.e., the black teeth barbarian) and Mang-man; Bulang-zu and De'ang-zu belonged to Pu-zi-man; Wa-zu belonged to Wang-man; A'chang-zu belonged to Xunchuan-man; Jingbo-zu belonged to Luo-xing-man (i.e., the nude body barbarian); Naxi-zu belonged to Mo-xie-man; Lisu-zu belonged to Shi-man and Shun-man; and Hani-zu belonged to He-man. (Here, Bai or Wu has nothing to do with the color of the skin, and both groups belonged to the Sino-Tibetan Di[1]-Qiang[1] people.)
Zhan Quanyou further grouped Dai-zu under the Bai-yue or Hundred Yue Family; Bulang-zu, De'ang-zu and Wa-zu under the Bai-pu or Hundred Pu[2] Family; A'chang-zu, Jingbo-zu, Naxi-zu, Lisu-zu, Bai-zu, Yi-zu and Hani-zu under the Di[1]-Qiang[1] Family.
Dominance Of Tibeto-Burman Language
Brief Introduction To the Southern Minorities

The Early Southern Statelets
Sima Qian's "Shi Ji" & Ban Gu's "Han Shu" said that among the southern barbarians, the Yelang Statelet, located in the southwestern mountains of today's Guizhou Province, was the biggest of all. Further to the west will be a statelet called Dian-Yue [or Dian], located in today's Yunnan Province. (The early Yunnan Prov civilization, located around the Erhai Lake, was validated to have possessed the bronze technology dating from the 12th century B.C., and this bronze technology spread eastward to reach the peak around the Dianchi Lake by the 1st century AD.) North of Dian would be a statelet called Qiongdu bordering today's Sichuan. In eastern Yunnan and southern Sichuan would be a country called 'Bo'. Half a dozen small statelets existed to the southwest of Sichuan Province at that time. Sima Qian, on basis of the position of today's Sichuan Prov, classified the southwestern barbarians into two groups of Nan-yi (i.e., the southern barbarians) and Xi-yi (i.e., the western barbarians). Nan-yi would be the equivalent Pu-Yue people, while Xi-yi would be the Di[1]-Qiang[1] people.
While the Yue people had migrated to the westward, the Pu people as well as the Di[1]-Qiang[1] people had migrated southward. Ancestors of the Pu people, at the time of Shang-Zhou transition, i.e., 1122 B.C., lived to the south of the Han-shui River, somewhere between today's Sichuan and Hubei provinces. "Shi Ji" recorded that Zhou King Wuwang, calling his troops by the name of the 'people from the west', had included eight barbarian statelets as allies, including the Qiangs from today's Gansu, the Shu-Sou-Mao-Wei statelets in today's Sichuan Province, Lu and Peng from the northwest, and Yong and Pu from south of the Han-shui River.
Per Sima Qian's SHI JI, King Weiwang (reign 339-329 B.C.) of the Chu Principality, during the Warring States period, ordered his General Zhuang Jue (Zhuang Jiao) on a campaign along the Yangtze River. The Chu army conquered Ba (namely, today's Chongqing city or the area around the Dabashan Mountains of today's Sichuan Province), and the middle of Qian (namely, today's Guizhou Province). Zhuang Jiao arrived at Dianchi, a lake in Kunming of today's Yunnan Province. HOU HAN SHU, using the name Zhuang Hao, claimed that the Chu army sailed to Qiulan via ships and then fought an infantry battle against the southwestern barbarians. HOU HAN SHU put the campaign under Chu King Qingxiangwang's reign, with the context being a campaign against the Yelang statelet (Tongzi, Zunyi, Guizhou) in 281 B.C. General Zhuang was said to have pacified dozens of the Mimo clans. But General Zhuang was cut of by the Qin army which inavded today's Sichuan and Guizhou provinces and took over Zhuang Jiao's return path. Hence, General Zhuang returned to the Dianchi Lake and declared himself King of the Dian Statelet in approx 263 B.C., and for one hundred years, the Dian Statelet was disconnected with Qin China and Han China. Sima Qian, in SHI JI, claimed that Zhuang Jue, a descendant of Chu King Zhuangwang, entered southwestern China at an earlier time and under Chu King Weiwang's order --which was disputed by Tang historian Du You --while XUN ZI, SHANG-JUN SHU, HAN FEI ZI, plus Han Dynasty scholar Jia Yi, juxtaposed Zhuang Jue with bandit Dao-zhi (Liuxia Zhi/Zhan Zhi, said to be a brother of Liuxia Hui). Per XUN ZI, SHANG-JUN SHU and HAAN FEI ZI, in the aftermath of the demise of the Chu army at the 301 B.C. Battle of Chuisha and the death of Chu General Tang Mei, Zhuang Jue rebelled against Chu, which led to turmoil in the Chu state and a division of Chu into four spheres or a different count of three and five spheres. Zhuang Jue was said to be Tang Mei's follower, which posed some historical riddles as to the real identity of this person --who was accredited with being the person called Zhuang Jiao or Zhuang Hao pioneering the Chu excursion into today's southwestern China and establishment of the Dian-guo or Dian-yue State.
Qin extended its influence southward, crossed the Jinshajiang River (gold sand river), and reached north and northwest of Yunnan Prov. After Qin Shihuangdi's succession of the throne in 246 B.C., Li Bing, the "tai shou" [i.e., governor for Sichuan] who built the Dujiangyan Fork Dam, began to build roads leading towards Daobo (today's Yibing of Sichuan) bordering Yunnan Prov. After the Qin's unification of China in 221 B.C., "tai shou" Chang E extended the road to Yunnan Prov's Shaotong and Qujing on basis of Li Bing's pavement. This is the so-called "Five Chinese Feet Road" [i.e., wu chi dao] that was paved with the raw stone slates, with trace of over thousand meter long recognizable today still.
Archaeological Discoveries & Origin of the People In the Southwest:
Scholar Zhan Quanyou pointed out i) that Yunnan Prov possessed a variety of mono-color potteries dating from the Neolithic Age; ii) that southeastern region of Yunnan province exhibited similar pattern on the stone hatchets as excavations of Southeast China; and iii) that the middle, western and northwestern regions of Yunnan province exhibited similar potteries, stone weapons, burial customs and building patterns as excavations from the Yellow River area. Zhan Quanyou cited museum chief Li Kunsheng in stating i) that west of Guizhou and east/northeast of Yunnan belonged to the domain of the ancient Lao-ren [Liao-ren] people, ii) that Guangxi, Vietnam and southeast of Yunnan belonged to the domain of the ancient Luo-yue people, iii) that central Yunnan like the Dianchi Lake and Lancangjiang River (i.e., the Mekong River in the upper stream) areas belonged to the domain of the ancient Di[1]-Qiang[1] people and the ancient Pu-yue people; and that iv) western Yunnan Prov like the Baoshan city belonged to the domain of the ancient Dian-yue people. Zhan Quanyou further stated that the ancient Di[1]-Qiang[1] people had apparently arrived at the Erhai Lake of Yunnan Prov via the Jinshajiang River in northwestern Yunnan Prov.
In Yunnan Prov, 3000-year-old stone carvings had been discovered, with totem-like pictures like snakes and lizards (i.e., dragon totem), birds (i.e., phoenix totem) and gourd (i.e., a plant similar to the shape of a woman's body that was often cited as the source of human creation by the minority people like Wa-zu). Cangyuan area of Yunnan Prov was called Hulu-guo or the Gourd Country in the ancient times.
Zhan Quanyou's conclusion is that Yunnan Prov was a localized culture mixed up with the two groups of the Hundred Yue people from southeast and the Di[1]-Qiang[1] people from the northwest, respectively, and that the Dali-Nanzhao statelets were the result of exchanges between the two cultures of Erhai Lake to the west and Dianchi lake to the east. Per Scholar Zhang Zengqi, the 3800-year-old Erhai Lake culture, on basis of carbon data, exhibited a typical rice planting culture that could be seen to the south of the Yangtze River, with agri-tools and rice traces etc, whereas the potteries, half-cave buildings and burial sites of this area shared similarities with the Majiayao Culture of Qinghai Prov and Banpo Culture (i.e., Yangshao Culture) in Xi'an of Shaanxi Prov.
Alternatively speaking, Scholar Zhang Zengqi stated that in the ancient times, there existed two groups of people with husbandry and agriculture modes of life in the Erhai Lake area; that Kunming-man around the Lanchangjiang River Valley, not the same as the Di-Qiang nomadic people, were the native husbandry people who entered the Erhai Lake area in the 12th century B.C. and later merged with Ailao-yi after Kunming-man were defeated by the Nanzhao Statelet during the Tang Dynasty time period; that part of Kunming-man would become the later Wa-zu (Wabeng-zu) minority; that Siyu-man (aka Yeyu-man) were the native agriculture people in the Erhai Lake area who later were relocated to the Dianchi Lake by the Nanzhao Statelet during the Tang Dynasty time period; that Baopu-man, a group belonging to the Khmers (i.e., Gao[high]Mian[cotton]) of the Austroasiatic Language Family, entered the Erhai area about the 8th-6th century B.C.; that the Bo-ren, who originally dwelled in eastern Yunnan Prov, would enter the Erhai area about the 1st-8th century A.D. and become later Bai-man (i.e., today's Bai-zu minority); and that Ailao-yi, ancestors of today's Yi-zu minority who originally dwelled in Yongchang and Ailao-shan Mountain area, would establish the Nan-zhao Statelet under the support of Tang Dynasty and Bai-man.
The Khmers & Mon People:
The ancient Khmers, said to be of the Austroasiatic Language Family, for sure had migrated towards the land of today's Thailand in the south. What remained unsure would be whether it was related to the southwestern expansion by the Qin/Han Chinese. http://www.khmerclub.com/History.htm claimed that the ancestors of the Khmers "moved southward before 200 B.C. into the fertile Mekong delta from the Khorat Plateau of what is now Thailand". Thereafter, they were Indianized by successive waves of Indian influence [Funan's legend of creation by marriage of an Indian Brahmin Kaundinya to an indigenous "naga" princess] and ... were exposed to Indo-Malayan influences [Java's conquest of Chenla]...More Indian influence [ANGKOR period A.D. 889-1434] ... followed by migrations of Tai [Siam] people from the 10th to the 15th century [Dali King, Duan Zixing, surrendered to the Mongols in A.D. 1253], by a Vietnamese [Champa] migration beginning in the 17th century, and by Chinese migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Khmers' move into the Mekong Delta before the 2nd century B.C., however, might have cut off the contacts between Dravidians stranded in Champa of Vietnam and those who remained in the Indian SuB.C.ontinent, in my opinion.
In the Mekong Delta already existed a statelet called Funan as recorded in the Chinese Chronicles in the 2nd century AD, a maritime state with same commercial importance as Champa in acting as a stopover for the Arabs/Romans and Chinese. The Funan statelet was purportedly established by an Indian monk who married with a local queen in the 1st century B.C.E. In the Han Dynasty time period, the Funan statelet submitted tributes to China in the form of sugar canes (a Cambodian specialty) and bajiao bananas. Funan was later conquered by its vassal, i.e., Chenla ("Kambuja" by the Khmer), which was said to be a "more direct ancestor of the Khmer Empire" per http://spirit.dos.uci.edu/cambo/knowledge/history.html in the 7th century AD.
According to some Chinese legends, Chenla ("Kambuja" by the Khmer) was launched by the remnants of the Qin royal family members who founded "Sambor Prei", the pre-Angkorian civilization. Chenla (Chanla) was said to mean the Qin migrants in the Cambodian language, with Chen meaning Qin. In A.D. 617, the unified Chenla estabblished diplomatic relations with China. In the 7th cent., Chenla split into two parts, the continental Chenla and the watercourse Chenla. Defeated by Java, Prince Jayavarman II of Chenla served hostage at the Java court and returned to become king of a later Angkor Empire in 790 AD. In 806 A.D., the Angkorian city was built. In A.D. 1112, the Angkorian-Ku [Kuk] was built. Chenla campaigned against Zhan-po and was called Zhanla by the Song Dynasty time period. Zhenla or Chang-la, spelled Zhenla in Mandarin, was recorded in Chinese chronicles to be a country where the male population were small in size but dark in skin, some females were said to have lighter skin, and the Chang-la people all had curly hair.
There is a good possibility that ancient Mon people were related to the ancient Khmers. The Mons were said to have occupied the central plain (the Menam Delta) and northern highland of modern Thailand and Burma, while the Khmers in Cambodia and Laos. Both the Mon and Khmer were grouped under the same language branch. From the 6th century A.D. onward, the Mon had developed a culture with a lot of import from Buddhism and Sanskrit and were said to have diffused the Indian culture to the Khmers. Sanwiched between the Khmer Kingdom of Angkor Wat and the Thai from Southern China, the Mon territory shrank into Southern Burma. When the Burmese rose to power in Pagan in the 11th century, the Mon sufferred further oppression from the Burmese. In the 13th cent., the Vientiane (10,000 elephants) people arose under the pressure of the invasion by Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Yuan Dynasty dispatched emissary Zhou Guanda to southeast Asia. Zhou Guanda made records on the Zhanla customs as well as noted the human smuggling going on near Saigon [an ancient human smuggle port since the 3rd cent. A.D.], where an island called Kunlun-dao was said to have mutated from or mutated into the ancient Chinese designation of dark-skinned and curly hair southeast Asian natives as 'Kun-nu' or Kunlun-nu slaves. In A.D. 1351, the ancient Thailand attacked Zhanla and took over its ancient capital. In A.D. 1431, Zhanla was defeated by the Thais again. About the 17th cen. around, Mo Jingjiu, a Hainan Islander from China, took his clansmen to ancient Cambodia to develop agriculture. By the 18th century, Burmese Ruler U Aungzeya destroyed the last remaining Mon stronghold and massacred innumerable Mon people.
Nan-Yue Statelet:
Early Han Dynasty was a restoration of Zhou Dynasty's feudal system. Numerous independent statelets were in existence. Han[4] Emperor Liu Bang had conferred kingship to numerous generals who contributed to the overthrow of Qin Empire and the later campaigns against General Xiang Yu. For example, King Lu Wan of Yan Principality, was one of the non-Liu kings. Among the non-Liu kings, Marquis of Huaiying, Han Xin, was demoted to marquis from kingship. King of Han[2] Principality defected to the Huns for fear of his failure in resisting the Huns. After King of Han[2] Principality defected to the Huns, the prime minister of Dai Principality, Chen Xi (a friend of Marquis of Huaiying, Han Xin), rebelled against Han[4] Emperor. Chen Xi himself defected to the Huns after losing battles to Han Emperor, while Han Xin (who had earlier encouraged Chen Xi to plot the rebellion out of anger at Han Emperor for demoting him to marquis from king) was executed together with his wife and mother's lineages, so-called 3 lineage extinction, by Han Empress Luu Hou (i.e., Gaohou). King Peng Yue of Liang Principality did not answer the call to quell the Chen Qi rebellion. He was arrested by Emperor Liu Bang and put to death by Empress Luu Hou. King Ying Bu of Huainan Principality was accused by his minister of plotting to rebel against Han[4] Emperor, and during the battle, he wounded Emperor Liu Bang with an arrow. Ying Bu was killed by his relative, King Wu Chen of Changsa Principality when he fled to Changsha for asylum. Later, the non-Liu kings were reduced to King of Changsa Principality, only. Emperor Liu Bang had conferred 8 king titles to his own kinsmen (6 being Liu Bang's own sons and 2 the sons of his two brothers). The 8 kings would be for Qi, Chu, Dai, Wu, Zhao, Liang, Huaiyang and Huainan.
Among the non-Chinese statelets would be the Nan-Yue or Southern Yue Statelet led by Zhao Tuo, an ex-Qin general with the title of 'wei' [captain] for Nanhai (i.e., southern sea) Commandary. Zhao Tuo united the commandaries of Guilin, Nanhai, and Xiang-jun. Here, the prefix 'Nan' means southern. In 207 B.C., Zhao Tuo campaigned against the Guilin and Xiang-jun commanderies, united the three commanderies, and declared the statehood of Nan-yue. The cause was the rebellion of native Luo-yue chieftains, lords and kings, as well as the invasion of Shu-pan, a prince of the last Shu-guo king, who launched the Ouluo-guo state in today's Hanoi and declared himself King Anyang-wang. Zhao Tuo, after defeating the rebellion, separated the Xiang-jun commandery into Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.
Back in 215 B.C., the Qin army, consisted of five routes of the imperial army, with 'wei' (i.e., lieutenant general) Tu Sui in charge, invaded south. According to HUAI NAN ZI, the four other armies stationed at Saichan-cheng (Jingzhou, Hunan), Jiuyi (Ningyuan, Hunan), Nanye (Nankang, Jiangxi), and Yugan (Yugan, Jiangxi), which meant the southern territories of today's Hunan and Jiangxi, which were to the north of the Nan-ling Ridge, were not fully conquered. The Qin army moved eastwards from today's Jiangxi Province, crossed the Wuyishan Mountains, and went southwards to today's Guangdong Province. Tu Sui, who led the penetration force to Panyu (today's Canton), was killed by the natives in a night attack per HUAI NAN ZI.
In southern China, when the uprisings occured against Qin throughout China, Ren Xiao, who was 'wei' for the Ling-nan (south of the Nanling ridge) territory, was at death bed because of illness. Not answering the Qin emperor's order, 'wei [captain] {or brigadier general}' was recorded by SHI-JI to have petitioned with the empror to forward 30,000 single women of northern China to the south. Sima Qian, who mistyped the name of the 'wei' brigadier general and put it under Qin Emperor Shihuangdi, claimed that 15,000 women were sent to southern China. After hearing about the Chen Sheng and Wu Guang uprisings against the Qin Empire, Ren Xiao instructed that Zhao Tuo (Zhao Ta) take over the 'wei [captain] {or brigadier general}' post. Zhao Tuo was hence called by 'Wei [captain] Ta' or 'Wei [captain] Tuo'. Zhao Tuo seized and blocked the passes through the Nan Ling (southern ridges), such as Hengpu-guan (Nanxiong, Guangdong), Yangshan-guan (Yangshan, Guangdong) and Huangxi-guan (Yingde, Guangdong), killed the Qin imperial designatories, and declared himself an emperor. In 207 B.C., Zhao Tuo campaigned against the Guilin and Xiang-jun commanderies, united the three commanderies, and declared the statehood of Nan-yue. The cause was the rebellion of native Luo-yue chieftains, lords and kings, as well as the invasion of Shu-pan, a prince of the last Shu-guo king, who launched the Ouluo-guo state in today's Hanoi and declared himself King Anyang-wang. Zhao Tuo, after defeating the rebellion, separated the Xiang-jun commandery into Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen. Later in 203 B.C. Zhao Tuo declared himself King Nanyue-wu-wang.
Other than Nan-yue, Min-Yue Statelet would be in existence in today's Fujian Province, while Dong-Yue Statelet would be near today's Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province. Across southern China and within the boundary of southeastern and southern costal arch line would be more tribal statelets like Dong-di, Yang-yue, Dong-ou, Xi-ou, Luo-yue, and Dian-yue which invariably shared similar customs and traits like bronze drums, boat building, adoring snakes or dragons, hair-cutting and tattoo. Between 222 B.C.E. and 214 BC, the Qin expedition, to the southeastern directon, conquered two small states of the Yue people, in present-day Wenzhou and Fuzhou, and set up the Commandery of Minzhong. In 222 B.C., Qin established the Minzhong-jun commandery in Dongzhi (Jianou, Fujian).
Central China and the region of the lower Yangtze was well connected since the time of Lord Yu. Lord Yu's son, Shaokang, assigned one of his sons to Shaoxing for guarding Lord Yu's tomb. Zhou King Wenwang's uncles came to the delta to launch their own statelet later. The Wu State was founded by two uncles of King Zhou Wenwang: the two uncles decided to go to the Yangtze Delta to launch a state because they did not want to contend with their brother Ji-li (i.e., later Zhou King Wenwang). The Zhou court later conferred the descendants of the two brothers the title of Count. Later, during the time of the Zhou dynasty, Yue and Wu were set up in the region of Hangzhou Bay. At the beginning of the fifth century B.C., Yue defeated the rival state of Wu on the Taihu Lake and in present-day Suzhou. But Yue was conquered by Chu in 334 B.C. When Chu was conquered by Qin General Wang Jian in 223 B.C., the former territory of Yue was made into the commandery of Kuaiji in 222 B.C. Altogether 36 commandaries were zoned in 221 B.C. Under Qin empire, 'Zhi-Dao', i.e., straight highways, were built aross the nation, all originating from the capital. In the north, after the rebuilding of the Great Wall, General Meng Tian was ordered to pave a road across the mountains to reach Inner Mongolia. To the south, a highway would continue up the valley of the Xiangjiang River, along the present-day railway line, southeastward into Lingling.
South of the county of Lingling, by the present-day town of Xingan, Shihuangdi had a canal cut across the watershed to link the Xiangjiang River with the Lijiang River. This is the Ling Qu ("Magic Trench") built for sake of conquest of the south. In 218 B.C., 500,000 Qin army, headed by captain Tu Sui, moved southwards and eastwards from today's Jiangxi Province in five columns, crossed Wuyishan Mountains, and went southwards to Guangdong. For three years, Yue people resisted Qin army using guerilla tactics. To support the war efforts, 34 kilometer long Ling-qu Canal was dug to link up Xiang-jiang River to Li-jiang river under the supervision of Jian Lu. Li Zongren memoirs pointed out that Qin Dynasty's Shi Lu [Jian Lu?], at the link point, had constructed the two banks and waterbed of Li-shui & Xiang-jiang river with cubic stones that could weigh several tons and still exist without erosion today. Special human-shaped dams were constructed for controlling water levels and controlling ships. Qin expeditions conquered two small statelets of the Yue people, in present-day Wenzhou and Fuzhou, and set up the commandery of Minzhong. Qin conquered and annexed territories covering present-day Guangdong, Guangxi and northern Vietnam, and part of Fujian. Qin killed a tribal chieftan of Xi-ou by the name of Yi-yu-song, and took over Luliang [Luo-yue?] land in 214 B.C. Qin Emperor Shihuangdi, after conquering the south, set up the commandaries of Guilin, Nanhai, and Xiangjun etc. Guerilla warfare of the Yue people killed Tu Sui. Qin Shihuangdi then conferred "captain [wei] of Nanhai" onto Ren Xiao and "magistrate [ling] of Longchuan" onto Zhao Tuo, to be in charge of 500,000 secondary class citizens like merchants, convicts and men who married to wives' homes. Additionally, 150,000 women were dispatched to southern China for supporting the men.
When uprisings occured against Qin throughout China, Ren Xiao, at death bed, instructed that Zhao Tuo take over the 'captain' post. Zhao Tuo seized and blocked the passes through the Nan Ling (southern ridges), killed imperial designatories, and declared himself an emperor when he heard about the uprisings against the Qin Empire. In 207 B.C., Zhao Tuo campaigned against Guilin and Xiang-jun commandaries, united the three commandaries, and declared the statehood of Nan-yue. In 193 [196?] B.C., Han Emperor Liu Bang sent Lu Jia and a seal to Nan-Yue Statelet. Zhao Tuo downgraded his title to that of a king. Han Dynasty then rescinded the previous conferral of southern territories from King Wu Rui of Changsha. Several conflicts broke out between Nan-yue and the King of Changsha in the ensuing dozen years. At the time of Empress Lv-hou, Zhao Tuo again upgraded his title to that of an emperor. This was because Empress Luu-hou, in the spring of 183 B.C., decreed that ironworks and female cattle, sheep and horses be forbidden from export to Nan-yue. Zhao Tuo's emissary was retained in Chang'an the capital; Zhao Tuo's ancestral tombs were dug up; and Zhao Tuo's kinsmen were persecuted and executed. To counter King Changsha, Zhao Tuo allied with the chieftans of Min-yue, Xi-ou and Luo-yue. Zhao Tuo mounted an unsuccessful campaign against Changsha. In Sept of 181 B.C., Luu-hou rescinded the seal of the King of Nan-yue and dispatched troops [under Rong Luuhou] against the south. One year later, the Han army failed to advance while Empress Luu-hou passed away. Zhao Tuo sought for peace again. Emperor Wendi agreed to it. Zhao did not downgrade his title till he was visited by emissary Lu Jia of the new emperor, Han Emperor Wendi (reign B.C. 179-157). Wendi won back Zhao Tuo by repairing Zhao's ancestral graves in Zhending [i.e., Dingzhou of Hebei Province] of northern China.
The Min-Yue Statelet:
King of Min-Yue or Min Yue Statelet, Wuzhu, and King Yao of Dong-Yue, were all descendants of the old Yue Principality from the Warring States period. Their family name was 'Zou'. Both Wuzhu and Yao were downgraded into chieftans after Qin defeated them and reunited China. With the fall of Qin, Min-Yue (Fuzhou, Fujian) and Dong-Ou/Dong-Yue (Wenzhou, Fujian) re-asserted themselves. Previously, Min-Yue and Dong-Ou joined the governor of Fanyang, Wu Rui, namely, the King of the later Changsha Principality, in the uprisings against Qin Empire. General Xiang Yu did not confer them kingship after defeating the Qin Empire. Hence, they allied with Liu Bang in defeating Xiang Yu. They were recognised by both General Xiang Yu and later Han Emperor Liu Bang.
In 202 B.C., Wuzhu was conferred the title as King of Min-Yue by Han Emperor Gaodi (Liu Bang).
The Dong-Yue Statelet:
Sima Qian, in comments about the length of the Min-Yue & Dong-Yue Statelets, said that the 'Yue' People must have inherited Lord Yu's spirits. One claim would put all the Yue people, i.e., Bai Yue or the Hundred Yue People, in the same lineage as Lord Yu's descendants. Min-Yue & Dong-Yue were related to so-called 'Gu-yue' or the Ancient Yue Statelet located in today's Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. (After Han Emperor Wudi defeated Min-Yue and Dong-Ou or Eastern Ou [Dong-Yue], there existed a remnant statelet called Xi-Ou [Western Ou].)
In 192 B.C., Yao was conferred the title as King of Donghai (East Sea) by Han Emperor Huidi. The capital city was in Dong'ou and hence he was referred to as King of Dong'ou. Here, the prefix 'Dong' means eastern. The Dong-Yue Statelet had been upheld by Han Dynasty for its contribution in the uprising against the Qin Empire.
In 135 B.C., namely, the Jianyuan 6th year of Han Emperor Wudi, however, Min-Yue attacked Dong-Ou, and besieged the Dong-Ou capital. Dong-Ou asked for help from the Han court. The Han court relocated the Dong-Ou (Dong-Yue) people northward, to the area between the Yangtze River and the Huai River. Min-Yue took over the vacant land of Dong-Ou (Dong-Yue). In Aug of 135 B.C., King Zou Ying of Min-yue attacked Nan-yue. King Zhao Hu reported to Han Emperor Wudi. Han dispatched an army against Min-yue. Brother Yu-shan killed King Zou Ying with short spear and surrendered Zou Ying's head to Han Emperor Wudi. A grandson of Min-yue founder king Wu-zhu, i.e., Yao-jun [Prince Yao], by the name of Chou, was made into the new king. Since Yu-shan had attempted at kingship, the Han court relocated Yu-shan to Dong-ou to be King of Dong-yue.
Another generation later, after the conquest of Nan-Yue by Han Emperor Wudi, Min-Yue, now also known as Dong-Yue, would be attacked by the Han armies under the pretext that they tried to take advantage of the Han's war with Nan-Yue. A combined force of armies from Yuzhang and ships from the Hangzhou Bay destroyed the state. The Min-Yue people were relocated northward to the areas of the Huai and the Yangtze rivers.
For the next three hundred years, the area of today's Fujian and east of the Wuyishan Mountains would be quiet. It would be until the time of Han Emperor Shundi of the Latter Han Dynasty, in A.D. 138, that the former territory of Dong-Ou would become the county of Yongning-xian.
Hidden Trade Routes of The South:
In 135 B.C., a Han emissary, Tang Meng, was dispatched to the Yelang Statelet. Tang Meng noted that Nan-Yue or the Southern Yue was using soy sauce from today's Sichuan Province. The Yelang Statelet, with 100,000 strong army, was targeted by Han as a ally in the war on the Southern Yue. The Han emissary said that the Zangke River (a place in today's Sichuan Province), by which the Yelang Statelet dwelled, flew into Pany of today's Guangdong Province. Looking at the map, we could assume the ancient Zangke River must have flowed down today's Guizhou Province to converge with the West River of Guangdong Province.
Around 122 B.C., Zhang Qian saw cloth of today's Sichuan in Bactria (i.e., Afghanistan) and reported that he saw the Zangke bamboo products and Sichuan clothing which the Bactrian merchants said were shipped over from India. Emperor Wudi then ordered 4 search teams to the southwest in search of a route to India. Earlier, from the mouth of a defector Hun, Wudi learnt about a country called the Yeh-chih Major to the west of the Huns. Hence, he sent an emissary called Zhang Qian, a Hun guide called Tangyifu and 100 people on a trek across the west. Zhang et al. were arrested by the Huns soon, and he was forced to live among the Huns for dozens of years, married and born two children. Zhang, however, did not forget about Wudi's order. He fled with his Hun guide to the west and reached the state of Da'yuan (Fergana. With the assistance from the Da'yuan king, he was escorted to Kangju where the Kanju king assisted him further on his trip to Bactria, the new home where the Yeh-chih Major people settled down.
The trade route through the southwest was named 'Shu Yuan Du Dao', i.e., the Sichuan-Indu Road, that could penetrate Piao (i.e., Burma) to arrive in India. From Sichuan to Yunnan, two paths, Zhuti-dao and Lingguan-dao, existed before they converged into Chuxiong. The segment from Chuxiong to Burma was named Bonan-dao, named after the Bonan Mountain in today's Dali-zhou Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Han Emperor Wudi, in 105 B.C., established, along the Bonan-dao Path, four counties of Yunnan-xian (Xiangyun), Xianlong-xian (Weishan), Yeyu-xian (Dali), and Bisu-xian (Yunlong), and two more counties of Buwei-xian and Suitang-xian to the south of Bonan Mountain. In 69 B.C., Bonan-xian County was set up in today's Yongping of Yunnan Province.
Han's Conquest Of the Southern Statelets
In 137 B.C., Zhao Tuo passed away at the age of over 100. Grandson Zhao Hu succeeded him. In Aug of 135 B.C., King Zou Ying attached Nan-yue. Zhao Hu reported to Han Emperor Wudi, and Han dispatched army against Min-yue. Brother Yu-shan killed King Zou Ying by short spear and surrendered the head to Han Emperor Wudi. Zhao Hu then dispatched Prince Ying-qi to Chang'an the Han capital. Ying-qi did not return till 122 B.C. when Zho Hu fell ill. Ying-qi assumed the kingship till he passed away in 112 B.C. Zhao Xing, a son born during the stay in Chang'an, succeeded Ying-qi.
Nan-Yue rebelled as a result of its prime minister killing the young king, Zhao Xing, the great grandson of Zhao Tuo. This had to do with the adultery of the Han emissary with the mother of the Nan-Yue king. Zhao Xing's father was a hostage in the Han court and he married a kind of 'singer' woman; however, this woman was an old mistress of the Han emissary who visited Nan-Yue later. Nan-Yue Prime Minister, with the backing of Zhao Guang (King of Cangwu of Nan-Yue, a place in today's Guangxi Province bordering Guangdong), rebelled against Han. Hen Emperor Wudi intended to call Zhao Xing to the capital. Wudi dispatched Anguo Shaoji [i.e., a lover of Zhao Xing's mother] to Nan-yu as well as stationed Luo Bode's troops at Guiyang to serve as military detente. Prime minister Luu Jia barely escaped from the assassination attempt by Zhao Xing's mother. Wudi then dispatched Haan Qianqiu and 2000 soldiers to the relief of Zhao Xing's mother. Luu Jia and his brother then took initiatives, laid siege of the palace, and killed Zhao Xing, the dowager queen, and Han emissary. Luu Jia erected Zhao Jiande, a son born by Ying-qi with a southern Yue woman, as the new king. Han Qianqiu and 2000 soldiers were destroyed about 20 kilometers away from Fanyu [i.e., Canton]. Han Emperor Wudi sent Lu Bode and several columns of armies, about 100,000 strong, to campaign in southern China. A naval fleet arrived at Panyu, namely, today's Canton, at the mouth of Zhujiang Delta, to attack Nan-Yue from the sea. When the Nan-yue remnants fled to the sea, the fleet pursued them to the Gulf of Tongking in Vietnam. Lu Bode's army sacked Canton in the winter of 111 B.C., and killed Luu Jia and Zhao Jiande. The Nan-yue land, including central and northern parts of today's Vietnam, were made into the commandaries of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yuelin [Guilin], Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, Rinan, Zhuya and Dan'er. The kingdom of Nan-Yue, starting from 207 B.C. and lasting five generations, continued under Zhao Tuo and his successors for almost a hundred years until it was reconquered by the armies of Emperor Wudi in 111 B.C.
The southern barbarians in today's Guizhou and Sichuan provinces were called upon as auxiliaries in the campaign against Nan Yue. But they killed a Han emissary. The Han armies killed a chief of the southern barbarians and made the territory into the Zangke (Yangke?) Commandary, namely, today's Guizhou Province, in 111 B.C. Four more commandaries were set up southwest of today's Sichuan, including the Yuesui Commandary (today's southwestern Sichuan and northern Yunnan), Shenli Commandary (today's Daduhe River area in Sichuan Prov), Wenshan Commandary (today's Wenchuan and Songpan of western Sichuan Province) and Wudu Commandary (today's southern Gansu and southern Shenxi Province). The Yelang Statelet was pacified and conferred kingship. Dian, aka Shoumi-guo, which Scholar Zhan Quanyou stated was built upon a Shoumi tribal statelet, was the next target. Two years later, the Han Emperor mobolized the armies of Ba and Shu (i.e., Sichuan) for a southern campaign, exterminated the tribal statelets of Laojin (i.e., today's Malong) and Mimo (today's Qujing) in today's eastern Yunnan Prov, and amassed the army forces onto the Dian Kingdom and forced it into submission. In 109 B.C., the Dian Kingdom was conferred the title as king, with a gold seal. (In November 1956, excavation of the Shizhaishan Mountains tombs in Jinning produced a royal gold seal bearing the Han Dynasty's conferred title of 'Seal Of King Dian' in addition to bronze musical instruments and swords with gold sheath.) The Yizhou Commandary, with governor office at today's Jinning of Yunnan, was set up to control the domain. In western Yunnan, Buwei County, i.e., today's Baoshan, was setup, and in the south, Laiwei County (today's Laizhou Prov of Vietnam) was set up.
In southwestern China, the local resistance to sinicization was occasionally successful. In the Latter Han Dynasty, Han would have to re-assert its influence that was lost due to the intermittent dynastic substitution by the Xin Dynasty. In 36 A.D., one group of the Li-ren barbarians, who were said to be affiliated with the Lao-ren barbarian, sought suzerainty with the Chinese court. However, in A.D. 40, some Yue (Vietnamese) women, i.e., the Zheng (or Trung) sisters, rebelled with support from the Li-ren barbarians from Jiuzhen, Rinan and Hepu. Ma Yuan, a former general under Kui Xiao, undertook the Jiaozhi (cross toes, namely, Cochinchina) campaign in today's central and northern Vietnam, where he quelled the rebellion of the Trung sisters in A.D. 43.
The non-Chinese people of the Wuling commandery, especially the people in Wuqi ["Five Gorges"], on the upper reaches of the Yuan River, by the present-day Hunan-Guizhou border, defeated the local Han army in 48 A.D. General Ma Yuan would mount a full campaign in the south. General Ma Yuan erected the bronze monuments in eulogy of his victories. He erected a kind of gate on the West River. Ma Yuan went further southward and set up some bronze monuments in Champa, in today's central to southern Vietnam. "The New History Of Tang Dynasty" recorded that there were ten households in the name of Ma dwelling in the Champa area. Those people refused to return to China with General Ma. 500 years later, by Sui Dynasty, the ten families had multiplied into 300 households.
The Wuling commandery had a major rebellion in the early 160s A.D. In A.D. 178, the Wuhu [Wuqi?] barbarians in Jiaozhi [northern Vietnam] and Hepu [along the Guangdong-Guangxi border], i.e., the land of Xi-ou and Luo-yue, rebelled. The Wuhu [Wuqi] barbarians, with a recorded cannibalism habit of eating the first-born sons, continued rebellion during the Three Kingdoms period. During the Three Kingdoms time period, Zhuge Liang, prime minister of Shu State, had once campaigned against the southern barbarians led by someone called Meng Huo. Legends said that Zhuge Liang captured Meng Huo seven times and set him free for sake of captivating the hearts of the southern barbarians.
The 'MAN' Barbarians
In the Prehistory section, we mentioned the terminology of 'Nan Man', namely, southern barbarians. The 'Man' designation is categorical. Chinese classics said the 'Man' barbarians were the descendants of Pan Hu. The Quanrong or Doggy Rong in northwestern China, i.e., ancestors of later Huns, were said to be descendants of Pan-hu, too.
The 'Man' people were not a group of passive people as they seemed. They had rebelled against the Chinese numerous times. They also expanded into Chinese territories frequently. In the valley of the Xiangjiang River, there was a major rebellion in A.D. 157, and rebellion was seen in the northern part of Changsha, Hunan Province. Disturbances were seen in Xiangjiang River basin and extended across the Nan Ling Mountains to the south. Rebellions were quelled in A.D. 164.
By the time of the Three Kingdoms, the 'Man' had migrated out of southwestern China and the Three Gorges areas. According to "History of The North Dynasties", the 'Man' people were scattered between the Yangtze River and the Huai River. They were seen as east as Shouchun of Anhui Province, as west as Sichuan Province, and as north as Henan Province. They were not a threat during Ts'ao Ts'ao Wei Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms time period. But they began to multiply by the end of Jinn Dynasty. As a result of devastation dealt by Hunnic Han & Zhao Dynasties, the central areas of China became vacant. Hence, the 'Man' people began to migrate northward.
In A.D. 386, Toba set up Wei Dynasty and controlled the areas around the Yellow River. In A.D. 423, a 'Man' king called Mei An led a column of a thousand people on a pilgrimage to Toba Wei's capital. They requested for their prince to be a hostage with Toba Wei. This 'Man' prince, Mei Bao, was later conferred the title of governor of Jiangzhou Prefecture and the Duke of Shunyang. Another 'Man' king, Wenwulong, surrendered to the Tobas and was conferred the title of governor of Southern Yongzhou Prefecture and Marquis of Luyang. One more 'Man' king, called 'Taiyang Man' or the sun 'Man', by the name of Heng Dan, surrendered his 80,000 households to the Toba, and they were located in the ancient Mian-Shui River areas (in today's Shaanxi-Hubei Provinces). Heng Dan was conferred the title of governor of Eastern Jingzhou Prefecture and King of Xiangyang. Heng Dan, however, was the son of ex-Jin general Heng Xuan (who had at one time deposed the Eastern Jinn emperor in an abortive rebellion). Heng Dan, still a boy, fled to the barbarians for asylum after Heng Xuan's failure in rebellion against Eastern Jinn Dynasty.
The 'Man' people were kind of sanwiched between Toba Wei and the southern dynasties of the Chinese. They rebelled against Toba Wei, and some fled to southern dynasties for protection. One group was relocated to Yangzhou Prefecture under Southern Liang Dynasty (AD 502-557). Li-ren barbarians, who supported Trung sisters in 1st century, were recorded to be active in Cangwu-Yuelin-Hepu-Ningpu-Gaoliang, and have rebelled against Yuelin [Guilin] and killed Xun Xiang the magistrate of Southern Liang Dynasty in A.D. 502.
When Toba Wei underwent Hunnic rebellions in the north, the 'Man' people around the Three Gorges and today's Hubei Province rebelled as well. In A.D. 566, Northern Zhou (AD 551-587) armies, under Lu Teng and Sima Yi, dealt the Three Gorges 'Man' a devastating defeat, and tens of thousands of skulls were piled up as a warning to the 'Man' people. "History of The North Dynasties" said that in A.D. 572, the 'Man' people stopped rebellion.
The 'Lao-ren' Barbarians
The 'Lao-ren' Barbarians would be alternative race of 'Nan Man', i.e., southern barbarians. They scattered in various parts of Sichuan Province as well as Hanzhong region. When Li Shi's Di[1] people took over Sichuan and overthrew Jinn Dynasty's ruling, the 'Lao-ren' people began to migrate out of their traditional Sichuan Prov lands of Baxi, Guanghan, Quchuan, Yang'an and Zizhong. Li Shi's Cheng Han Dynasty was commented to have perished as a result of external attacks and internal attacks, with the internal being from the 'Lao-ren' barbarians. The external attacks would be from Eastern Jinn Dynasty General Heng Wen. "History of Northern Dynasties" said that Heng Wen, after taking over Sichuan from Cheng Han Dynasty, failed to control the 'Lao-ren' people. Once the Sichuan people relocated eastward, the 'Lao-ren' people took over the vacated lands of Sichuan. Some of the 'Lao-ren' people co-habitated with the so-called 'Xia' people or Chinese. By the time of Southern Liang Dynasty, the 'Lao-ren' people would become sandwiched between Toba Wei Dynasty and Southern Liang Dynasty. The 'Lao-ren' people rebelled against Northern Zhou Dynasty frequently. Later, Tang Dynasty records continued to show that 'Lao-ren' people constantly staged rebellions against the Chinese.
The 'Lao-ren' people, together with 'Li-ren', 'Lang-ren', 'Yan-ren' and 'Wei-ren', had been categorically called Bai-yue People or Hundred Yue People. Scholar Wang Zhonghan stated that Lao-ren could mean the same as Luo character in ancient Luo-yue people, and would be equivalent to Lao character in Gelao-zu minority. Lao-ren originated from the land of ancient Ye-lang statelet [i.e., Zangke Commandary] and the intersection land of Xinggu-jun Commandary (i.e., between Zangke and Yizhou [Sichuan]), with a territory covering Yunnan-Guizhou provinces and joint areas of Hubei-Sichuan provinces. Over a dozen prefixed Lao-ren terms had appeared in ancient classics, with some in combination with Wuhu [Wuwu] barbarian, Li-ren barbarian, Dong barbarian, and Tu barbarian etc. Lao-ren barbarians were recorded to have copper metallergy but still adopted sacrificial ritual in striping human face skin to make 'ghosts'. Moreover, Lao-ren barbarians had a tradition of selling live persons in exchange for cattle and dogs.
Possibly mixed up with the 'Man' barbarians in section above, Lao-ren barbarians had a similar migration story: They began to dominate Sichuan Prov after General Heng Wen [i.e., son-in-law of Eastern Jinn Emperor Mingdi] sacked Sichuan Prov. By A.D. 514, living under newly established Bazhou prefecfture set up by Toba Wei Dynasty would be 200,000 households of "cooked Lao-ren households", not to mention the raw Loa-ren. In A.D. 556, Mulong-lao barbarian in Lingzhou [Renshou county of Sichuan] rebelled, and Western Toba Wei General Lu Teng killed and captured 150,000 of the rebels. (In A.D. 566, Northern Zhou (AD 551-587) armies, under Lu Teng and Sima Yi, dealt the Three Gorges 'Man' a devastating defeat, and tens of thousands of skulls were piled up as a warning to the 'Man' people.) In A.D. 562, Lu Teng defeated Tieshan-lao barbarian, killed and captured 4,000, and pacified 30000 households.
The 'Pu-ren' Barbarians
Ancestors of Pu people, at the time of Shang-Zhou transition, i.e., 1122 B.C., lived to the south of Han-shui River, somewhere between Sichuan and Hubei provinces. "Shi Ji" recorded that Zhou King Wuwang, calling his troops by the name of 'people from the west', had included eight barbarian statelets as allies, including the Qiangs from today's Gansu, the Shu-Sou-Mao-Wei statelets in today's Sichuan Province, Lu and Peng from the northwest, and Yong and Pu south of the Han-shui River.
Cai Ah-dong stated that Benglong-zu (De'ang-zu), Bulang-zu and Wa-zu all belonged to ancient Pu people, and they are close to Khmer in language.
The Vietnamese
Vietnam was historically restricted to today's northern Vietnam and parts of China's Guangxi-Yunnan Provinces. The word 'viet' means the same as 'Yue', while 'nam' means southern. It was called Jiaozhi in Chinese history. It fell under Chinese influence beginning from Qin Empire. Zhao Tuo's Nan-Yue Statelet took Jiaozhi as a prefecture. Today's Vietnamese belonged to the same group as Jing-zu minority in China's Guangxi Prov. Vietnamese, the equivalent of Jing-zu minority in China's Guangxi Prov, certainly have their ancestry in southern China that we had explored above. Vietnamese, from the perspective of geography, should belong to the ancient Hundred Yue family.
During the early conquest, Qin mobilized an army of 100 to 200 thousand people, mostly consisting of the so-called outcasts of then China, i.e., the men who lived in wives' homes after the marriage and the merchants whose occupation was deemed the lowest in then society. History recorded that altogether 500,000 people, again consisting of the disgraced men and the merchants, were relocated to southern China by Qin Shihuangdi. This explains the fact that today's Guangdong Province still possesses the most variety of ancient Chinese dialects.
The people of Vietnam was an interesting group. They differ from Burmese and Thai people who were descendants of the Nan-Zhao refugees. They have a good mixture of Chinese and Austro heritage. The reason I said Vietnam was restricted to the northern part of today's Vietnam is that there existed many statelets in today's southern and central Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Chinese history recorded that the people living to the south of Vietnamese, in both Linyi (Champa) and Funan, possessed curly hair, a Negroid characteristic that has more to do with Dravidians of India. "History of Northern Dynasties" mentioned that the people of Linyi possessed relatively deep-socket eyes and higher nose bridge, which further supported the previous claim that the ancient people of southern Vietnam were Indians. "History of Sui Dynasty" stated further that the people of Linyi (Champa) possessed dark skin and curly hair, and that after first Sui Emperor Yangdi conquered Southern Chen Dynasty in A.D. 589, Linyi sent in tributes. Linyi stopped tributes till Sui armies, led by General Liu Fang, attacked them in A.D. 604. (Sui Emperor, in addition to attacking Linyi, had invaded Ryukyu.) According to "History of Sui Dynasty", further to the southwest of Linyi (Champa) would be a statelet called Zhenla (Chang-la or Chenla), a vassal of Funan. Zhenla (Chang-la) male population were recorded to be small in size but dark in skin, but some females were said to have lighter skin. Chang-la people all had curly hair. To the west of Zhenla (Chang-la) would be a statelet called Zhu-jiang, and to the south Che-qu. Numerous statelets existed further, with rulers carrying Indian names. It is no strange to see this phenomenon when we examined the history of southeast Asia as a whole to find that Indian influence had spread across the whole area much before the Chinese poked their nose in the same area.
In the 110s B.C., General Lu Bode (carrying the same title of 'Quelling Sea Waves' as the later General Ma Yuan) was ordered by Han Emperor Wudi to campaign in the south, and he first set up Rinan Commandary. The Linyi (Champa) Statelet would be where the Xianglin County of Rinan Commandary was. At the beginning of Later Han, Ma Yuan campaigned against the rebellion led by the Zheng (or Trung) sisters in the region of the Red River between 40 and 43 AD. General Ma Yuan erected two bronze pillars here as a demarcation line of Han China's boundary. "History Of Liang Dynasty" said that in the demise years of Han Dynasty, a county clerk, by the name of Qu Da, killed the county sheriff of Xianglin and declared himself a king. After several generations, the throne passed on to a nephew called Fan Xiong. By A.D. 337, someone called Nuwen usurped the Linyi Kingdom throne. Nuwen was originally a servant under Fan Zhi the county sheriff of Xijuan County of Rinan Commandary. Governor-general of Jiaozhi Prefecture was in charge of Rinan Commandaries. But Nuwen and his son and grandson kept attacking Rinan Commandary for generations. Nuwen killed Xiahou Lan (the chief of Rinan Commandary) in A.D. 347 and stayed put in the capital of Rinan Commandary for 3 years.
Vietnam hence began as two states, a northern statelet called Annam (Nam Viet or Dai Viet) under Chinese influence and a southern one called Champa that displayed strong Indian influences. The southern Vietnamese kings are simlar to Cambodian kings, like in the names of Rudravarman etc.
Annam: Chinese records did not give any claim to native dynasties in Northern Vietnam. One alternative Vietnamese account treated Zhao Tuo, the king of Nan-yue statelet of Guangzhou (Canton), as the first emperor of Vietnam. As we mentioned earlier, the first record of dynastic nature in Vietnam would be attributed to Fan Xiong of Champa, in Central and Southern Vietnam, around 270 AD. In Northern Vietnam, there was the claim of Thuc Dynasty set up by An Duong during 257-207 B.C. Zhao Tuo's Nan-Yue expanded into Northern Vietnam by this time. Zhao Tuo is also spelled as Chao Tuo or Trieu Da. Thereafter, there was the claim of Nan Viet's Chieu Dynasty, with rulers of following reign years: Vo Vuong (207-137 B.C.), Van Vuong (137-125 B.C.), Minh Vuong (125-113 B.C.), Ap Vuong (113-111 B.C.), Duong Vuong (111 B.C.). General Lu Bode of Han China would campaign against Southern and Central Vietnam after Han's conquest of Nan-Yue in 111 B.C. Rinan Commandary was set up. General Ma Yuan quelled the rebellion led by the Zheng (or Trung) sisters between 40 and 43 AD. In the demise years of Han Dynasty, a county clerk, by the name of Qu Da, killed the county sheriff of Xianglin and declared himself a king. After several generations, the throne passed on to a nephew called Fan Xiong. By A.D. 337, someone called Nuwen usurped the throne of Linyi Kingdom (Champa). Nuwen killed Xiahou Lan (the chief of Rinan Commandary) in A.D. 347. Then, there was the Vietnamese claim of Li (Ly) Dynasty (111 B.C. - 544 AD), and thereafter Vietnames produced names of kings like Bon (544-548 AD), Kuang Phuc (548-571 AD), Thien Bao (549-555 AD), Phat Tu (571-603 AD). Chinese records showed that Sui and Tang had re-asserted control over Annam. By A.D. 603, Sui China re-conquered Northern Vietnam and attacked Champa in Central Vietnam. Another Vietnamese dynasty, Ngo Dynasty, would emerge at 939 AD. Tang Dynasty continued Sui policies, and it set up 'Du-hu Fu', i.e., the Protector-General Office of Annam. Tang China divided Ling-nam into two 'dao' units, and Annam was a part. China controlled Northern Vietnam for a short time period of 965-968. Song Dynasty conferred the title of King Jiaozhi-jun onto a person called Ding Buling of Dinh Dynasty (968-981). Ding Lian, the son of Ding Buling, assumed the same title of King of Jiaozhi Commandary. After another three generations, someone called Li Gongyun usurped the kingdom and was validated by Song China. Li family (i.e., Le Dynasty 981-1009) ruled for eight generations till it was usurped by someone. The son-in-law of this usurper would be King Tran Nhon-ton (Chen Ri-xuan). Rough timelines for the dynasties will be like: Ngo Dynasty 939-965, Dinh Dynasty 968-981, Le Dynasty 981-1009, Later Li 1010-1072, Latter Le 1072-1225, Tran Dynasty 1225-1400, Ho Dynasty 1400-1407. In between, the Mongol army, after conquering Dali in Yunnan, Shanshan statelet in Chinese Turkistan and Tibetan Plateau, would briefly invade Vietnam. Subetei's son was ordered to march to the southwest and he conquered various southwestern statelets and tribes such as Baiman, Wuman, Guiman, Luoluosi, A'bo and A'lu etc. Tonkin or Annam (northern Vietnam) was invaded. In 1257, Vietnamese king, by the name of Chen, fled to an island and Hanoi was sacked. Vietnamese king surrendered and Mongols left after a stay of nine days. In A.D. 1280s, Khubilai Khan, for sake of his wars with Champa, had few wars with Annam when Annam king refused to lend the path to the Mongols. After losing wars to Champa and Annam, Mongols later mounted futile overseas campaigns against Java.
Ming China controlled Northern Vietnam for a short time period of 1407-1428. Then came: Latter Le 1428-1527,
Mac Dynasty 1527-1533,
Nguyen Dynasty 1533-1802-1883.
France, whose priests were killed in the struggle with Tibetan lamaists in Tibet from 1845 to 1861, mounted invasions against Vietnam and Guangxi-Yunnan provinces of southwestern China since the 1860s-70s. From 1858 to 1862, France obtained the control of Southern Vietnam from the Nguyen Dynasty. In A.D. 1873, French expeditionary force attacked Hanoi of Vietnam. Vietnamese King requested for relief with "hei qi jun" [i.e., "seven star black flag" army] led by a Chinese rebel called Liu Yongfu. The "black flag army" originated from the Wu Lingyun & Wu Yazhong Zhuang-zu minority rebellion in Xinning prefecture of Guangxi Province, consisting of people from Shangsi, Ningming, Chongzuo, Jingxi, Mubian and Qinzhou. It was part of uprisings conducted by "Tian [heaven] Di [earth] Hui [society]" to echo the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Rebellion. While seeking asylum inside of Vietnam, Liu Yongfu got the opportunity to fight for Vietnam and China. In Dec of 1873, The "black flag army", about 1000 strong, after trekking through the mountains, suddenly descended upon the outskirts of Hanoi, defeated the French to the west of Hanoi, and expelled them out of the Red River Delta. French lost about 200 soldiers, including commander by the name of An-ye. Vietnamese King conferred the title of 'deputy general" onto Liu Yongfu. In 1875, "black flag army" continued to engage the French around Hanoi, Nanding and Zhiqiao area.
In A.D. 1882, France attacked Hanoi and northern Vietnam again. French took over Hanoi and Nanding. Vietnamese King called for help with "black flag army" again. In Tianjin, Li Hongzhang held a talk with French minister-envoy Bao-hai and agreed to wthdraw Chinese forces from Sino-Vietnamese border. France then asked its minister-envoy to Japan, Te-li-gu, to have a meeting with Li Hongzhang in Shanghai for another revision of agreements in regards to Vietnam. The next year, 1883, French launched a campaign against the area to the north of Hanoi. At the request of Vietnamese King, Liu Yongfu led his "black flag army" down the Red River. On May 19th 1883, at the western outskirts of Hanoi, "black flag army" defeated the French again, inflicting a casualty of 30 French officers and 200 soldiers. A French colonel by the name of Li-wei-ye was killed. French retreated back to Hanoi. In late 1883, France conferred the commander post onto Courbet, Amede'e Anatole Prospor [Gu-ba] . About 6000 French attacked Manchu Qing Army and "black flag army". "black flag army" resisted the French for five days and exited Shan-xi area of Vietnam. The "black flag army", with soldiers from Yao-zu, Zhuang-zu and Han-ethnic people, would fight against the French in Huaide & Danfeng area of northern Vietnam.
In May of 1884, Li Hongzhang reached an agreement with French Fu-lu-nuo in Tianjin, which basically yielded China's suzerainty over Vietnam to France. However, French government raised a new demand in having China reimburse 250,000,000 francs [equivalent to 38 million taels of silver] to France via a threat of naval attacks at China's coastline. In Vietnam, French launched a two prong attack at Manchu Qing Army and "black flag army in May of 1884. On the sea, France launched a sudden attack at Jilong [Keelung] of Taiwan, and occupied the battery at one time. In mid-July of 1884, 12 French warships and 9 auxiliary ships sailed into Mawei-gang Port in Fuzhou of Fujian Province. Though being equipped with seven batteries, Manchu government allowed the French to moor side by side for 40 days without taking any action other than providing luxury reception to the invaders. Zhang Peilun, i.e., son-in-law of Li Hongzhang, had received instruction that China should not fire the first shot, again using the bookish Confucian mindset against predatory animals. In the morning of Aug 23rd, French consul at Fuzhou suddenly notified Manchu China of a war declaration. Meantime, French warships, within one hour, sank 11 Manchu warships and 19 merchant ships, in addition to the shipyard of Fuzhou Ship Administration Bureau. This is what I called here as a "Pearl Harbor" style attack at Fujian Province Fleet by the French. Manchu China hence officially declared war on France. (Before any Chinese talk about Sino-French friendship, pause for a few seconds to reflect what had happened to China here.)
In Vietnam, the western prong of the French Army was hindered by the "black flag army", while the eastern prong pushed the Manchu Qing Army towards the Chinese border. In late 1884, at the western prong, the "black flag army", in cooperation with Manchu Qing Army, surrounded about 1000 French in Xuanhua city. Additionally, the "black flag army" ambushed about 500 French relief army from Hanoi via buried powder.
By Dec of 1884 [solar calendar?], eastern French prong took over Mt Liangshan and approached Zhennanguan Pass, at the Sino-Vietnamese border, and sacked the pass on Dec 23rd. In Feb of 1885, Manchu Governor for Guangxi Province fled to Longzhou. To counter French attacks, Manchu government dispatched General Feng Zicai to Longzhou & Zhennanguan Pass. Per Wang Zhonghan, minority people, numbering 100 battalions or 50000, joined the anti-French armies. At about 5 kilometer inside of Zhennanguan Pass, Feng Zicai constructed a 1.5 kilometer wall at Guanqianai as well as five batteries on the two ridges overlooking the entry of the mountain ranges. On the early morning of March 23rd 1885, French launched two prong attacks at the eastern ridge and one prong attack at the Guanqianai Wall. French overlook three batteries on the ridge and blasted at the Guanqianai Wall. General Feng Zicai mounted a counter-attack at Zhennanguan Pass. By late afternoon, two batteries were recovered from the eastern ridge. The next day, French mounted another three prong attacks, with 2000 and hundreds of cannons on each front. When the French climbed up the Guanqianai Wall, Feng Zicai and his two sons led the soldiers out of the gate for a wrestling fight with the French. On March 25th, after two days and two nights fighting, Feng Zicai ordered a general attack. French left about 1500 corpses behind. Chinese took over the Zhennanguan Pass, chased the French, and thereafter took over Mt Liangshan. Manchu army killed a dozen French officers and over 2000 soldiers. While General Feng Zicai re-took the pass and chased the French to the east, "black flag army" defeated the French at Lintao to the west. After victory in Lin-tao, the "black flag army" recovered over 10 counties and prefectures. With French Army defeated, French in Paris mounted an anti-war protest. Ru-fei-li Cabinet collapsed. Taking advantage of two victories on east and west sides, Li Hongzhang, on April 7th, issued an order of ceasefire. In June of 1885, Li Hongzhang, in Tianjin, signed a peace treaty with the French minister-envoy, i.e., Sino-French Vietnam Treaty of 1885, and ordered that all soldiers and troops return inside of China.
Japanese invaded in 1940.
In 1954, communists took over Northern Vietnam.
Champa: Champa would be the statelet Chinese records claimed Fan Hiong (Xiong) set up around 270 AD. Vietnamese records showed an Indian king by the name of Sri Mara ruling a so-called first dynasty from 192 A.D. onward. The Indian king, by the name of Bhadravarman I, would return to the reign around 377 AD. This would be after one hundred years of ruling by the Fan family: Fan Hiong c. 270, Fan Yi c. 284-336, Fan Wen 336-349, and Fan Fo 349-?. http://www.seacrc.org/media/pdfiles/ChamBook.pdf had a good article exploring into the Champa people. It mentioned that "in 1905 A. Cabaton, in an article published in the Journal Asiatique (Dix Dialectes Indochinois recueillis par Prosper Oden hal), introduced a classification of the Indochinese languages based on lexical similarities. He grouped them in three families: Mon-Khmer, Tai and Burman-Tibetan, and Malayo-Polynesian. He classified Cham and related languages under the latter category.
Mongols Wars With Champa & Annam   Champa, located to the south of Annam, refused to acknowledge being a vassal of the Mongols. Mongols, under Suodu, departed Canton with over thousand ships. Champa boasted an army of 200,000. After being defeated by the Mongols, Champa prince fled to the mountains and sent a minister to the Mongol camp for surrender. Unguarded, Suodu was later defeated by a Champa ambush. Suodu requested for relief army. Khubilai ordered that his ninth son, Duohuan, i.e., King of Zhennan (i.e., quelling the south), lead an army southward via Annam. Annam King agreed to supply grains, but refused to lend the path to the Mongols. The brother of Annam King, Chen Jun, took charge in fighting the Mongols. Annam King sent over one thousand ships to aid his brother. After several rounds of fighting, Annam King requested again that Mongols leave Annam per the treaty signed with Mengke Khan before. Mongols attacked the Annam camp and took over the capital. Annam King fled, and one brother by the name of Chen Yiji surrendered. Mongols met with shortage of grain and pestilence in Annam capital and hence called off the campaign. When fleeing northward, Annam army attacked them with poisonous arrows at a river crossing. Duohuan barely escaped alive. Suodu, not knowing the retreat of Tuohuan, was ambushed at another river crossing, and Suodu committed suicide by jumping into the river. Having incurred heavy losses, Khubilai was advised not to attack Annam for now. In A.D. 1284, Khubilai conferred Annam kingship onto Chen Yiji and ordered King of Zhennan Tuohuan to lead a campaign against Annam. Mongols took over Annam capital again, and Annam king fled to the island. By the spring of A.D. 1288, pestilence erupted again. When Mongols retreated, Annam King assembled a land/sea army of 300,000 and circumvented to the hind of the Mongols. Tuohuan barely escaped alive, and he was reprimanded by Khubilai with a prohibition to return to Peking. Annam king, however, sent over a gold statute and requested for amnesty. Khibilai hence sufficed with the status of Annam. Burma, however, was invaded by another Mongol king and Burma acknowledged vassalage.
http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html has a good account of early Vietnam:
    "During Later Han, there was major development of Chinese colonisation in the whole region of Jiao province. In the eastern part of the territory, Nanhai commandery extended up the Beijiang River (North River) to the border with Guiyang commandery in Jing province, and up the system of the Dongjiang River (East River) and along the coast as far as present-day Shantou. Cangwu, with its capital by present-day Wuzhou, controlled the lower reaches of the present-day Xijiang River (West River), known at that time as the Yu River, and notably its northern tributary the Gui River, then known as the Li, which joined the Ling Qu Canal. ... Upstream of Cangwu, Yulin commandery controlled the main stream of the West River and its tributary the Liu River. The capital of the commandery was at the river junction by present-day Guiping in Guangxi. ..
    ... Vietnam ... The major administrative units were the commanderies of Jiaozhi, on the Red River delta, with its capital at Longbian by present-day Hanoi, Jiuzhen, with its capital at Xupu, near Thanh Hoa in northern Vietnam, and Rinan, which was based upon Xiquan, near present-day Quang Tri. .. At the beginning of Later Han imperial authority was confirmed by the campaigns of Ma Yuan against the rebellion led by the Zheng (or Trung) sisters in the region of the Red River between 40 and 43 AD. .. For a hundred years after Ma Yuan put down the rebellion of the Trung sisters, the imperial authority remained largely intact, despite endemic small-scale rebellion ... In 136, however, there was a great uprising, chiefly by the Cham people from the south, which overwhelmed the greater part of Rinan Commandery, and made heavy inroads into Jiuzhen. Moreover, when troops were raised in Jiaozhi to oppose the rebels, these men in turn broke out in mutiny, and the whole imperial position in the region was threatened... There were, however, continued disturbances in the region of Vietnam during 144, 157 and 160, and troubles with the mountain people of the north, in present-day Guangxi and Guizhou. At the extremity of the empire, Rinan Commandery below the 16th parallel appears to have been lost, and the non-Chinese kingdom of Linyi was established in the region of Hue, extending south beyond present-day Da Nang. Further around the coast, on the Mekong Delta, the kingdom of Funan, which traded regularly with the Han empire, and which was developing political authority along the eastern coast of the Malay peninsula and a dominance of the regional trade, was powerful enough and sufficiently distant to avoid any military confrontation.
http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html further said that the population of Jiaozhi commandery, in 2 AD, before the rebellion and partial withdrawal of the late 130s, had reached three quarters of a million people, Jiuzhen commandery increased by about a quarter, from 166,013 to 209,894 at the same time, and Rinan gained more than 40 per cent from just under 70,000 to just over 100,000. Jiaozhi commandery provided a prosperous hinterland for trade and influence by land and sea, northeast across the modern frontier into the upper reaches of the West River, northwest into present-day Kunming in Yunnan (administered by Yizhou Commandery) where Later Han claimed suzerainty over the Ailao people and the new commandery of Yongchang about the Dali Lake."

Cuan Family Influence For 400 Years
Scholar Zhang Zengqi stated that in ancient times, there existed two groups of people with husbandry and agriculture modes of life in Erhai area; that Kunming-man around Lanchangjiang River Valley were native husbandry people who entered Erhai in 12th century B.C. and later merged with Ailao-yi after Nanzhao Statelet defeated them during Tang Dynasty time period; that part of Kunming-man would become later Wa-zu (Wabeng-zu); that Siyu-man (aka Yeyu-man) were the native agriculture people in Erhai Lake area who later were relocated to Dianchi Lake by Nanzhao Statelet during Tang Dynasty time period; that Baopu-man, a group belonging to Khemers, entered Erhai area about 8-6th century B.C.; that Bo-ren, who originally dwelled in eastern Yunnan Prov, would enter Erhai area about 1st-8th century A.D. and become later Bai-man (i.e., today's Bai-zu minority); and that Ailao-yi, ancestors of today's Yi-zu minority who originally dwelled in Yongchang and Ailao-shan Mountain area, would establish the Nan-zhao Statelet under the support of Tang Dynasty and Bai-man.
Han Chinese heavily immigrated into southwest China at the time when Han Emperor Wudi first established Yizhou-jun Commandary in 109 B.C. Death row convicts as well as manipulative merchants were dispatched to the southwest. Out of the Han Chinese who stationed in Yunnan Prov would emerge several big families, including the 'Cuan' family which claimed to have ancestry in ancient lord Zhuanxu. Cuan-shi, like other big families of Chinese ancestry, gradually inter-married with natives and took over the tribal chieftan titles like 'yi-shuai' (i.e., alien or barbarian marshal). Scholar Zhan Quanyou stated that Western Han's colonization was centered around Dianchi Lake while Eastern Han pushed westward to Erhai Lake area. In 51 AD, Ailao-yi submitted to Han China. In 69 AD, Han Dynasty established Yongchang-jun Commandary by merging Ailao (today's Tengchong, Longling and Dehong counties), Bonan (today's Yongping county) and Yizhou Commandary, with a census data of 200,000 households or 1,890,000 heads.
By 220 AD, Southwest China, called Nanzhong at the time, fell under the influence of Shu-Han Dynasty of the Three Kingdom time period. Shu-Han Prime Minister Zhuge Liang campaigned against rebellious chieftans in A.D. 225. Rebellious chieftans included Meng Huo and Yong Kai of Yizhou-jun and Gao Ding (aka Gao Dingyuan) of Yuesui-jun (Yuexi?), and submissive chieftan would be Luu Kai of Yongchang-jun. Zhuge Liang, after pacifying Gao Dingyuan and Meng Huo, rezoned Yizhou-jun (with capital at today's Qujing of Yunnan Province) into Jianning-jun Commandary, and carved several counties of Yizhou-jun into Yunnan-jun (today's Xiangyun and Dali), Xinggu-jun commandaries. Shu-Han Dynasty possessed 7 commandaries in Southwest China: Jianning-Yongchang-Yunnan-Xinggu in Yunnan, Zangke in Guizhou/Yunnan, Yuesui in Sichuan, and Zhuti (established in Yunnan in 205 AD). Cuan Xi, from Cuan family, who served under Yong Kai, was transferred to Chengdu under the order of Zhuge Liang. After going through turmoils of Western Jinn and Eastern Jinn time periods, Cuan family expanded westward towards the middle and west of Yunnan Prov.
In A.D. 271, Western Jinn established Ningzhou Prefecture on basis of Jianning-Yunnan-Yongchang-Xinggu. In A.D. 279, after unification of China, Western Jinn rezoned the country into 19 prefectures (zhou) and made Ningzhou into one of the 19. Later, Western Jinn changed Ningzhou's rank into so-called 'xiaowei' or colonel for pacifying southern barbarians instead of 'cishi' or circuit inspector, leading to the rebellions by Di[1] people under the leadership of Li Te and Li Xiong in A.D. 301. Western Jinn re-established Ningzhou in A.D. 302. The Di[1] people established the first state of Cheng Han among the Sixteen Nations, and Li Xiong proclaimed himself an emperor in Chengdu in A.D. 306. Western Jinn's circuit inspector Li Yi was killed by the rebels at Qujing in A.D. 307. A new circuit inspector by the name of Wang Xun failed to quell the Di[1] rebellion. In A.D. 322, Eastern Jinn court dispatched Yi Feng to Ningzhou as circuit inspector. Yi Feng, who was guarding the remaining Zhuti and Jianning areas, had to surrender to Di[1] General Li Shou in A.D. 333. Among Eastern Jinn generals who surrendered to Di[1] would be Cuan Shen who was retained by the Di[1] people as an official for Ningzhou (renamed Jiaozhou of Jianning-guo Statelet by Li Xiong's Cheng Han Dynasty). Cuan Family continued its influence in Southwest China till A.D. 747, for about 400 years.

Nan-Zhao & Da-li Statelets
Nan-Zhao & Da-li Statelets remained independent for hundreds of years till it was destroyed by the Mongols. In Nan-Zhao dialect, the word 'zhao' meant king. There are six 'zhao' according to "New History of Tang Dynasty", and Nan-Zhao was the southern-most king of the six. It had a domain connecting to Vietnam to the southeast and Tibet to the northwest. During Three Kingdoms time period, Zhuge Liang, prime minister of Shu State, had once campaigned against this group of people.
During the Tang Dynasty, the Nanzhao arose. Tang Dynasty's demise was commented to have been induced by the failures in its wars with Nan-zhao, not the Huang Chao Rebellion. Nanzhao, Tibet and Tang China had been engaged in triangular warfares for hundred years.
Nanzhao was succeeded by the statelet of Dali (AD 937-1253). The Mongols advanced into present-day Yunnan and destroyed Dali in A.D. 1253. The Mongols set up Yunnan Province. In 1252 and 1253, Khubilai would order Subetei's son to attack Dali (i.e., Nanzhao) in today's southern Chinese province of Yunnan, with three columns. Dali King, Duan Zixing, surrendered. Moslems from northwestern China and Khitans/Dawo'er (Dagur) relocated to the area under Mongol orders.
Tibetans vs Nan-Zhao

Ancient China's Island Policies
Two islands, Taiwan and Hainan Islands were not far away from China's coastline. Their fates are different. Hainan was colonized several times by Han China, but Taiwan was skipped in early efforts. China apparently was not interested in colonizing island of malaria, Taiwan. Early China did possess navy to mount major campaigns, as evidenced by naval operations along the coast of present-day Fujian during the third and second centuries B.C., and etc. The final victory of Han over Nan-Yue in 111 B.C. was achieved by a fleet at Panyu, namely, today's Canton, at the mouth of Zhujiang Delta. The fleet pursued its enemies to the Gulf of Tongking in Vietnam. At the end of Later Han Dynasty, Sun Ce (elder brother of Sun Quan, the founder of Wu Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms) mounted an expedition by sea from Hangzhou Bay to the mouth of the Min River in 196 AD. L Dai of Wu Dynasty attacked the Shi family in Jiaozhi (today's Vietnam) by both land and sea in A.D. 226.
Diplomacy and trade flourished over the seas. In the time of Han Emperor Huandi (reign A.D. 147-167), there was a series of visits from the west, arriving by sea, from the south of Rinan Commandary (today's central Vietnam). Indian envoys were received at the Han Court in A.D. 159 and in A.D. 161, and an emissary from Daqin, i.e., the empire of Rome, arrived in A.D. 166. During China's Three Kingdoms time period, another Roman envoy arrived in Wu Dynasty, and when he left China, he requested with Sun Quan for a dozen pigmy people to be sent to Roman Emperor as a gift. (Sun Quan caught pigmy people somewhere south of the Huai River.) Sun Quan of Wu Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms sent two emissaries, Zhu Ying and Kang Tai on a trip across southeast Asia and the Indian Sub-continet. During A.D. 399-414, one Chinese monk, Fa Shien, had returned to China via sea route, after spending years studying Buddhism in India. By Southern Liang Dynasty, diplomacy and trade far surpassed the level enjoyed in the Han Dynasty.
Under Han China, Hepu commandery was in charge of the shoreline between present-day Guangzhou and Hanoi, including Hainan strait and the Leizhou peninsula. Pearl fisheries were the incentive for Han to exercise control. The West River of today's Guangdong Province was utilized for trading and transportation as well. Hepu county had access by land north across the low and narrow watershed to the West River in Yulin. As noted by http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html, "Hepu was the base for long-distance sea traffic, ... that officials of the emperor's private apartments were sent on missions as far as India to exchange the gold and silks of China for precious stones, curios and trinkets, while the pearls they brought back were as large as two inches diameter, far more valuable than those collected locally. The goods were assessed and traded in the market at Hepu, and then joined the local production of pearls for portage to the West River and then by the rivers and canals to the north."
During the 170s and 180s AD, Han Emperor Lingdi of Later Han sought for the establishment of Gaoliang commandery over east Leizhou peninsula. Attempts were made to establish imperial presence on Hainan Island. At the end of the second century B.C., immediately after the conquest of Nan-Yue, Emperor Wudi set up two commanderies on the island, Dan'er ("drooping ears") and Zhuyai ("shore of pearls"). Frequent rebellions by locals caused Dan'er to be abolished in 82 B.C., and in 46 B.C. Zhuyai. At the beginning of Later Han, a county named Zhuyai was re-established. Han Emperor Mingdi is said to have received tribute from the barbarians of Dan'er.
http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html noted that "during the Han period, ... coastline of present-day Fujian... An outpost of the empire was maintained by the counties of Dongye and Houguan, at the mouth of the Min River by present-day Fuzhou... Something was known of Taiwan, then called simply Yizhou ... "Barbarian Island", but there was no official interest in the place. Further to the north, from the time of Han Emperor Shundi, the county of Yongning occupied the mouth of the Ou River by present-day Wenzhou in southern Zhejiang. None of the coastal settlements, however, appear to have exercised more than nominal control over their hinterland, and there was no drive to do so. The greater part of the mountain country of southeastern China, including all of Fujian, and great areas of eastern Guangdong, southeastern Jiangxi and southern Zhejiang, was unoccupied land outside the frontiers of the empire ..."

1884-1885 Franco-Chinese War Over Vietnam

Japanese Aggression Against Vietnam & Southeast Asia

Vietnamese War



written by Ah Xiang

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Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal

REAL STORY: A Study Group Is Crushed in China's Grip
Beliefs Are Tested in Saga Of Sacrifice and Betrayal
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Republican China in Blog Format
Republican China in Blog Format
Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],