Huangdi’s line appears to be still a branch of the Sino-Tibetan group. However, he was implied to be the father of ‘Bei-di’ (北狄) or the ‘barbarian’ from the north in ‘The Legends of Mountains and Seas’, which was said to be a book written after Lord Yu sent expeditions to the four corners of the world to survey the earth, but was more likely a book written in the 4th century B.C.E. around, with Shi-zi, i.e., teacher of Qin reformer Shang Yang, making extensive comments therein. (In the spirits of restoring the lost Chinese classics that were destroyed by Qin Emperor Shihuangdi’s book-burning and Confucian-burying campaign, Han Dynasty scholars had done extensive work recompiling lost books. Historian Liu Xiang and Lin Xin were responsible for assembling the book Wu [five] Zang [viscera of mother Earth] Shan [mountain] Jing [records], i.e., historical writings on the mountains and seas of China, and related books on the seas, into the book Shan Hai Jing.)
–Here, ‘Bei-di’ (北狄) could be some mixed O3/N barbarians who were relatively cooked versus the uncooked C-haplogroup barbarians in the Amur River area to the north. This webmaster’s point was that the early Huns were most likely Qiangic proto-Tibetans or a possible separate Yun-surnamed Xianyun group which was exiled to Northwest China together with the San-miao people in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E.; the later Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol and Manchu people, who were proto-Manchurian or proto-Altaic, were the C haplogroup; and the “cooked” barbarians, i.e., those dwelling between the Sinitic Chinese and the “raw” barbarians, were the mixed O/C/N-haplogroup people.)
Separately, Sima Qian, whose writing represented the orthodoxy Huangdi line, inadvertently stated that Huangdi moved across the nation without a fixed dwelling place (or palace). (See 《史记·五帝本纪》“披山通道，未尝宁居。东至于海，登丸山，及岱宗。西至于空桐，登鸡头。南至于江，登熊、湘。北逐荤粥，合符釜山，而以于涿鹿之阿。迁徙往来无常处，以师兵为营卫。”)
This webmaster, after reflecting on the DNA findings, would tend to think that the O1, O2 and O3 haplogroups might have not geographically split from each other at the time of Yandi [Chiyou] and Huangdi or might have just geographically split from each other by that time. The confusion related to the ancient overlords could be a result of erroneous interpretation by later scholars. Example: Huangdi the Yellow Lord was said to be born in Shouqiu of today’s Shandong Province. Here, scholars validated that it was Kong An’guo, a Confucius descendant, who made the remark that Huangdi was born in Shouqiu. The word “Shouqiu”, however, appeared in the context of Sima Qian’s writings on Lord Shun, with a claim that Lord Shun, who was born near Lishan or today’s southern Shanxi, had made potteries by the river [which was taken to be possibly the Fen-he River] and continued to manufacture utensils at Shouqiu, a place that had to be somewhere in southern Shanxi, not Shandong.
Difference and similarity in regards to the birth of Yandi and Huangdi
The ancient historians tried to reconcile the records, and hence pointed out that Huangdi’s mother, Fubao ( 附宝), came from a tribe whose ancestors belonged to the same Youqiao-shi (有蟜氏) tribe as Yandi’s mother. As to Yandi, the claim was that his mother came from the Youqiao-shi (有蟜氏) tribe, carrying the name of Andeng (安登). Fubao or Andeng could not be the same woman even though the tribe could be traced to the same one, Youqiao-shi (有蟜氏).
Should we examine Sima Qian’s Shi Ji line by line, we could find major conflicts whenever Huangdi’s origin was concerned. Sima Qian claimed that Huangdi and Yandi were brothers, albeit stating in a different section to point out that Yandi was one of the last overlords of the Shennong-shi reign. The Yandi Dynasty had apparently continued for a long history, not to mention the preceding overlords between the first overlord Fuxi-shi and the last royal house of Shenong-shi from which the Yandi Dynasty originated.
The conflict lied in the claim that Huangdi was a brother of Yandi and was a son of the Shaodian tribe. The rest was fine, such as Huangdi being given the ‘Ji’ surname, having the conferral of [? or setting the capital at (per Huangfu Mi and later scholars)] the land of ‘xiong’ (i.e., bear), came to be called by the Youxiong-shi, dwelled near a hill which came to be known as the Xuanyuan-qiu Hill, and married with a woman from Xiling. The locality was historically pinned to be today’s Xinzheng of Henan Province.
Locality of Huangdi’s wife was said to be Xiling, while Xiling was historically extrapolated to be in today’s Sichuan Province, and hence the continuity of the legend about Lord Yu’s birthplace in western China and known as Rong-yu (I.e., Yu who was born in the western Rong land). Xiling, per Wei Si at http://www.wenbao.net/html/lunwen/weisi_03.html would be in today’s Xiping at the Sichuan-Hubei border.
Huangdi’s Link to Zhuolu -the Hongshan Culture in the Hebei-Shanxi-Chahar (Kalgan) area
Huangdi was alternatively recorded to have killed both Chi-you (who was alternatively postulated to be the same as Yandi the Fiery Overlord) and the two Hao-suffixed Dong-yi tribal leaders (i.e., the original Chinese dwelling in the central China and coastal China). [Liu Junnan (刘俊男), in his article on "tracing the origin of five ancient 'Di' overlords", pointed out that “两昊” = “魉昊”, which was tenuous even though he could be right about the distinction between the 'heavenly' god for 太昊 and the 'dynastic' overlord 太昊 .]
In the Japanese section, this webmaster postulated that that the original Nine Yi people, being not homogeneous, could have lived in the interface ground among the three main Mongoloid groups of O1-, O2- and O3-haplogroup people [plus possibly the C-haplogroup Tungunsic people] whom we could linguistically identify as the Sino-Tibetan, the Hmong-Mien and the Yi-Yue people. We could further deduce that as a result of the mixing-up of the Hmong-Mien people and the Yi people in today’s Hebei Province and on the Shandong Peninsula, we then have the phenomenon of the later people in Manchuria, Korea and Japan sharing the same archaic traditions as recorded among the ancient Nine Yi people of the 3rd millennium B.C.E., but lacking the hallmark ”phoenix” adoration as still exists among today’s minority people in Southwestern China –the true descendants of the Hmong-Mien people. (The archaic traditions would include the historical practice of “dun ju” [squatting, which mutated into the Manchu practice of one leg kneeling on the ground while another leg bending at the knee,, which the Manchus used as the protocol for seeing the superiors; or spreading the feet if we use an alternative definition in Chinese classics], slate coffins, and bearing down the newborn’s head with stone.)
Huangdi reaching the Han-shui River and the Yangtze River
Drawing the two parallels, we could also say that both Huangdi and Tuoba had extended their rule to the area no further than the Han-shui River and the Yangtze River. In another word, there was no implication of an alien conquest of the whole China as the Mongols and the Manchus succeeded in China’s history. The southern excursion by Huangdi could be a continuity of the conquest ensuing from defeating Yandi/Chi-you.
Yandi and Huangdi had separate descendants living in the barbarian lands
明 杨慎《升庵诗话·紫濛》: “慕容氏自云轩辕之后,从于紫蒙之野。”
(To help understand this new perspective, you may want to check into recent archaeological discoveries in the Kalgan area, as shown in two videos below:
A caveat here: you may want to discard the claims of the so-called Chiyou tombstone, as shown in the video “Discovering the First City in Chinese History: Huangdi City – Zhuolu”, which appears to me to be some kind of make-up of the 20th century China to make some quick bucks.)
In the section on Yandi (i.e., the Fiery Lord), we would present evidence that the original people who created the Sinitic civilization were in fact the O3-haplogroup Hmong-mien people while the O3-haplogroup Sino-Tibetans might have hijacked the reign after defeating Chi-you and Yandi in the epic battles of Zhoulu and Banquan.