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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of the Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate the American wartime reporters. (More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and The American Involvement in China: the Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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5 DYNASTIES & 10 STATES


 
The demise of Tang Dynasty brought about the so-called Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) in northern China and 10 Kingdoms (AD 902-979), with nine kingdoms in southern China and Northern Han (AD 951-979) in today's Taiyuan, Shanxi.
 
As recorded in history, the three dynasties in between Posterior Liang and Posterior Zhou were of alien nature and founded by generals who belonged to a group of barbarians called Shatuo (Sha'to), a Turkic tribe. While Posterior Liang (AD 907-923) was set up by Zhu Wen (who first betrayed rebel leader Huang Chao and then usurped Tang Dynasty), the leaders of later Posterior Tang (AD 923-936), Posterior Jinn (AD 936-946) and Posterior Han came from nomadic Shatuo (Sha'to) ancestry.
 
 
Origin of Shatuo
 
There is a section devoted to Shatuo in The New History of Tang Dynasty. Shatuo had its origin from the 'Chuyue' tribe, an alternative race of the Western Turks. The New History of Tang Dynasty stated that the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks divided the ancient land of Wu'sun (today's Ili area). The 'Chuyue' tribe and 'Chumi' tribe co-lived with the Turks in this area. In the 7th year reign of the Zhen'guan Era, i.e., AD 633, Tang Emperor Taizong supported Duolu as khan for the Western Turks. A Turkic chieftan called Buzhen tried to absorb the people of his brother Mishe, causing Mishe and the Chuyue Tribe to seek vassalage with Tang. Shortly thereafter, Buzhen sought vassalage with Tang, too. Khan Duolu erected Helu, the son of a 'tele' (prince), as the chief in charge of the remnant Western Turks. Later, the Western Turks had internal strife and split into two courts. The Chuyue Tribe went with the northern court under arch-chieftan Khan Duolu, and they lived to the south of Jinsuoshan Mountain, to the east of which would be a desert called Shatuo [sand dune]; hence, the Chuyue Tribe called themselves by the Shatuo (Sha'to) Turks.
 
In AD 639, with the help of the Xueyantuo (Sheyanto) tribe (one component of the Tiele Tribes), the Tang army of 100,000 travelled 7,000 li distance to fight the Gaochang Statelet (the Turpan area), scaring Gaochang King Qu Wentai to death.   Qu Wentai's son surrenderred after learning that the relief army of the Western Khanate Turks had fled home half way.   Emperor Taizong renamed Gaochang to Xizhou, and made it the locality for the governor-general office in charge of Yutian, Suiye (Tokmok), Shule and Chouci. Later, in AD 659, Xizhou or the Anxi 'Protector-General (Marshal Presidio)' office was relocated to Chouci.    In AD 702, Tang would set up the Beiting 'Protector-General (Marshal Presidio)' office in Tingwai or Tingzhou (present-day Jimsar), a place located to the east of Suiye (Tokmok), to the south of Xizhou (Turpan), and to the west of Yizhou (Hami).
 
The Turks of Beiting (Beiting meaning the original 'northern Turkic court'), under Khan Duolu, once attacked Yizhou (Hami) and surrounded the areas around the Tianshan Mountains with two columns of army. Tang Governor-General for An-xi, Guo Xiaoke, defeated the Turks and took over Chuyue's sijin (governor) city. Khan Duolu later was defeated and he fled southward to the 'Tu-huo-luo' statelet. (Tu-huo-luo', an area surrounded by Afghanistan, Tibet and Turkistan, was said to have mutated from the Chinese characters of 'da [grand] xia', and some Central Asians, who claimed descent from the Huns or Xia Chinese, even likened the sound of Avar to the Chinese characters of 'ah hua'.) Helu surrendered to Tang. Tang erected Helu as the governor of Yaochi [Queen Mother West's pond] and relocated his tribe to the Mohecheng city of the Tingzhou Prefecture. A Chuyue sijin, Zhuye Que, sought vassalage with Tang. In AD 650, Helu rebelled against Tang. A Chuyue chieftan, Zhuye Guzhu, killed a Tang officer, zhaowei-shi (i.e., pacifying and consoling inspector) Lian Heh. Zhuye Guzhu joined Helu in rebelling against Tang. Chuyue occupied the Laoshan Mountain. Tang conferred Helu's title onto another Chuyue chieftan (Shatuo Nasu). In AD 651, a Tang army, under the command of Lian Jianfang (zong guan or omnipotent magistrate of the Gongyue-dao [bow moon] Circuit) and Qibi Heli (a Tang general of nomadic origin), defeated a Chuyue chieftan by the name of 'Zhuye Guzhu', killed him, and captured 9000 Shatuo people. In AD 652, Tang revoked the Yaochi governorship and made the Chuyue land into two prefectures of Jinman and Shatuo, to be under two governors, instead. After Helu fled, an-hu da-shi (pacifying ambassador) Ashina Mishe went for the Ili River area. Tang erected the Kunling Protector-General Office for control of the Duolu tribe, with Ashina Mishe as du-hu, i.e., protector-general.
 
In AD 661, a Chuyue chieftan, Shatuo Jinshan, assisted Tang General Xue Rengui in campaigning against the Tiele Tribes. Shatuo Jinshan was conferred the title of moli-jun taoji-shi, i.e., the campaigning general for the Moli-jun Garrison. Shatuo Jinshan was upgraded to the title of governor for the Jinman-zhou prefecture and Duke Zhangye-jun-gong during the second year of the Chang'an Era, i.e., AD 702.
 
After the death of Shatuo Jinshan, his son Zhuye Fuguo succeeded the post. The Shatuo tribe relocated northward to the Beiting office for sake of avoiding the Tibetans and led a pilgrimage to the Tang court. During the 2nd year of the Kaiyuan Era, i.e., AD 714, Shatuo was conferred the title of governor for the Jinman-zhou prefecture again. Zhuye Fuguo's mother (Shu-ni-shi) was conferred the title of Shan'guo Furen or Lady Shan'guo. Zhuye Fuguo was later upgraded to the title of King Yongshou-jun. His son, Zhuye Guduozhi, succeeded him.
 
When Huihe sought vassalage with Tang in the early Tianbao Era, i.e., AD 714, Zhuye Guduozhi was conferred the title of deputy protector-general for the Huihe tribe. In the A.D. 740s, Chuyue followed Huihe (Uygurs) in aiding Tang Emperor Suzong during the An-Shi Rebellion. A Chuyue chieftan, Zhuye Guduozhi, was conferred the title of 'tejin' (governor) and xiaowei shang-jiangjun (i.e., colonel high general). After Zhuye Guduozhi would be son Zhuye Jinzhong. Zhuye Jinzhong succeeded the title and was further conferred the title of jinwuwei da-jiangjun and Duke of Jiuquanxian-gong (Jiuquan County).
 
During the eras of Zhide (AD 756) and Baoying (AD 762), China was undergoing turmoil, and Xizhou and Beiting were disconnected from China. Emissaries between the west and China had to go through exploitation while travelling through the Huihe territories. The Shatuo people were oppressed by Huihe. In the late AD 790s, 7000 Shatuo tents, under Shatuo Jinzhong (Zhuye Jinzhong), sought suzerainty with the Tibetans. Together with the Tibetans, they attacked the Beiting governor office. The Tibetans later relocated the Shatuo to the Ganzhou Prefecture. The Tibetans used Shatuo Jinzhong (Zhuye Jinzhong) as the front-runner armies against the Tang border area. When Huihe took over Liangzhou of today's Gansu Province, the Tibetans became wary of Shatuo's relationship with Huihe. The Tibetans, suspicious of Shatuo's loyalty, intended to relocate Shatuo to some distant place. In AD 808, Shatuo Jinzhong (Zhuye Jinzhong) consulted with Zhuye Zhiyi and decided to lead 30,000 people on an exodus to the Xiaoguan Pass of Tang China. The Tibetans chased them all the way, along the Wudejian-shan Mountain, fought major battles at Lintao and Shimen [stony gate], and killed Shatuo Jinzhong (Zhuye Jinzhong). Zhuye Zhiyi led the remnants to the Lingzhou-sai border pass. Tang General Fan Xichao of the Lingzhou Prefecture offered asylum to the Shatuo people, assigned them to the Yanzhou Prefecture, and bought buffalo and sheep on behalf of the Shatuo people. The Shatuo elderlies and children, coming from the Fengxiang-dao, Xingyuan-dao and Taiyuan-dao circuits, would find their way to Yanzhou to get a reunion. Shatuo Jinzhong's brother, Shatuo Ge-le-a-bo, led about 700 remnants to Zhenwu and was conferred the title of leftside wuwei grand general and governor for the Yinshan-fu prefecture.
 
Zhuye Zhiyi came to the Tang capital Chang'an and was granted some silk clothing and horses and conferred the titles of 'tejin' and 'jinwuwei jiangjun'. When Fan Xichao was dispatched to Taiyuan of today's Shanxi Prov, Fan Xichao selected two thousand Shatuo cavalry and named it the 'Shatuo Column'. Rest of the Shatuo people were settled in the Dingxiangchuan area. Zhuye Zhiyi was ordered to guard Huanghuadui [yellow flower pile] of the Shenwuchuan area and they renamed themselves the "Northern Shatuo of Yinshan".
 
 
Shatuo Serving the Tang Dynasty
 
Quelling the Wang Chengzong Rebellion: When the Tang emperor personally led campaign against the Zhenzhou prefecture, Zhuye Zhiyi led 700 Shatuo as the forerunner column and fought against a rebel army in tens of thousands under Wang Chengzong. Zhuye Zhiyi, against the rain of arrows, defeated Wang Chengzong's ambush at the Mudaogou Valley. Tang General Li Guangyan followed through by destroying over ten thousand rebels. Zhuye Zhiyi was conferred the title of ci shi (inspector) for the Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) prefecture. The Tang court, at the suggestion of Wang Er (jiedu-shi or governor-general for Taiyuan), distributed the Shatuo people among ten prefectures for sake of weakening their unity.
 
Fighting the Huihe & Quelling the Wu Yuanji Rebellion
Later, Huihe attacked Tang's Xicheng and Liugu areas by crossing the Gobi desert. Zhuye Zhiyi was ordered to guard Tiande. When Tang campaigned against rebel Wu Yuanji, Zhuye Zhiyi was called upon to serve under the command of Li Guangyan. Zhuye Zhiyi participated in the attacks at Shiqu and the Lingyunshan Camp. Zhuye Zhiyi was conferred the post of shang shu for jianxiao xingbu (i.e., monitoring and censoring justice department) after cracking down on the Wu Yuanji rebellion. During the Changqing Era (AD 821), Zhuye Zhiyi, still under the command of Li Guangyan, was ordered to attack Zhenzhou. The Shatuo army cooperated with the Yiding-jun Garrison in sacking a rebel city of the Shenzhou prefecture. Zhuye Zhiyi was conferred the title of jin wuwei jiangjun. During the Taihe Era (AD 827), Liu Gongchuo was in charge of he dong, i.e., east of the Yellow River. Citing the fact that the Shatuo people were feared by the Nine Tiele Name tribes and six northwestern prefecture peoples, Liu Gongchuo proposed that Shatuo Zhiyi be conferred the posts of governor (dudu) for Yinshan-fu and zhaohu-shi for Daibei Xingying (i.e., military camp for north of the Dai prefecture).
 
Fighting the Huihe & Quelling the Wang Chengzong/Yang Bian Rebellion
After the death of Zhuye Zhiyi, his son, Zhuye Chixin, succeeded. During the 4th year of the Kaicheng Era, i.e., AD 839, Huihe crossed the mouth of the desert and arrived at the Yulin-sai border pass. Huihe prime minister, Jue-luo-wu, sent 300 good horses to Zhuye Chixin for sake of attacking Huihe Khan Zhuangxin. After the death of Khan Zhuangxin, jiedu-shi Liu Mian led the Shatuo army against the Huihe at the Sha-hu-shan Mountain (Hu nomad killing ridge). Later, Tang campaigned against rebel Liu Zhen at Lu (Zhuozhang River, Shanxi Prov) and called upon Zhuye Chixin's 3000 cavalry to be under the command of Shi Xiong. The Shato cavalry acted as a forerunner column, sacked the Shihui-guan Pass, and aided Wang Zai in taking over Tian1-jing3. Further, Shato cavalry converged with the Taiyuan-jun Garrison, arrived at Yushe, cooperated with jianjun-shi Lü Yizhong in capturing rebel Yang Bian. After quelling the Luzhou prefecture, Zhuye Chixin was conferred the post of ci shi for the Shuozhou prefecture as well as retained zhaohu-shi for Daibei Xingying.
 
Fighting the Tibetans
During the mid-Dazhong era (Dazhong starting from AD 859), Tubo (Tibet) combined the Dangxiang (Tanguts)/Huihe (Uygur) forces and invaded he xi, i.e., west of the Yellow River. Wang Zai, a Tang official in charge of Taiyuan, led various armies from Daibei (north of the Dai prefecture) against the Tibetans, with the Shatuo cavalry as a forerunner column. The Tibetans were often defeated and they propagated a myth stating that they saw fire burning on the general riding a red horse (i.e., Zhuye Chixin). Historians claim that the Tibetan power began to wane after they lost the Shatuo people to Tang. Tang Emperor Xuan(1)-zong (r. 847-859) recovered three prefectures as well as seven passes west of the Yellow River. Zhuye Chixin were conferred the post of ci shi for the Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) prefecture and shouzhuo shi (guard and capture) for the Yunzhou prefecture.
 
Quelling the Pang Xun Rebellion
When the Pang Xun Rebellion erupted, the Tang court made Kang Chengxun into xingying zhaotao-shi, with Zhuye Chixin in charge of 3000 cavalry. At one time, Kang Chengxun was encircled at the Huan-shui River; Zhuye Chixin led 500 cavalry to Kang's rescue. Pang Xun, with 80000 strong army, intended to have a fast duel. Zhuye Chixin led the cavalry on a charge at the enemy camp and defeated Pang Xun in cooperation with the Tang army; Zhuye Chixin's brother, Zhuye Chishuai, chased Pang Xun to a place called Bo-dong (east of Bo, i.e., Shangqiu of Henan Prov). After quelling the Pang Xun Rebellion, Zhuye Chixin was conferred the post of jiedu-shi for the Datong-jun Garrison, and the Tang royal family name of 'Li' and first name of 'Guochang' (prospering the country).
 
Fighting the Huihe
When Huihe attacked Yulin of Shenxi Province and harassed Lingzhou / Yanzhou, Tang conferred Li Guochang (Zhuye Chixin) the post of jiedu shi for Fuyan (today's Fuxian county, Shenxi Prov). When Huihe attacked Tiande, Li Guochang was moved to Zhenwu.
 
Quelling the Wang Xianzhi Rebellion
When rebel Wang Xianzhi sacked the Jing-Xiang areas of Hubei Province, the Tang court called upon the various prefectures for aiding the crackdown on the rebellion. Li Guochang dispatched Liu Qian's cavalry to today's Hubei Province and defeated rebels several times.
 
In AD 876, a Tang official in charge of Daibei and Yunzhong, Duan Wenchu, was hated by his subordinate officials. Those officials went to see the son of Li Guochang, shouzhuo shi for Yunzhong, Li Keyong, for sake of getting rid of Duan Wenchu. Li Keyong agreed with it and led over 10000 army to the Yunzhou prefecture, attacked Doujitai, and killed Duan Wenchu. The Tang court sent the armies to crack down on Li Keyong. When Rebel Huang Chao crossed the Yangtze River, the Tang court called off the campaign against Li Keyong, granted amnesty, conferred the post of fangyu shi for the Datong-jun Garrison onto Li Guochang. When Li Guochang refused the conferrals, the Tang court called upon Cui Yanzhao (jiedu shi for He Dong) and Zhang Gongsu of the Youzhou prefecture to crack down on Li Guochang, but the Tang armies failed to fight Li Guochang. The three garrisons of Fanyang (Youzhou), Chengde and Weibo had remained quasi-independent of the Tang court since the end of the An-Shi Rebellion, and hence did not help the Tang court with cracking down on the rebellion, giving the Shatuo Turks a chance to perform.
 
The Tanguts came to fight Li Guochang, but to no vain. A Tuhun (previously Tuyuhun) chieftan from the Datong-chuan area, by the name of Helian Duo attacked the city of Zhenwu and took over Li Guochang's equipment and grain supply. Li Guochang fled to the Yunzhou prefecture with 500 cavalry, but the Yunzhou city refused to take in Li Guochang. Helian Duo took over Yunzhou. Li Keyong, meantime, fought between Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) and Shuozhou with 3000 soldiers. When Li Keyong stationed at the Xincheng city, Helian Duo came to attack him with over ten thousand soldiers. Helian Duo dug tunnels underneath the city wall, but three days later, Helian Duo still failed to take the city, while incurring heavy casulties. Li Guochang led a relief army to Xincheng from Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei). Helian Duo withdrew. Helian Duo was conferred the post of jiedu-shi for Datong by Tang Emperor Xizong. In AD 879, the Tang court conferred the post of beimian (northside) zhaotao-shi onto Li Jun, in charge of the Luzhou and Taiyuan armies. Li Jun stationed at the Daizhou prefecture. Li Keju of the Youzhou prefecture combined forces with Helian Duo in attacking Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei). Li Guochang faced off with opponents with one column, while Li Keyong led a column on an attack at the Zhelucheng city. At the time, heavy snow fell, and Li Jun's army collapsed and Li Jun died from his erratic retreating soldiers. In AD 880, the Tang court conferred the post of zhaotao (campaigning) dutong (governing general) for Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) and Shuozhou onto Li Zhuo. Li Zhuo stationed dozens of thousands of soldiers in Daizhou. Li Keyong dispatched Fu Wenda to Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) for relief, but Gao Wenxi ( for Shuozhou) arrested Fu and handed him over to Li Zhuo. Li Zhou then went on to attack Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) and defeated Li Guochang. Li Guochang/Li Keyong, with the whole family, fled northward to the Dada [Dadan] nomadic tribe for asylum. Helian Duo secretly contacted the Dada [Dadan] chieftan for having the Li rebels delivered back to Tang. Li Keyong, hearing of the scheme, deliberately showed the Dada [Dadan] chieftans his shooting skills by aiming at the leaves hundred steps away during a gathering; Li Keyong further claimed that the Tang court would for sure grant him amnesty soon after rebel Huang Chao came northward to the central plains and that he would lead his folks back to the south to establish feats rather than dying away in the deserts. The Dada [Dadan] chiefatns, hearing Li Keyong had no plan for staying among the nomadic north, felt relaxed and declined Helian Duo's proposal for extradition.
 
 
The Pang Xun Rebellion & Huang Chao Rebellion
 
Like many historians, Scholar Luo Xianglin, in A History of Chinese Nationalities (Chinese Culture Publishing Enterprise Co, Taipei, Taiwan, May 1953 edition), traced the cause of the Second Forced Migration Of Chinese to the invasion by Nan-zhao of Southwestern China. Nan-zhao, consisting of the Hundred Yue family and Western Qiang descendants, began to encroach on Tang Dynasty after the era of Tang Emperor Taizong. The Tang court stationed garrison troops in Yongning of Guilin [Guangxi Prov], and Ya'an & Songfan [Sichuan Prov] against Nan-zhao. During the Xiantong Era of Tang Emperor Yizong, a border general by the name of Pang Xun rebelled at the Guilin garrison. The Pang Xun rebels departed Guilin for today's Hunan Province in the same way as the later Taiping Heavenly Kingdom rebels. The rebels further sacked and pillaged the areas of the Yangtze River and Huai-shui River. After this rebellion, the Tang societal weakness began to emerge.
 
Another rebellion by the name of Huang Chao assembled the Pang Xun remnants for a new round of pillage. Huang Chao intruded into south of the Huai-shui River from today's Henan Prov, attacked today's eastern Zhejiang Prov, changed direction to sack today's Jiangxi Prov, swept into today's Fujian Prov, returned to today's Jiangxi Prov, further entered today's Hunan Prov, touched today's eastern Guangxi Prov, rerouted southward to Guangzhou [Canton] of today's Guangdong Prov, returned to today's Hunan Prov, went north to today's Hubei Prov, harassed today's Anhui Prov, crossed the Huai-shui River to take over Luoyang of today's Henan Prov, and finally took over the capital of Chang'an [in today's Shenxi Prov]. The Huang Chao Rebellion lasted a dozen years. The Tang court had to rely upon nomadic mercenaries, including the Shatuo and Tanguts, for quelling the rebellion. The end result of the Huang Chao Rebellion would be the usurpation of Tang Dynasty by Zhu Wen who defected from the Huang Chao camp. Zhu Wen's establishing Posterior Liang Dynasty would throw northern China into the turmoil time period called the "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms".
 
Quelling the Huang Chao Rebellion
When Huang Chao sacked the Tongguan Pass and entered Chang'an the capital, the Tang court ordered that Hedong (east of Yellow River) jianjun (monitoring general) Chen Jingsi assemble the armies in Daibei (north of the Daizhou prefecture). At the time, a Shatuo dudu (governor general) by the name of Li Youjin was in charge of the Xingtang-jun Garrison, and a Sa'ge chieftan (Mi Haiwan) and a dudu for Anqing (Shi Jingchun) were in charge of the Ganyi-jun Garrison. Hearing that the Emperor had fled to west, Chen Jingsi and Li Youjin led 5000 cavalry to the city of Jiang4 (Shanxi Province). Undesciplined soldiers stole the government money. Upon returning to Daizhou, Chen Jingsi recruited 30,000 more soldiers. When the soldiers disturbed peace, Li Youjin said to Chen that his brother (situ father and son, i.e., Li Guochang and Li Keyong) et als., being talented warriors feared by the soldier ranks, would be able to pacify and rally the heroic soldiers north of the Daizhou area for defeating the rebels. Chen Jingsi petitioned with the Tang emperor to have Li Guochang spared. The Tang court hence conferred the post of ci shi for Daizhou onto Li Keyong.
 
Li Keyong, i.e., later Posterior Tang leader, had once gone into exile in another nomadic group of people called Dada [Dadan] (a name to be mixed up with the Tartar/Tatar later) till he was recalled by the Tang emperor for quelling the Huang Chao rebellion. Historians believed that the Dada tribe could be related to the earlier Shatuo Turks for their affinity. The cause was to do with the killing of Duan Wenchu ("Datong jie-du-shi") in a mutiny in 878, and the subsequent killing in A.D. 880 of Kang Chuangui ("Hedong jie-du-shi") and sacking of the Taiyuan city. After a defeat in the hands of the Tang army, Li Keyong fled to the Dada tribe for asylum. In A.D. 881, Tang Emperor Xizong pardoned the Li Keyong father and son, and ordered them to take the Shatuo mercenary army to the south against Huang Chao (i.e., self-proclaimed emperor of the Da-Qi regime.
 
Li Keyong hired over 10,000 Dada [Dadan] nomads as mercenaries and brought them back to Daizhou. En route southward to Taiyuan, Li Keyong was refused entry by jiedu-shi Zheng Congdang at the Shiling-guan [stony ridge] Pass. Li Keyong circumvented around to Taiyuan and stationed outside of the city wall for five days. When refused the grain supply by Zheng Congdang, Li Keyong retreated back to Daizhou.
 
In AD 882, Su You (ci shi for Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei)) combined forces with Helian Duo for sake of attacking Li Keyong at Daizhou. Li Keyong led 500 cavalry on a surprise attack at Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei) and took over the city. When Li Keyong stationed at the Meinü-gu Valley (beauty valley) outside of Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei), Helian Duo and Li Keju of Youzhou led a 70,000 army against Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei). Li Keyong broke through the camps of Helian Duo and Li Keju, entered the city of Yuzhou (Yuxian, Hebei), burnt the supplies and departed for the Yanmen [swan gate] area. At this time, Li Guochang led the relief army from Dada [Dadan]. The two Li disturbed the areas of Fen, Bing and Loufan without releasing armours. The Tang emperor decreed that Li Keyong could return to Shuozhou, and Wang Chuchun (jiedu-shi for Yiwu) and Wang Chongrong (jiedu-shi for Hezhong, i.e., the middle Yellow River) passed on an imperial order to have Li Keyong campaign against rebel Huang Chao in return for amnesty. Li Keyong, excited upon receiving the decree, assembled a 30,000-men army comprising of soldiers from the Xin-Dai-Wei-Shuo prefectures and the Dada [Dadan] nomads, in addition to 5000 cavalry. Li Guochang was left at Daizhou for garrison while Li Keyong led the army southward. Again, Zheng Congdang refused to lend the path. Li Keyong camped near Taiyuan, offerred horses/money to Zheng Congdang and shouted that he was going west and wished to have a talk with Zheng. Thereafter, Zheng Congdang went to comfort Li Keyong and returned money to Li. Li Keyong then went to the Hezhong area. The Tang emperor conferred Li Keyong the posts of jiedu for Yanmen, zhen'er (i.e., quelling) for the Shen-ce (divine tactics) Tianning-jun Garrison, and guancha-shi (i.e., observer general) for the Xin-Dai areas.
 
The next year, prime minister Wang Duo conferred the post of xingying du-tong (general in charge) for the northeast-side onto Li Keyong and the post of jianjun shi onto Chen Jingsi. Li Keyong ordered his brother (Li Kexiu) lead a 500-men cavalry across the river, while Li Keyong himself crossed the river at the Xiangyang port. Xue A'tan was left to guard the river port. Li Keyong marched on Tongzhou and then defeated the rebels at the Liangtian-po Slope. Li marched on Weiqiao, and then took over the capital from the rebels. Huang Chao fled Chang'an. Li Keyong was rated No. 1 in the military feats and was conferred the post of pingzhuang-shi (secretary for quelling rebellion) under tongzhongshu-men (royal palace gate of the central secretariat) and the title of Duke Longxi-jun-gong. Li Guochang was conferred the title of jiedu-shi for the Daibei-jun Garrison. After that, Li Keyong was further conferred the post of jiedu for Hedong (east of the river).
 
Rebels Huang Chao and Qin Zongquan combined forces in attacking he nan (south of the Yellow River). In AD 884, Li Keyong led the he dong and dai bei soldiers southward again, departing from Ze-zhou and Lu-zhou and marching on the Tianjing-guan [heavenly well] Pass. At Heyang (south of the river), Zhuge Sang defended the line. Li Keyong hence crossed the river at Hezhong (area in the middle segment of the river) and arrived at the Xu-zhou prefecture (Xuchang, Henan Province). Li Keyong combined the Xu[-zhou] and Bian (Kaifeng, Henan Province) forces and defeated Shang Rang at Taikang. Li Keyong went on to defeat rebels at Xihua and quelled the he nan (south of the river) area. Li Keyong chased the enemies to Bei-cao-zhou (north Caozhou prefecture). Huang Chao committed suicide at the Langhu-gu Valley, i.e., wolf and tiger valley, near today's Laiwu, Shandong. When returning via Bian (Kaifeng), Zhu Wen (Zhu Quanzhong, i.e., "Xuanwu jie-du-shi") invited him for a stay; Li Keyong left his soldiers at the outskirts and went to the Shangyuan-yi Guest-house. At night, Zhu Wen (Zhu Quanzhong) personally served the dinner, offered the treasures, and held hands as a show of condolence for Li's war efforts. Zhu Wen fed Li Keyong into intoxication; Zhu Wen, meantime, arranged his troops to have the guest house surrounded for sake of eradicating Li Keyong. Zhu Wen was jealous of Li Keyong's ferociousness and intended to kill Li so that he would usurp the Tang dynasty in an easy way. When Zhu Wen's soldiers attacked the guest house, Li Keyong's bodyguard general (Guo Jingzhu) blew off the candles and walked Li Keyong off by putting his arms around Li; still intoxicated, Li pulled his bow and shot arrows at the enemies. Utilizing the heavy smoke from the fires and lightening in the skies, Li Keyong and Xue Zhiqin escaped from the guest house, climbed the city gate of Nan-qiao-men (watch-tower gate at the south of the city), threw down a thread and climbed down the wall. Li Keyong, seeing that hundreds of his followers had died, would re-assemble his troops and retreat to Taiyuan for the preparation of revenge. Li Keyong ordered that his brother Li Keqin station the troops at he zhong (area in the middle segment of the river). Li Keyong petitioned with the emperor to attack Zhu Wen. Emissaries exchanged messages and condolence eight times between the emperor and Li Keyong. The emperor conferred the titles of jianxiao taifu and King Longxi-jun-wang onto Li Keyong to pacify him.
 
In AD 885, Li Keju of Youzhou and Wang Jingchong of Zhenzhou claimed that the Yi-Ding areas, belonging to the Yan-Zhao territories, should be rezoned to their jurisdiction. Li Keju took over the Yizhou prefecture, while Wang Jingchong attacked Wuji. Wang Chucun, jiedu shi for the Yi-Ding areas, requested relief with Li Keyong. In AD 885, eunuch Tian Lingzi quarreled with Wang Zhongrong, i.e., 'jie du shi' for the He-zhong territory. The emperor ordered a campaign against Wang Chongrong (jiedu-shi for Hezhong, i.e., the middle Yellow River). Wang Zhongrong requested aid with Li Keyong. Wang Zhongrong and Li Keyong's army defeated Zhu Mei ('jing-nan jie du shi') and Li Changfu, and pressed on against Chang'an. Eunuch Tian Lingzi, together with Emperor Zizong, fled to Fengxiang (Baoji, Shenxi). Zhu Mei erected King Xiang-wang (Li Yun) as the new emperor. Emperor Xizhong ordered Wang Zhongrong and Li Keyong to attack Zhu Mei. Wang Xingyu, a subordinate, killed Zhu Mei. Wang Zhongrong killed King Xiang-wang. Soong Wentong, who served under Wang Xingyu, received the imperial conferral as "Wuding jie-du-shi", and the name of Li Maozhen. In Fengxiang, Li Changfu attacked the emperor's camp in A.D. 887, which was to do with Li Changfu's obstruction of the emperor's plan to return to the nation's capital. Li Maozhen killed Li Changfu, for which he received the appointment as "Fengxiang jie-du-shi". In AD 890, Li Maozhen was upgraded to King Longxi-jun-wang. After the new emperor was enthroned, Li became arrogant and showed disprespect. From 893 onward, Li repeatedly beat back the imperial army. The Tang court had to offer Li further titles such as King Qi-wang.
 
In AD 890, Zhu Wen and prime minister Zhang Ruili proposed to attack the Hedong territory to weaken Li Keyong's power. The allied troops were defeated by Li Keyong. The emperor had to restore Li Keyong's ranking and titles.
 
In AD 893, Tang Emperor Zhaozong ordered King Sitan-wang (Li Sizhou) to take the imperial garrison army against Li Maozhen. Li Maozhen and Wang Xingyu defeated the emperor's army. The emperor was forced to order prime minister Du Rangneng killed as a scapegoat. In AD 895, Wang Chongying, who was "Huguo jie-du-shi" (or "Hezhong jie-du-shi"), died. Li Keyong and Li Maozhen supported two different persons as successor, one being a nephew and Li Keyong's son-in-law and the other a son of Wang Chongying's. For the emperor's attitude, Li Maozhen and et als, killed two prime ministers without the emperor's approval, and further attempted to depose the emperor. Li Keyong came south of the river to defeat the Li Maozhen army, killed Wang Xingyu, and wrestled back the emperor. Emperor Zhaozong, for balancing against Li Keyong, stopped the further campaign against Li Maozhen. After Li Keyong returned to Hedong, Li Maozhen re-asserted control in the Hexi [west of the river] territory, and took over Jingnan-jun and and Jingyuan-jun territories. In AD 896, Li Maozhen attacked the nation's capital over the emperor's attempt at organizing an army, forcing the emperor into fleeing to Huazhou (Huaxian, Shenxi).
 
In AD 896, Li Keyong received the emperor's conferral as King Jinn-wang. For the next few years, Li Keyong, Liu Ren'gong and Zhu Wen were engaged in the zigzag wars, which somehow delayed Zhu Wen's usurpation of the Tang throne. Liu Ren'gong, who sought shelter with Li Keyong after an aborted rebellion against Li Kuangchou ("Fanyang jie-du-shi") in 893 and obtained the "Fanyang jie-du-shi" after Li Keyong sacked Fanyang in 894, rebelled against Li Keyong in 897. Li Keyong failed to attack Fanyang. In 898, Liu Ren'gong defeated Lu Yanwei ("Yichang jie-du-shi"). But when Liu Ren'gong attempted to attack further south in 899, he was defeated by Zhu Wen. Li Keyong failed to rescue son-in-law Li Ke ("Hezong jie-du-shi") who surrendered to Zhu Wen. By AD 900, Zhu Wen gained an upper hand over Li Keyong. In 901 and 902, Zhu Wen laid siege of Taiyuan consecutively. Li Keyong repelled the two-time attacks. Later in AD 906, Li Keyong recovered Luzhou (Changzhi, Shanxi)from Zhu Wen's army. In AD 906, Li Keyong led a relief to the aid of Liu Ren'gong when Zhu Wen attacked Youzhou.
 
In 901, Tang Emperor Zhaozong (Li Ye) was hijacked by eunuch Haan Quanhui, and moved to Fengxiang where Li Maozhen (Soong Wentong) was in charge. The trigger was Zhu Wen ("Xuanwu jie-du-shi")'s march towards the nation's capital.
 
In 902, Zhu Wen led an attack at Fengxiang but failed to sack the fort after about one year's fightings. Gao Jixing proposed to induce Li Maozhen out of the city by spreading rumor that Zhu Wen's army had retreated. With Li Maozhen lured out of Fengxiang, Zhu Wen managed to defeat the city defenders and forced Li Maozhen into handing over the emperor. The emperor returned to the throne in Chang'an. Li Maozhen also lost control of the territories to the south of the Qin-ling Ridge to Wang Jian.
 
In 904, Zhu Wen forced the emperor into relocating to Luoyang over prime minister Cui Yin's scheme against Zhu Wen. Months later, Zu Wen sent "shu-mi shi" Jiang Xuanhui to killing the emperor. Zhu Wen selected a young son of the emperor, Li Zuo, as an emperor, i.e., Tang Emperor Aidi. In 905, Zhu Wen killed the young emperor's nine brothers, as well as killing all the court ministers. In 907, Zhu Wen usurped the Tang dynasty, forced Emperor Tang Aidi into abdication, and declared the founding of the Liang dynasty in Kaifeng which was the ancient Liang city. Zhu Wen killed the emperor the next year. Zhu Wen, who was lascivious and conducted incest in his later life and after his wife's death, was later killed by his third son Zhu Zhen (Zhu Yougui) in A.D. 912. While wife Zhang Hui was still alive, Zhu Wen was restrained. Zhu Wen first spotted the young girl, who was a daughter of the Songzhou 'ci shi', before the rebellion, and made a similar claim as Eastern Han Emperor Guangwu-di as to beauty Yin Lihua. The end of the 289-year Tang dynasty led to the turmoil period called the Five Dynasties and Ten Nations.
 
With the end of the Tang dynasty, Li Maozhen continued to use the eras of Tang Empero Zhaozong and Tang Emperor Aizong. Li Maozhen called himself King Qi[shan]-wang. Li Maozhen was sandwich-attacked by Wang Jian and Zhu Wen. In 923, Posterior Tang eliminated Posterior Liang. Li Maozhen then submitted to Posterior Tang. Li Cunxu renamed Li Maozhen to King Qin-wang.
 
 
The Five Dynasties
 
In 907, i.e., the 4th year of Tang Emperor Aidi's Tianyou Era, Li Si'an, a general under Zhu Wen, attacked Youzhou. Liu Ren'gong dwelled on the palaces built on top of Da'anshan Mountain, northwest of today's Fangxian, where he had placed the court maids and alchemists for pleasure seeking and elixir refinement. Since Liu Ren'gong was not at the city, son Liu Shouguang led the troops into Youzhou to repel the Posterior Liang army. After that, Liu Shouguang marched against the Da'anshan Mountain and put his father under arrest. Liu Shouguang declared himself to be "Youzhou jie-du-shi", and then attacked his brothers, like Liu SHouwen who was "Yichang jie-du-shi". After Liu Shouguang killed Liu Shouwen and defeated the Yichang-jun Army [which was in charge of the area of Cangzhou, JIngzhou, Dezhou and Qizhou], Posterior Liang Emperor Zhu Wen conferred the title of King Yan-wang onto Liu Shouguang.
 
In AD 911, Liu Shouguang schemed to make the military chiefs of the six garrisons to support him as 'shang fu', namely, proxy father kind of minister to the emperor. Li Cunxu, i.e., King Jinn-wang and "Hedong jie-du-shi", took the advice of subordinate generals to cooperate with Whang Rong ("Chengde-jun [Zhengding, Hebei] jie-du-shi"), Wang CHuzhi ("Yiwu-jun jie-du-shi"), Li Sizhao ("Zhaoyi-jun jie-du-shi"), Zhou Dewei ("Zhenwu-jun jie-du-shi") and Soong Yao ("Tiande-jun jie-du-shi") in infatuating Li Shouguang so as to make him a target of Posterior Liang Empero Zhu Wen. Li Shouguang petitioned with the emperor for the post of "du tong" (commander-in-chief) for the He-bei (north of the Yellow River) territory, and furthermore declared himself emperor of the Da-Yan State with the Yingtian (answering the Heaven) Era. In AD 913, Zhou Dewei, a ageneral under Li Cunxu, sacked Youzhou, and caught both Liu Shouguang and Liu Ren'gong. Zhou Dewei received the conferral of "Lulong jie-du-shi". In AD 914, the Liu father and son were killed at the Posterior Jinn's ancestral temple.
 
During the Five Dynasties time period, the Tuoba-Li family of the Tanguts expressed loyalty to all five succeeding central plains courts as well as the Northern Han Dynasty to the east of the Yellow River. Only Posterior Tang had launched one campaign against Tuoba-Li's Tangut regime. In AD 895, Tuoba Sigong (i.e., Li Sigong) passed away. Brother Li Sijian assumed the post of "ding-na-jun jie-du-shi" (i.e., Governor-general for the Quelling-turmoil Garrison). When Posterior Liang was founded by Zhu Wen, Li Sijian expressed loyalty and received some extra titles of "jianxiao taiwei' [monitoring captain] and "shi zhong" [imperial attache]. In 908, Li Sigong's grandson, Li Yichang, took over Li Sijian's post. Three months later, Li Yichang was killed by his general, Gao Zongyi. An uncle, by the name of Li Renfu, was supported as the new Governor-general for the Quelling-turmoil Garrison. Li Renfu was attacked by Li Cunxu (i.e., King Jinn-wang). Li Cunxu encircled the Xiazhou prefecture. Posterior Liang Emperor Taizu (i.e., Zhu Wen) came to the relief of Li Renfu.
 
Posterior Tang leader had once gone into exile in another nomadic group of people called Dada [Dadan] (a name to be mixed up with the Tartar/Tatar later) till he was recalled by the Tang emperor for quelling the Huang Chao rebellion. When Zhu Wen usurped Tang, General Li Keyong and his son Li Cunxu set up the Posterior Tang dynasty. To combat the Posterior Liang dynasty, he would strike an agreement with the Khitans (a branch of the earlier Xianbei) against Posterior Liang. The Shatuo Li family was of the Western Turks' origin of Central Asia, and hence carried the non-Mongoloid physique. Modern erudite Wang Guowei ascertained Posterior Tang Emperor Zhuangzong's appearance through a record about Wang Jinqing's observance of the emperor's statute near Luoyang, which exhibited someone with hair surrounding the two eyes. (The very original Turks, however, were of the Mongoloid stock, as seen in depiction of a Turk prince called Simo. Simo, for his appearance similar to the Hu barbarians of today's Central Asia, was suspected to be not of the Ashina stock, and hence was conferred the post as 'Jiabi Tele [te-le]', not a higher post as 'she[4]'.)
 
The Khitans, in AD 917, laid siege of Youzhou for over two hundred days but failed to sack the city which was defended by Zhou Dewei. Zhou Dewei previously did not pay attemtion the defense works along the seaside strip from the Yu-guan Pass (i.e., tdoay's Pass of Mountains and Seas) all the way towards the Liao-dong peninsula. The Khitans took over the seaside territory as well as the land to the northeast of Youzhou. The Khitans, under Yelu Ahbaoji (Yeh-lu A-pao-chi) and his Uygur wife, colluded with Posterior Liang. The Khitans obtained a Chinese minister called Han Yanwei and conquered, in AD 926, tribes like Dangxiang (the Tanguts) in the west and the Tungusic P'o-hai (Bohai) and north Korea in the east. The Khitans became a much larger northern power.
 
After Li Cunxu overthrew Posterior Liang, Tangut's Li Renfu expressed loyalty to Posterior Tang. In AD 933, Tangut's Li Yichao assumed the post of his father Li Renfu. Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong [Li Siyuan or Li Dan, reign 926-933] had campaigned against Li Yichao for his refusal to relocate to Yanzhou. After laying siege of Xiazhou in vain for over hundred days, Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong withdrew the siege and re-confirmed Li Yichao's post. After Li Yichao's death in AD 936, brother Li Yiyin assumed the Tangut post. In 935, Li Yiyin succeeded Li Yichao's post, with Posterior Tang Emperor Modi continued the conferral of 'Di-nan-jun jie-du-shi' onto Li Yiyin.
 
In northern China, in 934, Tang Emperor Mingzong (Li Siyuan), after some internbal power struggle, called in son Li Conghou who succeeded as Posterior Emperor Mindi. Li Conghou's attempt at weakening the power of the royals led to the rebellion of King Lu-wang Li COnghou (i.e., 'Fengxiang jie-du-shi'). Li Conghou, after failing to quell the rebellion at Fengxiang, fled east, and when passing through Weizhou (Jixian/Weihui, Henan), i.e., Shi Jingtang's domain, was put under arrest while his entourage and bodyguards were killed by Liu Zhiyuan, a general under Shi Jingtang. Li Congke, i.e., Posterior Tang Emperor Modi and an adopted son of Li Siyuan, took over the throne, which led to rebellion of Shi Jingtang who was a son-in-law of Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong (Li Siyuan). Shi Jingtang, who was satrap for the He-dong (i.e., east of the Yellow River), tested the emepror's response with a petition to relocate away from the heartland territory. When the emperor agreed to make him satrap 'Tianping jie-du-shi', Shi Jingtang rebelled. Shi Jingtang sought the assistance with the Khitans for rebellion in A.D. 936.
 
Posterior Jinn (AD 936-946) was led by a Posterior Tang general called Shi Jingtang, also a Shatuo (Sha'to) nomad. Shi, in order to fight Posterior Tang, ceded 16 zhou (a unit larger than prefecture but smaller than province) to the Khitans, including today's Beijing city which was never recovered from the nomads till Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) overthrown the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Yelu Ahbaoji's son, Yelu Deguang, assisted Posterior Jinn in destroying Posterior Tang and hence take over 16 northern Chinese prefectures as a ransom. With the help of the Khitans, Posterior Jinn took over Luoyang and destroyed Posterior Tang. In A.D. 937, Shi Jingtang and the Khitan allied army laid a siege of Luoyang. The Posterior Tang emperor committed suicide by seting himself on fire. The historical imperial seal, i.e., he-shi-bi, was lost hence. (Gu Yanwu, a Ming-Qing dynasty transitionary figure, disputed the number of 16 prefectures in his book RI ZHI LU, stating that the Yingzhou, Pingzhou and Luanzhou territories were not among those surrendered by Shi Jingtang, and hence were not requested by the Soong dynasty emissary when negotiating with the Jurchens for a joint campaign against the Khitans. Gu Yanwu traced the history to point out that Zhou Dewei, a Posterior Tang general, who received the post as 'Lulong jie-du-shi' in charge of today's Peking and the seaside corridor towards the Yu-guan Pass (i.e., the Pass of Mountains and Seas), had abandonded the Niu-kou (oxen) Pass, which was to the northeast of the Yu-guan Pass, thinking that he was capable of defending against the Khitans with his strength, not the precarious mountain pass. Hence, the Khitans penetrated into the Pingzhou-Yingzhou area, took over the area, and further launched the Khitan Luanzhou prefecture to settle the prisoners of war.)
 
When Shi Jingtang, i.e., Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong's son-in-law, colluded with Khitans in overthrowing Posterior Tang and establishing Posterior Jinn, Tangut's Li Yiyin continued to receive the old conferrals. In 1943, Li Yimin, a brother of Li Yiyin's and 'Suizhou [Suide]ci-shi', rebelled, and after a defeat, fled to Yanzhou (Yenan). Posterior Jinn further arrested the Tangut rebels in A.D. 943 on behalf of Li Yiyin, and deported Li YImin to Xiazhou. Posterior Jinn further caught the Tangut rebels in AD 943 on behalf of Li Yiyin. When Khitans attacked Posterior Jinn in AD 944, Li Yiyin led a combined force of 40,000 Tibetans, Qiangs and Han Chinese in attacking the west of Khitans by crossing the Yellow River at Linzhou.
 
However, rifts between Khitan Liao and Posterior Jinn ensued. In 942, Shi Chonggui, i.e., Posterior Jinn Emperor Chudi and a nephew of Shi Jingtang, was enthroned. Jinn Emperor Chudi took the advice of Jing Yanguang not to appease the Khitans. When Posterior Jinn Emperor Chudi refused to acknowledge vassalage to the Khitans, Yelu Deguang attacked Posterior Jinn and destroyed Posterior Jinn in AD 946. The Khitans renamed their dynasty name to Liao Dynasty in AD 947 in the attempt of ruling northern China. In 944, the Khiatns attacked Posterior Jinn. In 946, after three years of wars, Posterior Jinn generals Du Chongwei, Li SHouzhen and Zhang Yanze surrendered to the Khitans. Using Zhang Yanze as a guide, the Khitans intruded into the Kaifeng city. Shi Chonggui surrendered to the Khitans. The Khitans destroyed Posterior Jinn. Yelv Deguang downgraded the Posterior Jinn emperor to Marquis Fuyie-hou (i.e., the marquis who betrayed the gratitude). When weather got hot and the Chinese under Liu Zhiyuan rebelled against the Khitans, Yelu Deguang retreated to the north and died en route home, at a place called the Fox-killing Ridge. A Posterior Jinn general of the Shatuo tribe origin, Liu Zhiyuan, would be responsible for rallying an army and pressured the Khitans into retreat, and hence Liu founded the Posterior Han Dynasty (AD 947-950), citing the same family name as the Han Empire's founder.
 
At this time, Southern Tang (AD 937-975) in today's Nanking, south of the Yantze River, had contacted the Khitans expressing a desire to go to the ex-Tang capital of Chang'an to maintain the imperial tombs.
 
Posterior Jinn was destroyed by the Khitans in A.D. 946. The second year, Liu Zhiyuan of the Shatuo Turkic origin, at the sinstigation of Zhang Yanwei, declared himself an emperor in Taiyuan but using the Posterior Jinn's Tianfu (heaven's fortune Era, and subsequently in the summer intruded into Bianjing (Kaifeng) to established Posterior Han Dynasty, faking a claim to be a descendant of the Han royal house. (After Shi Jingtang established Posterior Jinn (AD 936-946), Liu Zhiyuan, who was against ceding the land to the Khitans, was conferred the posts of "Zhongwu-jun jie-du-shi" in 937, "Daming-fu liu-shou" and "Hedong jie-du-shi" in 941, "zhong-shu ling" in 943 under the successor Posterior Jinn emperor, and King Taiyuan-wang in 944. Liu Zhiyuan died in 948, and was succeeded by son Liu Chengyou or Northern Han Emperor Yindi.)
 
In AD 948, Liu Zhiyuan appointed Li Yiyin the concurrent post of 'shi-zhong', i.e., imeprial attache. Posterior Han Dynasty continued the pacification policy as to the Tanguts, and further ceded Jingzhou (Mizhi county of Shenxi) to Li Yiyin in A.D. 949 and conferred the title of "zhong shu ling" (minister for central secretariat).
 
Yelu Deguang's nephew (Wuyue Yelu Ruan), would succeed the Khitan post in AD 947. Five years later, in AD 951, he was assassinated. Yelu Deguang's son, Wulu (Yelu Jing), would now succeed in AD 951. Note that the Yelu family had adopted the Chinese first names here, and they had sinicized by adopting the Chinese language, rituals and governmental structure.
 
Guo Wei, a general of Posterior Han Dynasty responsible for the defeating Posterior Jinn, rebelled after his family were slaughtered in the capital; Guo later staged a change of dynasty by having his soldiers propose that he be the emperor of Posterior Zhou (AD 951-960). The uncle of Posterior Han emperor declared Northern Han (AD 951-979) in today's Shanxi and allied with the Khitans. After Guo Wei, i.e., "liu shou" (governing magistrate) for Yedu (Yecheng of Shanxi), killed Posterior Han Dynasty Emperor Yindi (r 948-950), Guo Wei upgraded Tangut's Li Yiyin to the title of King Longxi-jun-wang in AD 951.
 
Guo Wei, i.e., Posterior Zhou Dynasty Emperor Taizu (r 951-954), conferred the title of King Xiping-wang onto Li Yiyin in AD 954. Li Yiyin did not severe relations with Northern Han Dynasty till AD 957.
 
Guo Wei's Posterior Zhou will pass on to his foster son, Chai Rong, to be eventually replaced by his general called Zhao Kuangying who founded the Northern Soong Dynasty (AD 960-1127).
 
When Northern Han (Liu Chong) and Khitan Liao attacked Posterior Zhou by taking advantage of the death of Guo Wei, Chai Rong led the imperial bodyguard troops to Gaoping to counter the Northern Han army and the Khitans. A general, zhi hui Fan Aineng fled the scene. When Chai Rong was targeted by the enemy arrow shooters, Zhao Kuangyin led a dozen brave soldiers on a charge against the enemies and rescued Chai Rong. The Posterior Zhou army chased Liu Chong to the He-dong [west of the eastern Yellow River bend] city. Zhao Kuangyin personally led a fire attack at the city. Chai Rong retreated after Zhao suffered an arrow wound in the left arm. When the Posterior Zhou army retreated to Biandu (Kaifeng) the capital, Zhao Kuangyin was conferred Marquis Duyu-hou and ci shi of the Yanzhou prefecture.
 
During the third year reign of Emperor Zhou Shizong, i.e., AD 956, Posterior Zhou campaigned against the Huai-nan territories of Southern Tang. Both Zhao Kuangyin and Zhao Hongyin joined the campaigns. Posterior Zhou defeated a Tang army of over 10000 Wokou [the Wo rivermouth] and killed bingma (soldier & horse) du-jian (monitoring general) Heh Yanxi. The Southern Tang army, claiming 150000, which was led by Huangfu Hui and Yao Feng, overflowed the Qingliu-guan Pass. When Zhao Kuangyin chased the Tang army to the city, Huangfu Hui requested for stationing his troops outside of the citywall for a duel. Huangfu Hui was personally decapitated by Zhao, and Yao Feng was captured. When Zhao Kuangyin entered the city, he ordered that the city gates be closed at night; Zhao Hongyin was disuaded from entering the city at night. When Haan Lingkun took over Yangzhou, the Southern Tang came to the relief. Haan Lingkun proposed to retreat. Emperor Shizong ordered that Zhao Kuangyin lead 2000 relief soldiers to Luhe to counter the Tang relief army. Zhao issued an order stating that should Haan Lingkun's soldiers retreat to Luhe, they would be cut off the feet. Haan Lingkun hence solidified his defence at Yangzhou. Thereafter, Zhao defeated King Qi Jingda of Southern Tang east of Luhe and killed over 10000 enemies. Upon return to the capital, Zhao was conferred the post of dianqian (front of the imperial seat) du-zhi-hui-shi (directing general) and jiedu-shi for the Dingguo-jun Garrison Circuit.
 
During the fourth year reign of Zhou Shizong, i.e., AD 957, Zhao Kuangyin participated in the campaign against Shouchun. Posterior Zhou took over the Zhu-zhai Garrison and the Shouzhou city. Upon return, Zhao was conferred the post of jianxiao (censoring and inspecting) taibao (gestapo) and jiedu (governor-general) for the Yicheng-jun Garrison Circuit. In the winter, Posterior Zhou campaigned against the Hao-Si areas of today's Anhui Province. Southern Tang stationed its army on the beach of Shibali-tan (eighteen Chinese mile beach). Zhou Emperor Shizong intended to cross the river by riding on the camels. Zhao Kuangyin jumped into the river to lead the way for his soldiers. Zhao defeated the Southern Tang army, and then flowed down to take over the Sizhou city. The Tang army then stationed at the Dunqing-kou rivermouth. Zhao followed Zhou Emperor Shizong in marching along the east bank of the Huai River and chased the enemy to Shanyang. Zhao captured Tang jiedu-shi Chen Chengzhao and took over the Tuzhou city. Zhao went on to defeat the Southern Tang army at another river mouth, burnt the Tang camps south of the river, and defeated Tang at Guabu. After the Zhou army's quelling the Huainan (south of Huai River) areas, Southern Tang tried to sow a dissension between Zhao Kuangyin and Zhou Shizong by sending 3000 Chinese ounces of 'baijing' (white gold) as a bribe. Zhao submitted the gold to the imperial coffer. The next year, Zhao was conferred the post of jiedu-shi for the Zhongwu-jun Garrison Circuit.
 
In AD 959, Zhou Shizong led a northern campaign against Canzhou. Zhao was conferred the post of sui-lu du bushu ('land-water governing general in charge'). Zhou Shizong personally went to the Qianning-jun Garrison Circuit to lead the attack at Ningzhou. Ningzhou ci shi Wang Hong surrendered. Then, Haan Tong was assigned the job of taking charge of a land army and Zhao in charge of boats and a water-born army. The Zhou army attacked the Yijin-guan Pass. When Wang Hong called upon the guarding general, Zhong Tinghui, for surrender, Zhong agreed. Zhong Tinghui was retained at the pass. When reaching the Mozhou area, Zhao deserted boats and attacked the Waqiao-guan Pass. Zhao defeated guarding general Yao Neibing at the Waqiao-guan Pass. When the Zhou armies, led by du zhihui-shi Li Chongjing, by Haan Tong (who pacified Mozhou and Yingzhou) and by the emperor himself, converged under the Waqiao-guan Pass, Yao Neibing surrendered and he was assigned the post of ci shi for Nuzhou. Zhou quelled the area south of the pass.
 
Zhou Shizong then ordered a campaign against the Khitans at Youzhou and Yizhou. Li Chongjing was ordered to attack northward. Li took over the Gu'an city. North of the city was the An'yang-shui River. The Khitans dismantled the bridges and hid the boats. Zhou Shizong, seeing that the river was wide, ordered the re-construction of the bridge and then left for the Waqiao-guan Pass. Zhou Shizong fell ill. Meantime, Sun Xingyou was ordered to attack Yizhou and he took over the city and captured ci shi Li Zaiqin. Li Zaiqin refused to surrender and was ordered to be executed by Zhou Shizong. When Zhou Shizong's illness got worse, Zhao Kuangyin pursuaded him into returning to the capital. Waqiao-guan was renamed Xiongzhou and Chen Sirang was to guard it; Yijin-guan was renamed Bazhou and Haan Lingkun was to guard it. Zhou Shizong accidentally read about a 3-foot wood document stating that 'dianjian would be the new emperor'. Upon return to the capital, Zhou Shizong deprived dian jian Zhang De of his post and re-assigned it onto Zhao Kuangyin, plus the title of jianxiao taifu. After Zhou Shizong died and Posterior Zhou Emperor Gongdi was enthroned, Zhao was conferred the post of jiedu for the Guide-jun Garrison Circuit and jianxiao tai-wei (grand captain).
 
The next year, i.e., AD 960, Northern Han and the Khitans were rumored to have invaded Zhou territories. Zhao hence utilized this rumor to lead an army to counter the purported Khitan attack. While stopping at the Chenqiao-yi postal station, Zhao's follower, Miao Xun, pointed to the sky for a second sun under the sun. At deep night, Zhao's generals had an assembly and proposed that Zhao Kuangyin be the new emperor. They put a yellow gown onto Zhao. The next day, Zhao led his troops back to the capital and usurped the Posterior Zhou dynasty.
 
This is Zhao Kuangyin's Chenqiao Coup by which he took over the reign from Posterior Zhou and established the Soong dynasty as Emperor Taizu (r 960-976). Tangut's Li Yiyin promptly dispatched an emissary to the Soong court for expressing loyalty, and changed his name to Li Yixing for avoiding the conflict with the last character of the given name of Zhao Kuangyin's father. Li Yiyin surrendered 300 stallions to the Soong court in AD 962 and received a jade-belt as imperial bestowal in return. When Li Yiyin died in AD 967, Soong Emperor Taizu ordered a mourning for three days and conferred Li Yiyin the title of King Xia-wang posthumously. Tangut's Li Guangrui assumed his father's post.
 
 

 

 
 
Ten Nations
 

 
Scholar Luo Xianglin, stating that Chinese had been fleeing Huang Chao rebellion throughout the territories sacked by the rebels, summarized the following safe havens: refugees to Sichuan Province where Wang Jian established Shu Regime; refugess to Hunan Province where Ma Yin established Chu Regime; refugess to Guangdong & Guangxi provinces where Liu Yin established Southern Han Regime; refugees to Fujian Province where Wang Shenzhi established Min Regime; refugees to Zhejiang Province where Qian Mu established Wu-Yue Regime; and refugess to Anhui-Jiangsu provinces where Yang Xingmi & Li Zhigao established Yang-Wu and Southern Tang regimes.
 
The city of Beijing would remain in the hands of the Khitans (AD 907-1125), and then passed into the Jurchens (AD 1115-1234) after a short interim under the Soong administration, Mongol Yuan (AD 1279-1368) till Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongol yoke in AD 1368. For hundreds of years, the Soong dynasty, built on top of Northern Zhou (AD 951-960) of the Chai(1) family, was engaged in the games of 'three kingdom' kind of warfares. Northern Soong (AD 960-1127) would face off with the Western Xia (AD 1032-1227) and Khitan Liao in a triangle, and then played the card of allying with the Jurchens in destroying the Khitan Liao. With Northern Soong defeated by the Jurchens thereafter, Southern Soong (AD 1127-1279) would be engaged in another triangle game, with the other players being Western Xia and the Jurchen Jin. Southern Soong would then play the card of allying with the Mongolians in destroying Jurchen Jin, and it even sent tens of thousands of carts of grain to the Mongol army in the besieging of the last Jurchen stronghold. Soon after than, the Southern Soong generals broke the agreement with the Mongols and they shortly took over the so-called three old capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang and Chang'an. But they could not hold on to any of the three because what they had occupied had been empty cities after years of warfare between the Jurchens and Mongols. Similar to the times of the Western Jinn (AD 265-316) and Eastern Jinn (AD 317-420), the northern Chinese would have fled to the south during these conflicts. While Eastern Jinn re-established their capital in Nanking, the Southern Song, driven away from Nanking by the Jurchens, chose today's Hangzhou as the new capital. Hangzhou, however, had been the capital of Warring Kingdoms in Zhou times.
 
The Qian-shu (Anterior Shu) Kingdom
In A.D. 907, Wang Jian (847-918) declared himself an emperor in Chengdu and launched the [Anterior-]Da-Shu kingdom. This was in response to Zhu Wen's usurpation of the Tang court. Back in A.D. 904, when Zhu Wen forced Emperor Zhaozong to relocate to Luoyang, Wang Jian refused to adopt the era of Tianyou.
 
Wang Jian first fought for the Tang emperor in the Zhongwu-jun Army when rebel Huang Chao attacked Chang'an in 880 A.D.; received the emperor's conferral as 'qing dao shi' when Tang Emperor Xizong fled to the Hanzhong territory in 886 A.D.; and intruded into the Sichuan basin in 891 A.D. From the Hanzhong territory, Wang Jian expanded towards the Sichuan basin. In A.D. 891, Wang Jian, with two thousand troops, attacked towards Chengdu and fought against Chen Jingxuan. Wang Jian sacked Lutou-guan (i.e., the deer head pass), and Han-zhou, attacked Peng-zhou, defeated an army of 50,000 under Chen Jingxian, and sacked Chengdu. Chen Jingxuan and eunuch Tian Lingzi surrendered, and were killed. Wang Jian then defeated Wang Jianzhao ('qian-nan jie du shi'), Gu Yanhui ('dong-chuan jie du shi'), and Tuoba Sijing ('wu-ding jie du shi'). In A.D. 897, Wang Jian took over Zi (Santai, Sichuan) and Yu (Chongqing, Sichuan). After defeating the local magistrates and generals, Wang Jian received the title of King Shu-wang from Tang Emperor Zhaozong. By A.D. 902, Wang Jian controlled the 'shan-nan' (i.e., south of the Qin-lin Ridge) territory. In A.D. 902, Wang Jian received the title of King Shu-wang from Tang Emperor Zhaozong.
 
Serving under King Wang Jian would be a literati called Mao Wenxi who previously fled to Sichuan with Tang Emperor Xizong. Another literati who served under Wang Jian would be poet Wei Zhuang who had a poem calling the Sichuan basin by 'jiang-nan', namely, the paradise to the south of the Yangtze, to the effect of forgetting about the native hometown of northern China: "wei lao [not reaching the old age] mo [no] huan-xiang [returning home], huan-xiang [returning home] xu [would] duan chang [get one's intestine broken]. Wei Zhuang was responsible for drafting the government system, the decrees, the penal codes, and rituals and protocol. The Qian-shu (Anterior Shu) Kingdom was destroyed by the Posterior Tang Dynasty.
 
The Hou-shu (Posterior Shu) Kingdom
Meng Zhixiang, a general of the Posterior Tang Dynasty, declared himself an emperor and re-established the Shu kingdom.
 
The Chu-guo Statelet
The Chu-guo Statelet had origin in Ma Yin's job as "jie du shi" in A.D. 896 for the Wu'an-jun Garrison of the Tang dynasty. In 907, Posterior Liang conferred Ma Yin as King Chu-wang. In 927, Posterior Tang conferred Ma Yin as King Chu-guo-wang. In 951, the Southern Tang army, under Bian Hao, invaded westward to occupy Changsha. A subordinate general, Liu Yan, repelled the Southern Tang army and re-established the Chu-guo statelet. In 952, subordinate Wang Jingkui killed Liu Yan; in 955, subordinate Pan SHusi killed Wang Jingkui; and subsequently, Zhou Xingfeng attacked the capital city of Langzhou and killed Pan Shusi. When subordinate Zhang Wenbiao rebelled against Zhou Baoquan, i.e., son of Zhou Xingfeng, the northern army, in the name of asisting the Zhou family in cracking down on the rebellion, took over Tanzhou and the whole territory of today's Hunan Province, ending the Jing-nan [south of Jing{Hubei}] or the Chu-guo kingdom.
 
The Yang-Wu State

 
The Nan-Tang State

 
The Min State

 
The Wu-Yue State

 
The Jing-nan State

 
The Nan-Han State

 
The Be-Han State

 
TO BE CONTINUED !
 
 
Written by Ah Xiang
 
 


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This is an internet version of this webmaster's writings on "Imperial China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of this webmaster's writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Imperial China", which was originally planned for after "Republican China", is now being pulled forward, with continuous updates posted to Pre-History, Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, offering the readers a tour of ancient China transcending space and time. A comprehensive version covering the 3000 years of ancient Chinese history, from 3000 B.C. down, with 3-5 times more materials than shown on this website and including 95% of the records in the spring & autumn annals ZUO ZHUAN, is expected to be made available on the Amazon website soon. The unforgotten emphasis on "Republican China", which was being re-outlined to be inclusive of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955, will continue. This webmaster plans to make part of the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. Due to constraints, only the most important time periods would be reorganized into some kind of publishable format, such as the 1939-1940, 1944-1945, and 1945-1950 Chinese civil wars, with special highlight on Km Il-sun's supplying 250,000 North Korean mercenaries to fighting the Chinese civil war, with about 60,000-70,000 survivors repatriated to North Korea for the 1950 Korea War, for example --something to remind the readers how North Korea developed to threaten the world with a nuclear winter today. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of this webmaster's writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. This webmaster intends to make the contents of this website into the Prometheus fire, lightening up the fuzzy part of China's history. It is this webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country. This webmaster's question for the sons of China: Are you to wear the communist pigtails for 267 years?

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],