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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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THE MONGOLS - PART I

Mengwu Shiwei
Mongol Tribes & Clans
Genghis Khan's Family Members
Mongol Brutal Conquests
Attack on Tanguts
Attack on Jurchens
Khwarazm Campaign, Fergana Valley Campaign
First European Campaign
Last Campaign of Genghis Khan
Ogedei's Campaigns

Second European Campaign
Toregene, Guyuk
Mengke, Hulegu & Mongol Third Wave To The West
Mengke Khan Attack on Southern Song Dynasty
Khubilai Khan and Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
[ this page: mongolian.htm ] [ next page: mongol.htm ]

 
For details on when the east met with the west, see my recent discussions on the Huns, the Yuezhi, the Tarim Mummies, the Yuezhi-Yushi misnomer, the Mongoloid-Caucasoid admixture at 2000 B.C.E., the fallacy of the Aryan bearing of the Chinese civilization, the fallacy of the Yuezhi jade trade, the Yuezhi migration timeline, as well as the location of the Kunlun Mountain, Queen Mother of the West the proto-Tibetan Qiangic jade trade with the Sinitic Chinese, and the Qiang's possible routes of passages into Chinese Turkestan at http://www.imperialchina.org/Barbarians.htm which was embedded within the Huns.html and Turks_Uygurs.html pages. (Also see my discussion on the ethnic nature of ancient Huns belonging to part of the epic Jiang-rong human migration of the Jiang-surnamed San-miao people and Yun-surnamed Xianyun people.)
 
To expound the myth of the Koreans and the Altaic-speaking people, most recent DNA analyses need to be taken into account. Doctorate Li Hui from Fudan University of China had analyzed the DNA of the Asians to derive a conclusion that the ancestors of the Mongoloid Asians possessed a distinctive Mark M89 by the time they arrived in Southeast Asia. About 30,000 years ago, from the launching pad of Southeast Asia, the early Mongoloids went through a genetic mutation to Marker M122. Li Hui claimed that the early migrants to the Chinese continent took three routes via two entries of today's Yunnan and Guangxi-Guangdong provinces. The interesting theory adopted by Li Hui would be the migration of one more branch of people who, at about 20,000 years or earlier, continued to travel non-stop along the Chinese coastline to reach the Liao-he River area of Manchuria where they developed into what this webmaster called by the Altaic-speaking people, i.e., ancestors of the Turks and the Mongols.
 
Combining Li Hui's study with the pottery excavation, we could see a clear path going north extending from around 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Refer to Yaroslav V. Kuzmin's discourse on potteries to see the path of migration of proto-Mongoloids from southwestern China (approx. 15,120±500 BP) to Northeast Asia (Manchuria [13,000 BP, or c. 14,000 - 13,600 cal BC] and Japan [c. 11,800–10,500 cal BC (c. 13,800 - 12,500 cal BP)]) to Siberia (11,000 BP, or 11,200 - 10,900 cal BC).
 
In the timeframe of about 10,000 years or earlier, developing a genetic mutation to marker M134, one more branch of people who went direct north, per Li Hui, would penetrate the snowy Hengduan Mountains of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to arrive at the area next to the Yellow River bends. This group of people would be ancestors of the Sino-Tibetans. Splitting out of this northbound migrants would be those who went to the east with a new genetic marker M117, i.e., ancestors of the modern Han [a misnomer as the proper term should be Sino-Tibetan, nor the later Sinitic] Chinese. We could say that our Sino-Tibetan ancestors forgot that they had penetrated northward the Hengduan Mountains from the Indo-China "CORRIDOR" in today's Burma-Vietnam. "Walking down Mt Kunlun", i.e., the "collective memory of the ethnic Han Chinese" throughout China and the Southeast Asian Chinese communities, that was echoed in Guo Xiaochuan's philharmonic-agitated epic, would become the starting point of the eastward migration which our Chinese ancestors remembered. (Li Hui grouped the 3000-year-old Chu and Qi people in the same category as the Han Chinese, albeit meeting the ancient classics' records as to the Qi statelet's lineage from the Qiangic-Tibetan Fiery Lord.) This seems to corroborate with Scholar Luo Xianglin's claim that early Sino-Tibetan people originated from the Mt Minshan and upper-stream River Min-jiang areas of today's Sichuan-Gansu provincial borderline and then split into two groups, with one going north to reach the Wei-shui River and upperstream Han-shui River of Shenxi Prov and then eastward to Shanxi Prov by crossing the Yellow River.
 
One more branch of the early Mongoloids, about 10,000 years ago, were commented to have entered China's southeastern coastline with genetic marker M119. Li Hui, claiming the same ancestry as the Dai-zu and Shui-zu minorities of Southwestern China, firmly believed that his ancestors had dwelled in the Hangzhou Bay and the Yangtze Delta for 7-8 thousand years. The people with M119 marker would be the historical "Hundred Yue People". Li Hui then pointed out that the ancient Wu people, with M7 genetic marker, came to the lower Yangtze area about 3000 years ago. While Li Hui claimed that the M7 Wu people had split away from the northbound M134 Sino-Tibetan people, the historical Chinese classics pointed out that the Wu Statelet was established by two uncles of Zhou Dynasty King Wenwang, i.e., migrants from the Yellow River area.
 
As to today's Koreans, this webmaster believed that at most they had a tiny ingredient of this group of early proto-Mongoloid who moved north from 20,000 years ago, just as the Homo sapiens had taken in a portion of the DNA from the Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Li Hui's claim that today's Koreans were the mixtures of the early migrants to Manchuria and the later Yi migrants from Eastern China, did corroborate with this webmaster's historical analysis of the Huns, the Turks and the Mongols -- which yielded the conclusion i) that there was no chance for an east-west cross-traffic through the Gobi (Dazi, Tengri & Liusha [Kumtag]) in prehistory; ii) that the Mongoloid had a pattern of raiding to the west, not the other way around by the Indo-Europeans. The Korean nationalists' claim of a "Siberian origin", in light of the fact that the Koreans had predominantly the O2-haplogroup gene of the Yi/Yue people along the Chinese coast, was unfounded, as well as the Tangun myth --which in my opinion was a 13th century A.D. forgery on basis of the ancient Chinese scholars' statement that the Sushen-shi people at the Japan Sea submitted the tributes (i.e., stone arrows) to China at the time of Lords Yao-Shun-Yu. (See Assertions By Wang Zhonghan for clues as to the relationship between/among the Qiangic Proto-Tibetan, the Sino-Tibetan Jiang-rong (Proto-Hun), and the Altaic Xianbei/Mongols: "the northern barbarians and the western barbarians were similar [i.e., Qiangs] at the Spring-Autumn time period, but by the time of the late Warring States time period, the Chinese began to see the northern barbarians as different from the western barbarians". Namely, the ancient Huns were offsprings of the ancient Sino-Tibetan Jiang-rong people at the Yellow River bends while the Xianbei, the Khitan, the Mongol, the Jurchen and the Manchu people were all related to the Tungusic people from today's Northeastern China.)

* In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949 *
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],
Korean/Chinese Communists & the 1931 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
* Stay tuned for "Republican China 1911-1955: A Complete Untold History" *

 
The Mongol history is a topic widely touched upon, and a good source will be "Mongolia - A Country Study" linked at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/mntoc.html authored by Robert L. Worden and Andrea Matles Savada, eds. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1989. An excerpt could be seen at http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Mongolia.html. Most of the studies concentrated on the Mongols at the time of Chinggis Khan (Jenghiz Khan or Genghis Khan) and his trans-continental empire. What I am interested in is historical authentication, and this kind of research is probably best achieved by Paul Ratchnevsky whose German version of the book, "Genghis Khan: His Life And Legacy" (first published in 1983 by Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH), was transalated into English in 1991 by Blackwell Publishers Ltd. The author thoroughly compared all available records, from "The The Secret History of the Mongols of the Mongols" (military sagas authored around 1228 by Shigi-Khutukhu the adopted son of the Khan), Chinese version "Shenwu Qinzheng Lu (The Campaigns of Genghis Khan)" (derived from Altan Debter-Golden Book, the same source as used by Rashid), "Yuanshi (The History of the Yuan Dynasty)" (edited by Khubilai), Juvaini's "History of the World Conqueror", and two books by Rashid ad-Din the Jewish doctor of the Mongol Il-khans of Persia: "Jami'al-tawrikh (Collected Chronicles)" and "History of the Tribes".
 
Some western scholars, in their description of the Mongol military brutality, would point out that it was Genghis Khan’s Mongols who had helped to lay the foundation of today’s Russia and China. They would further express their admiration for Genghis Khan’s ambition and military feats for uniting the Mongols into a strong nation and his exceptional military talents in defeating any rival in front of him. While it might be true that the Mongols had played a role in forming today’s Russia, it’s definitely not the case with China, a country experiencing integration and disunity in a predictable fashion for the past thousands of years.
 
As to Genghis Khan’s personal traits, they are not very different from other heroes or tyrants in the human history. For Genghis Khan, I will list three as most important of all: revenge, lust, and predacity. Genghis Khan lost his father at an early age, as a result of his father being poisoned by the Ta-ta-er tribe. This is in addition to Ta-ta-ers tribe's betraying his ancestors to the Jurchens. He would be deprived of the tribal privileges by his own people after the death of his father. Hence, Genghis Khan’s life-time objective became undisputably clear: to avenge himself on his enemies. Genghis Khan would first retake leadership of his own tribe, and then defeat the Ta-ta-ers (not today's Tartars), the top enemy. The final revenge would be that on the Jurchens who were driven out of their first capital of Peking, and the second capital of Kaifeng, and finally the Jurchens were denied a request to surrender. (In contrast, the later Manchu people would treat the Mongols much better.) As to the second trait, Genghis Khan launched several campaigns against the Tanguts’ Xixia (Western Xia) and Jurchens’ Jin (Gold), but on the initial wars against both parties, respectively, he withdrew his forces after the emperors of Xixia and Jin negotiated peace by surrendering their young daughters to Genghis Khan as brides. It was rumored that Genghis Khan died of poisoning in the hands of his Tangut wife when he campaigned against Xixia the 2nd time. Genghis Khan's life philosophy is best quoted in all books available, namely, he once asked his sons, "What will be the happiest thing ever for a man in his lifetime?" He told his sons that it would be to kill the male population of his enemies, grab the daughters and wives of his enemies, and take them as his wives & concubines.
 
Indeed, the Mongols mercilessly slaughtered the male population of clans and tribes they conquered. The myth that the Mongols spared those who surrendered was simply not true. The Mongols either killed all males or those males who had a height above the wheel of a cart. E.g., after taking over Samarkand where the defenders surrendered, Genghis Khan would kill all 40,000 prisoners at night, with about 30,000 skilled workers and artizans spared and another 30,000 labor taken as slaves. The simple trick is like this: the Mongols tricked the conquered city by separating the males from females, ordered the males to dwell outside of the city wall, and slaughtered them at night. Similar genocides could be found among the Spanish Conquistadors and British colonialists in North America and Australia. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/genes/population/proof.shtml carried an article proving that the Spanish Conquistadors slaughtered indigenous Amerindian men and enslaved the women as exhibited by the Iberian Y chromosomes and Amerindian mtDNA in today's Colombia.) For nomads like Genghis Khan, the traits (genetic or not) remain quite simple: Since the nomads do not have grain reserves for natural disasters as the agricultural settlers do, the first thing the nomads would undertake would be to raid into the sedentary communities. Coupled with his two former traits, Genghis Khan’s accomplishments are certainly understandable.
 
Then who are those Mongols? They are not necessarily the same as today's Mongolians. Today, both the Mongolians and the Kazaks claim that they were the true descedants of Genghis Khan, and some people in southwestern China also claimed the same heritage. When Mr Liang Suming (the Last Confucian Of China) published an article "An Exploration Into Yuan Dynasty" in 1918 and hence was appointed lecturer of philosophy at Peking University, people would not know that Liang, a youth of 25 from Guiling, today’s Guangxi Province in Southern China, would be a Mongol in heritage. The Mongols held on to their stronghold in today's Guangxi-Yunnan areas much longer after they lost China proper. Recent DNA tests conducted against the remains of the Khitan tombs, however, pointed to the possibility that those Mongols in today's Yunan-Guangxi areas were more Khitan than Mongol. Those people in southwestern China did historically claim that they were the descendants of the Khitans who were dispatched to southern China by the Mongols in the 14th century. (The DNA tests, interestingly, also linked the Dawo'er or Dagur people in today's Manchuria as the closest kin of the ancient Khitans.)
 
Then, who are those people called the Mongols came from at the time of Genghis Khan? What is their lineage and who would be their direct descendants today? And, what did Paul Ratchnevsky say in his book "Genghis Khan: His Life And Legacy" about the origins of various steppe tribes, the ambiguous birth year of Ghengis Khan, and most importantly, missing 10 year history of the Khan?
 
 
Mengwu Shiwei
 
It will be a tough call to tell the difference between the Turkic, Mongol and Tungusic tribes. We had spent considerable time exploring into the Huns and the Turks. It will help in clarifying the origin of the Mongols. Before the Mongols, there existed the Hsiongnu (Huns), Hsien-pi (Xianbei), Tavghach (Tuoba), Juan-juan (Ruruans), Tu-chueh (Turks), Uygurs [Huihe, i.e., ancestors of the Uighurs (see the Turk section)], Kirghiz, and Khitans. Tribal empires rose and fell, the conquered and the conquerors mixed up, and ethnic and linguistic dividing lines blurred. Notable would be the fact that the so-called [misnomer Indo-European] Yuezhi (Yüeh-chih) had migrated to Oxus and the proto-Iranian world a long time ago. The Huns, who drove away the Yuezhi in the 3rd century BC Hunnic-Yuezhi War, had raided as far west as the ancient Jiankun [Kirghis] territory or today's Tuva territory. The Turks, and the later Mongols, followed the path of the former.
 
For further discussions on Barbarians & Chinese, please refer to
After the Hunnic decline in late first century AD, the Xianbei moved west to take over the Huns' territories. The Xianbei mixed up with the Huns. There appeared a Xianbei chieftan called Tanshikui (reign A.D. 156-181) who established a Xianbei alliance by absorbing dozens of thousands of Hunnic clans ("bu luo"). The Tanshikui alliance disintegrated after the death of Tanshikui. Between the Xianbei and the Chinese were three prefectures of the Wuhuan people, to whom the Xianbei were originally subordinate. Yuan Shao, one of the warlords of the late Han Dynasty time period, campaigned against the Wuhuans and controlled three Wuhua prefectures. After Ts'ao Ts'ao defeated Yuan Shao, Yuan's two sons, Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi fled to seek refuge with the Wuhuans. Ts'ao Ts'ao, i.e., Han Dynasty's prime minister, pacified the Wuhuan in a long-distance trek to Liucheng in today's southern Manchuria. Ts'ao Ts'ao campaigned against the Wuhuan, killed a chieftan called Tadu (with same last character as Hunnic Chanyu Mote [often spelled as Modu or Modok], and took over the control of southern Manchuria. The Xianbei then took the place of the Wuhuan, and three major groups were seen: the Greater Xianbei under Budugeng, and the Lesser Xianbei. The Xienbei chieftan called Kebi'neng emerged to take the place of the Wuhuan in southern Manchuria. Cao Wei Dynasty, to deal with the emerging threat from the Xianbei, sent an assassin to kill Kebi'neng. In mid-238, Sima Yi's Cao Wei army made a stealthy Liao-River-crossing to sack Xiangping, exterminated the whole family of Gongsun Yuan as well as massacred over 2000 senior officers and officials and over 7000 men above the age of 15, ending 50 years of Gongsun family's ruling in Manchuria and Korea. Further details are available at:
Han Prime Minister Cao Cao's Campaign against the Wuhuan;
Yan Zhi & Wang Xiong Pacifying the Xianbei;
Cao Wei Dynasty's Campaign against the Gongsun Family in Manchuria.
By deporting 40,000 households of Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria in A.D. 238, Sima Yi effectually yielded the area to the Tungunsic people. Among the Xianbei who were to take the place of the Wuhuan to dominate the area would be the clans of Duan, Murong and Yuwen. The Xianbei, with major tribes of Murong, Yuwen, Duan, would establish many short-lived successive states along the Chinese frontier. The Xianbei enjoyed hundreds of thousands of cavalry, as seen in its intrusion into North China to defeat Ran Min's Wei Dynasty during the Sixteen Nation time period. (Note the later Jurchens, who were called by the "cooked" or white Dadan versus the "raw" or black Dadan [i.e., the Mongols] had more pigs than horses.)
 
The Huns set up their Hunnic Han or Zhao Dynasties by the end of Western Jinn Dynasty. Also Hunnic will be a Xia Dynasty, established by Helian Bobo, who was said to be of a mingle nature, called 'Tie Fu'. The Tie Fu Huns were born of Xianbei mother and Hunnic father. Among these states, the Tuoba or Tuoba (T'o-pa in Wade-Giles), a subgroup of the Xianbei, took over northern China and established Tuoba Wei Dynasty. In and north of the Altai, the leftover Huns were absorbed by the Ruruans whose founder, who once served under Tuoba Xianbei, fled to the Altai and built up a strong power by absorbing the Huns and Gao-che people. Then, the Ruruans were defeated and exterminated by the Turks. Tuoba would deal with the onslaughts by the Ruruans first and then the Turks. The Tuoba themselves got sinicized in northern China. (In today's northern Chinese province was a county named Shiwei, and in the Russian Far East was a prefecture named Tuoba.)
 
In A.D. 443, the barbarians who took over Tuoba's old territories, i.e., the upper Heilongjiang River and northern Xing'an Ridge (Greater Khingan Mountains), came to see Tuoba Wei Emperor (Tuoba Tao) and told him that they found the Tuoba ancestors' stone house, called 'Ga Xian Dong'. Tuoba Tao sent a minister called Li Chang to the stone house which was carved out of a natural cavern. In the 1980s, this cavern was discovered as well as the inscriptions left by Li Chang. Ultimately, Tuoba Wei Dynasty would be usurped by two generals of Xianbei heritage.
 
The people who dwelled in the old Xianbei-Wuhuan-Tuoba territories would be the later Shiwei Tribes (ancestors of Mengwu Shiwei or Genghis Khan's Mongols), the Khitans, the Xi nomads, and the Malgal people etc. They would be the ancestors of the later Jurchens or the Mongols. The Khitans first appeared on the stage.
 
The Khitans, occupying the old territories of the Xianbei, were said to be related to the Tungus, according to "The New History of Five Dynasties". Specifically, "The New History Of Tang Dynasty" mentioned that the Khitans were the descendants of the Kebi'neng Xianbei. (Alternatively, "The Old History Of Five Dynasties" said that the Khitans were alternative race of the Huns which was a generic name for all nomads.) By referring the Khitans to either Huns or Xianbei, the ancient Chinese merely acknowledged the fact that the northern invaders had come from the same direction. Specifically, the Chinese history stated that the Khitans derived from the Yuwen Xianbei who fled north to the Songmuo [pine desert] area after a defeat in the hands of their fellow Xianbei clans. (Among the two fellow Xianbei clans, the Murong clan was responsible for establishing the 'Yan' statelets and the Tuyuhun kingdom in western China while the Duan clan could have a member travelling as far as the Western Corridor, and a further descendant moving to southwest China to launch the Dali kingdom.) The New History Of Tang Dynasty said that by the time of Tuoba's Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534), the ancestors of the Khitans adopted the name 'Khitan' ["Qidan" in Chinese] for themselves. The Khitans lived around the Liao River in today's Manchuria, or more specifically in the pine desert area or the upperstream Liao River. To the east of the Khitans will be Koguryo, to the west the Xi nomads (said to be alternative race of the Huns or a split tribe from the Khitans), to the north the Huji (Malgal) and Shiwei Tribes, and to the south Yingzhou Prefecture of Tuoba Wei Dynasty. "The New History Of Tang Dynasty" said the Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. Prior to Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618), the Turks had replaced their Ruruan masters as the strongest power in the northern steppe. Around the 620s, the Khitan chieftan came to see Tang's first Emperor, Tang Gaozu (Li Yuan), together with the Malgal chieftan. At the times of Tang Empress Wuhou, the Khitans began to rebell against Tang. In A.D. 712, the Khitans submitted to Tang and was conferred the title of King of Songmuo [pine desert] Prefecture. Heads of the eight Khitan tribes were conferred posts as general, too. A Tang royal family princess, Princess Yongle, was sent to the Khitan khan as wife. More Tang princesses were marrived over to the Khitans. By the mid-750s, the Khitans defeated the Tang army led by An Lushan, a mingle of the Turks and the Hu from Central Asia. The Khitans later submitted to the Uygurs. It would be in A.D. 842 that the Khitans came to submit to Tang again after the Uygur kingdom was destroyed by the Kirghiz. Governor-general of Youzhou, Zhang Zhongwu, would replace the Khitan's Uygur seal with a Tang seal. In the A.D. 860s, the Khitans came to pay pilgrimages to Tang. After the fall of Tang Dynasty (AD 619-907), three dynasties among the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960), Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jin 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950, were ruled by the Sha'to Turks. The remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties time period. With the demise of Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Khitans began to conquer the Xi nomads, Tanguts, Dada [Dadan], and Shiwei statelets. The Uygurs (Uighurs) fled to the Tibetans and Karlaks to take refuge in Ganzhou and today's Xinjiang after being replaced by the Kirghiz.
 
Mengwu Shiwei
Against this setting, we would encounter the ancestors of the Mongols. The Shiwei tribes would be where we are to trace the Mongols for their origin. According to the Chinese history, there were over twenty Shi-wei (Shiwei) Tribes, including East Shiwei, West Shiwei, Mengwu Shiwei and Luozu Shiwei, among others. Mengwu Shiwei would be where the ancestors of the future Mongols under Genghis Khan's grandfather came from. Mengwu Shiwei, according to the history account, dwelled in the upper segment of today's Heilongjiang River and belonged to the 'forest people' against the 'pastoral people'.
 
According to MENGDA SHILU (The Factual Notes on the Black Dadan), the Jurchens and the Dadan [i.e., the Mongols], whose C haplogroup gene was validated today, were of the same family, with their appearance being that of hairlessness except for Genghis Khan and his immediate circle, and that the distinction made for the Dadan people was due to their civilized levels, with those near the Chinese called by cooked, those faraway called raw, and among the raw, there were two groups of black and white, black meaning the extreme uncivilized and the white meaning somewhat civilized. Genghis Khan's Mongols, according to the book, belonged to the Black Dadan, whose barbarity was exhibited in its customs of having each horseman round up ten non-Mongol villagers as fodder to fill moats and sack forts, while the Jurchens belonged to the White Dadan. The Dadan, according to the Chinese classics, could have some ingredients from the Shatuo Turks of the Tang Dynasty period.
 
The Shiwei people shared the same language as the Malgal people (ancestors of the Jurchens and the Manchus). They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River and the Argun River area. The location was to the east of the Turks, to the west of the Malgals, and to the north of the Khitans. The ancient record about the same language shared by Shiwei and Malgal could be the determinent about the origin of this group of Tungusic people. Note that before the Huji and Malgal, there was the ancient Fuyu people who split into the Eastern Fuyu and Northern Fuyu in today's Manchuria, with the eastern group going on to launch the Koguryo and Paekche kingdoms. Before the Fuyu people, there was extensive description of the 'Mo' people who were pressured by the Xianyun into an eastern move into Manchuria from northern China - which was a migration recorded in Shi Jing, an early Zhou Dynasty book, an event preceding the later Huns' attack against the Xianbei at the turn of Qin-Han dynasties.
 
There were over 20 Shiwei tribes on record, including Mengwu Shiwei, ancestors of the Genghis Khan Mongols. Among the numerous Shiwei tribes would be an interesting name called 'Huangtou Shiwei', i.e., the yellow head Shiwei. "Xin Wu Dai Shi" (The New History of Five Dynasties), citing the account of a Chinese (Hu Qiao) taken prisoner of war by the Khitans, mentioned that there was a statelet called Yujuelu with 'Maodou' (hairy head) people to the northwest of Shiwei and to the north of the Kirghiz people. Also to the northeast of Shiwei would be another group of 'Maoshou' or hairy head people. Hu Qiao also mentioned a statelet called 'Gou-guo' ['doggy statelet'] where the babies born would be human beings if a girl, but dogs if a boy. (Hu Qiao's account also depicted a northern expedition towards the Arctic Area by the ancient barbarians.)
 
Similar to the account of the 'Huangtou' Shiwei in the Chinese history chronicles, there were entries in the Chinese history records about 'Huangtou' Xianbei as part of a federation of possibly 20-30 Xianbei tribes and clans before the Mongols, as well as 'Huangtou Jurchen'. This pointed to the nomadic confederation that extended from Manchuria all the way to the northwestern direction to include the Indo-Europeans in possibly today's Tuva, an area not far away from Minusinsk where excavations show existence of people with different skulls. (In Tang Dynasty, poet Du Fu had a sentence to the effect of calling "huangtou xi-er", i.e., a yellow-headed man of the Xi [Kuzhen-xi] tribe. And in Xin Tang Shu, a statement was made to refer to Li Duozuo as having ancestry of a Malgal chieftan, with a nickname called "huangtou dudu [governer-general]". Also see my research into non-existent sacking of the Jinn capital city of Luoyang by Huangtou Xianbei that was carried by Tang Dynasty poet Zhang Ji [or by Song Dynasty poet Su Shi] hundreds of years later in regards to the misguided speculation on the nature of the Xianbei. Zhang Ji apparently wrote multiple poems, talking about 'Xi-er' or a Xi barbarian standing on top of a buffalo as well as describing the Kunlun-nu or black-skinned and curly hair Kunlun slave which was sold to Tang China from Southeast Asia. Kunlun, a mythical locality in fables like MU TIAN ZI, was speculated by some people to mean the Altaic word 'kara' or blackness.)
 
Note that there was a book called "Records of the past, Volume 1" by Records of the Past Exploration Society in the early 20th century. They noted that in Minusinsk, an area to the north of Outer Mongolia, there was trace of dolicho-cephalic skulls, which was to say that at one time the Indo-Europeans had pushed direct north to the Arctic direction, but later those Samoyades (Samoyedes) were replaced by the Mongoloid Samoyades who shared the same traits as those who had populated the Americas, Manchuria and Japan. The book claimed that they were pushed to "... the bleak region about the mouths of the Ob and the Yenisei Rivers, extending westward nearly to the White Sea... they have been driven by the Mongol races, which pressed upon them from the south." Yaroslav V. Kuzmin of Pacific Institute of Geography, Vladivostok, Russia, had written an article called "East and Siberia: review of chronology for the oldest Neolithic cultures" in which he painted a smooth northward trace of potteries starting from Guangxi and Hunan provinces of southwestern and southern China to Manchuria/Japan. The dates are: Guangxi Province: the Miaoyan site, layer 5: 15 220± 260 BP (BA94137b) and 15120±500 BP (BA94137a) (Zhao and Wu 2000); Hunan Province: the earliest pottery-associated charcoal 14C date 13 680±270 BP (BA95058); Japan: the earliest site with pottery is Odai Yamamoto in northern Honshu (Aomori Prefecture), the 14C age for layer 4 was estimated as 13 050± 108 BP, and the 14C age for layer 3 as 13 170±56 BP; Manchuria: pottery appeared in the Amur River basin at c. 13 000 BP, or c. 14 000– 13 600 cal BC; and Siberia: the earliest pottery is dated to about 11 000 BP, or 11 200– 10 900 cal BC. The above dates pointed to the migration of a proto-Mongoloid group, who preceded the M122 Sino-Tibetans, to Northeast Asia in a timeframe between 15,000 and 10,000 years ago. For more discussions on the ancient Mongolian migration, refer to http://imperialchina.org/Pre-history.html#Potteries.
 
Shiwei's Contacts with China
The Shiwei people first came to Tang Dynasty during the 5th year of Tang Emperor Taizong's reign, A.D. 631. Shiwei came to the Tang court over a dozen times. By the 4th year of Zhenyuan Era, A.D. 788(?), Xi nomads joined Shiwei in attacking the Zhengwu governor office. Shiwei were later taken over by the Khitan Empire. When the Jurchens rose up against the Khitans and moved into northern China, the Shiwei and Mongolia territories were nominally controlled by the Jurchens via three major Jurchen vassals: the Naimans, the Keraits and the Ta-ta-er (Tatars).
 
Later historical records quoted the Jurchen Jin Dynasty's history (compiled by Mongol Yuan Dynasty's prime minister) as saying that the 'Mengwu' people had a rebellion led by Kabul-khan (Ha-bu-le Khan). It was said that after the migration of the Jurchens to north China, the Borjigin people (who derived from Mengwu Shiwei) had emerged in central Mongolia as the leading clan of a loose federation. Kabul Khan raided into Jurchen Jin in A.D. 1135 by taking advantage of Jurchen's southern campaign against the Soong Chinese. The Jurchen emperor, Wanyan Sheng, hearing of Mongol disturbance, called on Kabul Khan to the Jurchen capital. Kabul Khan, being drunken, did not show respect for the Jurchen emperor. When the Jurchens dispatched emissaries to Kabul Khan twice for recalling him to the Jurchen capital, Kabul Khan killed the Jurchen emissaries. Then, the Jurchens dispatched General Hu Shahu on a campaign against Kabul Khan. The Jurchens were defeated by Kabul Khan. When Jin Emperor Xizong (Wanyan Dan, son of Wanyan Aguda) died, his grandson colluded with Jurchen Jin General Wuzu in killing an uncle called Dalai, and Dalai's descendants fled to Kabul-khan's Mengwu people for assitance in avenging on the new Jurchen emperor. This caused the Jurchens to abort their southern campaigns against the Chinese of Southern Song Dynasty. Jurchen General Wu-zu was sent to the northern border to fight the Mengwu people. Unable to fight the Mengwu people, the Jurchens negotiated a peace treaty with the Mengwu in A.D. 1147 and moreover conferred Kabul-khan the title of king of the Mengwu people. After the death of Kabul-khan, the 'Mengwu' people were commented to have disintegrated. Kabul-khan decreed that his brother, Ambaki, be the leader. The Mongols then had wars with the Ta-ta-er (Tatar) tribe. The Tatar tribe tricked Ambaki into an arrest via a proposition for an inter-marriage, and then sent both Ambaki and Kabul-khan's elder son to the Jurchens for execution. Kabul-khan's 4th son, Kaidu (Hu-du-la Khan), would avenge on the Jurchens. Kaidu passed on the reign to the 3rd son of his brother, i.e., Yesugei (Yi-su-ke-yi). (Yisugei, Genghis Khan's father and Emperor Shenyuan posthumously, would be the fifth generation of Kabul Khan, according to the The History of Yuan Dynasty.) Yesugei would avenge on the Tatar tribe and kill a chieftan by the name of Timuchin (Timujin), a same name assigned to his son. Yesugei, who was chief of the Kiyat subclan of the Borjigin, was later poisoned by the Tatars in A.D. 1175, when Genghis Khan (Timuchin or Temujin) was only twelve years old. Genghis Khan is like either 3 or 4 generations apart from Kabul-khan. The Kiyat people rejected Timuchin as their leader and chose one of Timuchin's kins, instead. Temujin and his immediate family were deserted even by Yisugei's brothers who went to the Tayichi'ut clan. By the early 13th century, Genghis Khan would unite all Turko-Mongol tribes, including the Kiyats, Ta-ta-er, Merkits, Keraits and Naimans.
 
The Mongol Legends
Legends claimed that Mengwu Shiwei clan was defeated by the neighboring clans and that only a few people survived by fleeing into the Erkene-kun Mountains. An able man by the name of Qi-yan took charge of the remnants, and his name 'Qi-yan' would mutate into the later tribal name of 'Kiyat'. (The History of Yuan Dynasty stated that Genghis Khan's clan name was 'Qiwowen-shi'.) Qi-yan was said to have found an iron mine inside the Erkene-kun Mountains, and after melting the irons of a cavern, they found a road leading them out of the mountains. Over a dozen generations later would appear a person by the name of Duo-ben-ba-yan or Tuo-ben-muo-er-gen (Dobu Mergen) who married Alan-ko (Alan Gua). After having two children, Duo-ben-ba-yan passed away; however, Alan-ko was said to have immaculate conception, bearing three more children, including Bodunchar who possessed grey eyes against the chestnut eye color of the brothers. The three brothers from the 'immaculate conception' were to form the Katagin, Seljiuts, and the Borjigin clans, respectively, with the former two later being part of Jamuka's coalition against Timuchin. Bodunchar, together with his four elder brothers, raided the Zha-e-chi-wu (Tayichi'ut) tribe and took over a woman called Bo-rui-ha-dun. One of Bodunchar's grandson married Monolun and bore nine sons. Monolun, according to The History of Yuan Dynasty, had bad temper and at one time killed some children of the neighboring Jalair clan by running a cart over the kids. The Jalair clan raided them in retaliation, and only one son of Monolun, i.e., Kaidu, survived. Later, Kaidu defeated the Jalair clan to be a leader of the early Mongol people. Also of the Bodunchar descendancy would be fifth generation grandson, Kabul Khan.
 
Genghis Khan's Mongols Called Themselves by the 'Ta-ta-er'
However, contemporaries pointed out that the Genghis Mongols called themselves by the 'Tatars' (i.e., Ta-ta-er in Mandarin transliteration), not the Tartars used by the Westerners for designating the Manchu nor the same-name Tartars who lived in today's southeastern Russia. It would be Khubilai Khan who would officially endorse the name 'Mengwu', the English equivalent of which was 'Mongol'. The Genghis Khan Mongols, who were said to be of the Kiyat clan, identified themselves with the branch of the forest people called the Tayichi'uts, the Jukins, the Oirats and the Onggirats. The ancestors of Genghis Khan's Mongols belonged to the Borjigid tribe which branched off from the Kiyats, i.e., Qi-yan or the Qiwowen-shi people from the legends of the Secret History. The Onggirats connection lies in the fact that Yisugei had abducted a woman called Ho'elun as his wife, and the future Yuan Dynasty's internal ruling decreed that emperors must marry Onggirat women as empresses. In the section on the Tayichi'uts and Mengwu, we will explain a bit more about their inter-relationship.
 
The Mongols possibly possessed the same kinsmenship as the Jurchens
Historian Luu Simian speculated that Genghis Khan's Mongols were a mixture of Dada [Dadan] [with mixture from the Shatuo Turks] and Shiwei on basis of the fact that both the Turks and the Mongols had treated the wolf as their ancestor. Also note that the Mongol legend about seeking asylum in an iron mountain was similar to the Turk legend from 800-900 years ahead.
 
Some historian said the Khitans had once used the word 'Onggirat' for themselves and the Jurchens [Jurchids] had used 'Qonggirat' for the tribal name as well. In the same area where the Mongols lived, more than 800 years ago, there were the pigtail Tuoba people, and 1000 years ago, there were the shaved-head Xianbei people. The Jurchens and the Manchus, who belonged to the group of the Tungusic people near the Japan Sea, might have picked up the hair style from the barbarians around the Xing'an Mountains.
 
In separate sections, we touched on the hair style of the barbarians, including the pigtail style of Tuoba, the cut hair style of the Xianbei and Wuhuan, and the cut hair and pigtail style of the Jurchens and Manchus, to state that both the Huns and the later Turks had in fact shared a similar hair style as the Sinitic Chinese, namely, no hair cut plus the bundling of hair. The difference between the Huns and the Sinitic Chinese was "hu2 [Huns] fu2 [clothing] ZHUI1 [back of the head] jie2 [bundling the hair]", while the Sinitic Chinese bundled the hair at the top of the head. As commented by historian Huang Wenbi, the Qiangic people in western China, who had been exiled there from the east as this webmaster had repeatedly said, shared the same customs as the ancient Yi people along the eastern Chinese coast, namely, they did not bundle hair and further had an opposite direction as far as wrapping the clothing was concerned, namely, "bei4? pi1?[dangling] fa1 [hair] zuo3 [left] REN4 [overlapping part of Chinese gown]". --This webmaster's point was that the Qiangs were of the San-miao lineage and carried some customs of the Eastern Yi nature while dwelling in central China, the Huns were related to the Sinitic Chinese [O3 haplogroup], and the Tungus [C haplogroup] from the northeast were different from the Huns. More, the Tungus [C haplogroup], who were likely evicted from North China and the eastern Chinese coast by the O-haplogroup people, could have evicted the N haplogroup to northwestern Siberia from western Manchuria. [The C haplogroup might had pushed the Q haplogroup or the ancestors of AmerIndians to the Americas about 15,000 years ago.] (Note that this webmaster, to reconcile the fact that the Sino-Tibetans were all O3 haplogroup, need to make a statement that the bird-totem Yi people along the coast, whose squatting [or spreading feet] and flat forehead customs were shared by the C-haplogroup Tungus, belonged to the O2 haplogroup. As to the N haplogroup who were evicted to northwestern Siberia, they [together with C-haplogroup people] might have pushed south to Chinese Turkestan from today's TUVA area to have eliminated the R haplogroup people whose 2000 B.C.E. mummies were excavated together with the Khams type proto-Tibetan mummies in the deserts.)
 
The Shiwei people were said to be an alternative race of the Khitans, according to Xin Tang Shi (The New History Of Tang Dynasty). They could be related to the ancient 'Dingling' people. Dingling, a generic name, was said to be derived from the ancient Chi-di people, while Chi-di, together with Bai-di, wherein the words 'chi' and 'bai' meant more likely white clothing and red clothing than else, were related to the Quan-rong barbarians who moved eastward across the East Yellow River Bend from West China [namely, the Qiangic land - the place ancient overlord Yao had exiled the San-miao people]. The early Gaoche people, where the Uygurs had looked for ancestry, were said to have relation to the Dingling as well. All this pointed to the original San-miao epic exile, plus three successive sources, i.e., the son of last Xia Dynasty King Jie, the remnants of the Shang Dynasty along the North Yellow River Bend, the Chi-di people who warred and inter-married with the same Ji-surnamed Jinn Principality of Zhou Dynasty. Note that the Sinitic Chinese, with a tradition of maintaining a copius record of history, could at best paint the above pictures about the origin of the northern barbarians. To explain the possible link of the ancient Chi-di and Bai-di barbarians to the later well-known barbarians, the Chinese classics hinted that the Kirghiz people in today's TUVA area had a custom of wearing the red clothes while the Xianbei had a custom of wearing the white clothes. Following the Sinitic logic, the early Huns were most likely Qiangic proto-Tibetans or a possible separate Yun-surnamed Xianyun group which was exiled to Northwest China together with the San-miao people in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E., while the later Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol and Manchu people were proto-Manchurian or proto-Altaic. The confusion would be resolved should we pinpoint the C haplogroup or the Tungus people further away from the border with Sinitic China to be the area of the Amur River, Sungari River and the northern Khing'an Mountain Range while treating the "cooked Dadan" people, i.e., those dwelling between the Sinitic Chinese and the "raw Dadan" as the mixed O/C/N-haplogroup people.
 

Below maps were added to the http://www.imperialchina.org/Barbarians.htm which was embedded within the http://www.imperialchina.org/Huns.html and http://www.imperialchina.org/Turks_Uygurs.html pages. On basis of new archaeological findings and historical Chinese records, I will tentatively speculate as to when the east met with the west.
 
First I want to debunk the fallacies in regards to the equation of the ancient Yu-shi tribe to the Yuezhi, and the speculation on the jade trade that the Yuezhi was falsely accredited with.
 
See Barbarians.htm for more discussions on forged statements in Guan-zi [管子] (which historian Ma Feibai pierced sentence by sentence). Around Xin (New) Dynasty (AD 6-23), there occurred a forgery movement by Chinese scholars, possibly with the intention of substantiating the mandate of the usurper Wang Mang's dynasty. The classics which were proved to be forgeries include "Guan-zi [管子]", which historian Ma Feibai pierced sentence by sentence. Using Ma's same logic, I had found the two other books, "Yi-zhou-shu" [逸周书] or "Zhou-shu" (Zhou Dynasty [16th cen. B.C. - 256 B.C.] [abbrev. 周书] book, not the Zhou-shu [周书] from Posterior Zhou Dynasty of the South-North Dynasty time period of AD 557-581) and "Shang[1]-shu" [商书] (Shang Dynasty [16-11th cent. B.C.] book, not Shang[4]-shu [尚书], i.e., remotely ancient book which was said to be abridged by Zuo Qiuming), to be written in the exact same style and could be forgeries by possibly the same person. Discarding the forgery of Guan-zi [管子] basically eliminated the whole foundation upon which the existence of the Yuezhi and the jade trade was built, a fallacy which was widely cited in the most recent 10-20 years, i.e., 1990s and 2000s, to the effect that the fabricated Yuezhi had lived close to the heart of China, playing the role of bearing the Aryan civilization to China. (A recent writing on ancient forgeries at the imperialchina.org blog, which was not in the sense of political correctness till later Western Han Dynasty, is available in pdf format: ImperialChinaOrg-on-forgeries.pdf.)

I never thought the people of the Central Asia or in Chinese Turkestan were an intermediary form of human evolution, which was my basis of calling the Siberian origin of Koreans by a 'moo' point. I constantly pointed out that in the collective memory of Sino-Tibetan, that passed down by generations, the Sinitic Chinese had forgot they travelled north from today's Burma-Vietnam corridor while claiming a walk down Mt Kunlun. Previously, I checked the historical context as well as the geo situation to find out when the east met with the west, and believed that the Hun-Yuezhi War could be the start of the contact. With new archeological findings related to mummies in Chinese Turkestan, I would add that the proto-Tibetan Qiangs had indeed penetrated into Chinese Turkestan, to the north side of Mt Tianshan, from perhaps the southeastern rim of the Taklamakan Desert.
 
I made a hypothetical claim here that the Huns could have encountered the Yuezhi at the "Great Lake" ("da ze"), namely, the Juyan Lake. In the Juyan-ze Lake area, bamboo strips were discovered, with evidence of existence of names of the same nine Zhaowu clans 80 years or 3-4 generations after the first Hunnic attack against the Yuezhi: K'ang (Samarkand), An (Bukhara), Shih (Tashkent), Shih (Kishsh [Kashana]), Mi (Maymurgh [Penjikent]), Ts'ao (Kaputana), Ho (Kushanik [Kusanya]), Mu (Murv, ? Huoxun [Khwarezmia]), and Su (Sudi, Bilinmemektedir). See Wang Guowei's theory of invaders coming from the East while traders from the West for understanding the nature of the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi.
 
Click on the below picture for the enlarged map showing the first Hunnic attack at the Yuezhi around the ancient Juyan Lake (also known as the West Sea in Chinese classics, and later known as the Kharakoto [Blackwater] Lake, Ejina or Juyan) in the 3rd century B.C., and the subsequent Hunnic attack at the Wusun/Loulan near Yiwu in the 2nd century B.C., to the east of Turpan, which triggered the Wusun migration to Ili where they further drove the Yuezhi towards today's Afghanistan. (See Barbarians.htm for more discussions on the Yuezhi migration timeline.)


On the modern map, there was a tiny corridor between Chinese Turkistan and China, which was the narrow strip of sand to the east of Hami. However, this corridor, today's Kumul line, could be a recent event. There was the historical DAZI blackhole desert to the east, nowadays called by the generic name GOBI. The ancient Mongoloid migration into Tianshan Mountain could have come north from south, i.e., the Tibetan Plateau/Ruoqiang direction to the south --though I hesitated about the passibility of the "Liu-sha" flowing sand desert between Ruoqiang and Loulan (Lop Nur), which was another tiny corridor noticeable on the modern map.
 
Judging from Han Dynasty emissary Zhang Qian's change of mind on his return trip to go home along the Hami strip rather than going straight east across the Qiang-zhong or the middle Qiang nation land, we could tell that the northern strip was perhaps the most traveler-friendly. (Could Zhang Qian change his mind in the hope of sneaking into the Hunnic territory to see the child he had with the Hun woman?) That was Han Emperor Wudi's reign of B.C. 140-86, i.e., 140 BC and later, much later than Hun-Yuezhi wars.
 
Now, let's talk about human migration. There were widespread discussions of 'Caucasoid' mummies in Chinese Turkestan, with 'Loulan Beaty' purportedly dated 2000 B.C., while the southern 'cousins' in the Khotan area dated 100-300 B.C. The timeline suggested a move from north to south, not west to east. The 2000 B.C. Caucasoid mummies found in Loulan, in the Turpan Depression/Kumtag Desert, in-between Altaic/Tianshan Mountains and the Altun Mountain (Ruoqiang), could be the Indo-European people coming from the north of the Altaic Mountain [the Mongol Altaic Mountain of today], near the Alfanesevo bronze culture. Yuezhi could be of this group of people coming from north. Further diggings in the Loulan area, i.e., the ancient Salty Lake and Salty River (Peacock Rover), led to a site called by Xiaohe or the Little River, next to the Salty River (Peacock Rover), where Mongoloid Mummies were discovered. It appears to me there was indeed good carbon dating on Xiaohe excavations, saying "The entire necropolis can be divided, based on the archeological materials, into earlier and later layers. Radiocarbon measurement (14C) dates the lowest layer of occupation to around 3980 ± 40 BP (personal communications; calibrated and measured by Wu Xiaohong, Head of the Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Peking University), which is older than that of the Gumugou cemetery (dated to 3800)." The article claimed that the 'Mongoloid' mtDNA had similarity to some present South Siberian population. (For details, check http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/15 for the full article "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age".)
 
The linking of this certain mtDNA in Xiaohe/Loulan area to a modern Siberian population could be said to be circumvential at best since a lot of things had happened in the past 4000 years. It kind of had the same timing as the Mongoloid mummies that were discovered to the north and east of the Tianshan Mountain. More than what was found about the mtDNA at Xiaohe/Loulan, there were mummies of Khams Tibetan type found to the further north, at the Tianshan-Altaic mountain areas, which presented a much more convincing point that the proto-Tibetan Qiangs had indeed crossed over the strip of the sand desert near Loulan to reach the north side of Tianshan. Possibly, the Khams [proto-]Tibetan, after reaching Tianshan Mountain Range, moved towards Hami (Qumul) to the east, where there were the Hami (Qumul) Mongoloid mummies excavated. Note that today's Kham Tibetans were not far away from the historical Sanxingdui (three star) Excavations in western Sichuan, that was discovered by Gaway Hann (an American professor of the former Huaxi University), a Neolithic/Bronze culture dating from about 4800 to 2800 years ago, as well as a bridge providing Southwest China's tin to the Shang dynasty and the Zhou dynasty.
 
My reasoning was that the Qiangs had a dominance in the area since China's prehistory, like 5000 years ago, at least the time of the Yellow Emperor [Huangdi (? BC 2697 - 2599; reign 2402-2303 with rule of 100 years per Zhu Yongtang's adjustment of BAMBOO)], and they controlled the southern rim, southeastern rim and eastern rim of the Taklamakan Desert, and somehow around 2000 B.C., penetrated northward to reach the two sides of the Tianshan mountain range, while the so-called Caucasoid oases in their path, namely, the Loulan area, might have risen and fallen numerous times in history -- if they ever existed there prior to the penetration by the Khams [proto-]Tibetans. Or the other way around, the Khams [proto-]Tibetans could be speculated to have penetrated to the two sides of the Tianshan mountain range earlier than the Indo-Europeans, and subsequently encountered the Indo-Europeans near the Tianshan Mountain, and ultimately the Indo-Europeans gradually dominated over the area and eliminated the trace of the Khams [proto-]Tibetans, pressing them back to the southeastern rim of the Taklamakan Desert. (See Barbarians.htm for more discussions on the ancient human migrations.)
 
There could have been a striking similarity between the Mongol attack at the Tanguts in the 13th cent. A.D. and the Hun attack at the Yuezhi in the 3rd cent. B.C. Both took the desert road towards the Blackwater Lake. It kind of gives you a picture how the Huns first raided to the west against the Yuezhi, forcing the Yuezhi Major to flee west while the elderly and the children, i.e., the Yuezhi Minor, crossed the Qilian mountain to seek asylum with the Qiangs, and per Yu Taishan, continued to move on towards the southeastern rim of the Taklamakan Desert, towards Khotan where the people were recorded to be Mongoloid, i.e., Hua-xia-looking, throughout China's Han and Tang dynastic records, till annihilated sometime during the Islamic invasion of the Buddhist stronghold of Khotan or possibly during the earlier Turkic-Uygur conquest of the Chinese Turkistan. Note the discovery of the so-called 100-300 BC Caucasoid in Khotan, which matched with the escape timeframe of the Yuezhi Minor. (Another recent writing on Zhou King Muwang's travelogue at the imperialchina.org blog, is available in pdf format [Mu-tian-zi.pdf], exhibited the westernmost extent of the ancient Chinese kingdom to be no more than the edge of the Kumtag Desert and right at the Black Water Lake.)
 
This webmaster tried to reconcile Sima Qian's statement in regards to the migration of the Lesser Yuezhi, in the aftermath of the Huns' attack in the last years of the 3rd century BCE, to give the Yuezhi people some credit of living a bit further to the east, i.e., staying somewhere near the Blackwater Lake [i.e., the Ejina Lake]. By making this assumption, this webmaster assumed that the Lesser Yuezhi people, namely, the sick, the elderly and the young, climbed the Qilian-shan Mountain [today's Qilian-shan, not what Yu Taishan et al had postulated to be the Tianshan or the Heavenly Mountain Range in Turkestan] to live among the Qiangs --unless Sima Qian actually meant that the Huns had raided deep into the Chinese Turkestan in the first place, driving the Greater Yuezhi into a flee towards the Ili area to the west and the Lesser Yuezhi into a move across today's Tianshan or the Heavenly Mountain Range to live with the Qiangs in Khotan, at the southeastern rim of the Taklamakan Desert, a historical dwelling place of the Qiangs since the late 3rd millennium BCE.
 
In conclusion, there were two points of contact between the west and the east, once around the 2000 BCE, and another time in the 4th century BCE or the 3rd century BCE (when the Huns attacked the Yuezhi). The demarcation point of the 4th century BCE or the 3rd century BCE was important in determining the second point of contact between the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid, after the first Mongoloid-Caucasoid mummy contact around 2000 BCE near today's Tianshan or the Heavenly Mountain, known as Bei-shan or the Northern [Turkestan] Mountain at Han Emperor Wudi's timeframe. It would be in the 4th century BCE that Shi-zi first wrote down the sentence speculating that 2000 years earlier, at the time of the Yellow Overlord, there were deep-eyesocket people living to the north. This brilliant piece of work by Shi-zi apparently adopted some then-current information available as of the 4th century BCE, in a similar fashion to the later forgery Guan-zi which, relying on the then-current information available as of the 1st century AD, pretentiously claimed that Qi Hegemony Lord Huan'gong had crossed the Kumtag Desert to conquer the Yu-shi [or misnomer Yuezhi] people. (Shi-zi could be a latter-day add-on as well since half of the original texts were lost in the Three Kingdom time period, and the majority of the re-compiled texts were lost again in Song Dynasty. One important fact about Shi-zi that I want to emphasize is that it could be on the same par as the classics "Shan Hai Jing", i.e., the Book of Mountains and Seas, and the author or the authors of the two books of "Shi Zi" and "Shan Hai Jing" could be of the same origin.)



 
Turko-Mongol Tribes & Clans
 
Most European history books pointed out that the Ruruans [Rouran or Ru-ru] were 'Mongolian', and they even claimed that the Genghis Khan Mongols were descendants of the Ruruans. The Hunnic relationship with the Ruruans (said to be the successors of the Huns) has been explored in the Hun section. Tuoba Xianbei treated the founder of the Ruruan people as belonging to Donghu, i.e., Tungusic people in the east which included Xianbei, Wuhan and Tuoba. The Ruruan founder later fled to the Altai Mountains and conquered the remaining Hunnic successors there, hence mixing up with the Huns and Gao-che people in the west. My research into various records, however, shows that the Ruruans were more Hunnic than Turkic or Mongol. The Hunnic successors would include the Ruruans, the Turks, and the Tiele Tribes (ancestors of the Uygurs) etc.
 
As described at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+mn0018), "during those centuries, the vast region of deserts, mountains, and grazing land was inhabited by people resembling each other in racial, cultural, and linguistic characteristics; ethnologically they were essentially Mongol." ... Generally, the Mongols and the closely related Tatars inhabited the northern and the eastern areas; the Türk (who already had begun to spread over western Asia and southeastern Europe) were in the west and the southwest; the Tangut, who were more closely related to the Tibetans than were the other nomads and who were not a Turkic people, were in eastern Xinjiang, Gansu, and western Inner Mongolia ... The Liao state was homogeneous, and the Kitan had begun to lose their nomadic characteristics. ... To the west and the northwest of Liao were many other Mongol tribes, linked together in various tenuous alliances and groupings, but with little national cohesiveness. In Gansu and eastern Xinjiang, the Tangut--who had taken advantage of the Tang decline--had formed a state, Western Xia or Xixia (1038-1227), nominally under Chinese suzerainty. Xinjiang was dominated by the Uygurs, who were loosely allied with the Chinese."
 
The demarcation line between Turkic and Mongol tribes is so much blurred that any definitive assertion could be a fallacy at best. http://berclo.net/page97/97en-steppe-empires.html mentioned that among the tribes, "some are Turkic (Kyrgyz, Kerait, Uygur), some Mongol (Oirat, Tatar) and some Turko-Mongol (Naiman, Merkit)." This differentiation may not be scientific, in my opinion.
 
In the following, I will discuss the relationships between 'Mengwu' (the Mongols) and clans like the Tayichi'uts, how the Naimans & the Keraits triggered the founding of the Khitan Liao, and how the Genghis Mongols took over of the northern land by defeating the Tatars (not today's misnomer Tartars who were a group of Slavs living in the Soviet Caucasus area, with some recent immigrants to today's Chinese Turkestan about one century ago) and other clans. We will briefly touch on the three waves of Mongol invasions. Mongol activities in China and later retreat to their homeland will be explored as well. I am not going to repeat the Mongolian myth that the Mongolians came from 'Blue-Grey Wolf' and 'Radiant Doe', 10 generations before the mythical Alan-ko'a born Bodunchar, nor spending too much time on the lineage of Kaidu-khan, Kabul Khan, Ambaki, Yisugei and Timuchin [i.e., Genghis Khan].
 
 
Naimans
When the Kirghiz defeated the Huihe (Uygurs) in A.D. 840 and took over northern Mongolia, there was a group of people called the Naimans who remained in their homalands in the Altai Mountains and attached themselves to the Kirghiz. The Naimans is said to be a Mongol name for a group of the Turkic tribe called 'Sakiz Oghuz' or the Eight Oghuz, a name which existed in 8th century. (The authentic Oghuz Turks would find their way to Anatolia, separately.)
 
Gradually, the Naimans grew in strength and drove the Kirghiz to the River Yenesei and rooted the Keraits from their homeland on the Irtysch in the Altai and drove them towards Manchuria, hence indirectly causing the Khitans to move to northern China where they established the Liao Dynasty in A.D. 907-1125.
 
The Naiman federation adopted the script and the religion (buddhism) of their southern neighbor, the Uygurs, and maintained relations with the Kara-Khitai or Western Liao empire founded by Yeliu-taishi who fled to Turfan after Liao was defeated in Manchuria by the Jurchens. Though the Naimans are said to be of Turkic origin, their customs and habits had become Mongolized in a matter of hundreds of years. The Naimans later adopted Nestorian Christinanity, and were observed to be so by William of Rubruck in A.D. 1253 (see Paul Ratchnevsky). It will be through the Naimans that Genghis Khan adopted the Uigur script and became civilized. When Genghis Khan defeated the Naimans, Kuchlug, son of the Naiman Tayang-khan, sought refuge in Kara-Khitai and converted to Buddhism from Nestorian.
 
The reason Timuchin (Genghis Khan) had defeated the Naimans is mainly that the Naimans split into two groups, i.e., Tayang-khan (conferred Taiwang or great king by the Jurchens) and Buiruk-khan, and they could not unite into a common front. The alliance of Timuchin and Toghrul (Keraits) first defeated Buiruk in A.D. 1199 (and killed him in A.D. 1207), and then defeated the Tayang-khan.
 
Tayang-khan's Naimans took over a small territory of Timuchin. Timuchin dispatched Hubilai and Chepe on a forerunner campaign against Tayang-khan. Tayang-khan, though allied with Merkits (under Tuotuo), Jadirats (under Jamuka), Kerait remnants (under A'lingtaishi), Wei-la, Ji-la, Tatar remnants, Katagin and Seljiuts, lost the war to Timuchin. Tayang-khan died with all his soldiers. Jamuka, who first deserted the Toghrul's Keraits, would desert Tayang-khan's Naimans before this fight started. Jamuka himself would be turned over by his own men and died in the hands of Timuchin's clan. Timuchin took over Taya-khan's wife and subjugated his allies. Katagin, Seljiuts, Duo-lu-ban and remnant Tatars surrendered. When Timuchin continued on to attack Merkits, Tutuo the Merkits' khan fled to Buiruk-khan's Naimans. The Merkits fled west but were defeated again in A.D. 1204 and the whole tribe was taken over by Timuchin. In A.D. 1206, Timuchin (Genghis Khan) held a grand assembly and received the title as Genghis Khan.
 
Keraits
East of the Naimans, from the Orkhon River in the west to the Onon and Kerulen rivers, was the new home of the Keraits. This is a group of people that had been disputed by Tao Zongyi (T'ao Tsung-i 1316- ?) to be the Mongols, but Rashid ad-Din placed them in a subgroup with the Naimans, Uygurs, Kirghiz, Kipchaks and other Turkic peoples while acknowledging the resemblances between the Keraits and the Mongols. Still one more Chinese, Tu Ji, in his "History of the Mongols" (Mengwuer Shiji), assumed that the Keraits were Turkic and originated from Turkic Kangli and Ghuzz and their language was Turkic. It was also said that an important Kirghiz tribe bears the name of Kirai, which is equivalent to Kerait. As to their Mongol characteristics, Paul Ratchnevscky assumed that some Khitans were left behind and got assimiliated into the Keraits. Paul Ratchnevsky emphasized the amicableness between the Keraits and West Khitans as exemplified by the fact that Kerait's khan, Toghrul, had once sought refuge in Western Liao. Paul Ratchnevsky mentioned that the Keraits accepted Nestorian faith and that the grandfather and father of Toghrul had Latin names like Marghus (Markus) and Qurjaquz (Kyriakus).
 
Yisugei had helped the Kerait chieftan, Toghrul, twice. Toghrul was resented by his tribesmen for killing his brothers. When Toghrul was defeated by his uncle and fled with few hundreds of horsemen, Yisugei would come to his aid and drive Toghrul's uncle to Tanguts' Western Xia territory. Later, Toghrul's brother rebelled as well, and Toghrul had to flee southwestward to the three statelets of 'Hexi', 'Huihu' and 'Huihui' (Uygur, Qiangic and Tibetan territories) for asylum. Thereafter, Toghrul sought asylum with the Kara Khitans. When Toghrul escaped back to Mongolia, Timuchin would give him a good reception and treat Toghrul as 'father'. Timuchin later defeated the Merkits and gave the captured people to Toghrul. Toghrul hence gained strength. Toghrul and Timuchin cooperated few times in fighting the Naimans thereafter.
 
The importance of the Keraits would lie in the fact that Timuchin sought the protection under Toghrul (To-wo-ling-le) and their alliance laid the foundation for the uprise of the Mengwu Mongols. Toghrul enjoyed a title called Wang Khan which was conferred by the Jurchens and hence an alliance with Toghrul served the purpose of elelvating Timuchin's position among the nomads. (The conferral of king onto the Kerait chieftan by the Jurchens was disputed to be at the time Timuchin invited both the Keraits and the Xie-che-bi-ji [Xueche Biji] to pincer-attack the Tartars together with the Jurchens in the 1190s, which was disputed to be A.D. 1290, not 1294, nor 1295, nor 1296.) After exterminating the Tatars in A.D. 1202, Timuchin broke with Toghrul's Keraits, and Genghis Kan killed Toghrul in A.D. 1203 and took over the Kerait throne.
 
Merkits & the Women Abduction
The savage and warlike Merkits are not to be discounted here. It would be Timuchin's father, Yisugei, a Kiyat-Borjirid, who robbed Ho'elun from the Merkits in the first place. Years later, the Merkits would avenge themselves by attacking Ghengis Khan and abducting his wife, Borte (a girl from subtribe of the Onggirat). This abduction rendered ambiguous the legitimacy of Timuchin's first son (Jochi) since Borte born the child while being rescued many months later. It would be the alliance of the Keraits and the Genghis clan, together with another rival clan of Jumaka (Timuchin's boyhood friend), that would be responsible for defeating the Merkits and rescuing Borte. The Merkits lived south of Lake Baikal on the lower Selenga. They lived by fishing and hunting. While Tao Zongyi and Rashid ad-Din regarded them as the Mongols, others thought they were Turkic. In A.D. 1096, the Merkits rebelled against the Khitan Liao and were defeated. In the end, they were defeated by Genghis and assimilated into his clan.
 
Tatars (Ta-ta-er, not today's mionomer Tartars)
An immortal name as it sounds, this is a much abused name ever seen, considered to be a collective name for all tribes and nomads of Asia by the Europeans (see Latinized Tartarus, Greek Tartaros, and Germanic Tatar). When Dr Sun Tat-sen called on the Chinese to overthrow the Manchus, he proposed a slogan called "Expel the Tartars (Da Lu) and Restore Our China". Paul Ratchnevsky indiscriminately applied the later generic term 'Tartar' to the specific group of nomads called Tatar or Ta-ta-er. (I had used Tatar for the name of the enemy tribe of Genghis Khan's Mengwu people while reserving Tartar for today's Slavic Tartars, not using Tartars in the sense of designations by Ratchnevsky and modern Western scholars for Genghis Khan's Mongols.)
 
Then, how long a history did this name have? While Paul Ratchnevsky mentioned that the Tartar name was recorded as early as the Kul-tegin inscription of 731-732, there was a difference in the Chinese pictographic form for the denotations. Father of Li Chunxu (founder of Posterior Tang A.D. 923-936), before Tang Dynasty ended in A.D. 907, had once sought refuge with a group of nomads called the Dada [Dadan], a word that was used by Dr Sun in his slogan. This early group of the Dada [Dadan] people apparently lived north of China's Shanxi Province, the ancient Dai prefecture. It would be extremely difficult to associate the Tatars (Tartars) with those who existed 200 years before Genghis Khan.
 
According to Wu Dai Shi (History Of Five Dynasties), Da'dan were remnants of the Mohe Tribes (see Manchurian section), namely, ancestors of the Jurchens. They were originally located to the northeast of the Xi Nomads (alternative race of the Huns and later absorbed by the Khitans) and the Khitans. Being attacked by the Khitans, the Dada [Dadan] people were scattered around, with some subject to the Khitans and some subject to Po'hai (a stateles to be absorbed by the Khitans later). One Dada [Dadan] tribe relocated to the Yinshan Mountains and became known as Dada [Dadan] by the end of Tang Dynasty. During Tang Emperor Yizhong's reign, A.D. 859-875, they joined hands with the Sha'to Turks in helping Tang to crack down on the Pang Xun rebellion. When the Sha'to Turks, under Li Guochang and his son Li Keyong, were defeated by the Tuhun nomads of Helian Duo (see Tibetan section), the Li Sha'to Turks sought asylum with the Dada [Dadan] people. Once Tang Dynasty called upon Li Keyong, the Dada [Dadan] people followed the Sha'to Turks in the campaigns against the Huang Chao Rebellion. After that, the Dada [Dadan] people dwelled between Yun and Dai prefectures of today's Shanxi Province. At the times of Posterior Tang (AD 923-936), the Dada [Dadan] people often answered calls in the campaigns against the Khitans. History records that the Dada [Dadan] people were still in contact with China at the times of Posterior Zhou (AD 951-960).
 
According to Rashid, the Tatar nation consisted of 70 thousand households or 350 thousand people in 12-13th centuries and they occupied the Kunlun and Buir lakes between the Kerulen River and the central Khingan Mountains. They were the richest people in Mongolia as a result of silver mining, but internal quarrels kept them weak and they acted as the vassals of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (founded in A.D. 1115) and constantly played the role of a hatchetman in subjugating various Mongol tribes. The Tatars had assisted the early Jurchens in defeating the Mongol (Meng-wu) rebellions, handed over Mongol leader Ambakai (disputed to have adopted the tribal name of Tayichi'ut) and Kabul Khan's elder son to the Jurchens for execution in A.D. 1150s, and dealt the remaining Meng-wu tribes a decisive defeat near Lake Buir in A.D. 1160s.
 
The conflicting information in regards to Ambakai is that he was said to be a brother of Kabul-khan and had adopted a different tribal name of Tayichi'ut. The Secret History of the Mongols said when Kabul-khan died, his wish was to have Ambakai to be the khan. But Rashid al-Din said that Kabul-khan's son assumed the leadership of the Mengwu people while Ambakai only led the Tayichi'ut clan. I would buy Secret History's version since I agree with Paul Ratchnevsky that Rashid had tried to paint a better picture for his Mongol host. The death of Ambakai is because Ambakai had antagonized the Tatars by killing their shaman who was called over to cure for his brother-in-law. The Tatars cheated him into a trap by requesting for a marriage with Ambakai's daughter. Kabul-khan's elder son was caught by the Tatars when he went to them to request for the release of Ambakai. Both of them died as a result of Jurchens nailing them to wooden donkeys. However, the Tatars would pay back their debt later.
 
In A.D. 1195, the Tatars had a quarrel with the Jurchens over the bounty from the war against the Onggirats. Jurchen Prime Minister, Wayan Xiang, campaigned in Mongolia. In A.D. 1196, Timuchin, taking advantage of the Jurchen campaign against the Tatar chieftan Moutchin Soultou, pincer-attacked the Tatars together with the Jurchens, and defeated the Tatars. (There is an alternative account stating that it was in year A.D. 1190 that the pincer-attack against the Tatars occurred, not A.D. 1294, nor 1295, nor 1296.) Finally in A.D. 1202, Timuchin defeated them again, slaughtered all their men and enslaved all their women.
 
The Oirats
The Oirats belonged to the forest tribes. It was said that Genghis Khan's forebearers belonged to the forest groups. The Oirats once joined Jumuka (AD 1201) in fighting Timuchin and Toghrul. Thereafter, the Oirats went to the Naimans together with Jamuka and the Keraits after Timuchin split with the Keraits and killed Toghrul. However, due to their close relationship, the Oirats and the Onggirats turned out to be Timuchin's best allies in later years. Both Russian historian Vladimirtsov and Rashid ad-Din commented that the dividing line between the forest people and the pastoral people is not clear, and they would switch positions should one party lose possession of the herd in an raid and become forest clans while the other party took possession of the herd and become pastoral. The relationship between the Oirats and the Onggirat is not clear; however, they belonged to the same group, the forest people, were branches of the Kiyats, and had close relationship with Timuchin's clan.
 
Onggirat & Genghis Khan's Wife
According to Rashid ad-Din, the Onggirat clan was a branch of the Kiyats while the Kiyat is a subclan of the Borjigin Mongols. Some historian said the Khitans had once used the word 'Onggirat' for themselves and the Jurchens (Jurchids) had used 'Qonggirat' for the tribal name. The Onggirats connection lie in the fact that Yisugei had robbed Ho'elun from the Merkits as said earlier. However, Ho'elun, was not a Merkit and she was a bribe whom Merkit's Chiledu had brought home from the Olkunu'ut, a minor tribe of the Onggirat. Nomadic ways of abduction posed extraordinary uncertainties in the fate of the women, and it was said that Ho'elun, seeing that Yisugei had invited two of his brothers along to attack her bridegroom, undressed her coat as a gift for Chiledu and asked Chiledu to run for his life, saying that he could find another woman to marry should he be able to live on. Years later, when Timuchin was 8-9 years old, Yisugei went to the Boskur subtribe of the Onggirat to find Borte as a fiancée. Yisugei left his son (Timuchin) with Borte's father. It was on his way back that Yisugei was poisoned by the Ta-ta-er (Tatars). Later, Timuchin, at about age 15, or A.D. 1182, went back to his stepfather for Borte. Borte's wedding gift, a sable cloak, would be presented to Toghrul (whom Timuchin took as his stepfather) as a gift. The alliance of the Onggirat tribe had played an important role in his uprise.
 
Borjigid & the color of the eyes
The Borjigid clan was a branch of the Kiyats, to which the Jurchens (Jurchids), Changsi'ut and the Kiyat-Sayar also belonged. The Borjigids had an legend that after the death of Dobun-mergen, the alleged ancestress Alan-ko bore Bodunchar after being visited by a strange 'golden glittering man'. Rashid ad-Din provided this rumor by alluding to a foreign origin of the visitor and described him as having red hair and blue-green eyes. It is not strange that the nomads used the 'Light Conception Motif' to mystify their origins since the lifestyle of nomads was predatory, killing men and robbing women, and something had to be made up to cover up some sexual encounter while the woman was alone in the wilderness. Paul Ratchnevsky speculated that the mysterious visitor could be a Kirghiz since the Kirghiz people were said to be tall and possess red hair and green eyes, and he further speculated that in contrast with the red-haired Kirghiz, Chinese Tangshu (Tang History) had said those nomads with black hair were descendants of a Chinese general called Li Ling (Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian's friend) who surrendered to the Huns. Note that Tang records stated that the Kirghiz disliked the BLACK hair and took it as a bad omen. More, refer to discussions on Jiankun & Minusinsk.
 
Chinese records showed that the Mongolians had possessed 'chestnut colored' eyes. Today's Chinese, who were color-blind, sang a song, the "Dragon's Descendants", which were about 'black-colored eyes'. Paul Ratchnevsky quoted the contemporary Chinese Zhao Hong as saying that Genghis Khan differed from other Tartars in that he was tall and had long beard, and quoted Marco Polo as saying that Khubilai did have black eyes but fair complexion 'ringed with red'. Rashid ad-Din, in 'Collected Chronicles', said that Genghis Khan was amazed to see that Khubilai had black hair while the rest of their family had red hair and said his grandson must have taken 'his old uncles' features. (I will deem Rashid's account with some suspicion. Cai Dongfan, the last distinguished imperial examinee from the Manchu era, stated that Bodunchar had grey eyes against the chestnut-colored eyes of his brothers and half-brothers, and nothing was mentioned of the hair or skin. My personal opinion is that it would be impossible that only Genghis Khan himself looked different from the other 'Tatars' (not the same as today's Tartars) in the eyes of Zhao Hong, and that the lineage of the Borjigid should be running down along all tribal lines, including the Tayichi'uts and the Jurkins.)
 
Paul Ratchnevsky quoted some Islamic records saying the Kirghiz people had light color in skin and eyes. Paul Ratchnevsky speculated about the connection of the Kirghiz to the Borjigid clan as the cause of Genghis Khan's purportedly non-Mongoloid features. Note that the Borjigid was a branch of the Kiyats, to which the Jurchens (Jurchids) also belonged. According to "New History Of Five Dynasties", the Kirghiz belonged to the ancient 'Jiankun' Statelet which was located to the western-most of the Huns. They should be to the west of the Yiwu Statelet and to the north of Yanqi Statelet (both in the Chinese Turkestan, and to the west of the Blackwater Lake). Hunnic Chanyu Zhizhi destroyed Jiankun and ex-Han General Li Ling, who surrendered to the Huns, was assigned to the land of Jiankun as King of Youxianwang, namely, the rightside virtuous king, with an army of 80,000. "New History Of Five Dynasties" said that the Kirghiz possessed lighter skin, red hair, green eyes and taller height, and that those Kirghiz people with black hair must be the descendants of Li Ling. The land of Jiankun, in my opinion, is the same place as today's Russian TUVA Republic, i.e., a land that the Soviets stole from China in the early 1920s. TUVA was next to the Minusinsk region where the "Past Exploration Society" in early 20th century claimed the dolicho-cephalic Samoyades (Samoyedes) used to live before they were kicked out by the Mongol Samoyades (Samoyedes).
 
At one time, during Tang Emperor Suzong's reign of A.D. 758-760, the Huihu (Uygur) conquered the Jiankun Statelet of the Kirghiz. The Kirghis allied themselves with Tibetans, Arabs and Karlaks. The Kirghiz, with the help of a defecting Huihu (Uygur) general and combining a cavalry forces of 100000, defeated Huihu (Uygur) and killed the Huihu khan around A.D. 840s. Fifteen Huihu (Uygur) tribes fled westward to the Karlaks, while some remnants fled southward to Tibetans for protection. Another thirteen families, under the new khan Wujie Tele, moved towards Tang China. The Huihu (Uygur) people, under Khan Wujie, attacked Tiande and Zhenwu cities (near today's Datong, Shanxi areas), and Tang border governor-general Liu Mian countered back. Tang Court, at the request of Princess Taihe, agreed to let Huihu (Uygur) reside to the west of Zhenwu city. Further, Tang gave them 20,000 units of grain supply. This group of Huihu (Uygur) would be engaged with fights against Tang China, Tibetans, Xi Nomads of Manchuria, Sha'to Turks, and Kirghis for years, till they were totally destroyed. Today's Huihu (Uygur) should look towards those who fled to the Karlaks and Tibetans for their ancestors. Kirghiz Khan, Ah Ri, earlier, had retrieved Tang Princess Taihe from the Huihu (Uygur) and sent her on the way to Tang China. But the new khan of Huihu (Uygur), Wujie, killed Kirghiz emissary and brought Princess Taihe back to their court. Kirghiz claimed that they shared the same last name as Tang emperors. They sent another emissary to Tang, and it took the emissary three years to reach Tang to see Emperor Wuzong. Later Kirghiz sent another emissary and made a proposal to attack Huihu (Uygur) together. It would be in A.D. 859 that Tang Emperor Xuandi decided to confer the Kirghiz the title of Khan Bravery-Intelligence. New History Of Five Dynasties said Kirghiz paid three more pilgrimages during A.D. 860-875, but they failed to exterminate Huihu (Uygur).
 
Jalair
Possibly of the Turkic ancestry, this group of people were captured by the Timuchin's clan and became vassals. In early days, this group of people had raided the pasture of rich Mongol woman, Monolun (wife of the grandson of Bodunchar), and killed her and her eight sons. Only Kaidu was saved by his uncle Nachin and later Kaidu defeated the Jalair to be a leader of the early Mongol people. The Jalairs became very much attached to the Mongol people in the ensuing years. Later, they were became vassals and got assimilated. Mukali was said to be one of them.
 
Jukin
Okin-barkak's son, Sorkatu-jurki, is designated by Paul Ratchnevsky as the founder of the Jurkin. Okin-barak was the eldest son of Kabul-khan and he was Yisugei's uncle. The Jurkin wrestler, Buri-boko, was the grandson of Kabul-khan. Secret History talked about a banquet held by Timuchin and the Jurkin princes in celebration of several tribes defecting to him from Jamuka's camp. Two stewards of respective tribes, Buri-boko (Yisugei's cousin who went to the Jurkins for his hobby of wrestling long time ago) and Belgutei (Timuchin's elder brother) had a quarrel with each other over some clan members' actions. Fights broke out among the guests of the two sides.
 
The Jurkins are Timuchin's kinsmen, and they were called Kiyat-Jukins. When the Tatars rebelled against the Jurchens, the Jurchens came to Mongolia to fight the Tatars. In middle of A.D. 1196, the Tatars retreated in face of the Jurchen attack, and Timuchin called on the Jukins to join him in attacking the Tatars. Not getting a response from the Jukins for six days, he attacked the Tatars together with Toghrul's army and killed one Tatar prince. Hence, Timuchin was rewarded by Jurchens. When Naimans robbed Timuchin clansmen, Timuchin sent 60 men to the Jukin clan for borrowing soldiers. Jukins killed ten and stripped the clothes of the rest of Timuchin men. Because of this, Timuchin campaigned against them and killed the Jukin princes including Buri his own kinsman in A.D. 1196-1197.
 
Wang'gu
When Naimans tried to attack Timuchin, Tayang-khan had sent an emissary to a place near the Great Wall and Jurchen Jin for forging an alliance with a group of people called Wang'gu. This group of people were said to be different from the Mongols. There is speculation that they might be related to the earlier Shatuo Turks. Wang'gu chieftan, however, arrested the emissary and sent the prisoner to Timuchin. When Timuchin attacked the Naimans, the Wang'gu chieftan came along as an ally.
 
Jadirats and Genghis Khan's blood-brother Jamuka
When Timuchin was 11 years old, he played with Jamuka of the Jadarat clan on the Onon river. The two should be considered kinsmen, and that's why the word clan, not tribe, is used here. They were anda, i.e., blood brothers. Howevever, the two had no blood relationship. Because Jamuka descended from the son born by A-dang-han before she was robbed by Timuchin's ancestor, Bo-dun-char-er (i.e., ancestor of the Borjigin clan), one of the three sons from the 'immaculate conception'. The clan name 'Jadirat' meant a loosely-organized group of people for denoting the original abducted people.
 
When the Merkits abducted Borte, Timuchin sought help with Toghrul of the Keraits whom Jamuka had also allied with. Jamuka raised 20,000 people, plus another 20,000 people from Toghrul's Keraits. According to Secret History, Jamuka raised 10,000 men from Timuchin's clans and another 10,000 from among his own people. Jamuka entered the battlefield 3 days ahead of Toghrul and played a decisive role in defeating the Merkits in A.D. 1184. After that, Jamuka and Timuchin camped together for about one and a half years and they slept under one blanket. However, they split after Jamuka found out that Timuchin had a bigger ambition and would not follow his lead. At the time they split, Jamuka had already lost some of the people whom he had raised from Timuchin clans for the battle against the Merkits.
 
Timuchin rallied his people to have him selected as a khan [in A.D. 1189 per historian Lih Dongfang] and further demanded with Jamuka that he approve the support of several affiliated tribes and clans for Timuchin. When one of Timuchi's men shot dead Jamuka's brother, Jamuka officially declared a war on Timuchin and mobilized thirteen units (tribal or clan units) of troops, about 30,000 men, to attack Timuchin to the south. Timuchin had 13 clans under him, totaling close to 30,000 men. Timuchin split his forces into 13 groups for countering Jamuka. Jamuka's coalition consisted of the Tayichi'ut, the Ikires (a branch of Onggirats), the Uru'ud, the Noyakins, the Barulas and the Ba'arin (those clans or subclans being beyond my ken). Somewhere to the southwest of today's Hulun Lake, Jamuka totally defeated Timuchin, possibly forcing him into seeking asylum inside of the Jurchen territory, till Timuchin rose again in A.D. 1196 per Paul Ratchnevsky -- which could be wrong as we would show the alternative history account that in A.D. 1290, Timuchin and his Kerait ally joined the Jurchens in defeating the ta-ta-er tribe and killing the Ta-ta-er chieftan.
 
In between, for about ten years, Timuchin's whereabouts were ambiguous and historians (see Paul Ratchnevsky) thought it was a taboo. After A.D. 1196, Timuchin would gain more and more people, while Jamuka would incur loss till he was betrayed over to Timuchin by his own people in the final. Historian Lih Dongfang, however, pointed out that Timuchin, after fleeing northwestward, collected more tribes and clans as a result of Jamuka's retaliatory measures against the tribes and clans which were sympathetic with Timuchin. Lih Dongfang further pointed out that Timuchin destroyed the Zhu-er-qin clan, joined forces with the Keraits in attacking the ta-ta-er tribe, rescue the Kerait chieftan when being ousted by a brother of the Kerait chieftan, joined forces with the Keraits in attacking the Merkits, and joined forces with the Keraits in attacking the Naimans.
 
Hearing that Timuchin and Toghrul had defeated the Buirak Naiman and the Tayichi'uts consecutively, the Tatars, Katagin, Seljiuts, Duo-lu-ban, and Onggirat formed an alliance. But the Onggirat chieftan secretly sent a messenger to Timuchin about the forthcoming allied attack. Timuchin and Toghrul then attacked the alliance. Timuchin attacked and defeated the Tatars. When the Onggirat were wrongly attacked, the Onggirat fled to Jamuka's Jadirat clan. In A.D. 1201, Jamuka was elected as Gur-khan, i.e., khan of all tribes, by his coalition of the Katagin, Seljiuts, Duo-lu-ban, Onggirat, Yi-qi-la-si, and Huo-lu-la-si. There were on records three major campaigns between Timuchin and Jamuka. It would be in year A.D. 1200-1201 that Timuchin would exact his revenge on the Tayichi'uts on which occasion he defeated the Jumaka coalition including the Tayichi'uts and killed all Tayichi'ut men. The second battle was waged somewhere near the Hailar River and Te-ruo-ke River in 1201, after Jamuka was made into the Gur-khan. Timuchin defeated the alliance, and the Onggirat sought vassalage with Timuchin. Jamuka escaped. Then, Timuchin campaigned against the two Ta-ta-er tribes: An'chi-Tatar and Chahan-Tatar.
 
After a defeat, Jamuka in the autumn of AD 1202, reorganized the alliance, including the Merkits and Naimans, to wage a 3rd battle. The battle was waged near the Khalkha River and Jamuka lost it to Timuchin and Toghrul. While Toghrul went on to pursue Jamuka, Timuchin exacted revenge on the Tayich'uts who imprisoned him when he was a teenager: Timuchin slaughtered all the males of the Yayichi'ut clan and took in their women. Jamuka surrendered to Toghrul, over which Timuchin broke with Toghrul per Lih Dongfang.
 
The Merkit chieftan, Tuotuo, had staged a comeback, and Timuchin defeated Tuotuo. Naiman Khan Buirak allied with the Katagin, Seljiuts, Duo-lu-ban and Tatar. Jamuka's Jadirats clan came to the aid of Nuirak; but, seeing the Naiman defeat, Jamuka fled. Jamuka had sowed a dissension between Timuchin and Toghrul. Some of Timuchin's kinsmen (An'dan and Huocha'er) defected to the prince of Toghrul. The History of Yuan Dynasty mentioned that Toghrul and his son intended to assassinate Timuchin via an invitation for an inter-marriage banquet. Timuchin stopped half way. When Toghrul attacked Timuchin, Timuchin got advance information and defeated Toghrul. The History of Yuan Dynasty stated that Toghrul had relatively more strength than Timuchin. After Timuchin defeated Toghrul, An'dan and Huocha'er fled to the Naimans. After another defeat, Toghrul fled towards the Naimans and was killed by the Naiman. Toghrul's son fled to the Tanguts and pillaged the Xixia people. When attacked by the Tanguts, Toghrul's son fled to Chouci (Qiuci) in Chinese Turkistan and was killed by the Chouci chief. Genghis Kan took over the Kerait people and territory in A.D. 1203.
 
After Timuchin defeated Toghrul, Jamuka fled to the Naimans but secretly helped Timuchin by disclosing the secrets about the Naimans. Tayang-khan's Naimans took over a small territory of Timuchin. Timuchin dispatched Hubilai and Chepe on a forerunner campaign against Tayang-khan. Tayang-khan, though allied with the Merkits (Tuotuo), the Jadirats (Jamuka), the Kerait remnants (A'lingtaishi), the Wei-la, Ji-la, and Tatar remnants, and the Katagin and Seljiuts, lost the war to Timuchin. Tayang-khan died with all his soldiers. Jamuka, who first deserted Toghrul's Keraits, would desert Tayang-khan's Naimans before the fight. Jamuka himself would be turned over by his own man and died in the hands of Timuchin. The Katagin, Seljiuts, Duo-lu-ban and remnant Tatars surrendered. When Timuchin continued on to attack the Merkits, Tutuo fled to Buirak Khan Naimans. The Merkits fled but were defeated again in A.D. 1204 and the whole tribe was taken over by Timuchin. In A.D. 1206, Timuchin (Genghis Khan) held a grand assembly and received the title as Genghis Khan.
 
The Tayichi'ut
Chinese description of the Mongols applied the knowledge from the "Secret History". According to Secret History, Kabul-khan (Genghis Khan's great grandfather) was invited to the Jurchen court in A.D. 1125 and offended Jurchen emperor Jin Xizong. He had 7 sons altogether, but in accordance with his wish at death, Ambakai was to rule all the Mongols. But according to Rashid, ad-Din (Collected Chronicles), Kabul-khan's son, Kutula, was made khan, while Ambaki was ruler of the Tayichi'ut and hence not successor to Kabul-khan. The Tayichi'ut could be traced either to the son (Caracqa-lingqum, i.e., Ambaki's father or according to Rashid, grandfather) or uncle (Nanchin) of Kaidu-khan. According to the Secret History, Ambaki adopted the tribal name of Tayichi'ut. The Tayichi'ut had a very good relationship with the Kiyats and they belonged to the same category as the forest peoples.
 
The enmity between the Tayichi'uts and the Kiyats arose after the death of Yisugei (Timuchin's father), when the Tayichi'uts deserted the camp of Yisugei's widow. Yisugei's brothers left Ho'elun, Timuchin, and Timuchin's brothers for the Tayichi'ut clan. Speculation here is that Ho'elun might have rejected Yisugei brothers' demand to take her in as their wife or concubine, which was the prevalent nomadic way of inheritance. Later, Genghis Khan (Timuchin), at about age 14-15, murdered his elder half-brother Bekhter and possibly got punished by the Tayichi'ut prince who had reportedly captured him and imprisioned him in a cage which was kept by individual households of the Tayichi'ut clan, till Timuchin found an opportunity to flee home. Aside from the Tayichi'uts, Timuchin had suffered tribulation in the hands of the Merkits, and the Tatars alike.
 
When Timuchin rallied his people to have him selected as a khan, Jamuka's coalition, consisting of the Tayichi'ut, the Ikires (a branch of Onggirats), the Uru'ud, the Noyakins, the Barulas and the Ba'arin, had defeated Timuchin and possibly forced him into seeking asylum inside of the Jurchen territory, till Timuchin rose again in A.D. 1196, per Paul Ratchnevsky, which could be wrong. There were on records three major campaigns between Timuchin and Jamuka. It would be in year A.D. 1200-1201 that Timuchin would exact his revenge on the Tayichi'uts on which occasion he defeated the Jumaka coalition including the Tayichi'uts and killed all Tayichi'ut men. The second battle was waged somewhere near the Hailar River and Te-ruo-ke River in 1201, after Jamuka was made into the Gur-khan. After a defeat, Jamuka in the autumn of AD 1202, reorganized the alliance, including the Merkits and Naimans, to wage a 3rd battle. The battle was waged near the Khalkha River and Jamuka lost it to Timuchin and Toghrul. While Toghrul went on to pursue Jamuka, Timuchin exacted revenge on the Tayich'uts who imprisoned him when he was a teenager: Timuchin slaughtered all the males of the Yayichi'ut clan and took in their women.
 
The Mengwu
This name was derived from the earlier Mengwu Shiwei Tribe. Chinese Zhao Hong, according to Paul Ratchnevsky, said that the Mongols he met did not know their age nor their name other than calling themselves 'Tatars'. Nor did the Jurchens know of their age before they entered China. Later historical records quoted the Jurchen Jin as saying that the 'Mengwu' people had a rebellion led by Kabul-khan. When Jin emperor Xizong died, his grandson colluded with General Wuzu in killing his uncle Dalai, and Dalai's descendants fled to Kabul-khan for assitance in avenging on the Jurchens. This caused the Jurchens to abort their southern campaigns against the Chinese of Southern Song (AD 1127-1279). Jurchen's general Wuzu, the emperor's uncle, had to lead his army northward to fight the 'Mengwu' of Kabul-khan. Unable to fight the Mengku, the Jurchens negotiated a peace treaty and agreed to supply cattle and grains to the Mengwu and moreover conferred him the title of king of the Mengwu people.
 
According to Rashid al-Din, Okin-barak was the eldest son of Kabul-khan, Bartan-bagatur's elder brother, and Yisugei's uncle. Hence Timuchin is like 4 generations apart from Kabul-khan, which is in contradiction with the version in the Secret History. It was said that after the migration of the Jurchens to north China, the Borjigin Mongols had emerged in central Mongolia as the leading clan of a loose federation. Kabul Khan raided into Jurchen Jin in A.D. 1135. After the death of Kabul-khan, the 'Mengwu' people disintegrated. Yesugei, who was chief of the Kiyat subclan of the Borjigin Mongols, was killed by neighboring Tartars in 1175, when Temujin was only twelve years old. The Kiyat rejected Timuchin as their leader and chose one of his kin instead. Temujin and his immediate family were deserted even by Yisugei's brothers who went to the Tayichi'ut clan, mainly.
 
 
The reason we brought out Tayichi'ut and Mengwu is that they are fundamental to understanding the origins of the Mongols. Later historians, after Khubilai, would apply such wording as "qamug Mangqol Tayici'ut" to imply a coalition or league of the Mongols-Tayichi'uts. The truth, however, is that the word 'Mongols' was adopted and sanctified by Khubilai, much later than the Mongols knew about this name. Before this name change, the Mongols called themselves 'Tatars' (not the same as today's Tartars), in fact. At most, the Mongols would identify with the branch of the forest peoples called the 'Tayichi'uts', the Jukins, the Oirats and the Onggirats. In my opinion, the faction surrounding Yisugei and his sons (Timuchin) is nothing more than a sub-family among the branch of the forest peoples called Tayici'ut or Kiyats. The Kiyat subclan is only part of the family of the Borjigin Mongols. After they left the forest and became pastoral by means of plundering to acquire the herds, they also identified themselves with the pastoral nomads called the Tartars, and they didin't think they were different from the Tartars.
 
Chinese sources tried to trace the origin of the word 'Mongol', and it had located a tribe called 'Mengwu', said to be a Shiwei tribe of the Tang Period prior to A.D. 907. This name would later become Moghul in Turkic and Mughal in Persian. Literally, it meant monster or cannibal in the Chinese language. It also meant silver in the Mongol language and hence was likened to the way the nomads gave their dynasties their metal names, as in the cases of the Jurchens' Jin, Khitans, and Korean Sillas. One interesting thing about the word Mongqol irgen is that the word 'irgen' is exactly an ancient Chinese pronunciation which could be corrobated by the Cantonese pronunciation of 'irgen' and Japanese pronuncitation of 'nin' or 'dgen'. Still more interesting is the fact that Genghis Khan's name, Timuchin, shared the same prefix as some of his brothers and sister, with Timur meaning nothing more than a Chinese word 'Tie' for iron or smith. That's why I would dispute the Secret History's claim that Yisugei took home the Tatar clan leader as a prisoner and applied to his son the same name as the Tatar chief (in A.D. 1167?, year uncertain being reasonable in that the nomads did not have calendar). More, refer to discussions on Shiwei.
 

Genghis Khan's Pals & Family Members
 
Four Pals
Chi-lao-wen (Chilaun, from the Suldus, a sub-clan of the Tayichiud), Bo-er-jie, Muhuali, and Bo-luo-hun (Boroqul). Plus Jebe (Chepe, i.e., Jurgaadai, from Besud clan of Tayichiud).
 
When Timuchin's father died, his tribesmen deserted them for the Tayichi'ut clan, a sub-clan descending from Kabul Khan. Timuchin (Genghis Khan) was taken custody by the Tayichi'uts. When he fled from the Tayichi'ut clan, he was rescued by a Tayichi'ut man who had two sons and one daughter. The junior son of this Tayichi'ut man would be called Chi-lao-wen, one of the four pals of Genghis Khan in his later campaigns. The daughter of the Tayichi'ut man later was married with Timuchin (Genghis Khan).
 
On one occasion, when Timuchin's horses were stolen, he chased the thieves, and on the way, Timuchin encountered a teenager called Bo-er-jie (of Bodunchar descendancy) who later became one of the 'Four Pals'.
 
Two other pals would be Muhuali (of the Jalair [Jalayir] clan, which was of the Darliquin tribe and ancestors of the future Khalkha Mongols and the Jalayirid Sultanate) and Bo-luo-hun (Boroqul). Muhuali, following Timuchin at age 14 since A.D. 1183, was to receive the North China domain south of Mt. Taihangshan, and by the time he died in A.D. 1223, was the only non-Timuchin family member to enjoy the title as king. The Jalair [Jalayir] clan was defeated by Kaidu's Borjigin Mengwu in the early 11th century. Muhuali's father, Guwen, at one time gave his horse to Timuchin and died to fend off the Naiman attackers.
 
Per Cai Dongfan, Bo-luo-hun (Boroqul), son of Xie-che-bie-ji, i.e., Timuchin's [?remote] step-brother, was kind of adopted by Timuchin in spring 1197 (i.e., the 3rd year of the Qingyuan Era of Southern Song Dynasty) after Timuchin repeatedly defeated Xie-che-bie-ji, and killed both Xie-che-bie-ji and his brother Tai-chu-le. However, this could be a mistake due to misnomer or soundex. (Xie-che-bie-ji was of the lineage of some warriors selected by Kabul Khan among the tribesmen, which later developed into the clan name of Zhu-er-qin, or Yue-er-jin or Yu-er-qi.) On basis of an alternative account, which cited senior scholar Wang Guowei's rebuttal of the same error in the actual year, Bo-luo-hun was given to Timuchin's family by Muhuali's uncle at about the year 1183, not 1197 - when kids like both Muhuali and Bo-luo-hun (Boroqul) had grown up to be two of the four warriors under Timuchin. (During a major battle against the Naimans in A.D. 1199, the four generals, Chi-lao-wen, Bo-er-jie, Muhuali, and Bo-luo-hun were sent to aiding the Kerait khan, Wang Khan.) Alternatively speaking, Bo-luo-hun (Boroqul) was of the Hu'us-in (Xu-wu-shen) clan. Boroqul's son, Tuo-huan, took part in Meng-ge's campaign against Russia, while grandson Shi-lie-men too part in Kubilai's campaign against southewestern China.
 
Jebe (Chepe) was also from the Tayichi'uts (Tayichiud) clan.
 
Six Brothers
Temujin,
Hasar [Jochi-Kasar],
Hachiun,
Temuge,
half-brother Belgutei (responsible for defeating the Keraits, and ancestors of the Khorchin Mongols), and
half-brother Behter (killed by Timuchin and Jochi-Kasar).
 
Four Sons
The four sons of Genghis Khan and Boerte:
Jochi, eldest son of Genghis Khan (Died 1227)
Chagatai (Died 1242)
Ogodai [born by Toregene of the Merkit] (Ogodai died 1241)
Tolui [born by Sorkhaqtani of the Kereyit] (Tolui died 1233)
 

 

Mongol Brutal Conquests
 
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com
The Jukin princes, including Buri the kinsman, were killed in A.D. 1196-1197. In year A.D. 1200-1201, Genghis Khan would exact his revenge on the Tayichi'uts. On this occasion, he defeated the Jumaka coalition including the Tayichi'uts and killed all Tayichi'uts men. After exterminating the Tartars in A.D. 1202, Genghis Khan broke with Toghrul's Keraits, and Genghis Kan killed Toghrul in A.D. 1203. After the defeat of the Tanya-khan Naimans (AD 1204), it would be the Buiruk-khan (another Naiman khan) who was to be captured and killed by Genghis Khan. Buiruk-khan's wives, cattle and children would be taken over in A.D. 1206, right after the grand assembly at the source of Onon River, on which occasion Genghis Khan took the title of "Genghis". A.D. 1206 was the 6th year of Jurchen Emperor Zhuangzong's Taihe Era. Kuchlug (son of Tayan-khan) and Tuotuo fled to the upsteam of River Yenesei. As to Genghis, "gen" means great and 'ghis' means the most. (European and Nomdic specialists would point out that it means 'green' or 'sea', simlar to the 'Dalai', Tibetan's title for Dalai Lama.) Genghis Khan selected Karakorum (west-southwest of modern Ulaanbaatar, near modern Har Horin), as the capital.
 
In A.D. 1205, Genghis Khan (Timuchin) had invaded Tangut territories and took over the city of Luo-si. In A.D. 1207, Genghis Khan attacked Tanguts again and took over the city of Ke-wo-luo-hai. Two emissaries were sent to the Kirghiz (Kirgiz), and the two tribes of Kirghizs submitted to Genghis Khan in A.D. 1207. The Oirats followed in A.D. 1208, on which occasion they directed Genghis Khan to the location where Merkits's prince and the son of Tayan-khan (Naiman) stayed. During the battle, most of the Merkit and Naiman troops were drowned in the Irtysch River. Kuchlug, the Naiman prince, fled to Kara-Khitai (Western Liao) where he was taken as son-in-law of the Kara-Khitai ruler. (Later, Kuchlug usurped the Kara-Khitai kingdom by colluding with the Khwarazm shah.) The remainant Merkits fled to the west and joined the Kipchaks. The Uygur ruler, Barchuk, sent an emissary to Genghis Khan and submitted to the Mongol rule, and he personally appeared before Genghis Khan in A.D. 1211 after waiting several years to see that the Tanguts had just been defeated in A.D. 1209. In same year, Arslan of the Karluks appeared before Genghis Khan and submitted to his rule.
 
Attack on the Tanguts
After the grand assembly, Genghis Khan conferred kingship onto his brothers. He conferred 'wan hu' (10,000 households) on Muhuali and Borjie as well as 95 'qian hu' (1,000 households). Both 'wan hu' and 'qian hu' are military titular names. Khuibilai would have his counsellor, Liu Bingzhong, work on the institution of governmenatl structure later. Muhuali (Muqali or Mukali) proposed to Genghis Khan that they should first defeat the Tanguts, then the Jurchens and finally the Soong Chinese. Since the Chinese chronicle counts the full first year as the No. 1 year, A.D. 1206 would be the so-called first year of Mongol Dynasty. The official dynastic epoch of 'Yuan' would not come till Khubilai declared it in A.D. 1271. (Southern Song ended eight years later, in A.D. 1279.)
 
The Tanguts were attacked in A.D. 1205, 1207 and 1208 before they were defeated in A.D. 1209. This group of people were called the Dangqiang (Qiang) people or Tanguts. They were the descendants of the Tuoba and Xianbei people, the Di nomads, plus the Chinese and possibly the Uygurs in the area of today's Ningxia & Inner Mongolia. Their ancestor, Tuoba Sigong, a Dangxiang with a Tuoba family name, had come to the aid of Tang Dynasty in A.D. 907 when rebel Huang Cao sacked Xi'an the Tang capital. Tang conferred him the title of Duke Xia and the Tang family name of Li. Later, Xia Duke, Li Yuanhao, declared himself an emperor and founded Xixia (Western Xia) Dynasty. At one time, Emperor Li Renxiao sought aid with Jurchen Emperor Jin Sizong for quelling rebellion and hence allied with Jurchen Jin in A.D. 1165 as a vassal. After the death of Li Renxiao, a brother by the name of Li An'quan usurped the throne.
 
From A.D. 1205 onward, the Mongols attacked the Tanguts six times. Genghis Khan first accused Xixia of giving asylum to Toghrul's people, i.e., King Toghrul Wang-han's son Yi-la-he-sang-kun. In 1209, 1217, and 1226-1227, the Mongols reached Mt Helanshan three times and laid siege of the Xingqing-fu city.
 
In A.D. 1205, the Mongols sacked two border garrisons, Li-ji-li-zai and Luo-si-cheng, pillaged people and camels, and retreated within one month. Xia Emperor Huanzong repaired castles thereafter, declared amnesty, and renamed the capital of Xingqing-fu into Zhongxing-fu. The Tanguts intruded into the Mongol plains in late 1205, only to withdraw after hearing of the Jurchen defeat. In the autumn of 1207, campaigns against the Tanguts began on the pretext that the Tanguts did not surrender tributes. Genghis Khan attacked the citadel Wo-luo-hai-cheng, to the north of Hetao (sheath area) and near the northern pass of Lang-shan (wolf) Mountain. The Mongols slaughtered the city after 40 days of fightings. Five months later, the Mongols retreated after Tangut Emperor Xiangzong dispatched relief armies.
 
In the spring of A.D. 1209, the Wei-wu-er (Uygur) people came to show respect. In the spring of 1209, Genghis Khan personally led the 650-mile march on the Tanguts in the south. This was after the Huihe people in Gaochang [near today's Urumqi] killed the governor ["shao jian"] of Western Liao and surrendered to the Mongols as a vassal. The Mongols, utilizing the northwestern exposure, attacked Tangut's Wo-luo-hai Pass again. Tangut Emperor Xiangzong [Li An'quan] dispatched son Cheng-zhen to the front, and Tangut Deputy Marshal Gao Yi was killed after being caught by the Mongols. Alternatively speaking, the Mongols captured Tangut deputy marshal Gao Linggong and the city of Ke-wu-la [Wo-luo-hai?]. In April, the Mongols sacked Wo-luo-hai after a Chinese [Xie Muhuan] persuaded a Soong Chinese defender into surrendering the city. Tangut's "tai fu" [imperial tutor] Xi-bi-e-da was caught by the Mongols. The Mongols then intruded southward towards Ke-yi-men Pass. Tangut General Weimingling-gong, with 50000 relief army, ambushed the Mongols in a valley and drove the Mongols out of the mountain pass. Two months later, the Mongols induced the Tanguts into a trap, defeated them, sacked Ke-yi-men, and intruded to the Zhongxing-fu capital area. By Sept, the Mongols flooded the city with water from the Yellow River. Water as deep as several feet destroyed houses in the city and drowned numerous people. Tanguts' request with the Jurchens for aid was declined. By Dec, however, the flood destroyed the Mongol dike and flooded the Mongol camps instead.
 
In the winter, Genghis Khan turned to enemies Kuchlug and Tuotuo to the northwest, causing Kuchlug to flee to Kara Khitai while Tuotuo was killed by a stray arrow. In Jan of A.D. 1210, the siege of the Tangut capital was released when the waters, breached by the Mongols for flooding the Xia capital, flowed to the Mongol camp instead. The Mongols released the Tangut 'tai fu' for a peace talk. Peace was secured only when Tangut emperor (Li An'quan) delivered his youngest daughter (rumored to be later responsible for poisoning Genghis when he re-attacked Xixia) to Genghis Khan as a bribe, but the Tanguts refused to supply troops to the Mongols as auxiliary. Thw Tanguts would pay for this later.
 
After the Mongols left, the Tanguts, angry that the Jurchens did not come to their aid, broke the peace treaty with the Jurchens which had been effective as of A.D. 1165, and a new treaty would not be signed till A.D. 1225 when they faced new waves of Mongol attacks. The Tanguts attacked Jurchen's border town but were defeated, and hence they asked Genghis Khan to attack the Jurchens. The Tanguts would be engaged in ten years' border wars with Jurchens. The Tanguts continued to raid into Jurchen territories. The Jurchens and the Tanguts had ten years of border wars since A.D. 1213. Wars continued till A.D. 1223.
 
The Mongol Attack on the Jurchens
In A.D. 1211, the Jurchens conspired to attack the Mongols by building the castle of Wu-sa-bao, according to History of Yuan Dynasty. Genghis Khan ordered Chepe on an attack. Genghis Khan used to pay tributes to the Jurchens. When Jurchen Emperor Weishaowang (i.e., King of Weishao, Wanyan Yongji) enthroned in A.D. 1209, Genghis Khan refused to take Jurchen imperial decree by spitting in front of the Jurchen emissary.
 
The Jurchens, ancestors of the later Manchu, had in early days defeated the Khitans in a seven-year war (AD 1115-1122), by means of an alliance with Northern Song (AD 960-1127), and they founded the Jin or Gold Dynasty (AD 1115-1234). They subdued neighboring Koryo (Korea) in A.D. 1126 and invaded Song Dynasty, while the defeated Kitan Liao ruler fled with the small number of remnants to the Tarim Basin where he estalished Kara-Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty, A.D. 1124-1234) among the Uygur vassals. The Jurchens had fights with the early 'Mengwu' people (led by Kabul-khan) in 1139 and in 1147, and they nailed Ambaki and Kabul-khan's elder son to wooden donkeys and hence were feuds of Genghis Khan's Mongols.
 
In A.D. 1211, Genghis Khan held another khuriltai (assembly) at the River Kerulen. Arslan-khan of the Karluks came to surrender to the Mongols, and the Wei-wu-er (Uygur) chieftan came to show respect, too.
 
In Feb 1211, Genghis Khan led three sons and Jebe on a campaign against northwestern territories of Jurchen Jin and defeated a Jurchen general called Hu Shahu. Genghis Khan had 95 'qian hu', close to 100,000 men, while Hu Shahu boasted of 300,000 men. Genghis Khan defeated Jurchen General Ding Xue at Yehuling Ridge (wild fox ridge). In July, Chepe took over the castle of Wu-sa-bao. In August, the Mongols defeated the Jurchens at Xuanping. Wanyan Yongji was the nephew of late Jurchen Emperor Xizong. (Between Xizong and Wanyan Yongji, there had elapsed three Jurchen emperors, Jin Feidi, Jin Shizong and Jin Zhuangzong, and one usurper, King Hailingwang.) Jurchen Emperor Wanyan Yongji then sent Wanyan Jiujian and 400,000 strong relief to counter the Mongols. One Jurchen general called Ming'an proposed that the Jurchen army should take defensive action, but he was rebutted. When Ming'an was asked to reprimand the Mongols as an emissary, Ming'an surrenderred to Genghis Khan and disclosed the military information. On the ensuing night, Genghis Khan raided the Jurchen camp and defeated them. In Sept, Dexing governor office was taken, and Juyongguan Pass was deserted. Jebe (Jebei, Chepe or Zhebie), with aid from the Khitans and the Chinese who served in the Jurchen army, notably with the help of a Jurchen general called Ming'an, took over Juyongguan Pass of the Great Wall (near today's Beijing). Chepe went on to lay siege of Peking (Zhongdu). In the winter times, the Mongols attacked Jurchen's ranch, and Yelu A'mei surrendered. Jochi, Chagatai and Ogodai took over numerous prefectures of northern China.
 
The Mongols, after attacking Peking for 24 hours, failed to enter the city. Genghis Khan retreated back to Juyongguan Pass. In A.D. 1211, Genghis rested at the northern Jurchen territories.
 
In A.D. 1212, a Khitan who served as a Jurchen general, Yeluu Liuge, took over today's east Liaoning Province and sent an emissary to Genghis Khan, expressing wish to be a vassal. Genghis Khan took over more Jurchen cities in today's southern Manchuria. Genghis Khan defeated a Jurchen relief army of 300,000 led by Heshilieqiujin. In autumn of A.D. 1212, Genghis Khan laid siege of Jurchen's Xijing (west capital) and destroyed the Jurchen relief army at Migukou. While attacking Jurchen's Xijing, Genghis Khan was wounded by an erratic arrow. Hence, Genghis Khan retreated. But in Sept and Dec, the Mongols continued their attacks in today's Manchuria.
 
In A.D. 1213, Yelu Liuge declared himself King of Liao and the Era of Yuantong. In July, the Mongols took over Xuande governor office, and Tolui took over Dexing governor office. At Huailai, near today's Kalgan, Genghis Khan defeated Jurchen governor ('xing sheng') Wanyan Gang and marshal Gao Qi. The Jurchens retreated to Juyongguan Pass. Genghis Khan then attacked Zhuoluo of Hebei Prov, and Jurchen General Hu Shahu deserted so-called Xijing (west capital). Genghis Khan, marching out of Zijingguan Pass, took over Zhuozhou Prefecture. After a Khitan general surrendered the Beikou city, Chepe captureed Juyongguan Pass thereafter. In August of this year, Jurchen Emperor (Wanyan Yongji) was usurped and killed by Jurchen General Hu Shahu. Wanyan Xun (King of Feng) was selected as Emperor Xuanzong. Genghis Khan led three columns against the Jurchens again, with Jochi, Chagatai and Ogodai attacking today's Shanxi Prov along the Taihang Mountains in the west, and a brother (Ha-sa-er) attacking today's Liaoning Prov in the east. Genghis Khan and Tolui attacked today's Hebei Prov in the middle. Genghis Khan ordered Muhuali to attack Mizhou Prefecture whose people were slaughtered. Many Khitans and Chinese joined the Mongols to avenge on the Jurchens. This will include famous generals like Chinese brothers, Shi Tianni, Shi Tianxiang, Shi Tian'an and Shi Tianze etc, who were employed by Muhuali. Shi Tianni was conferred the title of 'wan hu'.
 
In March of A.D. 1214, Genghis Khan stationed his armies north of Peking. An emissary was sent to the Jurchen emperor for a ceasefire, and the Jurchen emperor surrendered Wanyan Yongji's daughter (Princess Qiguo), 500 boys and girls, and 3000 horses to Genghis Khan. The Jurchen emperor ordered that his prime minister Wanyan Fuxing accompany Genghis Khan out of Juyong Pass. The Jurchen emperor, however, made a strategic mistake by relocating his capital to Bianliang (today's Kaifeng) in May, which essentially enraged Genghis Khan as well as cut themselves from the Jurchen base in Manchuria. Wanyan Fuxing was ordered to assist Prince Wanyan Shouzhong at Beijing.
 
In A.D. 1213, Genghis Khan resumed warfare against the Jurchens. Using Jurchen's relocation as an excuse, Genghis Khan sent Muhuali against the Jurchens. Muhuali attacked Jurchen's northern capital in west Liaoning Province at the advice of Shi Tianni. Shi Tianxiang was responsible for defeating 200,000 Jurchen army at the northern capital of 'Bei-jing' (i.e., today's Ningchen of Inner Mongolia). When the Mongols returned to attack today's Beijing, Prince Wanyan Shouzhong fled to Bianliang in July. In Oct, Muhuali attacked Liaodong (an area east of the Liao-he River). A Jurchen general (Zhang Jing) at Jinzhou killed Jurchen 'jie-du-shi' (governor), declared himself King of Linghai, and surrendered to the Mongols.
 
The siege of Zhongdu (Beijing) began in A.D. 1214. Siege weaponry like mangonels and battering-rams would be utilized. Meantime, similar to later Manchu ravaging of North China, the Mongol armies devastated northern China, sacking numerous cities in Hebei/Shandong provinces, reducing them into all ruins. In A.D. 1215, Jurchen general at Tongzhou surrendered to the Mongols. When Muhuali attacked Bei-jing in Feb, Jurchen generals Yin-da-hu and Wu-gu-lun surrendered. The Jurchen marshal at 'xingzhong-fu' governor office also surrendered. In March, the Jurchen relief army for Zhongdu (Beijing) was defeated at Ba-zhou Prefecture. In April, Qing-zhou and Shun-zhou were taken. Zhang Jing rebelled when being called upon, and the rebellion was quelled by the Mongols. Zhang Jing's brother claimed to be Emperor Hanxing (reviving Han) at Jinzhou and declared the Xinglong Era. In May, Wanyan Fuxing took poison to commit suicide, and Beijing fell to the Mongols. By A.D. 1215, Beijing (known as Yanjing) fell, and history recorded the horrors of massacre and suicides. During the siege, the Mongolian army, short of grain supply during the siege, would line their soldiers up, select soldiers via one out of every hundred or so, and kill them for food. As to the residents inside of Beijing, hunger led to cannibalism, too, and at the time when Beijing fell, innumerable number of women and girls jumped down from the city wall to commit suicide. Some western traveller recorded that the human oil from burning those dead bodies had been so thick that it did not dissappear for a long time. After taking over Peking, Genghis Khan acquired his later prime minister, Yelu Chucai (Yeh-lu Chu'tsai). Ming'an was ordered to guard Beijing. Genghis Khan took a summer break to avoid the heat. In July, a bandit leader on Hongluoshan Mountain, Du Xiu, was pacified and conferred the post of 'jie-du-shi' for Jinzhou.
 
Genghis Khan wrote to the Jurchen emperor, asking him to order all cities in Hebei and 'shan-dong' (east of Taihang Mountain?) to surrender to the Mongols as well as downgrade the Jurchen title to King of He-nan (south of the Yellow River). Jin Emperor Xuanzong declined this request, and Genghis Khan ordered Shi Tianni on a southern campaign. In August, Shi Tianni took over Pingzhou. Shi Jindao under Muhuali took over Guangning-fu governor office. Altogether 862 Jurchen cities were taken.
 
Jurchen 'xuanfu' Hupu Wannu took over Liaodong and declared himself King of Tian (heaven), dynastic name of 'Da Zhen' and Tiantai Era. Yeluu Liuge came to pay respect in Nov and left his son as a hostage with the Mongols. Shi Tianxiang captured Jurchen 'jie-du-shi' at Xingzhou, Zhao Shouyue. In A.D. 1216, Genghis Khan returned north, and Zhang Jing's brother (Zhang Zhi) took over Xingzhong-fu. Muhuali quelled the Zhang Zhi rebellion.
 
In autumn of A.D. 1216, the Mongols came to today's Shenxi from their early campaigns against the Tanguts in the west. In A.D. 1217, the Mongols attacked the Tanguts for the fourth time on the pretext that the Tanguts did not obey the order of appropriation. The Mongols laid siege of Xingqing-fu. Tangut Emperor Zunzong fled to "xi-jing" [western capital], and assigned son De-ren for the city defence. De-ren requested for peace with the Mongols.
 
The Mongols then attacked Tongguan Pass in the west. The Mongols were defeated by the Jurchen army called 'Hua-Mao-jun [flowery hat army] Garrison'. The Mongols retreated after reaching Bian-jing (Kaifeng). In Oct, Hupu Wannu surrendered and sent his son to the Mongols as a hostage; Hupu Wannu rebelled thereafter and declared the dynastic name of Dong-xia (Eastern Xia Dynasty). In A.D. 1217, a monk took over Wuping, and Shi Tianxiang quelled it. Mongol General Cha-han defeated the Jurchens at Ba-zhou, and the Jurchens requested for peace. Genghis Khan conferred Muhuali kingship of the Peking territory and the title of 'tai shi' in August. Muhuali went on to take over various cities on the Shandong Peninsula. Tu-man tribe rebelled in Mongolia and was quelled. In A.D. 1218, the Mongols departed from Zijingguan Pass and captured Jurchen 'yuanshuai xingshi' Zhang Rou. Muhuali departed 'xi-jing' for 'he-dong' (east of Yellow River) and captured Taiyuan, Dai, Feng, Lu, Huo-zhou and Pingyang of today's Shanxi Province. Jurchen General Wu Xian attacked Man-zhou, and Zhang Rou defeated Wu Xian. The Tanguts were attacked in this year, and Tangut Emperor fled to 'xi-liang' (west of Gansu Province). A Khitan, by the name of Liuge, took over 'Jiangdong' (east of the ?Yalu river) of Koryo. The Mongols dispatched Ha-zhen and Zhao-la against Liu-ge, and the Koryo king requested for vassalage.
 
In A.D. 1219, Zhang Rou defeated Wu Xian again and took over Qiyang and Zhongshan. In June of A.D. 1219, Xi-yu (western territories) of Chinese Turkistan killed Mongol emissaries, and Genghis Khan personally campaigned against 'Xi-yu' and captured chieftan Ha-zhi-er-zhi-lan-tu. (In A.D. 1218, the governor of Oyrat, an eastern province of Khwarizm, robbed and killed several Mongol merchants.) In autumn, Muhuali captured Jie-zhou and slaughtered Jiang-zhou. In A.D. 1220, Genghis Khan took over Puhua, Xun-shi-gan and Wo-tuo-luo-er cities. Wu Xian surrendered when Muhuali arrived at Zhending. Muhuali conferred Shi Tianni the post in charge of the western armies north of the Yellow River and assigned Wu Xian the deputy post. More Jurchen generals surrendered. Jurchen 'jie-du-shi' [governor or magistrate] at Xing-zhou surrendered, too. In central Asia, in A.D. 1221, Genghis Khan attacked Puo-ha-er and Xie-mi-si-gan, i.e., Bukhara and Samarkand. Jochi attacked Yang-jie-gan and Ba-er-zhen. In April, when stationing in Tiemen'guan [iron gate] Pass, the Jurchen emperor sent an emissary requesting for being a "junior brother" of the Mongols. Jurchen 'xingsheng' [governor] at Dongping deserted the city, and Yan Shi was ordered to guard it. Southern Soong Chinese sent Gou Mengyue for peace with the Mongols. Song general Shi Gui in southern Shandong Prov surrendered. In central asia, in autumn, Genghis Khan attacked Ban-le-he, while Jochi-Chagatai-Ogodai attacked Yue-long-chi. In Oct, Tolui took over Ma-lu-ch-ye-ke, Ma-lu and Xi-la-si. Muhuali departed from 'He-xi' (west of the Yellow River) and attacked Suide, Bao'an and Yan'an of northern Shenxi Prov. In Nov, Soong Chinese governor Zhang Lin surrendered.
 
In A.D. 1222, Tolui took over Tu-si and Ni-cha-wu-er and pillaged the Mu-la-yi statelet, i.e., Munaixi (Hashasheen or Assassin or Arsacia?), south of the Caspian Sea. Tolui and Genghis Khan converged on Talihan Castle and captured it. Muhuali failed to take over Fengxiang of Shenxi Prov. Jala ad-Din fled to combine forces with Mieli-khan and defeated Mongol general Hu-du-hu. Genghis Khan then defeated and captured Mieli-khan. Ba-la was ordered to pursue Jala ad-Din across the Indus River. In autumn, the Jurchens dispatched Wusunzhongdun to the Mongol camp in Huihe [Uygur] territories for peace again. Genghis Khan rediculed the Jurchens for not taking his offer to have Jurchens be the King of 'He-nan' [land to the south of Yellow River]. When Wusunzhongdun requested for mercy, Genghis Khan stated that the Jurchens surrender the cities in Guan-xi (west of Hanguguan pass). Jurchen Duke Pingyang-gong surrendered Qinglong-bao castle. In Oct, Jurchen 'hezhong-fu' governor office surrendered.
 
The Jurchens would be defeated again later, but not until A.D. 1234. Many Jurchen generals surrendered to and then rebelled against the Mongols.
 
The Khwarazm Campaign, the Fergana Valley Campaign (AD 1219-1223)
Western scholars, in their account of Genghis Khan's generals, would tout Subedei, son of Jelme (Gehngis Khan's anda) and ancestors of the future Uriankhan (U) and Harqin banners of the Mongols, as the most brilliant. B.H. Liddel Hart devoted the first chapter of "Great Captains Unveiled" to 'Sabutai'. Cai Dongfan, however, commented that it would be Muhali (Muqali) who would be responsible for shaping Genghis Khan's bandit psychology into that of a ruler.
 
In A.D. 1217, Muhuali (Mukali) was designated vicero of Northern China. In Mongolia, Genghis Khan campaigned against the Keraits and the Tumats who had rebelled earlier. A treaty was signed with Muhammad II of Khwarazm. In the same year, Genghis Khan campaigned against Kuchlug in Kara-Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty), i.e., the son of deposed khan of the Naiman. Kuchlug had earlier usurped the Khitai Kingdom of his Khitan father-in-law. Kuchlug colluded with Khwarazm in ursurping the Kara-Khitai kingdom. Kuchlug, to make his new wife happy, forced the Kara-Khitai people into conversion to Buddhism. Genghis Khan hence sent Jebe on a campaign against Kuchlug.
 
Genghis's general, Jebe, overran Kuchlug's forces west of Kashgar, in today's southwestern Chinese Turkestan. Kuchlug was captured and executed, and the Karakitai territory was annexed. By 1218, the Mongol state extended as far west as Lake Balkash and adjoined Khwarizm, a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea in the west and the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea in the south. Khwarizm, a previous vassal of the Kara-Khitai, had previously colluded with Kuchlug in overthrowing the Khitan ruler. Right after the conquest of the Kara Khitai, the Mongols came into conflict with Khwarezm. So to say that Naiman's Kuchlug led Genghis Khan to Kara-khitai, and Kara-khitai led Genghis Khan to Khwarezm. Starting with Khwarezm, the wars for dominating the world began.
 
In A.D. 1218, the governor of Oyrat, an eastern province of Khwarizm, robbed and killed several Mongol merchants, and more over killed Mongol emissaries. The Mongol troops led by Jochi was first defeated by troops of Shah Mohammed of Khwarezm. Genghis Khan retaliated with a force of more than 200,000 troops. The Uygurs came to aid the Mongols. Genghis Khan and Subedei attacked from the north with 90,000 men, while Jebi (Chepe) attacked from the east with 30,000 men. Genghis Khan, giving order that Chagatai and Ogodai attack the Oyrat continuously, would send three columns into Khwarizm territories. Jochi went to the northwest, one column to the southeast, and Genghis Khan himself to the northeast for Tashkent. Otrar's governor, Inalchuq, would be killed by feeding melted silver into the mouth and ears etc. Shah Mohammed-shah led 400,000 men against the Mongols. It was said that 180,000 were killed during the battle. Jala ad-Din (Jalal al-Din), the son of Sultan Muhammad and governor of the Afghanistan territory of today, would stay to defend Bukhara and Samarkand in the Fergana Valley, but was defeated by the Mongols. In A.D. 1221, the Mongols captured Bokhara and Samarkand. The Mongols slaughtered numerous cities during their campaigns. Genghis Khan pursued the Khwarizm armies to the River Amu-darya and crossed to the west bank of the river. Hearing that Khwarizm-shah had re-organized his troops in Samarkand, Genghis Khan crossed the River Amu-darya to campaign to the east. After taking over Samarkand where the soldiers surrendered after the Shah fled, Genghis Khan would kill all 40,000 prisoners at night. About 30,000 skilled workers and artizans would be spared, and another 30,000 labor would be taken as slaves. Subedei and Chepe went on to pursue the Shah with 2 tuman (20,000 men). After crossing the River Amu-darya, Jebe went northwest and Subedei to the southwest. They raided deep into the Persian territories and converged on the coast of the Caspian Sea. Khwarazm-shah, being attacked by a local feud, would flee to an island to the southeast of the sea where Khwarazm-shah died of miseries. Jala ad-Din was ordered to succeed him.
 
Khwarazm-shah, deeply influenced by his own mother Terken Khatun, had erected a different son as his heir. This caused rifts with his son Jala ad-Din. Terken Khatun was from the Turkic Kang-li tribe, said to be related to the ancient Kangju statelet of Yuezhi ethnic nature. The Shah ruled the heterogeneous peoples without mercy. In face of Mongol attacks, the Khwarazm empire, with a combined army of 400,000, simply collapsed.
 
Subedei and Chepe later captured the mother, wife and daughters of Khwarazm-shah and gave them to Chagatai and his generals, and the son of the dead Mongol merchant, as concubines. Subedei and Chepe then received order from Genghis Khan to attack a tribe called 'Qin-cha' (Kipchak or Qipchak) north of the Caspian Sea. This is because Qin-cha tribe had offered asylum to the Merkits. Subedei and Chepe raided towards the northwest.
 
Genghis Khan, after taking a rest for the summer, would order Jochi, Ogodai and Tolui on a campaign against Ur-da-chi (Urgenchi or Urganchi) in the south. Ur-da-chi (Urgenchi or Urganchi) selected a Kangli Turk as their head. After fighting for 7 days and 7 nights, the city, situated on the two banks of the River Amu-darya, fell, and most of the residents, except for artizans and women, were slaughtered. Genghis Khan then ordered Tolui to attack Khurasan while he himself attacked a castle called Talihan Mountain. Tolui marched along the west bank of the River Amu-darya and marched towards Khurasan in the northwest. Hearing Genghis had trouble taking over Talihan, Tolui returned along the east coast of the Caspian. South of the Caspian, he defeated several Muslim city statelets. Tului then converged with Genghis and took over the city called Talihan which was already under siege for 7 months. All infantry soldiers of Talihan were killed while some cavalry fled.
 
At this time, Jala ad-Din re-assembled some army and combined his army with a brother and a khan [Mielike], numbering 60 to 70 thousand. In today's Kabul, Afghanistan, the Mongol armies under the banner of Genghis Khan's adopted son were thoroughly defeated by Jala ad-Din. In the siege of the city of Bami'an, Genghis Khan's grandson (i.e., Chagatai's son) was killed by an arrow. Chagatai would kill all people and animals of Bami'an, and Bami'an (today's Bamian of Afghanistan?) was said to be still a desolate place today. Then, Genghis Khan went southward towards Kabul. Two Jala ad-Din generals had a quarrel and split, and Jala ad-Din fled towards India, jumped into the Indus River and swam to the opposite shore. Jala ad-Din would later make a comeback. A Mongol general was sent across river to pursue Jala ad-Din. Genghis Khan then swept northward along the west bank of the Indus River and slaughtered whoever did not sumbit. The Mongols slaughtered 1.6 million people altogether in Central Asia, which was still a small number in comparison with 70-80 million deaths in North China and South China combined. Under the advice of Yelu Chucai, Genghis Khan recalled his soldiers from across the Indus River. Genghis Khan went northward and then eastward across the River Amu-darya. In Kabul, Genghis Khan sent orders to recall Jochi's column and Jebi/Subetei column. Then, they continued eastward. When passing through Samarkand, he ordered Khwarizm-shah's mother and wife to go east with him. Khubilai was at the age of 11 at this time.
 
The First European Campaign (AD 1222-1223)
Right after the war in 1219-1222 against the Khwarezmian empire, Chepe (Jebi) and Subedei, with a detachment of about 25,000 Mongols, detoured around the Caspian Sea and raided into today's Georgia. They attacked the Kipchak on the pretext that they had offered asylum to the Merkit remnants. While Genghis Khan was on the bank of the Indus River, Jebi and Subeitei had marched westward and crossed the Taihe Ridge, i.e., the Caucasus Mountains. After defeating the Qin-cha (Kipchak or Qipchak) relief armies comprising of the Georgians and the Cumans, they went on to attack the Russians. The Cumans or Kumans, identified with the Kipchaks, were known in Russian as the Polovtsi. The Cumans had come from northwestern Asian Russia, conquered Southern Russia and Walachia in the 11th cent., and for almost two centuries warred intermittently with the Byzantine Empire, Hungary, and Kiev. In the early 12th century, the Cumans were defeated by the Eastern Slavs. The Mongols would decisively defeat them in A.D. 1245.
 
Coming out of the Caucasus, they met several Qin-cha tribes under Yulijie. Jebi and Subeitei sent a local defector general to Qin-cha (Kipchak or Qipchak) to show goodwill, and then attacked the Qin-cha armies after they did not put themselves on alert. The Mongols killed chieftan Yulijie and his son. Then Jebi and Subetei sent a request to Jochi for relief armies. Jochi had just conquered Wu-er-da-chi (Urgenchi) and rested his armies on the east coast of the Caspian. After defeating the Georgians and the Cumans in the Caucasus, Jebi and Subetei, with reinforcement from Jochi, crossed the Volga River and marched towards the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. They advanced into the steppes of the Kuban in A.D. 1222. Walking across the frozen Sea of Azov, the Mongols again defeated the Cumans and captured Astrakhan. At this time, another Qin-cha (Kipchak or Qipchak) chieftan, Huotuosihan (brother of the dead Yulijie), came to avenge on his brother's death. The Mongols led Huotuosihan into a trap and destroyed majority of his armies. Huotuosihan fled northward towards Rus which boasted of 70 tribes at that time. The Mongols crossed the Don River into Russia. They penetrated into the Crimea and then turned north into today's Ukraine territory.
 
In today's Southern Russia, there was a tribe called Halichi whose chieftan, Mizhisila (Mstislav?), was son-in-law of Huotuosihan. Mizhisila called on various Rus tribes including the Kiev tribe and the Chernigov tribe in the south and the Vladimir tribe in the north. Mstislav rallied troops from Kiev, Smolensk, Kursk, Chernigov and other principalities. An army of 82,000 was assembled, and they converged with Huotuosihan's Qin-cha (Kipchak or Qipchak) tribe. Jebi and Subetei tried to trick the Rus by sending 10 emissaries for peace. Huotuosihan told Mizhisila how his brother died of the Mongol trick, and they killed 8 Mongols, releasing two back to the Mongol camp with ears cut. Jebi and Subetei sent the two lucky guys to the Rus camp again to declare a war. Mizhisila (Mstislav?) led 10,000 cavalry across the Dnieper River and finished the Mongol reconnaissance team of a dozen people on the east bank. (Some Mongol expert claimed that the Russian-Cuman army of 80,000 was under the leadership of Mstislav, that Mstislave was prince of Kiev and that they attacked the Mongols while the Mongols were camping near the mouth of the Dnieper River. Cai Dongfan wrote that the Kiev prince was Ruomu and that the Mongols were pursuing the Kipchak or Qipchak tribe to Rus, not resting at the Dnieper River.) In May 1223, Mstislav chased the Mongols to the River Khalka. Mstislav and Huotuosihan, without consulting with their allies, crossed the River Khalka by themselves. They were totally defeated by Subedei. Mstislav then fled across the River Khalka (near the Azov Sea) and sunken all ships. The Mongols crossed the River Khalka, attacked the Kiev tribe & Chernigov tribe and annihilated them. Altogether 6 chieftans and 70 marquis were killed. The Chernigov chieftan was sent to Jochi for execution. Youli the second of the Rus tribe of Vladimir had dispatched his nephew, Constantin, to the relief of Mstislav. Hearing of Mstislav's defeat, Constantin fled home. At this time, Jebe got ill. In A.D. 1224, Subetei led the expedition home, after a trek of more than 6,400 kilometers. On the east coast of the Caspian, Subetei gave back the relief army to Jochi. On the way home, Jebe died of illness.
 
The Last Campaign of Genghis Khan
Muhali was busy attacking Jurchen Jin armies on both banks of the Liao River, northeast of the Yellow River, Shanxi-Shenxi Provinces, and the Shangdong peninsula. In A.D. 1223, Muhuali died of illness and was conferred King of Lu-guo Fief posthumously.
 
In Oct, Jurchen Emperor Xuanzong died, and his son, Wanyan Shouxu, got enthroned as Emperor Aizong. The Soong Chinese sent Gou Mengyue to the Mongols again. In A.D. 1224, Song General Peng Yibin at Daming (in today's southern Hebei Province) invaded He-bei (territory north of the Yellow River) and Shi Tianni defeated Peng. Genghis Khan returned from his campaigns in India. In Jan of A.D. 1235, Genghis Khan returned to Mongolia. In Feb of A.D. 1235, Wu Xian rebelled in Zhending and killed Shi Tianni. Li Quan rebelled in Zhongshan, somewhere on the eastern slope of the Taihang Mountain and in today's central western Hebei Province. After the death of Muhuali, ex-Jurchen general Wu Xian rebelled against the Mongols and killed Shi Tianni. Wu Xian cooperated with Song Dynasty's General Peng Yibin in fighting Shi Tianze. Shi Tianze requested aid from Muhuali's son and killed Peng Yibin. In March, Shi Tianze drove Wu Xian away. In June, Song General Peng Yibin answered Wu Xian's rebellion to invade into the Mongol territory, but Shi Tianze captured and killed Peng.
 
Since Western Xia had refused to provide troops in the war against the Khwarizm, and more over, signed another alliance treaty with Jurchen Jin, Genghis Khan led a force of 180,000 troops for a new campaign against the Tanguts in A.D. 1225. One year earlier, in A.D. 1224, Mongol omnipotent magistrate for Northern China, i.e., Bei-lu, already attacked Tanguts' Yinzhou city where tens of thousands of Tanguts died and defender Ta-hai was caught alive. Genghis Khan, en route of return, first attacked Tanguts' Shazhou and laid the siege for half a year. At Shazhou, Tanguts burnt dead the Mongols digging through a tunnel, and the Mongols withdraw the siege for a retreat to Mongolia after Tangut Emperor De-wang agreed to send in hostage. In A.D. 1225, Jochi died in the camp north of the Caspian Sea.
 
In A.D. 1226, Genghis Khan attacked the Tanguts the sixth and last time The Mongols attacked the westside or hindside of the Tanguts first and then turned around to the east. Like in 1209 & 1217, the Mongols intruded into the east side of Helanshan Mountain and lay siege of Xingqing-fu (i.e., today's Yinchuan of Ningxia and Tanguts' capital).

 

In the spring of 1226, Genghis Khan, after zoning the fiefdoms for his four sons, attacked the Tanguts on the pretext that no hostage was sent in yet. Two columns of armies were arranged, with one prong attacking Shazhou from the west, and another prong striking southward against Xixia. In Feb, Genghis Khan took over the Heisui garrison [Khara Khoto], reached Mt Helanshan via a trek across the deserts (i.e., the same path Zhou King Muwang took around 1000 B.C. in a tour of China's northwestern territory), caught Tangut General A-sha-gan-bu, and waited for a conversion with the "western route". (A-sha-gan-bu had insulted Genghis Khan's emissary on the matter of attacking the Jurchens together with the Mongols.) The Mongol "western route" first attacked Shazhou by utilizing a defector Tangut general called Li Qianbu. Li Qianbu and Mongol General Hudu-timur barely escaped a banquet set up by Shazhou defenders who faked a surrender. With pleading from Li Qianbu, Genghis Khan spared the city after sacking it. The Mongol "western route" then attacked Suzhou with guide by a Tangut called Cha-han who grew up among the Mongols since childhood. Suzhou defenders killed the general who was the brother of Li Qianbu. The Mongols slaughtered the city, only sparing 106 households who were relatives of Li Qianbu. After Suzhou would be Ganzhou whose defender was the father of Cha-han. Tangut deputy defender killed the whole family of Cha-han's father. The Mongols failed to sack Ganzhou after six attacks. At this time, Genghis Khan led his forces to Ganzhou, and combined forces for an attack at Ganzhou. Ganzhou was spared slaughter with the pleading from Cha-han. In autumn, the Mongols took over Xiliang-fu when defenders surrendered. Hence, the whole "Western Corridor" fell to the Mongols.
 
In Sept, Li Quan captured Zhang Bin. Genghis Khan then trekked the Tengri Desert for the region called "Yellow River Nine Winding". The Mongols took over Yingli, and then dispatched a contingent against Xiazhou. The Mongols, with two columns, swept through the Tangut territory along the bank of the Yellow River's Western Bend. By Nov, two columns pinched Tangut Xiping-fu city. A Xixia general, by the name of Weimingling-gong, led 100,000 relief army from Zhongxing-fu, and challenged the Mongols for a battle near Helanshan Mountain. (Helan means great horse in northern dialect.) The Mongols crossed the frozen Yellow River and fought Tanguts on the two banks. Xixia armies were defeated at Helanshan. Weimingling-gong retreated into Lingzhou city with remnants and converged with deposed Tangut Prince De-ren. In Nov, Genghis Khan lay siege of Tanguts' Ling-zhou. The Mongols then sacked Lingzhou, and De-ren was killed.
 
The Mongol armies then took over various cities including Lingzhou Prefecture, Shizhou Prefecture, and then Lintao governor office including Taohe and Xining prefectures. Five stars, in a row, were noted in the skies. To the east, in Dec, Li Quan surrendered. Zhang Rou was conferred marshal and 'qian hu' (mingghan). Ogodai lay siege of Jurchens' 'nan-jing', i.e., the southern capital, and dispatched Tang Qing for extracting tributes from the Jurchens.
 
After the Battle of Lingzhou, the Mongols pushed at Zhongxing-fu, the Tangut capital, from Yanzhou. In A.D. 1227, Genghis Khan attacked the Tanguts' capital, and in Feb, took over Lintiao-fu. In Mar, the Mongols took over Xining prefecture and Xindu-fu. In April, the Mongols took over Deshun prefecture and killed 'jie-du-shi' Ai Shen and 'jin shi' Ma Jianlong. At Deshun, Xixia General Ma Jianlong resisted the Mongols for days and personally led charges against the Mongols outside of the city gate. Ma Jianlong later died of arrow shots. Genghis Khan, after taking over Deshun, went to Liupanshan Mountain (Qingshui County, Gansu Prov) for shelter from the severe heat of the summer.
 
In the east, in May, the Mongols dispatched Tang Qing to the Jurchens again. In Jun, the Jurchens sent Wanyan Hezhou to the Mongols for peace. Genghis Khan stated that he had said one year ago, when five stars converged onto one line, that the Mongols should not kill people at random, and Genghis Khan made it an decree not to kill at random.
 
At the Tangut capital of Zhongxing-fu, rightside prime minister Gao Lianghui defended the citywall for half a year, day in and day out, and died of illness. An earthquake struck the capital. The epidemic erupted and more than half of the citizens and soldiers caught illness. The new Xixia emperor, i.e., Xia Modi, being attacked by the Mongols, surrendered to the Mongols by requesting for one month grace period. Genghis Khan, deeply ill himself, nominally agreed to the surrender request but secretly ordered the slaughter of the city before his death. In August, Xia Modei left the capital for the Mongol camp where Tu-lei killed him on the spot. The Mongols killed the Tangut emperor and his royal family members. Pillaging erupted throughout the capital. The Mongols pillaged the Tangut "royal burial sites". (Later, the Mongols dug up Southern Song Dynasty royal tombs in Hangzhou of Zhejiang Prov as well.) At the pleading of Cha-han, the Mongol stopped killing, with possily one or two out of ten inhabitants left. The Tanguts officially surrendered in A.D. 1227, after being in existence for 190 years, from A.D. 1038 to A.D. 1227. (Five stars in a row were interpreted as some omen as to rise and fall of an emperor or dynasty. The History of Yuan Dynasty mentioned that Genghis Khan, before his death, had ordered that the Mongols should not kill people at random. This certainly is a glorification since the Tangut massacre contradicted what Genghis Khan had decreed. )
 
Meanwhile, Genghis Khan sent Ogedei eastward with majority of his troops. They crossed the great bend of the Yellow River and began to attack the Jurchen Jin forces. In July, Genghis Khan died at age 66 (73 ? per different record) somewhere near today's Liupanshan Mountain, Gansu Province, rumored to have been poisoned or killed by his Tangut wife. He was buried in Qinian Valley and was titled Taizu posthumously. Genghis Khan was also titled Emperor Shengwu, having a reign of 22 years and having conquered 40 countries. Tolui was made regent after Genghis Khan's death. Genghis Khan, at death-bed, outlined to his youngest son, Tului, the plan for attacking the Jurchens, i.e., circumventing southward near the Song-Jurchen border areas of Sichuan Province. Genghis Khan said the Soong Chinese would for sure acquiesce because the Jurchens were the feuds of the Soong Chinese.
 
Ogedei's Campaigns
After the death of Genghis Khan, for the period of 1227/1229, Tolui acted as a regent. In A.D. 1228, a khuriltai was held on the Kerulen River and the Secret History was compiled. The Kuriltai at Karakorum in 1228 selected Ogedei as khan. At the kuriltai, plans were made for campaigns against the Bulghars, the Turks in the region of Kazan on the middle Volga River, and conquest of the Jurchens. By A.D. 1229, Batu Khan, son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan, defeated most of the Bulghar posts. In A.D. 1229, Ogodei got enthroned according to Genghis Khan's wish. Yelu Chucai would persuade Ogedei into erecting rituals for officialdom and hiring civil officials for governance. Ogedei further ordered to promulgate the tax laws and persuaded the Mongols into less killing for sake of more tax revenue collection from the people conquered.
 
Ogedei declined Jurchen Jin's tributes for condoling Genghis Khan's death and declined again Jurchen Jin's tributes for congratulating Ogedei on his enthronement. In the spring of A.D. 1230, Ogedei (i.e., Yuan Emperor Taizong posthumously) ordered a campaign against Jurchen Jin. The Mongols crossed the Yellow River into today's Shanxi Province and took over more than 60 towns and castles, and attacked the city of Fengxiang (which Muhuali failed to take earlier). Jurchen Jin General Wanyan Hada, fearing the Mongol army, did not go to the relief of Fengxiang which fell after a siege of 2-3 months. Wanyan Dada sought safe haven in Tongguan Pass. Tolui then went on to attack Tongguan Pass but failed to conquer it. In A.D. 1231, Ogedei sent an expedition to defeat the remnant Khitans who invaded Korea.
 
A Jurchen defector general called Li Guochang proposed that the Mongols march southeastward by circumventing the city of today's Baoji, Gansu Province, and flew down the Han-shui River. The Mongols, passing Hanzhong, the border areas with both Song and Jurchen Jin in eastern Sichuan Province, defeated the Jurchens in the Hanzhong areas and in Tangdeng areas (today's Yuxian County, Henan Province).
 
When the Mongol emissary arrived at Feizhou to borrow a path from Song governor Zhang Xuan, Zhang Xuan killed the emissary. Ogedei then ordered Tolui to march out of Baoji to take over Da'sanguan Pass. Tolui took over Fengzhou Prefecture and slaughtered Yang-zhou Prefecture. Tolui further sent a column into today's Sichuan Province by paving a road out of Guibieshan (turtle & tortoise) Mountain and crossing the Jialingjiang River. To avoid further confrontation with the Soong Chinese, the Mongols withdrew from Song territories and went to Han-shui River to attack the Jurchens. Wayan Hada was recalled from Tongguan to defend the He-nan [south of the Yellow River] land, and Wu Xian came to reinforcement, too. A Jurchen general by the name of Fengdula advised against attacking the Mongols when they crossed Han-shui River halfway. The Mongols under Tolui, though numbering 30,000, managed to trick the Jurchen armies into thinking that they had retreated.
 
The first Mongol column, under Ogedei, crossed the Yellow River at Baipo Town, Heqing County, and attacked the city of Zhengzhou. Subetei was ordered to attack Biancheng (i.e., today's Kaifeng) which was the Jurchens' capital. The Jurchens had about 40,000 men around the capital, with the city wall being 20 Chinese li in perimeter. Wanyan Hada and Fengdula were ordered to return north to guard the capital. Tolui chased them with 3000 cavalry while Subetei also sent armies to attack the Jurchen relief column. At Sanfengshan Mountain, the two Mongol columns encircled the Jurchens and defeated them by intentionally tricking them with fleeing and then ambushing the Jurchens via a trap. The Jurchens fled to Junzhou Prefecture. Ogodei sent over a third column and took over the city. Wayan Hada was killed inside Junzhou, and another Jurchen general by the name of Shanhuashan came to the Mongols to die in front of Tolui instead of dying among the soldiers. Fengdula was captured on the road and was killed for refusing to surrender to the Mongols. The Jurchen main general at Tongguan, i.e., Wayan Chongxi, fled the city after hearing of Wayan Hada's destruction, and his deputy general surrendered to the Mongols. The Mongols went on to capture and kill Wanyan Chongxi and his family. The Mongols then attacked Luoyang. The Jurchen general at Luoyang committed suicide; however, the soldiers and residents, without a general, managed to defeat the Mongols who laid a siege for three months. At the capital of Kaifeng, Jurchen Emperor Shouxu sent an emissary to Subetei for peace, but peace was refused by the Mongols. The Mongols deployed hundreds of 'stone cannons'. However, Kaifeng was fortified enough to withstand the cannon blastings. Kaifeng was rebuilt by Posteriro Zhou Emperor Shizong during the Five Dynasties time period. The Jurchens sent a thousand men suicide mission to attack the Mongol cannon unit. After 16 days of siege, Subetei, under the order of Ogedei, agreed to peace by having a Jurchen prince sent to the Mongols as a hostage. Subetei then withdrew from the Kaifeng siege and deployed armies in the area between Yellow River and Luo-he River. However, about 30 Mongol emissaries for peace were killed by Jurchen's Feihu [flying tiger] Garrison troops. The Mongols renewed attacks at Kaifeng. Wu Xian assembled about 100,000 soldiers and came to the relief. At this time, Ogedei got ill. According to The Secret History, Tolui preyed to die on behalf of Ogedei and in A.D. 1233, Tolui died.
 
Subetei now took charge. Before Subetei arrived in Kaifeng, Jurchen Emperor Shouxu fled the city. There were less than 30,000 units of grain left, and an epidemic had already taken away 100,000 lives. Being chased all the way, the Jurchen emperor first retreated to Gui'de in the north, and then retreated southward to Caizhou Prefecture, inside of today's Henan Province.
 
At Kaifeng, a Jurchen marshal by the name of Cui Li killed two generals sent by the Jurchen emperor for fetching the empress and the imperial family. After raping the Jurchen empress and the royal family, Cui Li surrendered the Jurchen royal family to Subetei. Subetei killed the Jurchen princes and took in the women. Yelu Chucai managed to stop Ogedei from slaughtering Kaifeng which still possessed about 400,000 people. The Wanyan family did not get exemption, however. From beginning to end, Kaifeng had undergone continuous Mongol attacks for about one year.
 
At this time, the Mongols took over Luoyang. Ogedei sent an emissary to Song Emperor Lizong, promising the land south of Yellow River in exchange for the Soong Chinese cooperation in attacking the Jurchens together. Then, Ogedei ordered Tacha'erbuzhan (who took over Luoyang earlier) to attack the city of Xiangyang for sake of encircling the Jurchens at Caizhou. The Jurchens, not knowing the Mongol-Chinese alliance, sent an emissary to Song Dynasty for borrowing grains. Song flatly declined the request. Further, Song Dynasty sent a general with 20,000 army and 300,000 units of grains to the Mongol camp and joined the siege of Caizhou. The Mongols declined the Jurchen's request for surrender. In A.D. 1234, under the attacks of the Mongols to the north and the Chinese to the south, the last Jurchen emperor committed suicide after defending the city for two months, and Jurchen Jin Dynasty ended after 120 years in history (from A.D. 1115 to A.D. 1234). The Mongols and the Chinese divided the bones of the last Jurchen emperor (i.e., Jin Aizong) into two halves. They reached an agreement to have the northwest of Cai Prefecture as the dividing line. But half a year later, the Soong Chinese went to take over Kaifeng etc, provoking the Mongols into a war. An ex-Jurchen general killed Cui Li and surrendered to Song Dynasty at Kaifeng. When Song armies, with five days of grain supply, went on to take over Luoyang, the city had only three hundred households left. Under Mongol counter-attack, Song evacuated from Luoyang. When the Mongols attacked and flooded Kaifeng with water from the Yellow River, the Song armies fled south.
 
In the 7th year of Ogedei's reign, three Mongol armies invaded Song China's Sichuan Province, south bank of the Han-shui River, and the area between the Huai River and the Yangtze. At this time, the Korean king killed a Mongol emissary. Ogedei had to redirect his efforts at Korea first. The Korean king surrendered his son to the Mongols as a hostage, and Korea was back as a vassal in A.D. 1236. (Back in A.D. 1231, Ogedei sent an expedition to defeat the remnant Khitans who invaded the Korean peninsula.)
 
While Ogedei intended to continue war with Song China, Jala ad-Din had staged a comeback in Central Asia. Jala ad-Din had fled to the Kashmir in A.D. 1222. After the Mongols left, he crossed the Indus River back to the west and recovered the territories of today's Iraq, Khorasan and Masandelan (Mazandaran). Further, he invaded several tribes in the north, including Qin-cha (i.e., Kipchak). A tribal chieftan fled south and requested help with both the Egyptian King and the Roman Emperor in fighting Jala ad-Din. Three parties then pacified Jala ad-Din in the hope of having him counter the next wave of Mongol attacks. Ogedei, before an official campaign against the land of Russia and Europe, dispatched 30,000 men against Jala ad-Din. Jala ad-Din, who was indulgent in drinking, was defeated. On his way fleeing westward towards Rome, Jala ad-Din was killed by the locals.
 
Mengwu Shiwei
The Mongol Tribes & Clans
Genghis Khan's Family Members
Mongol Brutal Conquests
Attack on Tanguts
Attack on Jurchens
Khwarazm Campaign, Fergana Valley Campaign
First European Campaign
Last Campaign of Genghis Khan
Ogedei's Campaigns

Second European Campaign
Toregene, Guyuk
Mengke, Hulegu & Mongol Third Wave To The West
Mengke Khan Attack on Southern Song Dynasty
Khubilai Khan and Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
[ this page: mongolian.htm ] [ next page: mongol.htm ]

 
written by Ah Xiang
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],