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Notes on Owen Lattimore
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Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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HAN DYNASTY


 
Early Han Dynasty was a restoration of Zhou Dynasty's feudal system. Numerous independent statelets were in existence. The Chen Sheng & Wu Guang rebellion against the Qin dynasty resulted in restoration of some of the ex-Zhou principalities. General Xiang Yu declared himself the 'Hegemony King of the Western Chu Principality' (206-202 B.C.), with a domain of nine prefectures of the former Liang and Chu principalities, in addition to conferrals of 18 kings. During and after the Chu-Han Wars, Han Emperor Gaozu or Gaodi (Liu Bang) had conferred kingship onto numerous generals who contributed to the overthrow of the Qin Empire and the later campaigns against General Xiang Yu.
 
Early Han Dynasty, however, was also commented to have inherited the Qin empire's cruel system and layout without any fundamental changes or reform. Numerous ministers and generals of the time, who enjoyed the Zhou dynastic lords' title of 'gong', were at one time county magistrates or county prison officials. Han Emperor Gaozu had an official called Xiao He who had once served as an ex-Qin clerk in a county. Xiao He, being conferred the post of 'xiangguo', i.e., prime minister, would be responsible for maintaining the existing layout of the Qin system. Three branches of the ex-Qin governance were utilized, namely, chief counselor (chengxiang [assistant to prime minister, strictly; and divided into leftside and rightside posts sometimes] or xiangguo [prime minister]), grand marshal (taiwei), and imperial inspector-in-chief (yushi dafu). Chief Counselor was supposed to rule over nine chief ministers (jiu qing) and thirteen departments. By Emperor Wudi's times, censor-in-chief was in charge of inspecting on 13 circuits (zhou or fu) with circuit censors or inspector (cishi) in charge of 100 commandaries and 1200 counties.
 
Qin's cruel laws began with reformer-legalist Shang Yang and got much more crueler under Li Si. In the early Han times, cutting off the feet, peeling off the noses as well as inscribing the black ink marks on faces were still common. General Haan Xin was killed via five peelings and cuts, for example. The criminal law reform would begin with Han Emperor Wendi (reign 179-157 B.C.), during Wendi's 4th year, i.e., in 175 B.C., when a renowned doctor called Chunyu Yi offended some powerful patient and was sentenced for 'bodily penalty'. Since Chunyu Yi once served as a county magistrate in Taicang County, he was sent to the nation's capital for incarceration ('bodily penalty'). Chunyu Yi had five daughters, with the youngest one called Tiying. Tiying submitted a request to Emperor Wendi, singing the poems of JI-MING (rooster cuckoo) and CHEN-FENG (morning breeze) of SHI JING and saying she would be willing to be sold to the government as a slave for substituting her father's bodily punishment. Hence, Emperor Wendi was moved by Tiying and decreed that 'bodily penalty' be abolished. Later Han Dynasty historian Ban Gu, who was twice imprisoned and died in prison the second time, wrote the first purported five character poem "YONG SHI" praising Tiying's bravery and filiaty, not counting eunuch-musician Li Yannian's song about the beauty of northern China ['beifang you jiaren']. (In Jinn Dynasty, poems were made up about the Li Ling and Su Wu stories of parting on top of He-liang [a wood stump kind of quasi-bridge over the river] in today's Outer Mongolia to infer that Li Ling and Su Wu first initiated the five character format for poetry.)
 
The domain of early Han China was not as extensive as the Qin Empire. Independent statelets would be the Nan-yue Statelet, Min-yue Statelet and Dong-yue Statelet. The non-Chinese statelets would include Dian-Yue, Yelang and etc. After a defeat in the hands of the Huns, Han Emperor Gaozu (or Gaodi) adopted a pacifying policy by sending over the Han princess for inter-marriage with the Huns. Emperor Huidi and Empress Luhou as well as Emperor Wendi and Emperor Jingdi followed through with the old policies. It would be during the times of Han Emperor Wudi (reign 140-87 B.C.) that Han China's territories would expand in all directions. Wudi launched the military offensives against the Huns, retaking the control of southern China, and invading today's Manchuria and Korea.
 
Han Dynasty's notable deeds would be the restoration of Confucianism as the creed for ruling the nation. This compliment, widely quoted by the modern historians, should be looked at through a different perspective. As Lin Yutang said, the Chinese practiced Legalism in essence while Confucianism on surface. More than that, Daoism had much more effect than the former two. In the early Han dynasty, only Daoist philosophy was allowed at the court, and it would be after the death of dowager-exmpress Dou-tai-hou that Emperor Wudi, meaning the "Martial Emperor", was able to hire the Confucians for the court jobs, such as civilian Gongsun Hong being appointed the post as 'cheng xiang' [prime minister] in 124 B.C. (See Confucianism versus Daoism below.)
 
Under Emperor Wudi, the 'Recommendation System' was adopted for purpose of having the talented people sent to the prefecture capitals and the nations's capital as reserve for the officialdom. Emperor Wudi, around 124 B.C., decreed to have 'Tai Xue', i.e., university or the Grand School, created for attracting the talents. 50 doctoral students were enrolled. The Five Classics gradually became the official moral and political ideology of the state. By 50 B.C., the palace school had 3000 students enrolled, and by 1 A.D., the graduates would staff the bureaucracy. Han Dynasty's 'Tai Xue' would be the model for Western Jinn Dynasty's 'Guo Zi Xue', Toba Wei Dynasty's 'Si Meng Xue', and Sui-Tang and Yuan's 'Guo Zi Jian'. In 112 B.C., Emperor Wudi ordered the establishment of 'yue [music/song/poems] fu [minstry]' to collect the music and ballads across the country, especially the areas of the former Zhao, Dai, Qin and Chu territories, in a similar fashion to what the Zhou and Qin dynasties did. Among the 50-60 'yue fu' poems that survived to today, that were missing the music score, would be numerous five character format or seven character format poems. Back in In 116 B.C., Li Yannian was asked by the emperor to make music for the outskirts oblation ceremony. Famous literati figures such as Sima Xiangru were had hired for making the poems and prose. During the Yuanfeng Era (110-105 B.C.), Li Yannian, i.e., author of the song about the beauty of northern China ['beifang you jiaren'], was appointed the post as 'xie-lv [concordance temperament] duwei [captain]' in charge of the collection and composition of poems at 'yue fu'. Emperor Wudi was also credited with inception of the emperial eras. The definition of the Chinese New Year, i.e., the second New Moon after the winter solstice, could be dated from the inception of the Taichu Era in 103 BC.
 
Serving under Wudi would be the historian Sima Qian (Szu-ma Ch'ien, 145-86 B.C.) who, having undergone castration for offending Wudi on the matter of absolving Li Ling's surrender to the Huns, lived with humiliation in order to finish his history book, Shi Ji ["Historian's Records"]. Sima Qian underwent castration for lack of surrendering the financial resources to redempt the conviction. Han Dynasty usually allowed people to either pay money or undergo castration in exchange for absolving from the death penalty. Also note that in ancient China, death row convicts would be absolved from execution during the year a new emperor was enthroned. It is called the 'imperial amnesty'. Death convicts were usually executed in the autumn of the year, i.e., autumnal executions. (Shi Ji was not officially sanctioned by the court. It would be Yang Yun, a junior son of Sima Qian's daughter-in-law Yang Chang, who was to discover Sima Qian's works and surrendered the masterpiece to the court. Later, during the times of Latter Han Dynasty, another historian, Cai Yong, was executed by Wang Yun for sake of stopping him from compilation of a history book.)
 
Han Dynasty possessed the typical characteristics as far as the pattern of power corruption was concerned. There would appear the 'empress power' ('in-law power'), 'eunuch power' and 'warlord power'. Gradually, the tripartitie functions lost their influences, and the departments like 'shangshu sheng' (state affairs) and 'zhongshu sheng' (secretariat) would weign on the emperors. The influence from people in palaces, the 'empress power', led to the demise of the Western Han. Wang Mang, who usurped the Western Han dynasty and founded the Xin Dynasty, derived his power from Empress Wang. All three forms of power corruption led to the demise of the Eastern Han dynasty. We would touch on this in the sections below.

 
 
The Demise Of Qin & the Chu-Han Wars
 
Emperor Shi Huangdi, Qin's First Emperor, was enthroned at the age of 13. During the 26th year of his reign, by 221 B.C., Shihuangdi completed the unification of China and he established the so-called 'Jun-Xian System', namely, the commandary-county system, at the advice of his prime minister, Li Tsu (Li Si). Shihuangdi re-zoned his country into 36 commandaries in lieu of conferring the title of dukes and kings onto his sons. In the next 11 years, Shihuangdi would be responsible for attacking the Huns in the Hetao [sheath] and Ordos areas, building the Great Wall, standardizing the writing system, coins and measures, paving the highways across the country, and digging the canals to link up the water system.
 
But, three years after Shihuangdi's death, by 207 B.C., rebellions, touched off by the Chen Sheng & Wu Guang Rebellion of 209 B.C., would overthrow the Qin rule. In 207 B.C., Qin's ennuch prime minister, Zhao Gao, killed the second emperor, Hu Hai, in an attempt to negotiate peace with rebel Liu Bang. Zhao Gao sent an emissary to seeing Liu Bang. Liu Bang declined the request to divide the Qin land into two parts. Liu Bang, knowing that it was a trick, took Zhang Liang's advice and dispatched Lih Yiji (Lih Sheng, ? - 203 B.C., who was conferred the title of Prince Guangye-jun by Liu Bang) and Lu Jia (? - 170 B.C.) to the Qin camp for dissuasion and dissension. Liu Bang's army hence stealthily took over the Wuguan Pass without a battle. Prince Zi Ying, who killed eunuch Zhao Gao with the help of two sons, succeeded as the third emperor. In this year, 206 B.C., Zi Ying surrendered to Liu Bang after being on the throne for 46 days. Liu Bang was able to take over Qin's capital because General Xiang Yu had entangled the major Qin armies in the former Zhao Principality territories. Xiang Yu subsequently entered Qin's capital, Xian'yang, and killed Qin's last emperor, Zi Ying and the Qin's royal family members. Xiang Yu, with a stronger army, pushed Liu Bang into a fief in the Hanzhong territory. Xiang Yu then divided the land of China into over a dozen fiefs, with him proclaimed as the hegemony king under a nominal Chu Emperor Yidi's rule. Before long, the fiefdoms fought against each other; Xiang Yu killed Chu emperor Yidi; and Liu Bang successfully defeated all rivals, and established a unified Han dynasty.
 
The Chen Sheng & Wu Guang Rebellion
In July of 209 B.C., 900 recruits from Yangcheng [Fangcheng, Henan] in the ex-Chu Principality area were on the way of being dispatched to the northern post of Yuyang (Jixian [Tientsin], near today's Beijing) or the ancient Viscount Wuzhong-zi's country. However, at Daze-xiang [big lake land, i.e., Suzhou of Anhui Province] of Qi-xian County, the rainy season stopped them from going further. Fearing the Qin's punishment of death penalty for missing the schedule, two team leaders, Chen Sheng & Wu Guang, killed two Qin 'wei' [captains] and declared an uprising in the name of restoring Chu as well as in the name of the dead elder Qin prince Fu-su and Chu general Xiang Yan. Chen Sheng called himself by 'jiang jun' [general] and Wu Guang by 'du wei' [major general].
 
Chen Sheng & Wu Guang took over the Qixian County. Chen Sheng sent someone called Ge Ying on a campaign to the east, and Chen himself went to attack the Chenxian County with tens of thousands of rebels he assembled in a matter of months. Two Confucians, Zhang Er & Chen Yu, came to see Chen Sheng and recommended that Chen Sheng should restore the ex-Zhou principality descendants as kings of the various principalities so as to create multiple enemy targets for the Qin empire. Chen Sheng, however, declared himself King of 'Zhang-Chu', namely, king for expanding Chu. (Zhang Er was at one time a hanger-on guest under Prince Xinling-jun, while Liu Bang, while a civilian, came to visit Zhang Er multiple times while Zhang Er was working as county magistrate for Waihuang.)
 
Chen Sheng dispatched Wu Guang as 'proxy king' on a northward campaign against today's Henan Province. Zhang Er & Chen Yu requested with Wu Guang for 3000 soldiers to attack the ex-Zhao territories. In August , Wu Guang sent Wu Chen as head of this expedition into north of the Yellow River. When Ge Ying arrived at Jiujiang, on the Jiangxi [west] side of the Yangtze River, he met an ex-Chu royal descendant, Xiang Jiang. Ge Ying enthroned him as King of Chu at Dongcheng (Dingyuan, Anhui). Hearing that Chen Sheng already declared himself King of Zhang-Chu, Ge Ying killed Xiang Jiang. But Ge Ying still got executed by Chen Sheng for his mistake. Chen Sheng sent Deng Zong to the Jiujiang-jun Commadary (Shouxian, Anhui), instead, and he also sent Zhou Shi to the ex-Wei territories to fight the Qin armies. Wu Guang, failing to take Xingyang of today's Henan Province, took advice from someone called Cai Ci and sent Zhou Wen on a western expedition against the Qin capital in today's Shenxi Province. On the road to the Qin capital, Zhou Wen was joined by tens of thousands of people. Confucius' 8th generation grandson, Kong Fu, recommended to Chen Sheng that he should make preparations for bitter fights with the Qin armies. Wu Chen, after cossing the Yellow River at Baimajin, took over more than 30 towns and counties in a matter of months and in August occupied the ex-Zhao capital of Handan. Wu Chen was able to take over the Zhao-di land as a result of Kuai Che lobbying with Xu-gong, i.e., magistrate for Fanyang-xian, to surrender to Wu Chen. With Xu-gong setting an example, over 30 cities surrendered consecutively. Kuai Che, per Sima Qian, ranked among the top of 81 strategicians and lobbists who were versatile with the expedient tactics of the Warring States time period. Zhang Er & Chen Yu persuaded Wu Chen into declaring himself King of the Zhao Principality. Zhang Ao, who was Zhang Er's son, received Chen Sheng's conferral as Prince Chengdu-jun. Wu Chen, against Chen Sheng's order to go west to aid Zhou Wen, sent Haan Guang to the ex-Yan territories in the northeast, Li Liang to Changshan of today's northern Shanxi, and another general to Shangdang of today's Shanxi Province. Qin Emperor Huhai took the advice of Zhang Han in arming the convicts on the Lishan Mountain. Zhou Wen's rebels, after sacking the Han'gu'guan Pass, pushed to the Xi-shui River area, i.e., Xi-di or today's Lintong. Zhang Han faced up with Zhou Wen and drove Zhou Wen out of the Han'gu'guan Pass.
 
In Peixian County, today's Jiangsu Province, 48 year old Liu Bang, an ex-Qin shire-level official who was hiding in Mount Dangshan (in today's Anhui Province) for setting free the Lishan-destined convicts, answered Chen Sheng's uprising by killing the county magistrate. Hiding in the Dang-shan mountains and lakes, wife Lv-zhi often delivered food and supplies to the fugitive(s), with a claim that she could often locate where her busband was by looking at the cloud and mist above the hiding place. Riding the chariot for Liu Bang was Xiahou Ying who was a former county official at Pei-xian but befriended Liu Bang, a 'ting zhang' (a ten-li distance official in the countryside) for the Si-shui-ting post. (Later, Liu Bang conferred a fief at Teng onto Xiahou Ying.) Having arrived at Gaoyang, Liu Bang obtained Lih Yiji, a scholar, as his adviser. Liu Bang took over Chenliu and its warehouse as a result of Lih Yiji's lobbying with the Chenliu county mgistrate. In the Yangtz Delta, Xiang Liang and his nephew, Xiang Yu, killed governor Yin Tong of the Kuaiji Commandary. They assembled an army of 8000 men, the later so-called 'brother-soldiers from east of the Yangtze River'. (In the ancient times, the Wu-Yue people around the Yangtze Delta were famous for carrying the swords and their belligerency, similar to the Japanese samurai.)
 
Zhou Shi attacked the ex-Wei city of Dicheng. In October, an ex-Qi royal descendant, Tian Dan, killed the county magistrate for Di-cheng, rose up with brothers Tian Rong and Tian Heng, and declared himself King of the Qi Principality. Tian Dan went on to drive Zhou Shi away. Zhou Shi, rejecting a request from his soldiers to be a king, sought from Chen Sheng (the Zhang-Chu King) an ex-Wei royal descendant, Prince Jiu, as King of the Wei Principality. Wu Chen's general, Han Guang, declared himself King of the Yan Principality after defeating the Qin armies in the ex-Yan territories. By this time, the Chu-Zhao-Qi-Wei-Yan statelets were restored.
 
After Li Liang took over Changshan of today's Shanxi, King Zhao, i.e., Wu Chen, ordered his general to attack west against Taiyuan of today's Shanxi. The Qin armies played a trick of dissension. Li Liang killed Zhao King (Wu Chen). What was said was that Li Liang retreated east after getting no reinforcements from Wu Chen; Li Liang, while travelling towards Handan, was outraged by Wu Chen's sister whom he mistook as the Zhao king; and after killing Wu Chen's sister, Li Liang went back to Handan to kill Wu Chen. Zhang Er & Chen Yu located an ex-Zhao royal descendant, Zhao Xie, and made him the new King of the Zhao Principality at Xindu (Xingtai, Hebei). Li Liang, after being defeated by the new Zhao king, surrendered to Qin General Zhang Han. Qin General Zhang Han had earlier defeated the western expedition led by Zhou Wen. Three months later, Zhou Wen first retreated to Caoyang (Lingbao) and then to Mianchi where he committed suicide after a defeat. Proxy King Wu Guang was still encircling Xingyang at this time, but he refused to listen to opinions from two of his generals. Wu Guang failed to breach Xingyang which was defended by Li You. Li You, the Qin 'sanchuan shou' prefecture magistrate for three rivers, was Li Si's son. Hearing of Zhou Wen's defeat, the two generals under Wu Guang killed Wu Guang with a pretext of an order from King Chen Sheng. Soon, the two generals (Tian Zang and Li Gui) were defeated at Aocang by Qin General Zhang Han and got killed. After defeating Deng Shui and Wu Feng, Qin General Zhang Han went on to attack Chen Sheng. In December of 209 B.C., Zhang Han attacked Chen-di (Huaiyang, Henan). Cai Ci, who was Chen Sheng's 'shang-zhu-guo' minister, was killed. Near Xingyang, Chen Sheng was killed at Xiachengfu (Woyang, Anhui) by his driver, Zhuang Jia, after being a king for 6 months. Zhuang Jia surrendered to the Qin army. Chen Sheng's general, L Chen, counter-attacked Chenxian, killed Zhuang Jia, and buried Chen Sheng on Mount Dangshan. (Later, Han Emperor Liu Bang would order 30 families to guard Chen Sheng's tomb, and Chen Sheng, with the posthumous title of King Yin-wang [the king who lost luster], was treated as the 'father of revolution'.)
 
After the death of Chen Sheng in 208 B.C., someone called Qin Jia, who declared himself 'da sima' at Pengcheng, located an ex-Chu royal descendant, Jing Ju, and make him King of Chu. Qin Jia sent emissary Gongsun Qing to inviting Tian Dan, the self-proclaimed Qi king, for a joint military action against Qin, which Tian Dan declined. Tian Dan did not agree with the erection of the proxy Chu king, i.e., Jing Ju, who was of the Jing clan of the Chu's Mi royal house. L Chen met a rebel called Qiong Bu (Ying Bu). Together, they retook Chenxian County from the Qin armies. Hearing that Xiang Liang & Xiang Yu had crossed the Yantze River, Qiong Bu went to join their camp. The Xiang army, numbering 8000, was cheated across the Yangtze by a Zhang-Chu general who issued an order in the name of dead King Chen Sheng. Chen Ying, an ex-Qin clerk of Dongyang County, combined forces with Xiang Liang. Together with Chen Ying & Qiong Bu, the Xiang army swelled to 40-50,000 men. Another rebel, by the name of General Pu(3), led 10-20,000 people to the Xiang camp. The Xiang armies went on to route the new Chu king at Pengcheng. Xiang Liang claimed that Qin Jia had made Jing Ju a Chu king without knowing whether Chen Cheng, i.e., King of Zhang Chu, was alive or dead. In April, Xiang Liang defeated Qin Jia, chased to Huling, and killed Qin Jia. Xiang Liang entered the Xue-di land over 100,000 troops. Jing Ju fled to the Liang-di land where he was killed. The Xiang army then had a first battle with the Qin army, but Xiang Liang was defeated by Zhang Han. Xiang Liang then attacked Xiecheng. At this time, Liu Bang, together with Zhang Liang whom he met en route, came to Xiang Liang to borrow soldiers. Xiang Liang invited Liu Bang to a meeting for selection of a new Chu king. An old man called Fan Zeng recommended finding an ex-Chu royal for the post. The grandson of Chu King Huaiwang, a shepherd at the time, was enthroned and he was entitled Chu King Huaiwang. Zhang Liang proposed to Xiang Liang for restoration of the Haan Principality. Zhang Liang located an ex-Haan royal called Cheng and restored the Haan(2) Principality.
 
Qin General Zhang Han attacked the rebels in the Wei Principality. In June, Zhang Han encircled King Wei-wang (Prince Jiu) at Linji. The Qi-Chu joint armies went to the relief. Zhang Han killed Qi's King (Tian Dan) as well as Wei General Zhou Shi. Tian Rong fled to Dong'a. The Wei King (Prince Jiu) commited suicide. Zhang Han went on to attack a Qi city which was guarded by Tian Rong. Xiang Liang stopped Zhang Han from attacking Tian Rong at Dong'a. The Xiang armies helped Tian Rong in defeating the Qin armies. But Tian Rong would not follow Xiang Yu in pursuit of the Qin armies. Xiang Yu further rescued Jiu's brother, Prince Bao. The Qi people enthroned Tian Jia, the brother of pre-Qin-era ex-Qi King Jian, as the new king. Tian Dan's brother, Tian Rong, did not obey to the new Qi king. The Tian Dan family enthroned the son of the dead Qi King (Tian Dan) as another new Qi king. Tian Rong did not join the Chu army as a result of Chu and Zhao harboring the asylum seekers Tian Jia, and Tian Jiao and Tian Jian.
 
In 208 B.C., Xiang Liang's army went on to take over the Dingtao City and killed Qin General Li You (son of dead Qin prime minister Li Tsu). In an ensuing battle, in September of 208 B.C., Xiang Liang, without taking Soong Yi's advice, was defeated by Zhang Han and got killed at the Battle of Dingtao. Zhang Han then crossed the Yellow River to combined forces with Wang Li to attack the Zhao territory. Hence, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang retreated towards the south and moved Chu King Huaiwang to Pengcheng from Xuyi. Hearing that Qin general Zhang Han and 400,000 Qin army went northward to attack the Zhao territories, King Huaiwang sent Prince of Wei, Bao, to retake the Wei territories. King Huaiwang decreed that whoever entered the Qin capital first would be conferred the title of King of the Qin Principality. Both Liu Bang and Xiang Yu requested for the task to attack Qin.
 
Zhao King Xie, being attacked by Qin General Zhang Han, requested for relief. Hence, Xiang Yu, with about 60,000 troops, was eager to go to the Zhao territories to fight Zhang Han for sake of avenging his uncle's death. Emperor Huaidi issued order to have Xiang Yu, Soong Yi and Fan Zeng to render aid to the Julu Siege. Liu Bang, with less than 10,000 troops, campaigned towards the Qin capital. Liu Bang failed to take Changyi (Heze/Juye/Jining, Shandong), even with Peng Yue's help. Using Lih Yiji's proposal, Liu Bang went on to take Chenliu instead.
 
The Demise of Qin
In the land of the Zhao Principality, Zhang Er, Zhao's prime minister, was unhappy that his blood-brother pal (Chen Yu) did not send enough relief army to him. The two would become feuds after the war. In December of 207 B.C., Chen Yu deserted the Zhao Principality for the mountains. Zhang Er's son, Zhang Ao, came to Julu to aid the Zhao Principality. Soong Yi had dispute with Xiang Yu about the battle plan, and stayed put at An-yang (Caoxian, Shandong) for 46 days. In 207, Xiang Yu killed Soong Yi and took over the command of the Chu army. Xiang Yu crossed the river to attack the Qin army which was encircling Juye. Once General Xiang Yu arrived in Julu, the allied armies began to battle with the Qin armies. Xiang Yu ordered Ying Bu to cut off the grain supply of the Qin army. Zhang Gan dispatched Sima Xin [a Qin deputy prison official at Liyang County] to seeking the grain supply. Xiang Yu took over Sanhujin [three household crossing], and cut off Zhang Gan's return path. After nine battles, including the Battles of Zhang-shui and Wu-shui Rivers, Qin General Wang Li was captured, and his deputy Sheh Jian committed suicide, and another deputy Su Jiao was killed in battle. Qin General Zhang Han and his 200,000 army surrendered to Xiang Yu after the mediation of Sima Xin. Sima Xin had once rescued Xiang Liang from Qin's prison dozens of years ago. In November, Xiang Yu, on the way westward, killed the 200 thousand Qin prisoners of war.
 
Liu Bang was able to take over Qin's capital in October because General Xiang Yu had entangled the major Qin armies in the Zhao Principality. Earlier, on the road, Liu Bang was joined by Peng Yue and his thousands of rebels. An old Confucian called Li Yiji came to serve Liu Bang. Li Yiji helped Liu Bang in taking over the crossroad town of Chenliu by lobbying with the county magistrate. Li Yiji's brother (Lih Shang) led 4000 men to attack Kaifeng. Zhang Liang came to join Liu Bang at this time. Hearing that Zhao General Sima Mao had crossed the Yellow River to attack Qin. Liu Bang hastened his war efforts for sake of being the first to enter the Qin capital. Liu Bang went south to attack Luoyang first. Using Zhang Liang's tactic, Liu Bang defeated Qin General Yang Xiong and took over Baima (white horse). Liu Bang's army subsequently took over Nanyang of today's Henan Province.
 
Qin Prime Minister, Zhao Gao, attempted to negotiate a peace with Liu Bang's Chu army. Zhao Gao sent an emissary to seeing Liu Bang. Liu Bang declined the request to divide the Qin land into two parts. Liu Bang, knowing that it was a trick, took Zhang Liang's advice and dispatched Lih Yiji (Lih Sheng, ? - 203 B.C., who was conferred the title of Prince Guangye-jun by Liu Bang) and Lu Jia to the Qin camp for dissuasion and dissension. Then, in August, Liu Bang went westward, taking over the Wuguan Pass(Danfeng of today's Shenxi Province). Liu Bang's army hence stealthily took over the Wuguan Pass without a battle. Liu Bang's army defeated the Qin army at Lantian. In August of 207 B.C., Zhao Gao, killed the second emperor, Hu Hai, in an attempt to negotiate peace with rebel Liu Bang. Prince Zi Ying succeeded as the third emperor. In September, Zi Ying killed eunuch Zhao Gao with the help of two sons. In November, Liu Bang's army pushed to Ba-shang, i.e., the Upper Ba-shui River, next to the Qin capital. Zi Ying surrendered to Liu Bang after being on the throne for 46 days. Liu Bang was able to take over Qin's capital because General Xiang Yu had entangled the major Qin armies in the former Zhao Principality territories. Xiang Yu subsequently entered Qin's capital, Xian'yang, and killed Qin's last emperor, Zi Ying and the Qin's royal family members.
 
When General Xiang Yu arrived at the Han'gu'guan Pass, he met with Liu Bang's soldiers who refused to allow him to enter Qin's land. Xiang Yu, with soldiers four times more than Liu Bang, ordered Ying Bu (Qiong Bu) to attack the Han'guguan pass. Liu Bang, using the tips from Zhang Liang, bribed Xiang Yu's uncle, Xiang Bo, for reconciliation. There was a banquet called the Hongmen (Xinfen) Banquet from which Liu Bang slipped away alive. Xiang Yu entered Qin's capital, Xian'yang, and killed Qin's last emperor (Zi Ying) and Qin's royal family members. After pillaging Qin's "Er Pang Gong Palace" which ran for 300 Chinese li distance, Xiang Yu ordered that the palace be burnt. The fire went on for three months. Xiang Yu sent soldiers to the Lishan Mountain to dig up Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's tomb as well. The lootings took one month to move to Xian'yang. In February of 206 B.C., Xiang Yu made Chu King Huaiwang into Emperor Yi-di (righteous emperor) and ordered that Emperor Yidi (Xiong Xin) leave Pengcheng for Bin (Binzhou, Hunan) to the south of the Yangtze so that he could come back to the Pengcheng city. Meantime, Xiang Yu ordered the King of Qiujiang (Ying Bu) to send assassins to killing Chu Emepror Yidi [righteous emperor]. Wu Rui (King Hengshan-wang), Ying Bu (King Jiujiang-wang) and Gong Ao (King Linjiang-wang) were implicated in the killing of the emperor in Bin. Thereafter, in March, Xiang Yu proclaimed himself the King of Xichu Ba Wang, namely, i.e., hegemony king of the Western Chu Principality, with control of nine commandaries. General Xiang Yu rezoned the country into the following eighteen vassalage states:

    King of Han for Liu Bang, with domains covering today's Sichuan Province and Hanzong (the land between today's Sichuan and Shaanxi);
    King of Yong for Zhang Han, with domains covering west of the ex-Qin capital, Xianyang;
    King of Sai for Sima Xin, with domain covering the areas between east of Xianyang and the Yellow River;
    King of Di for Dong Yi, with domain covering Shangjun;
    King of Xiwei (Western Wei) for King Bao of Wei, with domain moved to the east of Yellow River;
    King of Henan for Shen Yang, with domain covering Luoyang city, today's Henan Province;
    King of Haan for King Cheng of Haan, with domain at the Yangdi city;
    King of Yin for Sima Mao, with domain inside of the Yellow River Bend;
    King of Dai for King Xie of Zhao, with domain around the Dai Prefecture;
    King of Changshan for Zhao Er, with domain at the ex-Zhao Principality;
    King of Qiujiang for Qiong Bu, with domain around Dangyang;
    King of Hengshan for Wu Rui, with domain in the middle Yangtze River areas;
    King of Linjiang for Gong Ao, with domain covering Jiangling, today's Hubei Province;
    King of Liaodong (today's eastern Liaoning Province) for King Han Guang of the Yan Principality, with domain moved to today's southern Manchuria;
    King of Yan for Zang Tu, with domain covering today's Beijing, Hebei Province;
    King of Jiaodong for King Tian Shi of the Qi Principality, with domain relocated to today's eastern Shandong Province;
    King of Qi for Tian Du, with domain covering the ex-Qi principality;
    King of Jibei for Tian An, with domain covering today's northern Shandong Province.
The Chu-Han Wars
Liu Bang's Han Dynasty would come from the title as King of Han(4). Liu Bang was allowed thirty thousand troops to take to the Han-zhong territory. Using Zhang Liang's tactic, Liu Bang ordered the cliff road be burnt while relocating to Nanzheng. General Xiang Yu, after pillaging the Qin capital, left for Pengcheng. On the way, Xiang Yu took the King of Haan(2), Haan Cheng (Prince Hengyang-jun of the Haan Principality), into custody for his allowing Zhang Liang to escort Liu Bang westward. Haan Cheng, who did not received the conferral of land, was given the title of Marquis Rang-hou. The King of Yan, Haan Guang, refused to relocate to today's eastern Liaoning Province. King Zang Tu, who received the king conferral from Xiang Yu, expelled Haan Guang and chased him to death at the Wuzhongshan Mountain. Zang Tu took ver both the Yan land and the Liao-dong [east of the Liao-he River] land. Xiang Yu conferred Zang Tu the Liaoning land as well.
 
Tian Rong was not given any conferral from Xiang Yu for his refusal to join the allied army against the Qin capital, and hence was to see his doman subdivided into three parts. The King of Jiaodong, Tian Shi, was killed by his general Tian Rong. Tian Rong sent an army to defeat the King of Qi, Tian Du. Tian Rong further killed the King of Jibei, Tian An, and declared himself King of the Three Qi Lands ('San Qi').
 
Chen Yu, who received three couties near Nanpi from Xiang Yu, came out of seclusion at Nanpi (Cangzhou, Hebei), sent emissary Xia Shui to Qi, and requested for aid from Tian Rong in attacking the King of Changshan, Zhao Er, his one time blood brother. Tian Rong gave some soldiers to Chen Yu. Chen Yu welcomed the King of Dai (previously King Xie of Zhao) back to Zhao as the king, and King Xie conferred Chen Yu the kingship of Dai. Tian Rong also conferred the seal of a general on Peng Yue and ordered Peng Yue to attack the Liang (Wei) places. Peng Yue, who did not participate in the campaign to the west, did not enjoy the conferral from Xiang Yu, either.
 
Xiang Yu ordered a campaign against Peng Yue. Liu Bang delivered a letter to Xiang Yu, with a promise not to go beyond the Han'gu'guan Pass. Liu Bang passed the Qi and Liang rebels' letters to Xiang Yu, with a claim that Qi and Zhao had collusion to rebel against Chu. Xiang Yu hence decided to attack Qi first. Thinking that Peng Yue received the backing from Tian Rong of Qi, he would concentrate on fighting the Qi armies first. Xiang Yu ordered Ying Bu to send the Jiujiang troops northward to assist with the campaign against Qi. However, Ying Bu refused to obey the order. Peng Yue, who possessed over ten thousand troops, defeated Xiang Yu's Chu army which was headed by Xiao-gong-jiao (Xiao-ling per Su Lin, i.e., the county magistrate for Xiao). Xiang Yu defeated Tian Rong at Chengyang, driving the latter to Pingyuan where he was killed.
 
Liu Bang, at Xiao Heh's recommendation, first used Haan Xin as 'zhi-li [grain management] duwei [captain], and when Haan Xin fled again, Xiao Heh chased him and persuaded him to return to work as 'Da Jiangjun', i.e., the grand marshal, for Liu Bang. Haan Xin was earlier let go from the death penalty by Teng-gong Xiahou Ying (Marquis Zhaoping-hou) after he broke the military law. Before that, Haan Xin joined the Xiang Liang rebellion while living in the lower Yangtze area, and disliking the job as 'chiji [halberd holding] langzhong [officer]', fled the Chu army camp for the Hanzhong territory. Haan Xin, pretending that the Han(4) armies were busy repairing the so-called 'zhan dao', wood and bamboo roads carved in the middle of the cliffs, had the Han army circumvent to Nanzheng. (The 'zhan dao' road was burnt by Zhang Liang earlier to show to Xiang Yu that Liu Bang had no ambition for the east.) Haan Xin would soon arrive at Chencang. In August of 206 B.C., the Han army was impeded at Chencang. The Yong army lined up along the Wei-shang [upper Wei-shui River] area. Zhao Yan, i.e., Marquis Xuchang-hou, suggested to Liu Bang to take an alternative route. At Haochou (Qianxian/Qianzhou), the Han army defeated the King of Yong, Zhang Han. The Han army, under Zhou Bo, further laid siege of Zhang Han at Feiqiu. Within one month, King of Sai (Sima Xin) and King of Di (Dong Yi) both surrendered, and Liu Bang retook the old Three Qin Lands ('San Qin'). Then, Liu Bang dispatched Lih Shang on a campaign against the Longxi, Shangjun and Beidi commandaries. Later, in June of 205 B.C., Zhang Han committed suicide after the han army launched a water-flooding attack at Feiqiu.
 
In September of 206 B.C., Liu Bang dispatched a column, headed by Xue Ou, Wang Xi and Wang Ling, out of the Wuguan Pass for fetching his father (Liu-tai-gong) and wife (Lv Zhi) from Peixian. In 205 B.C., the contingent was stopped by Xiang Yu's army.
 
Upon hearing that Liu Bang had exited the Han-zhong territory, Xiang Yu killed King Cheng of Haan(2) at Pengcheng shortly thereafter. Xiang Yu ordered that Zheng Chang, the former 'ling' (magistrate) for Wu-xian County, be the new King of Haan(2) for sake of countering Liu Bang's Han(4) armies. In October of 206 B.C., Liu Bang's army reached Shen (Shenxian, Henan). Liu Bang dispatched Haan-wang-xin (?-196 B.C.), an ex-Haan(2) royal who descended from Haan King Xiangwang, to the old Haan(2) land as "Haan-guo [the Haan Principality] tai-wei [grand captain {or lieutenant general}]' and promised to make him the new King of Haan(2) once he was to take over the territory. Liu Bang conferred Marquis Chengxin-hou onto Zhang Liang.
 
In March of 205 B.C., Liu Bang defeated Shen Yang, i.e., King He-nan (south of the Yellow River). In 205 B.C., with Liu Bang's army pushing to Henan (south of the Yellow River), the King of Haan(2), Haan-wang-xin, defeated Zheng Chang. In November, Liu Bang officially made Haan-wang-xin the King of Haan(2). The King of Henan (Shen Yang) surrendered to Liu Bang. Liu Bang devised the 'three elderly' system for each county he occupied. The King of Wei, Bao, answered Liu Bang's decree. After pacifying today's Shenxi Province, Liu Bang crossed the Yellow River at the Linjin-guan Pass and arrived at the He-rui land. The King of Yin (Sima Mao), after defeat, fled to his capital city, Chaoge. Liu Bang dispatched Fan Kuai against Chaoge. At Chaoge, Han2 Xin tricked Sima Mao out of the city by pretending a retreat and then ordered that Fan Kuai, Guan Ying and Zhou Bo to ambush Sima Mao. Sima Mao was captured, and he surrendered to Liu Bang.
 
Liu Bang's army then crossed the Yellow River for the south, and reached Luoyang, where he heard of the death of Emperor Yi-di. Upon arriving at Luoyang of today's Henan Province, Liu Bang met an elderly called Dong-gong who proposed that Liu Bang uphold the slogan that his army was to fight Xiang Yu on behalf of Chu Emperor Yidi who was assassinated by Xiang Yu. Liu Bang ordered his army to mourn Yidi for three days and sent decrees across the nation.
 
In today's Shandong Province, Xiang Yu defeated Tian Rong. Tian Rong fled his capital Chengyang for Pingyuan where he was killed by the civilians. Xiang Yu erected Tian Jia as the new king of Qi. The Qi people located Tian Heng (Tian Rong's brother) as their king, drove off Tian Jia and re-took Chengyang.
 
A Chu du wei, Chen Ping, who received Xiang Yu's conferral as Prince Xinwu-jun for cracking down on King Yin-wang, fled to the Han camp [over fear that Xiang Yu would punish him for Liu Bang's taking King Yin's land] and was recommended to Liu Bang by General Wei Wuzhi. Chen Ping first answered Chen Sheng's rebellion and then joined the ranks of Xiang Yu before coming to Liu Bang's camp. Chen Ping proposed that Liu Bang should lead a surprise attack at Pengcheng by taking advantage of Xiang Yu's entanglement in today's Shandong Province. Chen Ping was conferred the post of hujun zhongwei, i.e., captain or 'brigadier general' for pacifying the army.
 
More kings answered Liu Bang's call. King of Zhao followed. Altogether, five vassalage kings' armies obeyed Liu Bang. Liu Bang assembled an army of 500-600,000, comprising of soldiers from the Sai, Di, Haan, Wei, Yin, Zhao and Henan principalities. At Waihuang (Lankao), the Han army defeated Chu General Cheng Chu and Wang Wu. Peng Yue, with 30,000 troops, sought vassalage with Liu Bang. When Peng Yue reported that he had defeated the Chu army, Liu Bang appointed Peng Yue the post of prime minister (Wei-xiangguo) for the King of Wei. Peng Yue was ordered to attack the Liang-guo territory. Fan Kuai was ordered to attack Zouxian, Luxian, Xuexian and Xiaqiu. Lv Ze was ordered to guard Xiayi for guarding against Xiang Yu's possible relief to Pengcheng. Xiang Yu, who had killed Tian Rong, failed to pacify the Qi territory. In April of 205 B.C., Liu Bang's 560,000-strong allied army, plus Lu Ze's column from the east and Cao Can and Guan Ying's column from the north, converged on Pengcheng from three direction, took over Dangxian and Xiaoxian, and then sacked Pengcheng, i.e., Xiang Yu's capital city, without much fight.
 
The Chu Army remnants fled to Chengyang to report to Xiang Yu. From Qufu, Xiang Yu personally led 30,000 cavalrymen back towards Pengcheng via Huling (Ji'nan, Shandong) and Xiaoxian. At daybreak, Xiang Yu attacked the Han army, and defeated the Han army at noon. Xiang Yu drove Liu Bang out of Pengcheng, chasing to the Gu-shui and Si-shui River. Altogether over 100,000 Han army were destroyed by Xiang Yu, and another 300-400,000 fled the battle scene. The Chu army continued on against the Han army. The Chu army chased the Han army to the Sui-shui River (to the east of Lingbi), where another 100,000 Han army troops were drowned in the river. While Xiang Yu won the Battle of Peng Cheng, Tian Heng wrestled over the control of the Qi land.
 
Liu Bang barely escaped after begging two Chu generals for mercy. Liu Bang's family members at Fengxiang were captured by Xiang Yu. While passing through a village, Liu Bang met an old man by the name of Qie who married his daughter to Liu Bang. (Concubine Qie would be tortured to death by Empress Lhou later.) Liu Bang converged with his General Xiahou Ying, and the two met two of Liu Bang's children (Liu Ying and Princess Lu-yuan) en route. When being chased by Chu General Ji Bu, Liu Bang tried to rid his children of the chariot multiple times. Xiahou Ying rescued the two children and carried them back several times, and rescued the children on his horseback. Ji Bu was a native of Xiaxiang (Suqian, Jiangsu), about the area as General Xiang Yu. King Yin, i.e., Sima Mao, died in this battle; King Sai (Sima Xin) and King Di (Dong Yi) surrendered to Xiang Yu. King Zhao et als fled home. Liu Bang's father, Liu-tai-gong, mother Liu-wen and wife Lv-zhi, were captured by Xiang Yu. At Xiayi, Liu Bang re-assembled his remnant troops. Liu Bang converged with the army led by L Ze, the brother of empress Lhou.
 
Zhang Liang proposed that Liu Bang was to confer the lands east of the Han'gu'guan Pass onto General Haan Xin, General Peng Yue and Chu General Ying Bu for sake of fighting Xiang Yu. An emissary was sent to seeing Peng Yue. At Yu (Yucheng, Henan), Liu Bang dispatched emissary Sui Heh to Jiujiang for seeking an alliance with Ying Bu. At Qiujiang, Han emissary Sui Heh successfully persuaded Ying Bu into an alliance with Liu Bang against Xiang Yu. Ying Bu, after being defeated by Xiang Sheng and Long Qie, followed Sui Heh in a move to Xingyang in the north. Liu Bang rendered aid to Ying Bu at Wanxian (Nanyang) and Yexian. The Chu army hence took over the Jiujiang territory. Ying Bu then mounted the guerrilla warefare against the Chu army.
 
Xiao He, whose homeland army just completed the Feiqiu campaign, led reinforcements, including the elderly and young people, to the east. Liu Bang relocated to Xingyang for re-organization in May of 205 B.C. Haan Xin led the remnant army to Xingyang at the time Xiao He dispatched the homeland soldiers to the aid of Liu Bang. The move to Xingyang was a proposal from Lih Yiji, which was to take control of the Qin dynasty's Aocang Grain Barn and the Yellow River dock, to the northeast of Xingyang. The Han army built a corridor to the Aocang barn. Haan Xin took charge of the Han army and defeated the Chu army at Xingyang, Nan-jing (Jingxian) and Suocheng (Jingsuo). At Jingxian (Yulong-zhen, Xingyang, Zhengzhou, Henan) and Suoting (Xingyang, Henan), Haan Xin and Xiao He's joint army defeated the Chu army [which was chasing behind] at the Balle of Jingsuo.
 
Returning to Liyang (Lintong) in June, Liu Bang conferred the title of crown prince on his five year old son, Liu Ying, and ordered that Xiao He and the crown prince guard the homeland inside of the Han'gu'guan Pass. Xiang Yu arrested the mother of a Han general called Wang Ling; Wang Ling's mother committed suicide for sake of having his son serve under Liu Bang instead of surrendering to Xiang Yu.
 
King Wei, Bao, requested for going home on the pretext that his mother was ill; Liu Bang released Bao; Bao then defected to the Xiang Yu camp and rebelled against Liu Bang upon return to Pingyang. Wei Bao refused to listen to Lih Yiji's persuasion, and blockaded Puban (Puzhou, Shanxi). Liu Bang dispatched Haan Xin against King Wei Bao. In August of 205 B.C., Haan Xin and Can Can attacked Wei. Haan Xin further frustrated Xiang Yu's attempt at crossing the Yellow River to aid Wei Bao. Haan Xin deliberately prepared ships at Linjin to attract the attention of the Wei army, while he secretly made the wooden cauldron, crossed the river at Xiayang and defeated the Wei army at Dongzhang. Cao Can, as deputy leftside prime minister, crossed the river at Pujinguan to defeat Sun Chi's Wei army at Linjin. A Han General under Haan Xin, Cao Can, defeated Wei General Wang Xiang and took over the city of Anyi. At Quyang, Haan Xin and Cao Can defeated Wei Bao at Quyang. The Han army captured Wei King Bao at Wuyuan. The Han army went to take over the Wei capital of Pingyang. Wei Bao's family was sent to Liu Bang, and Liu Bang took over Bao's concubine (Bo-shi) as his own and bore Liu Heng (i.e., later Han Emperor Wendi). Liu Bang set up the three commandaries of Hedong, Taiyuan and Shangdang in the Wei-di [Wei State] land. Cao Can was given Pingyang as his fief. (Wei Bao was said to have rebelled against Liu Bang because an necromancer stated to Bao and wife Bo-shi that Bo-shi's son would be an emperor in the future.)
 
Haan Xin requested for 30,000 men for sake of fighting the Zhao principality. Haan intended to take over Zhao, Yan and Qi one by one before fighting against Xiang Yu. At Pingyang, Haan Xin was joined by Zhang Er. Chen Yu, prime minister for Zhao, rebelled against Haan Xin because he heard that his feud Zhang Er (an one time blood brother) was serving Haan.
 
Before tackling Zhao, Haan Xin went on to attack Dai, the land that was conferred onto Chen Yu. Three columns of army led by Cao Can, Guan Ying and Zhang Er defeated the Dai prime minister and took over the Dai-cheng city. In September, the Han army defeated Dai, and captured Dai prime minister Xia Shui at Eyu. Cao Can was recalled by Liu Bang. The Han army further attacked to the east, and in October of 205 B.C., took over Herui (Huaixian), Chaoge (Qixian), Anyang, and Handan.
 
In October of 204 B.C. (Qin calendar), Haan Xin recruited more soldiers locally and then went to fight the Zhao army of 200,000 at the Jingjingkou Pass. A Zhao counsellor, Li Zuoche, proposed to lead an army of 30,000 to cut off the Han army's grain supply. Chen Yu failed to adopt the advice. The road to the Jingjingkou Pass was said to be so narrow that only one chariot could pass at one time. Haan Xin secretly ordered that qi duwei [cavalry captain or 'brigadier general'] Jin Xi circumvent to the back of the pass, that zuo qi jiang Fu Kuan and Zhang Cang (tai shou of Changshan) set up an ambush near the front of the pass, and a column of the Han army stand against the bank of a river. In the early morning, Haan Xin told soldiers that they could have breakfast after finishing off the Zhao army. When the Zhao army came out of the pass to fight Haan Xin, Haan Xin pretended to flee towards the river. For the whole morning, the two armies fought bitterly near the river bank. Meantime, the Han army sent 2000 cavalry to taking over the Zhao army camp. When Chen Yu called for a retreat, he was ambushed by Fu Kuan and Zhang Cang near the pass. Chen Yu (Prince Cheng'an-jun) was defeated and killed by the Han army at the Zhi-shui-shang. Jin Xi took over the pass. King Zhao Xie fled to Xiangguo. Zhang Er and Haan Xin attacked Xiangguo from north, while Liu Bang attacked from the south. Haan Xin ordered that the Zhao King be executed. Xie, i.e., the King of Zhao, was killed.
 
Zhou Bo and Zhao Ou were to continue the campaign against the Hengshan, and Julu commandaries as well as the Yan-guo state. Haan Xin gave a 1000 grams of copper reward to have Li Zuoche captured. Haan Xin personally set free Li Zuoche and pacified him. Li Zuoche proposed to Haan Xin that he should send a messenger to Yan for pacifying King Yan (i.e., Zang Tu) instead of driving the weakened Han army soldiers to the Yan land and that after that, the Han army could then go to the east to fight the Qi Principality. The King of Yan, i.e., Zang Tu, surrendered to Haan Xin. At Wucheng, Tang Li's Han army also defeated the Chu relief army to Zhao.
 
At the suggestion of Haan Xin, Liu Bang in December of 204 B.C. made Zhang Er into the Zhao king and allowed Haan Xin to stay on in the Zhao land to quell the remnant King Xie's forces. Liu Bang, after making Zhang Er into the new Zhao king, then ordered Haan Xin to fight Qi. Meanwhile, after the Han army was to pacify the Yan-Zhao land, Lih Yiji tacked on the task of going to Qi-guo for winning over King Qi-wang (Tian Guang).
 
Around Xingyang, Xiang Yu's army disrupted the grain corridor to Aocang several times. In October, Ying Bu came to Xingyang to assist with the city defense. In April of 204 B.C., the Chu army fully surrounded Xingyang. Liu Bang pretended to seek peace with an offer of yielding the land to the east of Xingyang. Liu Bang played a trick of dissension by having Chen Ping bribe Xiang Yu's subordinates with 40,000 grams of 'jin' [copper]. Xiang Yu's tactician, Fan Zeng, whom Xiang Yu called by 'ya fu' [secondary father], resigned. Fan Zeng died en route to Pengcheng. In July, through the Nv-zi-dong-men Gate, Liu Bang broke out of the starved Xingyang with 2000 men. Being encicled by the Chu army, Liu Bang adopted Ji Xin's advice to have Ji Xin fake a surrender in his image while Liu Bang himself, Chen Ping and about ten cavalrymen, fled via the west gate. Liu Bang earlier had decreed to leave Zhou Ke, Cong-gong (? magistrate for Cong or an elderly from Cong) and Wei Bao for the defense of Xingyang. In August, Zhou Ke and Cong-gong killed Wei Bao for fearing the latter's possible defection. Liu Bang returned to the west of the Han'gu'guan Pass via Chengao (i.e., Hulaoguan). Xiang Yu ordered to burn Ji Xin to death. The Chu army continued to lay siege of Xingyang and took over Chengao.
 
Liu Bang was dissuaded by Yuan Sheng from attacking east with the new recuits. To break the impasse at Xingyang, Liu Bang marched south by exiting the Wuguan Pass for Wan (Nanyang) and Ye (Yexian). Xiang Yu hence led part of the troops to counter Liu Bang. However, Liu Bang refused to engage in battles. Liu Bang ordered Jin Sheh to cut off the Chu army's grain path from Xiangyi to Xingyang, and Guan Ying to cut off the path from Yangwu to Xiangyi. The Han army was to attack Lu-xia (Lucheng) at the hind of the Chu army. Jin Sheh took over Zeng1, Dan, Xiapi (Gupizhen, Suining, Jiangsu), Qi and Zhuyi. Peng Yue raided the Chu army towards the east, crossed the Sui-shui River, defeated Xiang Sheng and Xue-gong (Gao2, ? county magistrate for Xue or an elderly from Xue), and took over Xiapi to pose threat to Pengcheng.
 
Xiang Yu diverted the troops for attacking Peng Yue to the east. Liu Bang took advantage of Xiang Yu's absence to recover Chengao. After defeating Peng Yue, Xiang Yu returned west. Back in Xingyang, Xiang Yu took over Xingyang, and captured Haan-wang-xin. Xiang Yu ordered to kill Zhou Ke via steaming. Cong-gong was also killed.
 
Xiang Yu, after sacking Xingyang, continued on to take Chengao, forcing Liu Bang into retreating across the Yellow River for Xiuwu to the north. Liu Bang and Teng-gong fled Chengao via the north gate (i.e., the jade gate). Zhou Bo, Cheng Hei and Guo Meng were ordered to defend Aocang. While defending the northern riverbank, Liu Bang ordered Zhang Er to go north to recruit troops and sent Haan Xin to attacking the Qi land in the east. In August, Lu Guan and Liu Jia were ordered to cross the river for Baimajin with 20,000 troops for harassing the Chu hinterland in cooperation with Peng Yue. Liu Bang and Guan Ying defeated Chu general Wang Wu at Yanxian, and defeated Chu general Huan Ying at Baimajin (white horse crossing on the southern bank of the Yellow River, Huaxian). The Chu army was impeded by the Han army at Gongxian. Zang Tu, the Yan king, dispatched Wen Jie and troops to aiding Liu Bang.
 
In September of 204 B.C., Xiang Yu went to the east upon learning that Peng Yue had sacked Suiyang (Shangqiu), and Waihuang (Lankao), about 17 cities. Xiang Yu left Cao Jiu, 'da sima' and Marquis Haichun-hou, who was a former Qin prison clerk, for the defense of Chengao, with a promise to return within fifteen days. Xiang Yu defeated Peng Yue and drove him to Gucheng. At the advice of Lih Yiji, Liu Bang mounted a counterattack to recover Xingyang and Chengao for solidifying the control of the grain barns. In October of 204 B.C., Lih Yiji himself travelled to Licheng of the Qi land for lobbying with the Qi king (Tian Guang), claiming that he could persuade the Qi king's 200,000 army to change camp with an offer of making the Qi king a vassal of the east ('dong fan'). Tian Guang defected to the Han camp. Lih Yiji, citing the control of the Baima-jin river-crossing and the Feihu-guan pass, believed that the war could be won after winning over the Qi king. However, Haan Xin, who was jealous of Yih Liji and heard that Liu Bang had lost Xingyang and Chengao, took Kuai Tong's advice to march the troops to Pingyuan to attack the Qi king. The Qi king, after the defeat at Lixia and Linzi, was angered into steam-killing Lih Yiji in November. Liu Bang had to send reinforcements to the Qi land to help Haan Xin against the Qi king. Guan Ying, Cao Can, Fu Kuan and Chai Wu assisted Haan Xin in fighting the Qi king.
 
The Qin king requested aid with Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu sent Long Qie and Zhou Lan, about 200,000 troops, towards the Qi-di [Qi state] land for countering Haan Xin. The Chu and Qi allied army was defeated by the Han army at the Wei[2]-shui River. In November, Guan Ying killed Chu general Long Qie. Guan Ying and Cao Can assisted Haan Xin in taking over Licheng and Linzi. Tian Guang relocated to Gaomi. After Tian Guang's death, Tian Heng proclaimed himself the Qi king. Guan Ying defeated Tian Heng at Yingxian. Tian Heng went to the Peng Yue's side. Later, in February of the following year, Haan Xin proclaimed the proxy King of Qi, i.e., Jia-Qi-wang, for which Liu Bang was unhappy initially but later conferred the true king's title onto Haan Xin. It was said that Kuai Che had made the proposal, for which Sima Qian blamed the death of both Lih Yiji and Haan Xin on him. Xiang Yu sent Wu She to instigating Haan Xin with an offer to divide the country into three parts. tactician Kuai Che advocated for Haan Xin to divide the country with Xiang Yu. Haan Xin declined it. Haan Xin later did not answer Liu Bang's call for the post-Honggou-Truce campaign against Xiang Yu, till the last stage of the war, i.e., the Battle of Gaixia.
 
Back at the Xingyang-Chengao front, the Han army played trick to get Cao Jiu come out of Chengao for fighting the Han army. In October, the Han army cursed Cao Jiu for five to six days to stir up agitation. While Cao Jiu half-crossed the Si-shui River, Liu Bang's Han army launched an attack. Cao Jiu (a former 'yu'[deputy] prison official for Q1 [Qichun, Hubei]), Sima Xin and Dong Yi all committed suicide. Liu Bang, stationing the army at Guangwu (north of Xingyang), laid sige of the Chu army at Xingyang, which was under the command of Zhongli Mo.
 
Xiang Yu heard of Cao Jiu's death when arriving at Suiyang. Xiang Yu, after recovering the cities in the Liang-di land, returned to the west to assist with Zhongli Mo for the defense of Xingyang. At Guangwu, the Han and Chu armies confronted each other.
 
Xiang Yu, after the loss of the Qi land, attempted to seek truce with Liu Bang with an offer to return Liu Bang's father and wife. At the Guangwu front, Xiang Yu wounded Liu Bang with an arrow shot after Liu Bang refused to take the offer. To the south, Ying Bu recovered some Jiujiang territory. In July of 203 B.C., Ying Bu was proclaimed the King of Huainan. Peng Yue continued to harass the Chu army.
 
Guan Ying mounted a campaign against Guangling (Yangzhou) through the Huai and Yangtze River area. Xiang Yu sent Xiang Sheng and Xue-gong against Guan Ying. Guan Ying defeated Xue-gong at Lu-bei [north of the Lu-di place]. Guan Ying went south to defeat Xue-jun-zhang [magistrate for the Xue-jun Commandary], and took over Boyang. Guan Ying crossed the Huai River to take over Guangling. Back to the north, Guan Ying defeated Xiang Sheng, Dan-gong and Xue-gong at Xiapi. Chu general Xue-gong was killed. Guan Ying further defeated the Chu cavalry at Pingyang (Zouxian/Zoucheng, Shandong) and took over Pengcheng. Chu general Xiang Tuo ('zhu guo' [pillar]) and Zhou Lan were captured successively.
 
Guan Ying and Liu Bang converged forces at Yixiang (Luyi, Henan). Liu Bang sent Lu Jia (? - 170 B.C.) to Xiang Yu for talks. Xiang Yu declined it. Liu Bang dispatched Hou-sheng to Xiang Yu for another talk. Xiang Yu then returned Liu Bang's family members and agreed to the Honggou [swan canal] Truce. Liu Bang conferred Hou-sheng the title of Prince Pingguo-jun. In September of 203 B.C., Xiang Yu retreated south. In October of 203 B.C., Liu Bang adopted Zhang Liang and Chen Ping's advice to break the truce agreement for a chase against the Chu army. In the subsequent battles of Yangxia, Guling and Chenxia, the Han army defeated Xiang Yu successively.
 
In October of 203 B.C., the Han army defeated the Chu army to the south of Yangxia (Taikang, Henan), and caught Chu General Zhou-jiangjun. At Guling, the Han army caught up with the Chu army. Meanwhile, Liu Jia obtained the defection of Chu 'da sima' Zhou Yin at Shouchun, and took over Jiujiang. With Guan Ying and Jin Sheh's cavalry arriving from Pengcheng, the Han army forced Xiang Yu into retreating to Chenxia. At Guling, Ding Yi (Marquis Xuanqu-hou) and Jin Qiang (Marquis Fenyang-hou) defeated Chu general Zhongli Mo. At Chenxia, Chu general Li Ji (Chen-gong, i.e., former county magistarte for Chenxian County) surrendered to the Han army. Chu general Ling Chang also surrendered. Li Ji was later killed for rebellion. The Han army chased Xiang Yu to Chenxian. To the south, Peng Yue took over the majority cities of the Chang-yi domain. From the south, Liu Jia stationed at Chengfu; Zhou Yin took over Luxian (Luhe, Anhui); and Yingbu cut off Xiang Yu's retreat path towards the south. Xiang Yu fled southeastward to Gaixia (Lingbi, Anhui) in the attempt at returning to the Kuaiji Commandary. Peng Yue and Haan Xin took their armies to Gaixia, respectively. In December of 'wuxu' year 203 B.C. (or the 4th Han year; or early January of 202 B.C. using the modern calendar) Xiang Yu, with about 100,000 troops, was defeated by the 600,000-strong Han army. Haan Xin, commanding 300,000 troops, acted as the frontal attack force, while Kong Ju led the leftside column and Chen Heh (General Fei-jiangjun) as the reserves. Haan Xin defeated the Chu army in a three-prong pincer attack, pressing Xiang Yu into the Gaixia city. Haan Xin adopted a tactic to have the Han soldiers sing the song of the Chu land to create an illusion that the Chu land was already taken by the Han army. At Gaixia, Chu General Ji Bu fled after a defeat; Chu general Heng Chu was killed; and Chu generals Zhongli Mo, Xiang Bo and Ding-gong (Ding Gu, a relative of Ji Bu) surrendered. Ji Bu was wanted for his head at thousand ounce of 'jin' {copper} but pardoned by Liu Bang after his friends, who hid him in Puyang and the Lu-di (Shandong peninsula) areas consecutively, lobbied with Xiahou Ying [who admonished the emperor of pardoning Ji Bu instead of pushing the former adversary to the Hunnic territory or the Southern Yue land.
 
Xiang Yu, after making his concubine Yu-ji commit suicide, fled to Wujiang with 800 cavalrymen. This is a scene of the Peking Opera 'ba-wang [hegemony king] bie [bidding farewell to] ji [concubine]'. After crossing the Huai River, Xiang Yu had over hundred men left. Guan Ying, with 5000 cavalry, chased behind Xiang Yu. At Dongcheng (Dingyuan, Anhui), Xiang Yu charged back at the chasers several times, with 26 cavalrymen left. Xiang Yu refused to take the advice of a local official, 'ting-zhang' of Wujiang (Hexian, Anhui), to step onto a boat. Xiang Yu ordered his cavalrymen to dismount to fight the chasers as infantry. All 26 cavalrymen died after killing over 500 chasers. Xiang Yu, seeing his former subordinate Lvma [SIma] Tong at the Han army side, claimed to give him a favor with offer of his head and committed suicide at Wu-jiang (Hexian, Anhui), saying that he had no face to see the elderly people to the east of the Yangtze River. Lvma Tong and four others were awarded the mqruisdom for cutting Xiang Yu into pieces as bounty for Liu Bang.
 
After the victory over Xiang Yu, Guan Ying crossed the Yangtze, defeated Wu-jun-zhang, i.e., magistrate for the Wu-jun Commandary), decapitated 80,000 defenders, and took over Wu-xia (Suzhou, Jiangsu). The Han army, under Lu Guan, Liu Jia and Jin Sheh, continued on to attack Linjiang. Gong Wei, i.e., King Linjiang-wang, was caught and later killed at Luoyang. The Chu army at Lu [where Xiang Ji enjoyed the conferral from King Huaiwang as Duke Lu-gong] refused to surrender till Xiang Yu's head was delivered there. In January of the following 'jihai' year (or early January of 202 B.C. using the modern calendar), Liu Bang was asked by the vassals to be emperor. Haan Xin (King Qi) was changed to be King of Chu, with the capital city at Xiapi (Suining, Jiangsu; the ancient Dan-guo territory of viscount Dan-zi); Peng Yue (Marquis Jiancheng-hou) was made into King Liang-wang, with the capital city at Dingtao; Haan-wang-xin was to be King Haan, with the capital city at Yangdi; Wu Rui (King Hengshan-wang) was moved to be King Changsha-wang, with the capital city at Linxiang; and Ying Bu (King Huainan-wang), Zang Tu (King Yan-wang) and Zhang Er (King Zhao-wang) remained at their domains. While travelling to the southern bank of the Si[4]-shui River in February, near today's Dingtao, all generals requested for Liu Bang to declare himself an emperor. Liu Bang(256-196 B.C.) declared himself emperor of the Han dynasty. Stopping at Luoyang, Liu Bang received a visit from Lou Jing. Lou Jing successfully persuaded the emperor into establishing the nation's capital at Chang'an, in lieu of Luoyang. The temporary capital was set at Li[4]yang, the former Qin capital city, before relocation to the rebuilt Chang'an city in Febbruary of 200 B.C.
 
 
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

 
 
Western Han Dynasty (Former Han Dynasty)
 
Han Emperor Gaozu continued the practice of General Xiang Yu by conferring the kingship to the non-Liu generals and ministers. For example, King Lu Wan of the Yan Principality, was one of the non-Liu kings. At one time, Lu Wan sent his general Zhang Sheng to Modu (a Hunnic king) in the attempt of stopping Modu from aiding Chen Xi. But, Zhang Sheng, incited by the son of ex-Yan king Zang Tu who had been seeking asylum with the Huns, had decided to go againt Lu Wan's will. King Lu Wan acquiesced when he thought to himself that the non-Liu kings had now been reduced to only two, himself and King of the Changsa Principality while Han Emperor Liu Bang had conferred 8 king titles onto his own kinsmen (6 being Liu Bang's own sons and 2 the sons of his two brothers). The 8 kings would be for Qi, Chu, Dai, Wu, Zhao, Liang, Huaiyang and Huainan. Han Emperor sent his general Fan Kuai to campaign against King Lu Wan when he heard of the Yan Principality's collusion with the Huns. The Han Emperor passed away shortly. King Lu Wan, hearing about the emperor's death, led his people northward and surrendered to Hinnic King Modu. King Lu Wan was conferred the title of 'Eastern Hun Ru King'. By that time, only one non-Liu king was in existence.
 
Among the non-Chinese statelets would be the Nan-yue or Nan Yue Statelet led by Zhao Tuo, an ex-Qin general. Here, the prefix 'Nan' means southern. Also in existence would be Min-yue Statelet and Dong-yue Statelet. Among the southern nomads, the Yelang Statelet, located in the southwestern mountains of today's Sichuan Province, was the biggest of all. Further to the west will be a statelet called Dian-yue, located in today's Yunnan Province. North of Dian-yue would be a statelet called Qiongdu. Half a dozen small statelets existed to the southwest of Sichuan Province at that time.
 
When the Huns raided northern China, first Han Emperor Liu Bang sent Xin, King of the Han(2) Principality, to resist the Huns. But Xin, after being encircled by 100-200 thousand Huns, decided to negotiate with the Huns for peace. Emperor Liu Bang accused Xin of being a coward, and Xin, for fear of punishment, surrendered to Modu. The Huns, with an army of 400 thousand, then encircled a whole army led by first Han Emperor Liu Bang (i.e., Han Gaozu) on Mount Baideng for 7 days. It was said that Modu had placed 4 groups of horses with respective colors in four directions, arranging his battle engagement in a strategical way. The siege was ended only after Liu Bang's counsellor, Chen Ping, bribed Modu's wife by bragging about the number of beauties in the Chinese court palace and hinting that they could replace her should Modu succeed in capturing the Chinese capital. When attacked by the Huns again, Liu Bang's counsellor, Liu Jing, proposed that the elder princess be married over to Modu. Liu selected a court maid of honor and sent her to Modu as his own daughter. Lou Jing further proposed that the prestigious families of the former Zhou principalities, Chu-Zhao-Jing(3) familes of Chu in sourthern China and the Tian-Huai families of Qi in today's Shandong Province, be relocated to Chang'an for sake of defence against the Huns as well as easy management of those remnant Zhou Dynasty people. Altogether over 100 thousand people, including many dispatched by the other kings in their respective principalities, were focefully relocated to Chang'an. (Previously, the Qin empire had forcefully resettled 120,000 households of countrywide wealthy people in Xian'yang.)
 
In 202 B.C., Zhang Ao (241-182 B.C.) succeeded father Zhang Er's title as King Zhao-wang. In 201 B.C., or the 7th year rule of Emperor Liu Bang, Haan Xin, who took in former acquaintance Zhongli Mo at the Battle of Gaixia, was asked by Emperor Liu Bang to surrender the asylum-seeker. Haan Xin refused. Emperor Liu Bang hence called for a vassal assembly at the Chen (Huaiyang) place. Haan Xin, seeing that the emperor could rally an army against him, forced Zhongli Mo to commit suicide. Zhongli Mo, before death, claimed that the emperor did not attack him because the two were together. Haan Xin (230-196 B.C.) took Zhong's head to the emperor and was downgraded to Marquis Huaiyin-hou. In 200 B.C., Emperor Liu Bang, while passing son-in-law Zhang Ao's residence in Waihuang, had insulted the non-Liu King Zhao-wang, for which Guan Gao and the king's followers attempted to assassinate the emperor to avenge the king's humiliation. In 199 B.C., beauty Zhao-ji, whom Zhang Ao surrendered to the emperor, had born son Liu Zhang and then committed suicide over Zhao Ao's imprisonment as a result of implication in the assassination scheme. Shen Yiji was later blamed for not saving Zhao-ji's life.
 
After Haan-wang-xin, i.e., King of the Han (2) Principality defected to the Huns, prime minister of the Dai Principality, Chen Xi (a friend of Marquis of Huaiying, Haan Xin), rebelled against the Han (4) Emperor in 198 B.C., or the 10th year rule of Emperor Liu Bang. Haan-wang-xin, in the Hunnic Tui-dang-cheng fort, born a son called Haan Tuidang who returned with his mother to the Han territory during Lv-hou's reign years and was conferred the old Haan-wang-xin's title of Marquis Gonggao-hou. (Haan Tuidang born sons Haan Ru and Haan Ying. Haan Ying, a 'bo shi' [doctorate] in Emperor Wendi's times, was to become the founding master of the Haan school of thought on SHI JING. Haan Ru was to have son Haan Yan who studied together with Han Emperor Wudi during the days of King Jiao-dong-wang.)
 
Chen Xi himself defected to the Huns after losing battles to the Han Emperor, while Haan Xin (who had earlier encouraged Chen Xi to plot the rebellion out of anger at the Han Emperor for demoting him to marquis from king) was executed together with his wife and mother's lineages, i.e., the so-called 3 lineage extinction, by Han Empress Lv Hou. Empress Lv Hou and Xiao Heh, while Liu Bang was campaigning to the north, faked a news report to call on Haan Xin to come to the palace to celebrate the victory over the killing of Chen Xi. On the pretext of collusion with Chen Xi and in fact fearing that Haan Xin could act as an insider to stage the rebellion at the capital, Empress Lv Hou and Xiao Heh arrested Haan Xin. Haan Xin was executed via five peelings and cuts. Liu Bang later pardoned Kuai Tong over the earlier advice to Haan Xin to divide the country into three parts with Liu Bang and Xiang Yu. Kuai Che (Kuai Tong), who was caught by the emperor, was spared death by frying at the wok after he made a claim that he had advocated for Haan Xin to divide the country with Xiang Yu at the time of war because he was just a dog barking on behalf of the master. Sima Qian commented that Kuai Che befriended An Qisheng, a hermit who had discourse with Qin Emperor Shihuangdi on the elixirs, while An Qisheng's prophecy was not taken by Xiang Yu. Kuai Che liked to read military strategist Yue Yi's letter to the Yan king, i.e., BAO YAN-WANG SHU, with Sima Qian making comment to the effect of shedding tears whenever he read Yue Yi's letter to Yan king Huiwang.
 
King Peng Yue of the Liang Principality did not answer the call to quell the Chen Xi rebellion. He was arrested by Emperor Liu Bang and was ordered to be exiled to the Shu-di land. Empress Lv Hou, who met Peng Yue en route, brought him back to teh capital, and managed to persuade the emperor to get Peng Yue put to death instead of letting him to at large. In 195 B.C., Emperor Liu Bang mounted an eastern campaign against Ying Bu (Qiong Bu), i.e., King of Huainan. King Ying Bu of the Huainan Principality was accused by his minister of plotting to rebel against the Han emperor. During the battle, he wounded Han Emperor Liu Bang with an arrow shot. Ying Bu was killed by his relative, King Wu Chen of the Changsa Principality. It was said that prime minister Li Cang (?-185 B.C.), whose wife Xin Zhui was the subject of a dried corpse at the Mawangtui Ruins (a name mislabelled as that of King Ma Yin of the Chu state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms time period), had lobbied with King Wu Chen in killing Ying Bu, a brother-in-law. En route of return, the emperor passed through hometown Peixian, where he assembled the old acquaintances for a drinking party, on which occasion he beat the drums and in tears, sang the famous 'Da Feng Ge' [whirlwind] song: dafeng [strong wind] qi [kicking up] xi [modal word] yun [clouds] fei-yang [flying astray]; wei [awe] jia [imposed on] hai-nei [within the seas] xi [modal word]gui [returning] guxiang [home]; an [how to] de [obtain] yongshi [brave men] xi [modal word] shou [guard] sifang [the four borders]?
 
During the Chen Xi rebellion, Chen had requested for aid from King Modu; Modu, however, did not assist Chen Qi at the beginning because of his inter-marriage with the Han Dynasty court. King Lu Wan of the Yan Principality sent his general Zhang Sheng to Modu in the attempt of stopping Modu from aiding Chen Xi. But, Zhang Sheng, incited by the son of ex-Yan king Zang Tu who had been seeking asylum with the Huns, had decided to go againt Lu Wan's will. King Lu Wan acquiesced when he thought to himself that the non-Liu kings had now been reduced to only two, himself and King of the Changsa Principality while Han Emperor Liu Bang had conferred 8 king titles onto his own kinsmen (6 being Liu Bang's own sons and 2 the sons of his two brothers). The 8 kings would be for Qi, Chu, Dai, Wu, Zhao, Liang, Huaiyang and Huainan. In 195 B.C., the emperor dispatched Shen Yiji and Zhao Xiao ('yushi dafu') to fetching Lu Wan to the nation's capital. Lu Wan called in sick. Han Emperor sent his general Fan Kuai to campaign against King Lu Wan when he heard of the Yan Principality's collusion with the Huns. The Han emperor passed away shortly. Dowager-empree Lv-hou contemplated on killing the generals for solidifying the rule. Lih Shang lobbied with Shen Yiji to have the gigolo admonish the dowager-empress against it, after detecting no announcement of moruning four days after the emperor's death.
 
King Lu Wan, hearing about the emperor's death, drove his people northward and surrendered to King Modu. King Lu Wan was conferred the title of 'Eastern Huns Ru King'. After the death of Han Emperor Liu Bang in 195 B.C., King Modu (Mo-te) sent over a letter humiliating Han Empress Lv Hou via proposition of a marriage between him and Empress Lv Hou and hence a combination of the Hunnic Empire and the Han Empire. Empress Lv Hou initially called a military meeting, with 'shang jiangjun' [highest general] Fan Kuai volunteeting to take a 100,000 army to attacking the Huns. 'zhong lang jiang' Ji Bu, who was pardoned by Emperor Liu Bang and further conferred the post as 'lang zhong' [head of the palace guards], rebuked Fan Kuai, saying that the empress could order Fan Kuai to be executed as it would bring disaster to China, knowing that the late emperor, with 400,000 troops, had been at one time encircled by the Huns at Mt. Baideng. Empress Lv Hou declined the Hunnic king's proposal and sent over some other Liu family girl to continue the inter-marriage with the Huns.
 
Dowager-empress Lv-hou rounded up all the late emperor's concubines and locked them up in the palace, but let go Concubine Bo-ji who was mocked at by the other concubines. Concubine Bo-ji, who was mother to future emperor Liu Heng, was allowed to go to the Dai prefecture to live with his son. Concubine Bo-ji was formerly a concubine with Wei Bao (King of the Wei Principality).
 
Han Emperor Huidi (210-188 B.C.; reign 195-188 B.C.)
Han Emperor Huidi had no actual power as a result of his mother dowager-empress Lv-hou's control. Dowager-empress Lv-hou, half a year after her husband's death, took actions to kill the fellow concubines, being noted for the torture of Qie-fu-ren (Madam Qie4) - who was cut off limbs and put into a pottery container. This was because Qie-fu-ren had at one time tried to get her son, Liu Ruyi, to replace Lv-zhi's son (Liu Ying) as the crown prince.
 
Emperor Huidi, who was shocked by the death of brother Liu Ruyu and Madame Qie-fu-ren, hence no longer attended to the court affairs, indulged himself in the pleasure and drinking, and died at age 23 after a nominal reign of seven years. Though, Emperor Huidi at one time ordered to arrest and kill Shen Yiji (Marquis Piyang-hou), i.e., his mother's lover, for which Lv-hou had to send someone to lobby with Hong Jiru (Hong Ru), i.e., the emperor's gigolo, for help. Shen Yiji served as the emperor's leftside prime minister in 187 B.C.
 
In the 4th year of Han Emperor Huidi's nominal reign, Han Emperor Huidi, son of dowager-empress Lv-hou, was married with niece Zhang Yan, i.e., Princess Lu-yuan, at the arrangement of Lv-hou. Princess Lu-yuan was a daughter of Lv-hou's eldest daughter and minister Zhang Ao. With no child born due to the close blood affinity, Lv-hou took a son of some court of maid as the crown prince. This crown prince was later killed by Lv-hou after being put on the throne for a short time. Consecutively, Huidi was said to have six more 'illegitimate' sons born, i.e., Liu Jiang (Liu Qiang), King Huaiyang-wang), Liu Buyi (King Changshan-wang), Liu Shan (Marquis Xiangcheng-hou), Liu Chao (a Marquis Zhi-hou), Liu Wu3 (Marquis Huguan-hou), and Liu Tai (Marquis Pingchang-hou). (In Tang Dynasty, scholar Liu Bozhang claimed that Lv-hou first imprenated the beauties with the Lv-shi clansmen and then sent them in to Emperor Huidi as concubines. This was probably made up on basis of a sentence in SHI JI, to the effect that the ministers, such as Chen Ping, et als., after eliminating the Lv clansmen, claimed that the young emperor ['shao di'], who was the second enthroned purported son of Emperor Huidi, plus King Liang-wang, King Huaiyang-wang, and King Changshan-wang, were all non authentic sons born by Emperor Huidi.)
 
Qi King Daohuiwang, i.e., Liu Fei, was the founder emperor's eldest son but was born by a Cao-shi woman who had a lower ranking than Empress Lv-hou. In 201 B.C., Liu Fei was conferred the Qi land, with 70 cities. In 193 B.C., Qi King Daohuiwang, i.e., Liu Fei, came to the nation's capital, and had a banquet with Emperor Xiaohuidi (Huidi), over which dowager-empress Lv Hou wanted to use poison to kill Liu Fei for sitting together with the emperor. The emperor, who so much loved his elder half-brother, had yielded the master's seat to the guest, which angered the dowager-express to the extent of trying to send a cup of poison wine to get Liu Fei killed, which the emperor managed to stop. Liu Fei proposed to surrender the Chengyang-jun Commandary to Princess Luyuan as the Tangmu-yi fief, and hence got permission to leave the capital.
 
In 188 B.C., Emperor Huidi passed away. Huidi was buried at the Anling Mausoleum. Lv-hou took over the regency power. Initially, Lv-hou had no tears. After the ministers took the advice of Zhang Pijiang (son of Zhang Liang) to support Lv Lu4 as 'shang jiang-jun' (the upper general) and Lv Chan as 'xiang-guo' (highest prime minister), Lv-hou became relieved and burst into tears over the death of her son. Wang Ling was deprived of the rightside prime minister's post, and the two imperial garrison army barracks were taken over by the Lv family. Among Lv-hou's maids would be a woman called Dou-ji who was later released from the palace for service in the Dai-guo state. King Dai-wang, i.e., Liu Heng, born one daughter and two sons with Dou-ji, namely, daughter Liu Piao, and sons Liu Qi and Liu Wu.
 
During Emperor Huidi's reign, minister Lu Jia retired. However, Lu Jia secretly paid a visit to Chen Ping, and suggested that Chen Ping befriend Zhou Bo for sake of making a united stand against the possible usurpation by the empress Lv-hou's family.
 
The Lv Family Interregnum (7 years under Huidi and 8 years under two 'Shao-di [junior emperors]')
In the 1st year of Han Emperor Huidi's reign, Lv-hou already started the purging of the Liu-surnamed kings. King Zhao-yin-wang, Liu Ruyi, and his mother, were killed by Lv-hou. Liu You, i.e., King Huaiyang-wang, was made into King Zhao for marrying a Lv family woman.
 
Lv-hou initially chose two of the late emperor's purported sons for the job as an emperor. The first one was Princess Lu-yuan's fake son, whom Lv-hou killd four years later after the boy claimed that he would do something once he grew up after learning about Lv-hou's killing of his birth-mother and his real identity. Liu Yi, i.e., King Changshan-wang, was made into an emperor.
 
In 187 B.C., Lv-hou conferred his brother's son, Lv Tai, the land of Ji'nan-jun commandary and named it the Lv-guo country, which was later renamed to King Jichuan (Liu Tai)'s fief after Lv Chan was to take over the Liang-guo land as the Lv-guo kingdom during the 7th year reign of Lv-hou. The next year, son Lv Jia took over Lv Tai's title as King Lv-wang. In 186 B.C., Liu Zhang, i.e., Qi King Aiwang Liu Xiang's brother, came to the nation's capital. Lv Hou conferred Liu Zhang the title of Marquis Zhuxu-hou, and years later further made Liu Xingju, i.e., Liu Zhang's brother, Marquis Dongmou-hou. In 181 B.C., Lv-hou upgraded Marquis Yingling-hou Liu Ze (Liu Bang's cousin) to King Langya-wang. Liu Ze was married with a daughter born by Lv-hou's sister and Fan Kuai. Hence, the Qi land was subdivided into Tangmu-yi (i.e., the former Chengyangjun commandary), Jichuan (i.e., former Chang-guo), the Langya-jun Commandary, and the remnant Qi land under Liu Xiang (son of Liu Fei).
 
In 180 B.C., Lv-hou put King Zhao-wang Liu You under house arrest at the nation's capital. Liu You was starved to death for bad relations with the wife. Liu Hui, i.e., the late emperor's 5th son, took the 6th son's title of King Zhao for having a Lv-family wife but committed suicide after the Lv wife killed a favourite concubine. With all three Zhao kings revoked the rankings, Lv-hou assigned three Lv family members as King Yan-wang, King Zhao-wang, and King Liang-wang. Later, when the Liu kings staged the counter-coup to overthrow the Lv family, the notoriety of the kikking of the three Zhao kings was cited by Liu Xiang, i.e., Qi King Aiwang.
 
During Lv-hou (Lv Zhi)'s 6th year, Lv-hou revoked Lv Jia's kingship and awarded it onto Lv Tai's brother, i.e., Lv Chan. With Liu Hui (King Liang-wang) moved to King Zhao, Lv Chan was given the title of King Lv-wang at the Liang-guo domain, which was renamed to the Lv-guo State. After the death of Liu Hui, Lv-hou made Lv Lu as King Zhao, after King Dai-wang (Liu Heng) declined the invitation to relocate to the Zhao-di land. In the 7th year reign of Lv-hou, Liu Jian (King Yan-ling-wang), i.e., the youngest son of Liu Bang's, died. Lv-hou, who managed to get Liu Jian's son killed, then conferred the title of King Yan-wang onto Lv Tong, for which the later Liu family bundled the crime together with the elimination of the Liang, Zhao and Yan kingdoms.
 
After Lv-hou (Lv Zhi) died in 180 B.C., among Liu Bang's eight sons, only King Dai-wang (Liu Heng) and King Huainan-wang (Liu Zhang) survived at that time. The senior kings, like King Chu-wang (Liu Jiao, i.e., Liu Bang's 4th brother) and King Wu-wang (Liu Bi, i.e., a son of Liu Bang's 2nd brother), were not harmed by the Lv family for their location beyond the immediate reach. (Serving under Lv Lu4 would be a minister called Yuan Ang who was to continue the court service throughout the Lv family's rule and demise, and two succeeding Han emperors.)
 
Liu Zhang, who learnt of the Lv family's scheme from his wife, sent a messenger to King Qi to have King Qi take an army to the nation's capital for cracking down on the Lv family. The Qi king, using 'zhong wei' (court captain or 'brigadier general') Wei Bo's scheme, managed to have his principality prime minister Zhao Ping put under control. Further, the Qi king induced the Langya king to come to Linzi, and put him under house arrest. The Qi king then took control of the Langya king's army. Qi King Aiwang then pronounced the march against the capital, claiming that the Lv family had killed three Liu-surnamed Zhao kings, eliminated the Liu-surnamed Zhao-Liang-Yan states, and divided the Qi land into four parts. Lv Chan, 'xiang-guo' (prime minister), dispatched Guan Ying to countering the Qi army. Guan Ying, upon arrival at Xingyang, stopped to make liaison with the Qi king, instead, but did not allow the Qi army to go west either. The Qi king then attacked to take over the Ji'nan-jun territory from the Lv family.
 
Chen Ping ('cheng xiang') and Zhou Bo ('tai wei' or 'lieutenant general'), who were confined under Lv Lu4 ('shang jiang-jun' [the upper general]) and Lv Chan ('xiang-guo' [highest prime minister]), revolted against the Lv family. The ministers made a claim that the four remaining sons of late Emperor Huidi were all Lv family's fakes. Liu Zhang killed Lv Can at the capital. Zhou Bo, with the pass from Ji Tong (Marquis Xiangping-hou), personally went to the northern army barracks to issue the action order. Zhou Bo, 'tai wei' (grand captain or 'lieutenant general'), then eliminated the Lv clansmen. Liu Xingju (Marquis Dongmou-hou) went to take out the puppet emperor, Liu Hong (Liu Yi, i.e., the former King of Changshan-wang). While the majority of the Lv family members were eliminated, Liu Zhang and Liu Ze's Lv-surnamed wives were exempt. King Langyang-wang, who persuaded the Qi king into releasing him, arrived at the capital, and suggested to Liu Zhang and the Liu family loyal members that the Qi king could not be made into an emperor because the king's father-in-law was very cruel and ferocious, like the Lv family. The choice, which was a compromise among all parties, was for King Dai-wang to be emperor. King Dai-wang, after ascending the throne, made an announcement to the nation but omitted the details of Liu Xingju's contribution which was to take out Liu Hong [Liu Yi] - the emperor 'Shao-di [junior emperor]' and three other sons of late Emperor Huidi. Emperor Xiaowendi (Wendi) did not mention anything about the elimination of Huidi's lineage in his enthronement.
 
Han Emperor Xiaowendi (Wendi) (202-157 B.C.; reign B.C. 179-157)
After the elimination of the Lv family kings, King Jichuan-wang moved to assume the territory of King Liang-wang; Liu Sui (son of late King Zhao-you-wang) was conferred the Zhao territory as King Zhao-wang; King Lu-wang Zhang Yan's domain was deprived; and Lv Tong, i.e., King Yan-wang, was ordered to be killed, with the territory taken.
 
In 179, Emperor Xiaowendi (Wendi), i.e., King Dai-wang (Liu Heng), was enthroned. Emperor Xiaowendi made Dou-ji into an empress at the suggestion of dowager-empress Bo-tai-hou. Dou Guangguo, who was separated from his sister from childhood onward, came to the nation's capital to inquire about the identity of the empress. Emperor Wendi was moved by the recital of the stories about Dou Guangguo's buying the fruit juice for washing his sister's hair and securing the food for his sister prior to the childhood separation.
 
Jia Yi (200-168 B.C.), a prodigy, was made into 'bo shi' [doctorate] and 'tai [imperial] zhong [court] dafu' [which was subordinate to lang-zhong-ling or guang-lu-xun]. Jia Yi was taken as an inheritor of Lu Jia and Sun-shu Tong's Confucian legacy. A proponent of the prose literature, Jia Yi wrote famous articles such as GUO QIN LUN (discourse on the blunders of Qin). At one time in 176 B.C., he was sent to the King of Changsha to be a tutor, where he wrote DIAO [mourning] QU YUAN [Chu poet Qu Yuan] FU [prose] {for which historian Sima Qian later bundled Qu Yuan and Jia Yi in one section in SHI JI}, and FU-NIAO [owl] FU [prose] to express his thoughts on the longevity and shortness of life. In 175 B.C., Jia Yi submitted an article to the capital, which led to the emperor's decision to ban Deng Tong and the Wu king from manufacturing the non-governmental coins. Back to the capital, Jia Yi was appointed tutor for King Liang-huai-wang (Liu Ji). Jia Yi made proposals to the emperor regarding the Huns (i.e., 'wu er' [five baits, including jewlry, food, music, money, and bestowment]), the system, and the princely states. His point was that the less intimate princes could pose dangers to the emperor while the more intimate princes could create troubles for the emperor. The solution, in his opinion, was to subdivide the fiefdoms among the inheritors to the extent that the fiefs became tiny after many generations.
 
In 177 B.C., Liu Chang, i.e., King Huai-nan-wang, killed minister Shen Yiji (Marquis Piyang-hou) with a hammer while visiting the emperor. Shen Yiji was at one time marked for kill by Emperor Huidi but escaped death after Lv-hou sent someone to lobby with the emperor's gigolo. The emperor did not take Yuan Ang's advice to rein in the prince. Liu Chang had killed Shen Yiji over the old feud related to the death of his birth mother in the hands of doawger-empress Lv-hou. In 174 B.C., Liu Chang was implicated in a rebellion plot involving a son of Chai Wu (Marquis Jipu-hou). In 173 B.C., the emperor banished Liu Chang, i.e., King Huai-nan-wang, to Shu-jun, i.e., the Shu {Sichuan} commandary], over the rebellion plot. Liu Chang died en route at the Yong-di land, over which the emperor was deeply sorrowful. The next year, the emperor, at Yuan Ang's advice, made all sons of late King Huai-nan-wang into marquis, to which Jia Yi expressed objection.
 
After King Liang-huai-wang accidentally dropped dead from a horse, en route to the court, Jia Yi died of depression at age 33. The emperor adopted Jia Yi's advice to move his intimate kinsmen southward to be King Liang-wang (Liu Wu) and King Huai-nan-wang (Liu Xi). During the later rebellion of seven kings, King Liang-wang played a vital role of defending the emperor.
 
In 162 B.C., Zhang Cang was replaced by Shentu Jia as 'cheng xiang' [prime minister]. Emperor Wendi was originally planning to make Dou Guangguo into prime minister. Shentu Jia (? - 155 B.C.), who followed the first Han dynasty emperor Gaozu as a teeanger, was the youngest surviving senior minister at the court. Shentu Jia was noted for punishing Emperor Wendi's court jester Deng Tong.
 
When Emperor Wendi was enthroned, he returned the Qi land, that was subdivided by late dowager empress Lv-hou, back to the Liu-surnamed kings and princes. The emperor returned the land of Chengyang, Langyang and Jinan back to the Qi state, with King Langyang reassigned to be King Yan.
 
Qi King Aiwang (Liu Xiang) hence took back the former Qi land. After Qi King Aiwang (Liu Xiang) died, son Liu Ze succeeded as Qi King Wenwang. The emperor gave the Chengyang-jun commandary to Liu Zhang as King Changyang, and in 178 B.C. assigned Jibei-jun to Liu Xingju as King Jibei. King Jibei was later killed for rebellion as a result of resentment over the unfair treatment. Namely, Liu Zhang and Liu Xingju thought they should be awarded the kingship for the Zhao and Liang land. In 177 B.C., Liu Xingju, taking advantage of Emperor Wendi's trip to Taiyuan, launched a rebellion, which was quelled by Marquis Jipu-hou (Chai Wu). Two years after quelling King Jibei's rebellion, the emperor made the late Qi King Daohuiwang (Liu Fei)'s seven sons into marquis. When Qi King Wenwang died after fourteen years, there was no son to inherit the land. Emperor Wendi took back King Wenwang's land. The emperor subdivided the Qi land again for Qi King Daohuiwang(Liu Fei)'s sons, making them into kings. The Qi-guo territory was made into seven states.
 
Later in 154 B.C., when King Wu (Liu Bi4) rebelled, four Qi kings answered the call of King Wu and King Chu, including King Jiao-xi, King Jiao-dong, King Zai-chuan and King Ji'nan.
 
SHI JI carried a statement stating that a yellow dragon was spotted at Chengji, to the west of today's Xi'an. The emperor called an elderly, Lu-gong (an elderly from Lu) Sun-chen, to the nation's capital, and offered him the post as 'bo shi' (doctor). The emperor was asked to personally travelled to the Yong land to pray to the five sovereigns. Xin Yuanping (? - 163 B.C.), a foretune teller ('fang shi'), was made into 'shang [upper] dafu' after making a claim in 165 B.C. to the emperor that there was five-color mist to the northeast of the capital city. The emperor ordered to construct the Wei-yang [north of the Wei-shui River] wu-di [five sovereigns] oblation temple. Xin Yuanping further proposed to retrieve the nine cauldrons of the Zhou dynasty, with a claim that the caldrons that were lost in the Si-shui River could have moved to the Yellow River and that there was the gold and treasure mist in the Fen-yin [south of the Fen-shui River] area. Hence, a temple was built between the Yellow River and the Fen-shui River for making prayers. Zhang Cang ('cheng xiang' or prime minister) and Zhang Shizhi ('ting wei' or justice minister) investigated the trickeries of Xin Yuanping, which led to the extermination of the latter's three lineages. The emperor was no longer interested in ghosts and spirits afterwards.
 
Han Emperor Jingdi (188 - 141 B.C.; reign 157-141 B.C.)
Emperor Jingdi, Liu Qi (188 - 141 B.C.), was the fifth son of Emperor Wendi. Jingdi's mother was dowager empress Dou-tai-hou. Emperor Jingdi was noted for his pro-agriculture and the pro-horse-husbandry policies. Emperor Jingdi, while not expanding wars with the Huns, sought to establish the military farming in the border areas. Among the able generals would be Li Guang, Cheng Bushi and Zhi Dou. Later, historians called the reign years of Emperor Wendi and Emperor Jingdi as the 'wen-jing [two father and son emperors] zhi [whereof] zhi [rule]'].
 
Emperor Jingdi, who was fond of brother Liu Wu (King Liang-wang), had at one time in 154 B.C. made a claim to pass the throne to Liu Wu after his death. 'zhang shi' Dou Ying, who was a nephew of dowager-empress Dou-tai-hou, objected to the idea. Later, in 150 B.C., when Liu Wu came to the capital again, dowager-empress Dou-tai-hou mentioned the brotherly succession again. Yuan Ang (? - 150 B.C.), who was serving King Chu-wang at the time, raised the objection, over which Liu Wu later sent an assassin to get Yuan Ang killed outside of the city gate of Anling.
 
Liu Qi, as crown prince, at one time received the visit of prince Liu Xian, a son of King Wu (Liu Bi). During an argument over chess games, Liu Qi accidentally killed Liu Xian with chessboard. When Emperor Wendi sent Liu Xian's coffin to the Wu Principality, King Wu returned the coffin, with a claim that the kingdom was of the Liu family and hence his son should be buried in the capital where he died. HAN SHU recorded that the Wu king hence harboured resentment towards Liu Qi.
 
Emperor Jingdi, to rein in the various Liu kings, appointed Chao Cuo first as 'nei shi' and then 'yushi dafu', i.e., one of the three duke-equivalent ministers. The emperor adopted Chao Cuo's 'xue [eliminate] fan [vassalage kings]' proposal to revoke the kingship, numbering about 26 commandaries which were down from the maximum 42 commandaries from Han Emperor Gaozu's time period. The Kuaiji-jun and Yuzhang-jun commandaries, which were under the King Wu-wang's control, were first revoked. In 154 B.C., King Wu, Liu Bi, rebelled against the emperor on the pretext of helping the emperor purge the evil ministers. Altogether seven Liu-surnamed kings from Wu, Chu, Zhao and Qi land joined the rebellion. This came to be known as the rebellion of the seven states. Chao Cuo attempted to persecute Yuan Ang over some pretext that Yuan Ang had taken in bribes from the Wu king. Yuan Ang went to see the emperor with the help of Dou Ying. At the advice of Yuan Ang who at one time served as prime minister to the Wu king, Han Emperor Jingdi, to appease the rebels, ordered the execution of minister Chao Cuo at the Dong-shi market. Yuan Ang, as 'tai chang' [imperial attache], was sent to the Wu-guo state for pacifying the rebellion. However, the King of Wu refused to quit the rebellion. Yuan Ang, who was detained by the Wu king and ordered to be executed, was let go by an officer whom Yuan Ang at one time spared while he was serving the Wu king on a previous assignment. Scholar Mei Cheng, who had advised against the Wu king's rebellion before it went into eruption, authored a second article of advice for the Wu king. The Wu king continued the rebellion. In later times, scholar Su Zhe pointed out the emperor's lack of compassion by listing the death of ministers Zhang Shizhi, Deng Tong, Chao Cuo, and Zhou Yafu. (Zhang Shizhi, who offended crown prince Liu Qi, died while he was demoted to be prime minister of the Huaiyang-guo state. Zhou Yafu, who offended Emperor Jingdi during a banquet, was accused of rebellion for buying helmets for the afterlife burial, and committed suicide via fasting at the prison. Deng Tong, a court jester who enjoyed the privilege to make the bronze coins in the Sichuan basin over the favor from sucking the swollen purulence of Emperor Wendi, was ordered to have assets confiscated by Emperor Jingdi, and ultimately died of starvation.)
 
With the rebel army approaching the Han capital, Emperor Jingdi promoted 'cheqi [chariot/cavalry] jiangjun [general]' Zhou Yafu to 'tai wei [grand captain]', and empowered him with leading an army against the Wu-guo and Chu-guo rebels. Lih Ji, i.e., Marquis Quzhou-hou, was ordered to attack the Zhao-guo state, while General Luan Bu was to attack the Qi-guo state. Dou Ying stationed troops in Xingyang to monitor the situation. Zhou Yafu (? - 143 B.C.), who was son of Zhou Bo and at one time reprimanded Emperor Wendi for the fast driving at the Xiliu (thin willow) army camp, defeated the rebels within three months. King Wu fled to the Yue land, where he was killed.
 
In the Shandong peninsula, King Jiao-xi-wang (Liu Ang), King Jiao-dong-wang (Liu Xiongqu), King Zichuan-wang (Liu Xian) and King Ji'nan-wang (Liu Piguang) had answered the Wu and Chu kings' call for rebellion. Three kings laid siege of Qi King Xiao-wang's capital city, Linzi. When Han army generals Luan Shi and Cao Qi came to the relief, the rebel kings were all eliminated while King Qi-xiao-wang committed suicide over his attempt at striking a deal with the rebels prior to the lift of the siege. Son Liu Tao succeeded Qi King Xiao-wen-wang as King Qi-yi-wang.
 
Emperor Jingdi hence revoked the kings' administrative and legislative powers. Zhou Yafu, for his contribution, was made into a prime minister before the emperor found an excuse to get him killed. Dou Ying was conferred the title as Marquis Weiqi-hou.
 
Brother Liu Wu, who was implicated in the assassination of Yuan Ang, was called to the capital. At the Han'gu'guan Pass, Liu Wu got off the cart, which made the emperor and the dowager-empress think that Liu Wu had committed suicide. The dowager-empress said that the lord had killed her [junior] son. Liu Wu was pardoned but ultimately died of depression. The dowager-empress again said that the lord had killed her [junior] son. To appease dowager empress Dou-tai-hou, the emperor divided the Liang-guo domain into five parts for King Liang-wang's five sons to inherit.
 
After dowager-empress Bo-ji died in 154 B.C., Emperor Jingdi revoked the Bo family empress four years later, and in 151 B.C., made concubine Wang Zhi into an empress. Empress Wang Zhi's son would be Liu Che, i.e., future Emperor Wudi. Among Emperor Jingdi's son would be Liu Fa (the 6th son, King Ding-wang of Changsha, who was the 5th generation ancestor of the founding emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty), and Liu Sheng (the 9th son, King Jing-wang of Zhongshan, who was the purported ancestor of the Shu-han Dynasty of the Three Kingdom time period).
 
Han Emperor Wudi (156-87 B.C.; reign 141-87 B.C.)
Han Emperor Wudi, at age seven, was renamed to Liu Che, with the word 'che' meaning the uttermostness in praise of his extraordinary memory of the classics he studied and the wisdom and virtues accompanying him. While at age 3, he had replied that he would allow the heaven to determine while he would merely wish to play under the father's knees when his father-emperor's asked the son about ever harboring a wish to become an emperor in the future. In 153 B.C., Liu Che conferred the title of King Jiao-dong-wang. In 150, son Liu Rong was deprived of the crown prince status and downgraded to King Lin-jiang-wang, while son Liu Che was crowned instead. Studying together with Liu Che would be Sang Hongyang, a math prodigy and a son of some prominent merchant in Luoyang. Sang would serve as Wudi's finance minister throughout the reign.
 
In 141 B.C., Han Emperor Wudi, the 10th son of Emperor Jingdi, was enthroned at the age of seven. The next year, 140 B.C., was to be the 1st year of the imperial Jianyuan Era.
 
Han Emperor Wudi was able to ascend to the throne as a result of his good relations with cousin A-qiao, a daughter of Eldest Princess Liu Piao [who was a sister of Emperor Jingdi]. However, Ah-qiao was not able to bear any child for the emperor, possibly due to the cousin blood relationship. Emperor Wudi later took in Wei-zi-fu who was a singer under Princess Pingyang, a sister. Emperor Wudi later banished A-qiao to the Changmen-gong [long gate] Palace over the 91 B.C. 'wugu' [poisonous {bugs} magic witchcraft] incident. (A-qiao asked Sima Xianmgru write a prose CHANG-MEN FU to present to the emperor.) Another woman, Wei-zi-fu, i.e., Madame Wei-furen, born son Liu Ju who was to become a crown prince - who ultimately did not survive to ascend the throne. Because of Lady Wei (Wei-zi-fu), brother Wei Qing was appointed as a general for leading the campaign against the Huns. Huo Qubing, i.e., Wei Qing's nephew, also took part in the campaigns and scored major victories against the Huns. Later, the Wei family lost favor with the emperor after Crown Prince Liu Ju committed suicide over implication in the 'wugu' [poisonous {bugs} magic witchcraft] incident.
 
Emperor Wudi initially did not succeed in hiring the Confucians for managing the country. After Wudi replaced Wei Guan with Dou Ying (nephew of Dowager Empress Doutaihou), Dou Ying and Tian Fen located two Confucians for Wudi: Zhao Guan and Wang Zang, i.e., two of the thousand students of an eighty-year-old Shen-gong of the ex-Chu Principality. Shen-gong, renowned for his research into ancient Shi Jing [classics of poems], was invited to the capital by Wudi. Dowager-empress Dou-tai-hou, who vehemently opposed the non-Daoist thoughts, managed to Zhao Guan ('yushi dafu') and Wang Zang ('langzhong ling') arrested in 139 B.C. It was after the death of Dou-tai-hou in 135 B.C. that Wudi got the exercise the unchallenged power. In 130 B.C., at the age of 80, Gongsun Hong, was recommended to the court again. In 127 B.C., Zhufu Yan, using Jia Yi's ideas in ZHI-AN [peaceful administration] CE [tactics], proposed to Wudi to have the various Liu kings divide their domain into smaller fiefs among their brothers and sons. In 124 B.C., Gongsun Hong, a civilian, was appointed the post as 'cheng xiang' [prime minister]. In 120 B.C., the emperor adopted Zheng Dangshi's advice to monopolize the iron and salt trade under the Da-nong-ling [agricultural ministry], with merchants Duoguo Xianyang and Kong Jin as ministers. In 115 B.C., Sang Hongyang was promoted to be 'da nong cheng', i.e., deputy agricultural minister. Sang Hongyang was responsible for the imperial decrees to extract taxes, levies and confiscation from the merchants (114 B.C.) - which was an idea from Zhang Tang, as well as the implementation of the military farming policies (111 B.C.) at the frontiers and the centralized coin moulding policies (113 B.C.). In 115 B.C., Sang Hongyang was promoted to be acting agricultural minister. Sang continued with the standardization policies regardings the transportation of commodities, the equalization policies regarding the price fluctuation, and the monopolozation policies regarding the liquor and wines. In 106 B.C., the emperor ordered to set up thirteen circuits for the nation, with 'ci shi' [imperial censor] in charge of twelve prefectures and the 'zhongyang [central] xiaowei [colonel captain {or lieutenant general}]' post in charge of the center prefecture. Later in 104 B.C., the emperor declared the Taichu Era, which changed the start of the lunar near year to be on the 1st month instead of October of the Zhunxu-li calendar.
 
Emperor Wudi, in his high age, had superstition and suspicion. The women in the palaces, for sake of winning favor, had hired witches to exert the witchcraft. In 92 B.C., near the Jianzhang-gong palace, the emperor, after spotting a person entering the Zhong-longhua-men gate with a sword, ordered the execution of the gatekeeper and a search of the Shanglin-yuan imperial garden for the swordsman. The cavalry of the three imperial garrison areas combed through the area for days but could not locate the swordsman. Meanwhile, Zhu Anshi, a so-called 'chivalry man' of Yangling [sunnyside mausoleum {with the 'luo [compass] jing [longitude] shi [tablet stone]} in today's Jing-shui and Wei-shui delta, Xianyang, Shenxi], was at large after many robbery acts. Gongsun He4, for saving son Gongsun Jingsheng from prison over the appropriation of military funds, requested for the task of capturing the robber. The robber, after capture, accused the prime minister of hiring witches to plant the wood figurines along the road to the Ganquan-gong Palace for cursing the emperor. Gongsun Jingsheng was also accused by Zhu Anshi of adultery with Princess Yangshi [sunnyside stone]. In January of 91 B.C., Gongsun He4 was arrested over the 'wugu' [poisonous {bugs} magic witchcraft]. Both father and son were imprisoned and later killed in prison. Several princesses, together with Marquis Wei Kang (a son of Wei Qing) were ordered to be executed. Liu Qumao, 'tai shou' [magistrate] for the Zhuo-jun Commandary, was made into the prime minister and Marquis Peng-hou.
 
The emperor, who dreamt of being attacked by thousands of wood figurines, ordered an investigation of the 'wugu' [poisonous {bugs} magic witchcraft]. Jiang Chong, a prosecutor, used torture to extract confession, which led to death of over several tens of thousands of people. Jiang Chong, together with Haan Shui (Marquis Andao-hou), 'yu shi' [censor] Zhang Gan, and 'huang men' [eunuch team lead] Su Wen et al., tried to implicate the crown prince by searching the palaces for evidence of buried paulownia wood figurines. Jiang Chong was afraid that the crown prince could harm him after succession. The crown prince, who was accused of possession of a lot of wood figurines underneath the floor of his residence, resisted Jiang Chong at the urge of 'shao fu' [tutor] Shi De who cited the story of the death of Fu Su, the Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's eldest prince. The crown prince ordered to have Jiang Chong and his Hu witches killed. The crown prince then notified the empress of the action. Eunuch Su Wen fled to Ganquan-gong to report to the emperor. The emperor first sent a messenger to recall the crown prince for questioning, but the messenger dared not enter the capital city and reported to the emperor about the crown prince's rebellion. Prime minister Liu Qumao fled the city without seal after finding out that the crown prince had issued order to open the weapons' depot and take arms. The capital city swirled with rumors that the crown prince had rebelled.
 
The emperor organized an army to crack down on the crown prince. The emperor returned to Jianzhang-gong to direct the troops in the three capital city districts against the crown prince. The emperor called on the Hu cavalry mercenaries from the Changshui and Xuanqu area to come to the aid. Liu Ju, the crown prince who was called by 'li [violent] taizi [prince]' in history, had to organize the civilians into an army after Ren An, a military leader of the Northern Barracks, refused to answer the order to fight. After five days' battles against the prime minister's army near the west gate of the Changle-gong [happy always] Palace, the crown prince was defeated and fled the city. The emperor sent Liu Chang {'zong zheng' [superintendent in charge of the Liu ancestral lineage]) and Liu Gan {'jin zhi wu' [garrison commander]} to the Weiyang-gong Palace to revoke the emperess' seal. Lady Wei-zi-fu committed suicide. Citing QING YING of SHI JING, Linghu Mao, a 'san lao' [three elderly] official at the Hu-guan [kettle] Pass, petitioned with the emperor to pardon the crown prince, putting blame on Jiang Chong. While the emperor realized his mistake, he did not take action to restore the status for the last remaining baby grandson of the crown prince. The baby, i.e., future Han Emperor Xuandi, hence grew up in the imperial vassalage prison "jun-di-yu" which was subject to the 'da-hong-lu' foreign ministry. At one time in 87 B.C., the emperor was advised to execute all prisoners by a cunning minister over some necromacy saying that there was the rising of an emperor's mist from above the prison. The prison superintendent, Bing Ji, refused to open up the gate to allow the imperial commissioner {Guo Rang) to come in, and hence safeguarded the young prince's life. Emperor Wudi, at the deathbed, pardoned the boy and later allowed the boy to relocate to the Liu family's ancestral hall in the Ye-ting [armspit] Palace, where he grew up with good tutoring.
 
Crown Prince Liu Ju, who fled to seek asylum with a commoner in Huxian but divulged his whereabouts after sending a messenger to seeking assistance with a friend, committed suicide when the local officials laid a siege of his hiding place. Liu Ju's two young sons also died with him in the manhunt. Liu Ju's wife and her family all died in Chang'an, the nation's capital, except for an infant grandson, Liu Bingyi, who was born by son [ishi-huang-sun'] Liu Jing4. In 90 B.C., at the urge of Tian Qianqian, a 'lang guan' official in charge of Emperor Gaozu's pilgrimage, submitted another petition to seek redress for the crown prince, claiming that he dreamt of a white-haired old man telling him to do so. The emperor came to realize that it was a setup by Jiang Chong. The emperor made a 'Si-zi-gong' Palace for the remembrance of his son.
 
At about this time, the emperor reprimanded son Liu Dan (King Yan-wang) for the proposal to come to the capital as a garrison commander, Prime minister Liu Qumao, who was accused by 'nei shi' Guo Rang of cursing the emperor and conspiracy with Li Guangli in making Liu Bo2 (King Changyi-wang, i.e., the emperor's 5th son) into a crown prince, was executed via the waist decapitation. Li Guangli, whose wife was arrested, hastily launched a battle against the Huns at the frontier upon learning of the upheaval at the nation's capital, and after a defeat, surrendered to the Huns.
 
In 89 B.C., the emperor issued a decree to take blames for the past blunders. In 88 B.C., the emperor ordered to make a drawing of Archduke Zhougong Shouldering Zhou King Chengwang for Huo Guang, with intention to have the senior minister take care of the succeeding emperor. In 87 B.C., the emperor made son Liu Fuling a crown prince.
 
At the time of Wudi's death, the emperor ordered the prominent ministers of the 'zhong [central] chao [court meeting]' to assist with son Liu Fuling, i.e., Han Emperor Zhaodi. Madame Zhao Jieyu (i.e., Madame Gouyi-furen), i.e., the jade hook mother of son Liu Fuling, was ordered to die. The ministers included Huo Guang ('da [grand] jiangjun [general]'), Jin-mi-di ('cheqi [chariot/cavalry] jiangjun [general]', son of Hunnic King Xiutu-wang), Shangguan Jie ('zuo [leftside] jiangjun [general]') and Sang Hongyang ('yushi dafu'). Prime minister Tian Qianqiu, who belonged to the 'wai [outer] chao [court meeting]', was not involved. (Jin-mi-di was initially favoured by the emperor to assist with the crown prince; however, Jin-mi-di yielded the job to Huo Guang, saying that the appointment of him could lead to the Huns' contempt of the Han dynasty. Hence, Huo Guang was given the job to assist with the crown prince.)
 
Under Han Emperor Wudi's reign, the positive polices included Zhufu Yan-proposed 'tui [push] en [grace {to the second and third sons] ling [imperial order]', which led to the subdivision of the princely states. Other policies, which were devised by Sang Hongyang, included the 'jun [average] shu [transport] ling [order]' and 'ping-zhun [equalization] ling [order]' that adjusted the national price fluctuation. To collect more taxes, Sang Hongyang devised the 'gao [informer] min [property tax on the merchants] ling [order]'.
 
Han Emperor Zhaodi (94-74 B.C.; reign 87-74 B.C.)
Emperor Zhaodi, i.e., Liu Fuling, was Wudi's younger son born by Lady Zhao Jieyu (i.e., Madame Gouyi-furen), known for holding a blue jade hook in the palm when born.
 
Among the emperor's men, conflicts arose after Jin-mi-di died. Jin-mi-di (134-86 B.C.) died of illness in 86 B.C., for whose funeral Emperor Zhaodi made a parade of chariot army soldiers all the way to the Maoling Mausoleum. Jin-mi-di's two junior sons were given the job of living together with the emperor.
 
Huo Guang, a half-brother of Huo Qubing but did not get learnt about between the brothers in the early days, had the late emperor's favor. Huo Guang's daughter was married with Shangguan Jie's son, which later led to the implication in the court conspiracy. Sang Hongyang had conflicts with Huo Guang concerning the leavy-handed state-controlled economic policies. In 83 B.C., Shangguan An, i.e., son of Shangguan Jie, attempted to get his six-year-old daughter selected for the emperor; however, Huo Guang was against it. Hence, the Shangguan family went around Huo Guang to Princess E-yi-zhang-gongzu, a daughter of late Emperor Wudi, to approve the marriage. Shangguan An contacted Ding-wai-ren, i.e., the princess' lover ('main shou') for help. After the girl was taken in as Empress Shangguan, the Shangguan family made the lover into a marquis, over which Huo Guang expressed opposition. Shangguan An was upgraded to be 'qi [cavalry] duwei [captain] {or major general}' and conferred the title as Marquis Sangle-hou. Hence the feud ensued between the two families. Shangguan Jie colluded with Sang Hongyang against Huo Guang.
 
In June of 82 B.C., at the suggestion of Du Yannian, the emperor approved the convening of a national salt, iron and liquor meeting. Tian Qianqiu ('cheng xiang' [prime minister]), and Sang Hongyang ('yushi dafu' [inspector]) debated the regional representives who were known as the 'Xianliang [virtuous] Wenxue [literati]' scholars. The meeting decided to loosen the state's monopolization control on the liquor and wines at the prefecture level. In 81 B.C., Shangguan Jie colluded with King Yan-wang (Liu Dan) and Sang Hongyang et als., in accusing Huo Guang of rebellion. Liu Dan claimed in the letter to the emperor that Huo Guang, who had sought for the release of Su Wu from the Hunnic captivity and assigned the post of 'dian-shu-guo' [foreign ministry official] onto Su Wu, intended to borrow an army from the Huns for a coup. The 14-year-old emperor dispelled it, after recalling Huo Guang to the court meeting and telling him that the Yan king could not have the knowledge of the rebellion in the allowed time for the messenger to travel back and forth. In September of 81 B.C., Shangguan Jie colluded with Princess E-yi-zhang-gongzu to invite Huo Guang to a banquet for assassination so as to make King Yan-wang (Liu Dan) into an emperor. The emperor and Huo Guang, after receiving a tip from Yan Cang, a grains official under the princess, arrested and executed the Shangguan rebels, including Sang Hongyang and his family. King Yan-wang (Liu Dan) and Princess E-yi-zhang-gongzu committed suicide.
 
Han Emperor Feidi (Liu Heh, 92-59 B.C.; reign 74 B.C.)
When Zhaodi passed away, Liu Heh, a grandson of Emperor Wudi and the 5th son of King Chang-yi-ai-wang (Liu Bo2), was enthroned for 27 days but was deposed by Huo Guang and Zhang Anshi for bad behavior, after a nominal consultaion with dowager-empress Shangguan-shi. In 63 B.C., Liu Heh was deprived of the title of King Chang-yi-wang and the Chang-yi (Juye, Shandong) fief for relocation to Yongxiu in today's Jiangxi as Marquis Haihun-hou, i.e., the fatuous marquis at the [south] sea (Lake Poyang-hu).
 
Han Emperor Xuandi (Liu Xun, 91-48 B.C.; reign 74-48 B.C.)
Three months later, Huo Guang selected Liu Bingyi, the only survivor grandson of Liu Ju, as the new emperor. Liu Bingyi made Xu Pingjun an empress, a woman Zhang Heh (superintendent of the Ye-ting Palace) had selected for the young prince after his brother, Zhang Anshi, dissuaded him from making compliments of the young prince while Emperor Zhaodi was ruling. (Xu Guanghan, i.e., the father-in-law, invited scholar Fu-zhong-wen to be the prince's tutor for studying SHI JING.)
 
At the times of Han Emperor Zhaodi, military farming was conducted in the Luntai & Quli areas. In Chinese Turkestan, the new Loulan king also allied with the Huns. The Qiuci king attacked the Chinese farming station of Luntai and killed farming general Lai Dan. To punish Loulan, Fu Jiezi (?-65 B.C.) was sent to assassinating the Loulan king, An-gui, during a reception when visiting the Loulan kingdom. Huo Guang was noted for dispatching Fu Jiezhi [of possibly the Yiqu-rong background] to Loulan to assassinate the Loulan king, An-gui, in 77 B.C.E., for which Fu Jiezhi received the conferral as Marquis Yiyang-hou. (Before that, General Zhao Ponu in 108 B.C.E. attacked Loulan with 700 cavalry and killed the Loulan king.)
 
In 73 B.C., Huo Guang proposed to return the regency to the emperor. Phoenixes were seen in Jiaodong-jun and Qianshen-jun commandaries on the Shandong peninsula. During the reign, the Han army in 72 B.C. allied with Wusun against the Huns. Five generals, Tian Guangming, Zhao Chongguo, Tian Shun, Fan Mingyou and Haan Zeng, altogether an army of 150,000, including cavalry and chariots, followed Chang Hui on the expedition to the northwest. In 71 B.C., Chang Hui, commanding the Wusun army, defeated the Huns. Chang Hui was subsequently sent to Wusun again, and En route of return, attacked Qiuci which previously killed Han emissary Lai Dan. In this year, Empress Xu Pingjun was said to have poisoned to death by Huo Xian, i.e., Huo Guang's wife. In 70 B.C., the emperor took Huo Chengjun, i.e., Huo Guang's daughter, as empress.
 
In 68 B.C., Huo Guang passed away. The emperor later promoted 'yushi dafu' Wei Xiang to be 'cheng xiang' [prime minister]. Further, the emperor made Bing Ji into 'yushi dafu' and promoted his father-in-law Xu Guanghan (Marquis Ping'en-hou). In this year, Zheng Ji attacked Cheshi, the only Hunnic vassal state north of the Tianshan Mountain.
 
In 66 B.C., the Huo family rebellion was quelled. The emperor continued the loosening policy from the salt and iron meeting. Yang Yun, a junior son of Sima Qian's daughter-in-law Yang Chang, reported to the emperor on the Huo family conspiracy, for which he was promoted to be 'zhong lang jiang' and conferred the title of Marquis Pingtong-hou. Yang Yun surrended SHI JI, i.e., Sima Qian's great history book, to the emperor. Yang Yun, together with minister Gai Kuanrao, were ordered to be executed by the emperor for sarcaism, over which crown prince Liu Shi attempted to admonish the father-emperor who countered with a claim that the Han dynasty adopted both the hegemony way and the king way to manage a country, not the Confucian way or the Zhoy dynasty's benevolence way.
 
In 65 B.C., Feng Fengshi, en route of trip to Dawan (Fergana), attacked Shache which previously killed Han emissary Xi Chongguo. In 63 B.C., phoenixes were seen on Mt. Taishan. In this year, the Qiangic tribes made an alliance. Lang-he, a chieftan from the Yuezhi Minor, i.e., Marquis Qiang-hou, attempted to borrow the troops from the Huns and planned to sever the Han dynasty's trade route at Shanshan and Dunhuang. In 61 B.C., Yiqu Anguo cheated over thirty Qiangic chieftans to a meeting and killed them all, which led to the Qiangic rebellion. Yiqu Anguo retreated to Lingju. Zhao Chongguo and Xu Yanshou were dispatched to quelling the Qiangic rebellion. In 60 B.C., the Han army quelled the Western Qiangic land and set up the Jincheng fort.
 
In the same year, the Han court established the Xi-yu [western territories] Duhu-fu [pacifying] office at Wulei to take charge of the countries as far as today's Central Asia. The Hunnic sun-chasing king came to surrender. Zheng Ji, commanding 50,000 troops from the Quli and Qiuci states, escorted Hunnic sun-chasing king (Xian-xian-dan) and his several tens of thousands of followers to Chang'an, with those going astray killed en route. Zheng Ji was conferred the title of Marquis Anyuan-hou. The Huns began the intermarriage peace process afterwards.
 
Around 60 B.C., there were five Hunnic chanyu competing against each other. In 58 B.C., the Hunnic chanyu sent his brother to the Han court. In 56 B.C., a Hunnic king was conferred marquis. In 54 B.C., the Hunnic chanyu sent brother, i.e., King Gu-li-wang, to be hostage at the Han court. In 53 B.C., Hunnic King Huyanye-chanyu sent son, i.e., Hunnic rightside virtuous king, to the Han court as hostage. A yellow dragon was spotted in Xinfeng. Around 53 B.C., hearing that 'Huhanye Chanyu' obtained the support of the Han Chinese, the last competing 'chanyu', Zhizhi, sent his son [the rightside grand general] to the Han Court as a hostage as well. In 52 B.C., 'Huhanye Chanyu' arrived in Wuyuan Garrison and went on to see Han Emperor Xuandi in Ganquan-gong Palace in Jan of 51 B.C. In 51 B.C., Hunnic King Huyanye-chanyu (Jihoushan) came to the Han court to be a vassal minister. In 51 B.C., the emperor ordered the Confucian meeting at the Shiqu-ge [stony canal] Mansion.
 
Zhizhi Chanyu fled to the distant land to the west. Zhizhi made Jiankun (i.e., later Kirghiz territory or today's Tuva land) the locality of his capital. In 49 B.C., Hunnic King Huyanye-chanyu came again. At about 48 B.C., i.e., the year Han Emperor Yuandi [r 48-32 BC] got enthroned, 'Huhanye Chanyu' wrote to the Chinese court about his economic hardship. Yuandi decreed that Yunzhong & Wuyuan commanderies transport 20,000 units of grains to the Huns. At this time, Zhizhi chanyu requested with the Han court for releasing his son. The Han court ordered Gu Ji to escort the prince to Zhizhi. However, Zhizhi chanyu killed Gu Ji without a reason. Zhizhi, being afraid of Han for his killing the Han emissary, relocated to the west, namely, the ancient Jiankun Statelet. This relocation also had to do with the request from the Kangju (Sogdia) king.
 
At about 47 B.C., the Han court returned Huhanye's son by ordereding that Haan Chang & Zhang Meng escorted the prince back to the Hun territory. Haan Chang & Zhang Meng inquired with Huhanye Chanyu as to the rumor that Zhizhi Chanyu might have killed emissary Gu Ji. Hearing that the Southern Huns talked about a return to the north of Gobi, Haan Chang & Zhang Meng, on their own initiative, made a swear with Huhanye Chanyu in the attempt of retaining the Huns for better management. Haan Chang & Zhang Meng climbed Mt Dongshan at Ruo-shui River with Huhanye Chanyu and drank the blood-dripped wine via the Yuezhi king's skull which was used as a drinking utensil.
 
Han Emperor Yuandi (Liu Shi, 74-33 B.C.; reign 49-33 B.C.)
At the time Emperor Xuandi was dying, he decreed to have Shi Gao, Xiao Wangzhi and Zhou Lukan (Zhou Kan) to support the crown prince. Shi Gao was a son of Shi Gong, i.e., brother of Shi-liangdi who was Emperor Xuandi's late grandmother. Xiao Wangzhi was the sixth generation grandson of Xiao Heh.
 
Emperor Xuandi, who was commented by his father to be weak for sympathizing with the executed Confucian officials, was known for calligraphy, music, and etc. Back in 51 B.C., Liu Shi, as crown prince, was in deep sorrow over the death of concubine Sima-liangdi. At the arrangement of the empress, Liu Shi was given a woman called Wang Zhengjun as wife. This woman's in-law family would later produce the usurper emperor Wang Mang of the Xin (New) dynasty.
 
In 47 B.C., Xiao Wangzhi was forced to commit suicide in prison as a result of losing the power struggle to eunuch Hong Gong and 'pu she' Shi Xian. Xiao Wangzhi attempted to revoke the 'zhong [central court] shu [secretariat]' office that was controlled by the eunuchs. Shi Gao employed the inner court officials and eunuchs to frustrate Xiao Wangzhi's reform. Shi Xian, who was an eunuch 'zhong shu ling' succeeding Hong Gong, managed to get Jing Fang arrested and executed. A student of Jiao Yanshou, Jing Fang (Jing Junming, 77-37 B.C.) was a 'tai shou' for the Wei-jun Commandary and founder of the Jing-shi 'Yi' ['milfoil divination' (Yi Jing, Book of Changes)] school of thought, which was his teacher's application of the divination theory to the day-to-day practice of prophesying and to the political usage at the court. Jing Fang lost the power struggle to Shi Xian ('zhong shu ling') and Wulu Chongzong ('shang shu ling').
 
While Zhizhi Chanyu stationed in the Jiankun territory, the Kangju (Sogdia) king intended to attack the Wusun Statelet with the Hunnic assistance. The Kangju (Sogdia) king sent an emissary to Zhizhi, with a gift of several thousands of camels and horses. On the way to Kangju (Sogdia), Zhizhi Chanyu lost quite some people due to the cold weather. About 3,000 remnants arrived in the Kangju territory for the alliance. Zhizhi built a castle by the Talas River (i.e., Dulai-shui), called by the 'zhizhi-cheng' fort. In 36 B.C., the Han army attacked the Huns to the west of the Pamirs. In this year, Chen Tang tacked on the deputy 'xiao wei' post for the 'xiyu duhu fu' office. Governor-general Gan Yansou answered the call from Wusun and sent 6 columns of armies, about 40,000 troops, to defeat Kangju (Sogdia) and 'Zhizhi Chanyu'. It was said that Chen Tang forced Gan Yanshou into launching the attack. Chen Tang, after death, received the compliment as Marquis 'po-hu zhuang-hou' from usurper emperor Wang Mang. After the death of Zhizhi, Huhanye Chanyu was both happy and worried. Previously, Huhanye wrote to the Han court that he did not visit Han emperor frequently because he was worried that Zhizhi might attack him. In 33 B.C., 'Huhanye Chanyu', came to the Han capital a third time, and was married with lady Wang Zhaojun, a court maid of honour. Huhanye Chanyu died in the second year of Emperor Chengdi's Jianshi Era, i.e., 31 B.C., after a reign of 28 years. (Lady Zhaojun, like many princesses and maids of honour married with Huns or other nomads before and after her, would later re-marry with the successor Hunnic King, a practice adopted by the nomads throughout history.)
 
In 33 B.C., Emperor Yuandi, before his death, had contemplated on making a junior son, King Shanyang-wang (Liu Kang) into a crown prince. Wang Shang, who was 'you-jiangjun' and 'guanglu dafu', opposed it. Seeing Liu Kang and his birth-mother, Concubine Fu-zhao-yi, attending th eemperor, Shi Dan managed to persuade the emperor into maintaining Liu Ao's crown prince status with tears.
 
Han Emperor Chengdi (Liu Ao, 51-7 B.C.; reign 33-7 B.C.)
Emperor Chengdi, to inhibit eunuch Shi Xian, allowed Wang Feng, i.e., his mother-empress's elder brother, to ascend to power. Wang Feng overpowered the in-law background officials from the other families. Wang Feng got rid of high official Xu Jia, from the Xu family, another lineage related to Emperor Xuandi. Wang Feng subsequently in 25 B.C. manipulated to get the emperor to sack Wang Shang, who replaced Kuang Heng as 'cheng xiang' [prime minister] in 29 B.C. Wang Shang's aunt was Emperor Xuandi's birth-mother. In 24 B.C., Wang Feng managed to deprive the 'tai shou' post of Feng Yewang, who was a brother of Feng Zhaoyi [Feng Fengshi's daughter and Emperor Yuandi's concubine].
 
Dowager-empress Wang Zhengjun's family hence produced seven brothers with marquisdom conferral at the court. A nephew, Wang Mang, would eventually usurp the Han dynasty throne to found the Xin (New) Dynasty.
 
Emperor Chengdi was noted for having a concubine Ban Jieyu who was a sister of Ban Zhi, i.e., grandfather of General Ban Chao and Historian Ban Gu. Ban Jieyu declined the emperor's request to ride in the same chariot by citing the precedents of those beauties that led to the downfall of the past dynasties. The 'Ban' surname derived from the Chu royal family of 'Wutu' [i.e., wu-de or a-wu-de] which meant tiger in the Chu native language. Ban Jieyu (48-2 B.C.), a literary woman, requested for relocation to the dowager-empress' palace so as to avoid being persecuted by the emperor's new favourite concubines, sisters Zhao Feiyan and Zhao Hede. In 16 B.C., Zhao Feiuyan was made into empress. Zhao Feiyan was noted for dancing like a swallow on top of the emperor's palm. The younger Zhao sister made the emperor to order the deposed Empress Xu-hou (daughter of Xu Jia) to drink poison in 8 B.C.. LIE NV ZHUAN claimed that the younger Zhao sister was responsible for forcing the emperor into killing all newborns of the concubines. This would be the story of the swallow killing the emperor's sons. With no son born, Emperor Chengdi made nephew Liu Xin into an adopted son and the crown prince.
 
The notable thing that the emperor did was to assign Chen Nong the job of collecting the books nationwide and Liu Xiang ('guanglu dafu') the job of reorganizing the books in the imperial library in 26 B.C. Liu Xiang took charge of the classics, the hundred schools of thoughs, and poems; Ren Hong the books on the military strategy; Yin Xian the arithmetics; and Li Zhuguo the medicine and craftsmanship books. The emperor reviewed the abstracts and the outlines of the reorganized books. Liu Xiang and son Liu Xin hence made a systematic catalogue of books, including books like BIE LU and QI LVE, which laid the foundation of China's bibliography. The emperor adopted the friendly policy with the Huns. In 25 B.C., the country of Ji4 (i.e., today's Kabul) sent emissary to seeing the emperor.
 
During Emperor Chengdi's reign, stringent laws had led to the armed uprisings. In 22 B.C., Shen Tusheng and 180 convicts at an ironsmith shop in Yingchuan (Yuxian, Henan) rose up and harassed nine prefectures before bing put down. In 14 B.C., Su Ling and 228 convicts at the Shanyang (Jiaozuo, Henan) ironsmith site rose up, and harassed 19 prefectures before being put down.
 
Han Emperor Aidi (Liu Xin, 25-1 B.C.; reign 7-1 B.C.)
Emperor Aidi, who was notorious for throwing dice whenever having drinking parties, was the source of the homosexual love story of 'cutting off the sleeve' so as not to wake up gigolo Dong Xian. The emperor, at one time, awarded Dong Xian with 2000 Chinese hectares of land, which made his land-restriction and servant-restriction decrees a hollow paper.
 
Right after assumption of the reign, the emperor adopted the measures to inhibit the power base of the Wang in-law family. Emperor Aidi ordered Shi Dan ('zuo-jiangjun') to replace Wang Mang as 'da sima' [marshal]. It was Shi Dan who proposed the land-restriction and servant-restriction laws. In 5 B.C., the emperor also ordered to revoke the 'zhou mu' post for the prefectures and re-installed the 'ci-shi' post.
 
Later historian Su Zhe commented that the emperor had reined in the Wang family of the Chengdi era, but soon allowed the Empress Fu's family to take control of the court, plus the pampering with Dong Xian the gigolo minister. More, the emperor, at deathbed, had no ministers available for taking care of the successor emperor, unlike Emperor Liu Bang who ordained Chen Ping, Wang Ling and Zhou Bo, and Emperor Wendi who ordained Zhou Yafu. Right after the emperor's death, dowager-empress Wang-tai-hou pressured Dong Xian ('da sima') into recalling Wang Mang (Marquis Xindu-hou). Wang Mang immediately censured Dong Xian. Wang Zhengjun, as the great great dowager-empress, claimed that Dong Xian was too young to govern. Dong Xian committed suicide.
 
Han Emperor Pingdi (Liu Kan, 9 B.C.-6 A.D.; reign 1 B.C.-6 A.D.)
The nine-year-old son of Emperor Aidi was selected as an emperor by Wang Mang, with dowager-empress Wang Zhengjun ruling the regency by curtain.
 
Wang Mang managed to get rid of 'wei wei' Chunyu Zhang (Marquis Dingling-hou) who won favor from Emperor Chengdi for helping concubine Zhao Feiyan's father to become a marquis. In A.D. 1, Wang Mang installed favourite ministers at the court, including Kong Guang, Wang Shun, Zhen Feng and Zhen Han. Wang Mang, who proposed Confucius' virtues and pushed for new policies, was touted as the Zhou Archduke equivalent, titled Duke Anhan-gong [the duke who pacified the Han dynasty]. Wang Mang located a descendant of Archduke Zhou-gong, i.e., Gongsun Xiangru, and had the emperor conferr the title of Marquis Bao-lu-hou. Kong Jun, a Confucius descendant, was made into Marquis Bao-cheng-hou. (Wang Mang, when young, studied ANALECTS under Chen Can.)
 
Wang Mang, when opposed by his own elder son Wang Yu on the matter of ridding off Emperor Pingdi's Wei-shi in-law family, imprisoned his own son and had him killed at prison. Many years before, Wang Mang forced a younger son, Wang Huo, to commit suicide to show unequivocal punishment to the public. In AD 3, Wang Mang made his elder daughter Wang Yan into empress for Emperor Pingdi. In AD 3, Wang Mang made himself into 'zai heng', a post above the three ancient duke-equivalents, a title taken from Shang prime minister Yi Yin's name 'Ah Heng' and Archduke Zhou-gong's title of 'tai zai'. In AD 4, Wang Mang proposed to establish the Xihai-jun Commandary for resettling the convicts. In AD 5, Wang Mang called on the prefectures and counties to send in the learned scholars of various fields for making lectures at the nation's capital. Later historian Xun Yue commented that Wang Mang's deeds were none like the Zhou duke nor like the Shang minister Yi Yin.
 
When the emperor was ill, Wang Mang pretended to be the emperor's proxy to take the punishment of illness. In AD 6, the emperor died at the age of 14. Later, ZI ZHI TONG JIAN, a Soong dynasty history book, claimed that Wang Mang poisoned the emperor to death with a kind of pepper wine.
 
Han Emperor Ru-zi Ying (Liu Ying, 5-25 A.D.; reign 6-8 A.D.)
Wang Mang, then age 51, selected the two-year-old Ru-zi Ying (Liu Ying, 5-25 A.D.), i.e., Emperor Xuandi's 'xuan sun' or King Chu-xiao-wang's great grandson, as the crown prince, with himself as 'she-huangdi', i.e., the regent-emperor. Wang Mang called himself by 'yu' [me], and named the era 'ju she' [residing regency].
 
In A.D. 6, Liu Chong, a Han royal family member, led a rebellion and attacked the Wancheng city. In A.D. 7, Zhai Yi, 'tai shou' for the Dong-jun Commandary, rebelled against Wang Mang, and selected Marquis Yanxiang-hou (Liu Xin) as an emperor. To the west of Chang'an, banditry under Zhao Ming erupted and harassed twenty-three counties. Wang Mang wrote an article, in imitation of DA GAO, to explain that his regency was a temporary thing and that he would return the rule to the emperor in the future. Wang Mang dispatched Wang Yi to quelling the rebellion.
 
After quelling the rebellion, Wang Mang thought that he had consolidated the rule and acquired the mandate of heaven. In December of A.D. 8, Wang Mang deposed the young emperor and downgraded Ru-zi Ying (Liu Ying) to Duke Anding-gong, with a nominal fief of five counties of Pingyuan, Ande, Luoyin, Ge and Chongqiu. Wang Mang declared the founding of the Xin (New) dynasty, with the era of 'shi-jian-guo' [begin the building of a nation). Wang Mang officially proclaimed himself Emperor Xin-shi-zu, i.e., emperor of the Xin (New) Dynasty.

 
 
Relationship with the Huns
 
In the early time period of Former Han Dynasty
(202 B.C. - A.D. 220) , the Han emeprors used to marry princess to the Hunnic kings in exchange for peace, which proved to be futile. (Many times, the Han emperors used the court maids of honour in lieu of princess. In contrast, the later Tang Dynasty sent over the orthodox princess to Tibet.) It would be during the reign of Emperor Wudi (140-86 B.C.) that the Chinese fought back.
 
Han Emperors Wendi and Jingdi were renowned for their frugality. Their policies as to the Huns would be pacifying. Han Emperor Wudi, however, embarked upon a policy of expansion. From the mouth of a defecting Hun, Wudi learnt about a country called Yeh-chih Major to the west of the Huns. Hence, he sent an emissary called Zhang Qian, a Hun guide called Tangyifu and 100 people on a trek across the west. Zhang etc was arrested by the Huns soon, and he was forced to live among the Huns for dozens of years and he had married and bron two children. Zhang, however, did not forget about Wudi's order, and he fled with his Hun guide to the west and reached the state of Da'yuan, and with the assistance from Da'yuan king, was escorted to Kangju where the Kanju king assisted him further on his trip to Bactria where the Yeh-chih Major settled down. Upon Zhang's return from the west after a span of 13 years, Emperor Wudi first ordered 4 expeditions to the southwest of China to search for a route to India. This is because Zhang Qian reported that he saw Zangke (a place in today's Sichuan Province) bamboo products and Sichuan clothing which the Bactria merchants said were shipped over from India. Emperor Wudi then ordered expeditions to the west.
 
Zhang Qian told Emperor Wudi that Han should marry over a princess to the Wusun Statelet so that the Huns would lose their support in Western China, a strategy called 'cutting off the right arm of the Huns'. Zhang said that Wusun originally dwelled around Dunhuang, Gansu Provice and the areas around the Qilian Mountains, together with Yeh-chih. But Yeh-chih attacked them. The son of Wusun king would ask the Huns to help them in defeating the Yeh-chih. Zhang was ordered again to go west with hundreds of messengers. When those messegers returned to the capital, they did a calculation and derived the number of 36 statelets across the west of China. Wudi sent expeditions into the Hunnic territories frequently, and historians said he had used up his royal savings in waging the war on the Huns. The Wusun horses were originally called 'Tian Ma', namely, the Hevenly Horses, but later Emperor Wudi renamed the Wusun horses 'Xi Ji Ma' or western-most horses while the Da'yuan horses were given the name of 'Tian Ma'.
 
Between 130 and 121 B.C., the Chinese armies drove the Huns back across the Great Wall, and weakened the Huns in Gansu Province as well as on what is now Inner Mongolia. Famous Chinese generals, like Wei Qing and Li Guang would emerge in this time period. In the spring of 121 B.C., General Ho Chu-ping (Huo Qubing), with 10,000 cavalry, crossed the Yanzhi-shan Mountain to attack the Huns and took a gold statute, which the Huns used for revering the heaven, as bounty. In summer, the Han army passed the Juyan Lake to attack Hunnic King Huye-wang and Xiutu-wang around the Qilian-shan Mountain. In autumn, Hunnic King Huye-wang killed King Xiutu-wang, and surrendered the territory together with over 40,000 people. After General Ho Chu-ping (Huo Qubing) defeated the Huns and pushed into Ferghana Valley in 102 B.C., the Huns suffered setbacks and made peace with Han. General Huo Qubing set up the Qiuquan Commandary in Gansu Province, and later three more commandaries were set up, Wuwei, Zhangye and Dunhuang. For the first time, Chinese colonized in non-Chinese territories. Civilians were relocated to guard the posts along with the army. After General Li Guangli campaigned against the ancient state of Dayuan in Central Asia, more posts were set up on the Silk Road. From Dunhuang to the Qinhaihu Lake, hundreds of 'farming soldiers' were stationed.
 
When the small statelets, like Gushi and Loulan, tried to harass Han emissaries, Emperor Wudi sent General Zhao Puonu on a campaign against the two statelets. General Zhao caught the King of Loulan and conquered Gushi. When Da'yuan refused to trade their horses with Han, and further killed the Han emissry and robbed the gold horse, Emperor Wudi sent General Li Guangli on a campaign against Da'yuan in 104 BC. Emperor Wudi, who was fond of Empress Li (Li Furen), conferred Li Guangli the job as General Er-shi for the campaign against the Dawan-guo State. General Li Guangli's first campaign, with tens of thousands of convicts, failed to capture a city called Yucheng somewhere near the Peacock River of today's Chinese Turkestan. General Li Guangli returned with less than 20% of the forces in about 2 years. Emperor Wudi stopped him from coming inside of the Yumen-guan [jade gate] Pass. General Li Guangli stayed in Dunhuang. At about the same time, a Han general lost 20,000 men to the Huns. Emperor Wudi decided to conquer Da'yuan first before concentrating on the Huns. He ordered 60,000 second-class citizens and convicts, 100,000 buffalos, and 30,000 horses on a new campaign against Da'yuan. After a siege of over 40 days, Da'yuan killed their king and surrendered to Han. The Han army retrieved a dozen top-class horses and over 3,000 middle-class horses and returned. When Gen. Li Guangli was en route of return, his brother Li Ji, together with eunuch brother Li Yannian [who was a court musician enjoying a 2,000-bushel equivalent stipend] were exterminated over the lascivious activities at the palaces. In 101 B.C., Emperor Wudi, in light of the late Concubine Li (Li Furen), conferred Li Guangli the title of Marquis Hai-xi-hou [west of the sea] as condolence for the death of his brothers. (Lady [Concubine] Li Yan, i.e., Li Fu-ren, was fetched from Princess [sister] Pingyang's residency by the emperor after eunuch Li Yannian sang the song about a beauty of northern China ['beifang you jiaren'] who could capsize a person at the first sight and capsize a country at the second sight. At the time Lady Li died, she refused to turn towards the emperor for preserving her image of beauty. Lady [Concubine] Li born Liu Bo2, i.e., King Chang-yi-ai-wang.)
 
Friction with the Huns continued. A Han emissary, Su Wu, was detained and sent to Lake Bajkal to be a shepherd for 19 years, only to be returned after Huo Guang (General Ho Chu-ping's brother) requested for Su with the Hunnic king who had initially cheated Huo in saying that Su was long dead. In 100 B.C., Wudi sent a mission of over 100 people, led by an emissary called Su Wu, to the Huns, and Su Wu was detained by the Huns. Wudi later dispatched an army to punish the Huns. One contingent of 5000 arrow soldiers from southern China, led by General Li Ling (grandson of Li Guang), was encircled by the Huns numbering 30000. General Li Ling surrendered to the Huns after exhausting all arrows. In 90 B.C., General Li Guangli and his 70,000 troops, departing Wuyuan for the north, were defeated by the Huns. Li Guangli himself surrendered to the Huns and he was killed by the Huns later as a result of manipulation by Hunnic official Wei Lv. Emperor Wudi ordered the extermination of Li Guangli's family.
 
Li Ling was asked to see Su Wu by the Hunnic king. Li told Su that Su's wife had already remarried and Su's two brothers had died in China. But Su Wu refused to surrender. Li gave a Hun woman to Su as his wife. When Su returned to China, he had only eight of his previous companions with him. In later times, poems were made up about the Li Ling and Su Wu stories of parting at He-liang [a bridge over a river] in today's Outer Mongolia to infer that Li Ling and Su Wu first initiated the five character format for poetry. Poets made a parallel of the He-liang farewell to assassin Jing Ke's parting with Yan Prince Dan at the upperstrean Yi-shui River.
 
By the time of Emperor Xuandi (reign 73-48 B.C.), south of Tianshan Mountains was under the Han Chinese control. A Hunnic king called 'Rizhuowang' (the king of sun chasing) offended the Hunnic chanyu or king, and hence he defected to Han China, yielding to Han the original Hunnic control of the northern part of today's Chinese Turkistan. The Hunnic internal turmoil once led to the existence of five 'chanyu'. By 62 B.C., north of the Tianshan Mountains was firmly controlled by the Chinese as well. Colonization went as far as the ancient state of Sache. This post was responsible for reporting on the situation in such Central Asia states as Kangju and Wusun. The defection of 'Rizhuowang' had to do with Hunnic Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king) taking over the power with the help of an ex-queen. 'Rizhuowang' was the brother of the dead Hunnic king. 'Rizhuowang' sent an emissary to Han governor-general at Quli, Zheng Jie, for help. Zheng Jie sent an army of 50,000 and escorted 'Rizhuowang' to the Han capital, Chang'an.
 
When the new Hunnic chanyu killed two brothers of 'Rizhuowang', a son of the old Hunnic chanyu set up an independent court, calling himself 'Huhanye Chanyu'. After the death of the usurping Hunnic chanyu, three more Hunnic leaders proclaimed themselves 'chanyu', leading to co-existence of five 'chanyu'. Around 53 B.C., hearing that 'Huhanye Chanyu' had obtained the support of the Han Chinese, the last competing 'chanyu', Zhizhi, sent his son to the Han Court as a hostage as well. Zhizhi, being afraid of Han for his killing a Han emissary, relocated to the west, namely, the ancient Jiankun Statelet. This relocation also had to do with the request from the Kangju king who intended to use the Huns to attack the Wusun Statelet. Then governor-general Gan Yansou answered the call from Wusun and sent 6 columns of armies to defeat Kangju and 'Zhizhi Chanyu'. Zhizhi's descendants would later call themselves the Kirghiz, a soundex-mutated name.
 
During the reign of Emperor Yuandi, 48-32 B.C., one of the Hunnic kings, 'Huhanye Chanyu', surrendered to the Chinese, and colonization reached Cheshi.
 
The Hunnic empire split into two hordes in 51 B.C., with the Eastern Horde (or Southern Horde) subject to China. In 33 B.C., 'Huhanye Chanyu', came to the Han capital for the second time and was married with lady Wang Zhaojun, a court maid of honour. (Lady Zhaojun, like many princesses and maids of honour who were married with the Huns or other nomads before and after her, would later re-marry with the successor Hunnic kings, a practice adopted by the nomads throughout history.) Peace ensued for dozens of years.
 
At one time, two daughters of Lady Wang Zhaojun were invited by Wang Mang to visit the Han court, and Hunnic king promptly sent over one of the Lady Wang's daughters to the Han Court. This girl stayed in Han court for one whole year. After Wang Mang usurped the Han Dynasty, and named his dynasty Xin, namely, new, he would re-cast the seals bearing his new dynastic names and sent those seals to the Hunnic kings in exchange for the old seals conferred by Han Emperors. Later, the Huns found out about the trick and rebelled against the Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty. Wang Mang would fail to quell the Hunnic rebellions. He called upon the two sons of the brother of Lady Wang Zhaojun and sent them to the Huns frequently as 'ambassadors of friendship'. The two sons of the brother of Lady Wang Zhaojun would often contact the husband of the elder daughter of Lady Wang Zhaojun to broker peace. Wang Mang, however, continued his tricks and he at one time took the husband of the elder daughter of Lady Wang Zhaojun as a hostage, intending to support him as the new Hunnic king. During Wang Mang's reign, the Hun-Han relationship was the worst. Subsequent turmoils and rebellions which overthrew Xin Dynasty would allow the Huns to re-take control of parts of Chinese Turkistan.

 
 
Relationship with the Southern Statelets
 
In southern China, When uprisings occured against Qin throughout China, Ren Xiao, at death bed, instructed that Zhao Tuo (Zhao Ta) take over the 'wei [captain] {or brigadier general}' post. Zhao Tuo was hence called by 'Wei [captain] Ta' or 'Wei [captain] Tuo'. Zhao Tuo seized and blocked the passes through the Nan Ling (southern ridges), killed the Qin imperial designatories, and declared himself an emperor when he heard about the Chen Sheng and Wu Guang uprisings against the Qin Empire. In 207 B.C., Zhao Tuo campaigned against the Guilin and Xiang-jun commandaries, united the three commandaries, and declared the statehood of Nan-yue.
 
Han Emperor Liu Bang sent Lu Jia and a seal to the Nan-Yue Statelet. Zhao Tuo downgraded his title to that of a king. Liu Jia (? - 170 B.C.) admonished the Yue king about the barbarian customs of "tuijie [tapered bundling of hair] jiju [sitting with legs spread]". Han Dynasty then rescinded the previous conferral of southern territories from King Wu Rui of Changsha. Several conflicts broke out between Nan-yue and the King of Changsha in the ensuing dozen years. At the time of Empress Lv-hou, Zhao Tuo again upgraded his title to that of an emperor. This was because Empress Luu-hou, in the spring of 183 B.C., decreed that ironworks and female [she] cattle, sheep and horses be forbidden from export to Nan-yue. Zhao Tuo suspected that it was the King of Changsha who gave Empress Lv-hou the idea of embargo. Zhao Tuo's emissary was retained in Chang'an the capital; Zhao Tuo's ancestral tombs were dug up; and Zhao Tuo's kinsmen were persecuted and executed. To counter King Changsha, Zhao Tuo allied with the chieftans of Min-yue, Xi-ou and Luo-yue. Zhao Tuo mounted an unsuccessful campaign against Changsha. In Sept of 181 B.C., Luu-hou rescinded the seal of the King of Nan-yue and dispatched troops [under Rong Luuhou] against the south. One year later, the Han army failed to advance while Empress Luu-hou passed away. Zhao Tuo sought for peace again. Emperor Wendi agreed to it.
 
Zhao did not downgrade his title till he was visited by emissary Lu Jia of the new emperor, i.e., Han Emperor Wendi (reign B.C. 179-157). Wendi won back Zhao Tuo by repairing Zhao's ancestral graves in Zhending [i.e., Dingzhou of Hebei Province] of northern China. In 137 B.C., Zhao Tuo passed away at the age of over 100. Grandson Zhao Hu succeeded him. Zhao Ying-qi assumed the kingship from Zhao Hu till 112 B.C. In 113 B.C., Emperor Wudi sent Anguo Shaoji to Nan-yue for the emissary's relationship with Yue Queen Jiu-wang-hou. Zhao Xing, a son born in Chang'an while his father was a hostage with Han China, succeeded Zhao Ying-qi.
 
Nan-Yue rebelled as a result of its prime minister killing the young king, Zhao Xing, who was the great grandson of Zhao Tuo. This had to do with the adultery of the Han emissary with the mother of the Nan-Yue king, two acquaintances during the Chang'an days. Anguo Shaoji failed to take out Yue prime minister Lv Jia. Hen Emperor Wudi previously dispatched Anguo Shaoji [i.e., a lover of Zhao Xing's mother] to Nan-yu as well as stationed Luo Bode's troops at Guiyang to serve as military detente. Prime minister Luu Jia barely escaped from the assassination attempt by Zhao Xing's mother. Wudi then dispatched Haan Qianqiu and 2000 soldiers to the south. Luu Jia and his brother then took initiatives, laid siege of the palace, and killed Zhao Xing, the dowager queen, and the Han emissary. Luu Jia erected Zhao Jiande, a son born by Ying-qi with a southern Yue woman, as the new king. Han Qianqiu and 2000 soldiers were destroyed about 20 kilometers away from the Nan-yue capital city of Fanyu [i.e., Canton]. Han Emperor Wudi sent Lu Bode and several columns of armies, about 100,000 strong, to campaign in southern China. A naval fleet arrived at Panyu, namely, today's Canton, at the mouth of Zhujiang Delta, to attack Nan-Yue from the sea. When the Nan-yue remnants fled to the sea, the fleet pursued them to the Gulf of Tongking in Vietnam. Lu Bode's army sacked Canton in the winter of 111 B.C., and killed Luu Jia and Zhao Jiande. The Nan-yue land, including central and northern parts of today's Vietnam, were made into the commandaries of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yuelin [Guilin], Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, Rinan, Zhuya and Dan'er.
 
In 202 B.C., Wuzhu was conferred the title as King of Min-Yue by Han Emperor Gaodi (Liu Bang). In 192 B.C., Yao was conferred the title as King of Donghai (East Sea) by Han Emperor Huidi. The capital city was in Dong'ou and hence he was referred to as King of Dong'ou. Sima Qian, in comments about the length of the Min-Yue & Dong-Yue Statelets, said that the 'Yue' People must have inherited Lord Yu's spirits. Min-Yue & Dong-Yue were related to so-called 'Gu-yue' or the Ancient Yue Statelet located in today's Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. One claim would put all the Yue people, i.e., Bai Yue or the Hundred Yue People, in the same lineage as Lord Yu's descendants.
 
In 135 B.C., namely, the Jianyuan 6th year of Han Emperor Wudi, however, Min-Yue attacked Dong-Ou, and besieged the Dong-Ou capital. Dong-Ou asked for help from the Han court. The Han court relocated the Dong-Ou (Dong-Yue) people northward, to the area between the Yangtze River and the Huai River. Min-Yue took over the vacant land of Dong-Ou (Dong-Yue). In Aug of 135 B.C., King Zou Ying of Min-yue attacked Nan-yue. King Zhao Hu reported to Han Emperor Wudi. Han dispatched an army against Min-yue. Brother Yu-shan killed King Zou Ying with short spear and surrendered Zou Ying's head to Han Emperor Wudi. A grandson of Min-yue founder king Wu-zhu, i.e., Yao-jun [Prince Yao], by the name of Chou, was made into the new king. Since Yu-shan had attempted at kingship, the Han court relocated Yu-shan to Dong-ou to be King of Dong-yue.
 
Another generation later, after the conquest of Nan-Yue by Han Emperor Wudi, Min-Yue, now also known as Dong-Yue, would be attacked by the Han armies under the pretext that they tried to take advantage of the Han's war with Nan-Yue. Zhu Maichen, when King Dong-yue-wang disobeyed the central court, was dispatched by the emperor to the Kuaiji-jun Commandary as 'tai shou' to quell the rebellion. At Kuaiji, Zhu Maichen deliberately humiliated his ex-wife to death for divorcing him while was in poverty. In 110 B.C., Zhu Maichen, with General Haan Shui (i.e., Haan Yan's brother), departed Juzhang to attack Yu Shan via sea. A combined force of armies from Yuzhang and ships from the Hangzhou Bay destroyed the state. King Min-yue (Yao-wang), i.e., Ju Gu, cooperated with the Han army in killing Yu Shan who proclaimed himself Emperor Dong-yue-wudi. The Min-Yue people were relocated northward to the areas of the Huai and the Yangtze rivers.
 
In 135 B.C., a Han emissary, Tang Meng, was dispatched to the Yelang Statelet. Tang Meng noted that Nan-Yue or the Southern Yue was using soy sauce from today's Sichuan Province. The Yelang Statelet, with 100,000 strong army, was targeted by Han as a ally in the war on the Southern Yue. The Han emissary said that the Zangke River (a place in today's Sichuan Province), by which the Yelang Statelet dwelled, flew into Pany of today's Guangdong Province. The southern barbarians in today's Guizhou and Sichuan provinces were called upon as auxiliaries in the campaign against Nan Yue. But they killed a Han emissary. The Han armies killed a chief of the southern barbarians and made the territory into the Zangke (Yangke?) Commandary, namely, today's Guizhou Province, in 111 B.C.
 
Four more commandaries were set up southwest of today's Sichuan, including the Yuesui Commandary (today's southwestern Sichuan and northern Yunnan), Shenli Commandary (today's Daduhe River area in Sichuan Province), Wenshan Commandary (today's Wenchuan and Songpan of western Sichuan Province) and Wudu Commandary (today's southern Gansu and southern Shenxi Province).
 
The Yelang Statelet was pacified and conferred kingship. Dian, aka Shoumi-guo, which Scholar Zhan Quanyou stated was built upon a Shoumi tribal statelet, was the next target. Two years later, the Han Emperor mobolized the armies of Ba and Shu (i.e., Sichuan) for a southern campaign, exterminated the tribal statelets of Laojin (i.e., today's Malong) and Mimo (today's Qujing) in today's eastern Yunnan Prov, and amassed the army forces onto the Dian Kingdom and forced it into submission. In 109 B.C., the Dian Kingdom was conferred the title as king, with a gold seal. The Yizhou Commandary, with governor office at today's Jinning of Yunnan, was set up to control the domain. In western Yunnan, Buwei County, i.e., today's Baoshan, was setup, and in the south, Laiwei County (today's Laizhou Prov of Vietnam) was set up.

 
 
Confucianism vs Daoism During Early Han Dynasty
 
Mr Lin Yutang proposed during early 20th century the notion that the 'ancient Chinese were Confucian superficially, a Daoist innerside, and a legalist in governance.' A careful perusal of the early Han Dynasty history will show the kind of interwining nature of the three schools of thought in governance and philosophy. Should China ever possess a legalist philosophy, it was very much overturned during the Han Emepror Wudi's reigh, when the Confucian ranking system in regards to the king, the father and son etc was adopted. However, the Confucian and Daoist thoughts were never in conflict with each other for the Chinese intellectuals of the next two thousand years.
 
Han Dynasty founder (Han Emperor Gaodi, Liu Bang) was never fond of the Confucians. When receiving a 60-year-old confucian by the name of Li Yiji, Gaodi deliberately had two maids wash his feet; when Li Yiji challenged Gaodi on the matter of not showing respect for the old confucian, Liu Bang called the name of 'shu ru' (i.e., damned confucian); Liu Bang did not show respect for Li Yiji till Li Yiji cited the success and failure stories in history as examples for Liu Bang to win the war against Qin Empire.
 
Liu Bang employed Shu-sun Tong, a Qin-era 'bo-shi' (doctorate), for making the imperial rituals, and appointed him the post of "tai chang", i.e., imperial attache. Shu-sun Tong, to appease Liu Bang's despisement of Confucians, had changed to the Chu natives' clothes, i.e., short waist clothes, in lieu of the COnfucian robe. Shu-sun Tong later served the Crown Prince as "tai fu", i.e., imperial tutor. (Later, Qing historian Hong Liangji commented that the Qin empire had its demise in the hands of Shu-sun Tong. Why so? Because, Shu-sun Tong, as Qin Emperor Hu-hai's doctorate official, had told Hu-hai not to worry about the Chen Sheng & Wu Guang rebellion while he himself fled the capital to join Xiang Liang's rebellion.)
 
After the unification of China, per HAN SHU, Emperor Gaodi (Liu Bang) ordered Xiao He to work on 'lv ling' [laws], Haan Xin on 'jun fa' [martial laws], Zhang Cang on 'zhang cheng' [regulations], Shu-sun Tong on 'li yi' [rituals and protocols], and Lu Jia on 'xin yu' [new statements]. Before that, at one time, Liu Bang claimed that he did not need the intellectuals to help administer the country with SHI[-JING] [poems] and [SHANG-]SHU [remotely-ancient history] as he rode the horse too take the country. Lu Jia countered him, saying that the country could not be administered from the horseback, citing the ancient saint of Lord Yu-shun who was said to have ruled the country with the playing of five-chord zither and the singing of the 'southerly winds' poem. The emperor then asked Lu Jia to write articles about why the Qin lost its rule and why he obtained it. Lu Jia wrote twelve articles which Liu Bang named as 'xin [new] yu [statements]', with one article, 'dao [way] ji [basis]' citing XUB-ZI's statement that the heaven bore the tens of thousands of temporal things, which the earth was to raise and nurture, and the saint was to accomplish and perfect. Lu Jia named Confucius by 'hou [last] sheng [saint]', i.e., the last of the saints of the three epochs of the remote ancient world, the middle ages, and the then contemporary world. Qing Dynasty scholar Dai Yansheng succinctly analyzed Lu Jia's thoughts to point out that Lu Jia, who studied under Foqiu-bo (Fo-bo-qiu/Bao-qiu-zi, a desciple of Xun Qing/Xun-zi and a teacher to Shen-gong/Shen Peigong), could be the forerunner master of GU-LIANG CHUN-QIU ZHUAN. Lu Jia was said to have authored the book CHU-HAN CHUN-QIU, which was lost into oblivion in history.)
 
Per LULIN ZHUAN of HAN SHU, at the very beginning of the Han dynasty, there was a revival of studies of CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN. Zhang Cang, Jia Yi, Zhang Chang, and Liu Gong-zi ("taizhong dafu" {imperial admonition minister, which was subordinate to 'lang-zhong-ling'}, with the name Liu Gong-zi literally meaning Prince Liu but not necessarily a Liu royal family prince who should be termed 'wang" or a king, instead) all liked to edit CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN. Though, the book was never given the imperial attention till the Xin dynasty time period. One version of CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN was said to be passed down from Zhang Cang (Marquis Beiping-hou), a former Qin-era "yu shi" (imperial censor), who was said to be a disciple of scholar Xun Qing. Zhang Cang was said to have passed CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN to Han Dynasty scholar Jia Yi ("tai fu" or tutor for the Liang state); Jia Yi passed to grandson Jia Jia; Jia Jia passed to Guan4 Gong ("bo shi" for King Hejian-xian-wang); Guan4 Gong passed to son Guan4 Changqing ("ling" or magistrate for Dangyin); Guan4 Changqing passed to Zhang Chang ("jing-zhao yin", magistrate of the capital) & Zhang Yu ("yu shi" or a censor); Zhang Yu passed to Xiao Wangzhi ("yu shi" or a censor; and "tai fu" or tutor for the crown prince) and Yin Gengshi; Yin Gengshi passed to son Yin Xian, Di Fangjing, and Hu Chang; Hu Chang passed to Jia Hu; and Jia Hu passed to Chen Qin whose son Chen Qin passed to Xin Dynasty usurper emperor Wang Mang. It was said that Liu Xiang and Liu Xin had studied CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN from Yin Xian and Di Fangjing. Also, the Zuo family lineage book claimed that the Zuo family descendants fled the Wang Mang imperial recall by changing the surname and seeking anonymity in the related Qiu-surnamed hometown.
 
At the time of Emperor Xiaohuidi and dowager-empress Lv Hou, a few scholars were appointed some nominal posts, such as Yuan Gusheng and Haan Ying in the area of SHI JING, Zhang Sheng and Ou Yang in the area of SHANG SHU, Hu Wusheng and Dong Zhongshu in the area of CHUN QIU. At the time of Emperor Jingdi (reign 156-141 B.C.), Confucians Hu Wusheng (a former Qi territory person) and Dong Zhongshu (a former Zhao territory person) were made into 'bo shi', i.e., doctorate officials, for the research into Confucius' book CHUN QIU (Springs & Autums). It was said that Hu Wusheng and Gongyang Shou (who was a descendant of Gongyang Gao, a student of Confucian student Zi-xia) who were responsible for putting the Gongyang school of interpretation of CHUN QIU into the book format.
 
However, history said that Emperor Wendi liked 'xing ming' (the legal system) while Emperor Jingdi did not make any Confucian appointments. More, dowager-empress Doutaihou (Dou-tai-hou) had a personal preference for the Yellow Elderly school of thought, namely, the Laoism, which was also interpretated to be longevity studies attributed to the Yellow Emperor and Lao-zi. At one time, Yuan Gusheng offended dowager-empress Doutaihou when commenting on the Lao-zi books as being shallow. Dowager-empress Doutaihou cursed the Confucian books as belonging to the "cheng-dan" people, a term referring to Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's decree to force whoever was in possession of SHI JING, SHANG SHU and the books related to the hundreds of schools of thoughts to work as the citywall builders. More, Dowager-empress Doutaihou ordered Yuan Gusheng (Yuan Gu) to fight the wild boars as punishment.
 
In 140 B.C., when Emperor Wudi got enthroned at the age of 16, he made a decree that local governors send in the learned persons to the capital. Over one hundred intelligentsia, include Dong Zhongshu of Guangchuan, Gongsun Hong of Zichuan, and Yan Zhu of Kuaiji, came to the capital. (Yan Zhu later recommended to the empror his native friend, Zhu Maichen, who happened to be ordered to the capital for an assignment as the county cart escort; the emperor, when King Dong-yue-wang disobeyed the central court, dispatched Zhu Maichen to the Kuaiji-jun Commandary as 'tai shou' to quell the rebellion.)
 
Wudi disapproved of the old officialdom policy which was to have officials (worthy of a pay of 2000 units of grains) recommend their sons and nephews for various posts. The new decree, 'advocating thrift people and recomemending filial people', discounted the family origin. A good story about Wudi would be his assigning Yan Si (an old man who went through two prior emperors' rule without any promotion) for the post of du wei (governing captain {or brigadier general}) of the Kuaiji Commandary. Wudi was impressed by Dong Zhongshu's article which advocated Confucianism as the creed for ruling a nation. Wudi conferred Dong a post as prime minister for King of Jiangdu (Liu Fei).
 
Prime Minister Wei Guan suggested to Wudi that only a few Confucian intelligentsia like Gongsun Hong and Yan Zhu should be retained while the rest non-Confucians could be sent back to their homes. After Wudi replaced Wei Guan with Dou Ying (nephew of Dowager Empress Doutaihou), Dou Ying and Tian Fen would locate two Confucians for Wudi: Zhao Guan and Wang Zang. Zhao Guan and Wang Zang were two of the thousand students of an eighty-year-old Shen-gong of the ex-Chu Principality. Shen-gong was renowned for his research into ancient Shi Jing [classics of poems]. Shen-gong was invited to the capital by Wudi, but Shen-gong somehow performed modestly for sake of avoiding palace struggles.
 
Though, Confucianism did not get developed until much later. Dowager-empress Dou-tai-hou still vehemently opposed the non-Daoist thoughts. In 139 B.C., when minister Zhao Guan suggested to Emperor Wudi that he did not have to consult with the dowager-empress about the practice of new policies, Dou-tai-hou pressued the emperor into having Zhao Guan ('yushi dafu') and Wang Zang ('langzhong ling') arrested. Dowager Empress Doutaihou, who previously intended to kill 'bo shi' Yuan Gu who served under Emperor Jingdi, would force Wudi into having Zhao Guan and Wang Zang arrested for propagation of Confucianism. Dowager Empress made an analogy of the Confucian proponents to foretune-teller Xin Yuanping who was executed by the predecessor emperor for fabricating the supernatural phenomenon and objects. Dowager Empress Doutaihou was fond of Daoism and hated Yuan Gu, Zhao Guan and Wang Zang for advocating Confucianism. Zhao Guan and Wang Zang, who offended Doutaihou for advising Wudi on prevention of the empress intervention in politics, committed suicide inside the prison. Under the pressure of Doutaihou, Wudi deprived Dou Ying and Tian Fen of their posts. Dou Ying ('chengxiang' or prime minister) and Tian Fen ('tai wei') were deprived of their posts. Xu Chang (Marquis Bozhi-hou) and Zhuang Qingdi (Marquis Wuqiang-hou) took over the prime minister and 'yushi dafu' posts, respectively. Shen-gong claimed illness and went home. The new deal polices were revoked. Nothing was achived till after Dou-tai-hou died in 135 B.C.
 
After the death of Dowager Empress Doutaihou, Tian Fen was assigned the post as prime minister. Dong Zhongshu, who was conferred a post as prime minister for the King of Jiangdu (Liu Fei), was impeached by an official called Zhufu Yan in 135 BC. Han General Guan Fu tried to mediate over the relationship of Tian Fen and Dou Ying, but he offended Tian Feng in a marriage banquet in 131 B.C. With the help of Dowager Empress Wangtaihou, Tian Feng made Wudi order that both Guan Fu and Dou Ying be executed. Guan Fu's whole family were exterminated.
 
Wudi's brother, King of Lu, discovered some surviving books hidden by the 8th generation grandson of Confucius (Kong Zixiang) inside of the walls of Confucius' house. Zhang Tang, a censor or inspector under Wudi and a cruel criminal law official, would order 'bo shi' scholars to research into Shang Shu and Shi Jing. (Zhang Tang was notorious for his childhood article 'Interrrogating Mice' on which occasion he caught and interrogated mice after digging through the mice's underground caves to catch the mice for mice's stealing his family's grains.)
 
In 130 B.C., at the age of 80, Gongsun Hong, who claimed illness after returning from the Huns as an emissary, was recommended to the court again. Yuan Gu was over the age of 90 by that time. Gongsun Hong was conferred the post as yushi dafu, i.e., censor-in-chief.
 
In 127 B.C., Zhufu Yan, using Jia Yi's ideas in ZHI-AN [peaceful administration] CE [tactics], proposed to Wudi to have the various Liu kings divide their domain into smaller fiefs among their brothers and sons so that the various Liu kings would not be strong enough to pose a threat to the central government. This was the so-called 'tui [push] en [grace {to the second and third sons] ling [imperial order]', namely, preventing the elder son from taking the fief altogether, a tactic that was adopted by the imperial houses for the next two thousand years. The inheritors, as marquis ('lie hou'), were subject to the commandary on the same par as counties. Zhufu Yan also proposed the pacifying policies with the Huns; but, after General Wei Qing and General Li Xi defeated the Hunnic kings in Loufan and Baiyang and took over the Hetao land south of the Yellow River in 127 B.C., Zhufu Yan changed his mind and proposed to Wudi to have a castle built on the north bank of the North Yellow River Bend in the same way as Qin Emperor Shihuangdi did. Gongsun Hong advised against Zhufu Yan's proposal by citing the futile attempts of Qin Shihuangdi in mobilizing 300,000 people for building the castle. Wudi concurred with Zhufu Yan in relocating over 100,000 people to the north bank. Zhufu Yan impeached King of Yan for his lasciviousness, namely, adultery with sisters and daughters. King Yan was ordered by Emperor Wudi to commit suicide. The Qi king, who was son of King Qi-yi-wang, was controlled by his mother-empress Ji-tai-hou who cursed Xu Jia, an eunuch who was sent by the dowager-emperess to the Qi state on a match-making mission on behalf of daughter Xiu-cheng-jun. Angry that his daughter could not be with princess Xiu-cheng-jun as King Qi-li-wang was not allowed to marry the princess, Zhufu Yan volunteered for the job to be dispatched to King of Qi as prime minister for an investigation. Zhufu Yan impeached King Qi for King Qi's affairs with a sister. King Qi committed suicide. King Zhao-wang impeached Zhufu Yan over his personal agony towards the dead Qi king. Gongsun Hong impeached Zhufu Yan for King Qi's death. Emperor Wudi ordered Zhufu Yan and his family be executed. Wudi deprived Xue Ze of the prime minister post; Gongsun Hong was conferred the post of prime minister (the post that belonged to three so-called 'san gong' or three duke-equivalents) and the title of Marquis Pingjin in 124 B.C. Gongsun Hong, following the practice of eminent princes of the Warring States time period, set up several guest houses for attracting talents and counsellors. Gongsun Hong appeared thrifty and pious, but were jealous of talents and extravagent inside. Dong Zhongshu had criticisms of Gongsun Hong. Gongsun Hong somehow inhibited Wudi's attempt to recall Dong Zhongshu.
 
With Gongsun Hong as prime minister, Emperor Wudi instituted the position of wu jing bo shi, i.e., Five Classics Doctorals and ordered that prefectures and the various Liu kingdoms dispatch learned youths to the capital as doctoral students. Confucius' ninth generation grandson, Kong An'guo, was among the doctorals teaching the students.
 
Gongsun Hong recommended Ji An for the post of rightside nei shi and recommended Dong Zhongshu for the post of prime minister for the King of Jiaoxi (Liu Rui), in the attempt of ridding the two political enemies by means of a 'borrowed knife'. Dong Zhongshu resigned his post for retirement shortly thereafter and then finished a 100,000 character book entitled Chunqiu Fanlu (miscellaneous dews from Spring & Autumn era).
 
Hu Wusheng [and his disciple Gongsun Hong] and Dong Zhongshu had been responsible for making CHUN QIU GONG-YANG ZHUAN a state teaching textbook. Among the two compendium-nature annotation books for CHUN QIU, namely, Gong-yang-gao's 11-volume CHUN QIU GONG-YANG ZHUAN [a Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state], and Gu-liang-chi's 11-volume CHUN QIU GU-LIANG ZHUAN [another Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state], the latter appeared to be of the nature of rebuttal against the former. Both books, which were postulated to have been passed on from the disciples of Confucian student Zi-xia, were in the format of questions and answers, apparently a compilation of the classroom teachings. (Zuo-qiu Ming's 35-volume CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN was not given the proper status during the Former Han Dynasty time period. During the Han dynasty, two other CHUN QIU versions of ZOU-SHI and JIA-SHI at one time existed before they were lost into oblivion.)
 
Zhang Tang, who was 'yushi dafu' serving under Zhu Maichen at one time, was conferred the post of ting wei (justice minister). Zhang Tang and Gongsun Hong colluded with each other, but Ji An refused to show respect for the two. Zhang Tang had under his service a learned doctoral student called Ni Kuan; Ni Kuan was known to Wudi for his article that Zhang Tang submitted to Wudi. In 124 B.C., Wei Qing was conferred the post of Da Jiangjun (Grand General or Generalissimo) for defeating the Hunnic 'rightside virtuous king' and capturing 150,000 Huns; Wei's three babies and his generals were conferred the marquisdom titles; Wei Qing married with a 40 year old widow, Princess Pingyang. Though, Ji An still showed no respect for Wei Qing. The next year, Wei Qing led 6 columns against the Huns. General Zhao Xin surrendered to the Huns. General Huo Qubing, however, had a small victory. Wudi, to enrich the depleted royal savings spent on the campaigns against the Huns, decreed that officialdom could be bought with money.
 
The King of Huainan, Liu An (179-122 B.C.), hired eight elderly intelligentsia: Su Fei, Li Shang, Zuo Wu, Chen You, Wu Bei, Mao Zhou, Lei Bei and Jin Chang, and completed the alchemy and legends book, Huai Nan Zi, a.k.a. HONG (swan) LIE (ardent). The eight elderly intelligentsia, called by 'ba [eight] gong [grandpa]', had their name set for the Bagong-shan Mountain on the northern bank of the Fei-shui River. The alchemy work accidentally led to the invention of tofu, for which Liu An was accredited with being the founding master of the tofu industry. BEN CAO GANG MU confirmed this invention. Coming to the nation's capital, Liu An submitted the book to the emperor. Among the series of books written by Liu An's hanger-on guests, there was a CHU CI style poem which called for the return of the king's grandson from the wilderness: Wangsun (king's grandson or a royal) you (going into the wilderness) xi [modal word] bu (no) gui (return), chuncao (spring grass) sheng (growing) xi [modal word] qiqi (luxuriant). Liu An, a grandson of the founding emepror Liu Bang, assumed from his father in 64 B.C. one of the three subdivided fiefs of the original Huainan-guo territory which was assigned to in 203 and taken back from Ying Bu in 196 B.C. For his raising a few thousand hanger-on guests, Liu An was susceptible to being accused of rebellion. King Huainan later committed suicide when he was accused by Lei Bei, one of the eight renowned scholars, and one of his own grandsons, of attempting to rebel against Wudi.
 
Zhang Tang, who was related to Han strategician Zhang Liang, accused Yan Zu and King Huainan-wang (Liu An) of conspiracy to rebel against the emperor. Zhang Tang tried the accomplices and exterminated the families of the people involved, including Liu An's wife and two daughters. The Huainan fief was downgraded to the Jiujiang Commandary.
 
The King of Hengshan, Liu Ci, followed the suit of Liu An. The Hengshan fief was reduced to a commandary. The emperor's seven year old prince was made a crown prince. Marquis Bowang-hou (Zhang Qian) was dispatched to the west again.
 
With Yan Zu ordered to be executed, Zhu Maichen et als., hated Zhang Tang. Zhu Maichen was 'chengxiang zhangshi', i.e., an assistant minister to Zhuang Qingdi, i.e., the prime minister. Over the theft of the sacrifician coins and money in late Emperor Wendi's tomb, Zhang Tang tried to implicate the prime minister. Zhu Maichen, Wang Chao and Bian Tong, three assistant ministers, sowed dissension to have Zhuang Qingdi torture a merchant (Tian Xin) into confession against Zhang Tang. Jian Xuan, who was responsible for prosecuting the Zhufu Yan and King Huainan-wang cases, also accused Zhang Tang of being responsible for the death of Li Wen ('yushi zhongchen'). The emperor ordered Zhao Yu, a successor to Li Wen, to try the case of Zhang Tang. Zhang Tang committed suicide at prison. Only 500 grams of 'jin' (copper) money were confiscated from Zhang Tang's residency. Once the emperor read Zhang Tang's note that was written before Zhang Tang's suicide, the emperor regretted about it. Hearing that Zhang Tang's mother buried his son with a simple coffin, the emperor felt moved and then ordered to have the three guys killed. Zhang Tang had several sons, including Zhang Heh and Zhang Anshi. Zhuang Qingdi committed suicide at prison thereafter. (HAN SHU claimed that Yan Zu and Zhu Maichen were responsible for propagating the CHU CI literature.)
 
Also notable during this period would be a figure called Dongfang Shuo who, per research of some scholar, had been said to have travelled to the Arctic area more than 2000 years ago. The basis of this claim would be Dongfang Shuo's writings in regards to the 'extreme darkness' and the 'extreme daylight' for six months, respectively. Dongfang Shuo, however, was noted for infatuating Han Emperor Wudi in saying the emperor had exceeded the three sovereigns and five overlords.

 
 
The Xin (New) Dynasty (8-23 A.D.)
 
In December of A.D. 8, Wang Mang (45 B.C. - 23 A.D.), after downgrading Emperor Ru-zi Ying (Liu Ying) to Duke Anding-gong, declared the founding of the Xin (New) dynasty, with the era of 'shi-jian-guo' [begin the building of a nation), and called himself Emperor Xin-shi-zu. Wang Mang renamed Chang'an [long peace] to Chang'an [constant peace]. Wang Mang deprived the Liu royals of the kingship and marquisdom titles by dozens and hundreds. In A.D. 9, Marquis Xuxiang-hou (Liu Kuai) staged a rebellion. [Wang Mang descended from Tian An, who received the title of King Jibei-wang from Xiang Yu, while Tian An in turn descended from Qi-wang-jian or Qi King Tian Jian, son of Qi King Xiangwang (Tian Fazhang).]
 
During his reign, Wang Mang conducted several drastic reforms as well as initiated the restoration movement. Later historian Xia Yan claimed that the persons who misled the country with the Zhou dynasty rituals would include Wang Mang, Lin Xin, Su Zhuo and Wang Anshi. Huo Tao put Wang Mang, Yuwen Tai and Wang Anshi in the same category. Modern scolar Hu Shi made a wild claim, stating that Wang Mang was the first socialist. Another modern scholar Heh Ziquan claimed that Wang Mang was a reformist. Fu Lecheng claimed that Wang Mang was a martyr to the vintage thoughts.
 
Among the domestic policies, Wang Mang adopted the Zhou dynasty's system in zoning the land according to the Zhou square shape, and prohibited the sale and purchase of land. Wang Mang ordered the equalization of assets. Wang Mang prohibited the sale of servants. Wang Mang monopolized salt, iron, liquor, coins, forests and lakes under the state control. Wang Mang prohibited the circulation of the wu-zhu-qian coins, which had the weight of five 'zhu' or 0.208 Chinese gram, and reverted back to the Zhou dynasty coins. The currency reform led to the spiraling inflation, a fundamental cause of the demise of the Xin dynasty.
 
For the foreign relations, Wang Mang took the condescending and patronizing superiority towards the barbarian states and tribes. While still working as a regent for the Han emperor, Wang Mang created the Xihai-jun or the west sea commandary for sake of juxtaposing with the north sea, east and south sea concepts as known in the book SHAI HAI JING. Wang Mang further dowagraded the barbarian and foreign kingship to marquisdom. To campaign against the barbarians, Wang Mang ordered the exaction of labor and resources, which led to the eruption of banditry. In A.D. 11, banditry swelled the Bingzhou prefecture. In A.D. 15, locals in the Wuyuan and Dai-jun area, under the constant attacks by the Huns, rose up against the government. In A.D. 17, Gua Tianyi led a banditry in Changzhou of the Kuaiji Commandary. In Haiqu of Langya, a woman called Mother Lv (Lv-mu) led a pirate banditry in AD 14, and killed the Haiqu county magistrate over the execution death of his son. In this year, locusts and famine fell on the nation. In A.D. 18, Li Zidu of the Donghai (Dancheng, Shandong) area rose up. This was followed by dozens of banditry groups roaming the country throughout. Two groups of rebels, who snowballed to a headcount of 1 million plus, would be the Chi-mei [red brow] Army and the Lv-lin [green forest] Army.
 
In 18 A.D., Fan Chong, in the ancient Ju-guo area of today's eastern Shandong, rose up against the Xin dynasty, and set up a base in Mt. Tai[4]-shan. Soon, Fan Chong converged with rebels Feng An, Xu Xuan (a former county prison official), Xie Lu and Yang Yin. After the rebels failed to sack the Ju-xian county capital, they moved to Gumu where they defeated the Xin dynasty's army led by Tian Kuang (Marquis Tantang-hou). Going north to Qingzhou, the rebels returned to Mt. Tai-shan. With the government troops' reinforcements coming, Fan Chong led a duel. For dying the eyebrows into the redness, the rebels were called by the Chi-mei [red eyebrow] Army. The rebels defeated the government troops, chased to Wuyan [no salt] where they killed the government army general Lian Dan, i.e., Duke Pingjun-gong. The rebels failed to sack Ju-xian again, abandoned the idea after someone said this was after all the country of our fathers and mothers, and they moved on towards central China to the east.
 
In Xinshi (Jingshan, Hubei), Wang Kuang (?-25 A.D.) and Wang Feng, in A.D. 17, organized a rebellion army of close to 10,000 men, with base set at the Lv-lin [green forest] Mountain, , i.e., today's Mt. Dahongshan, for which they were called by the Lv-lin bandits. After defeating the Jingzhou-mu's prefecture force and occupying Jingling (Tianmen) and Anlu counties in 21 A.D., the rebels developed into several tens of thousands. In 22 A.D., the Lv-lin army split into a Xia-jiang-bing force towards Nanjun of the Jiangling area to the west and a Xinshi-bing force towards Nanyang to the north. When attacking Suixian, the Xin-shi-bing force obtained an allied army called by the Pinglin-bing force [from north of Anlu]. Liu Xuan, a grandson of Liu Li ('tai shou' for Cangwu), joined the rebels and was assigne the job as 'an-ji-yuan' [clerk].
 
In A.D. 22, Wang Mang started to roll back the reforms in face of the nationwide revolts. In Nanyang, Liu Yan and Liu Xiu brothers, i.e., descendants of the Liu royal family, also rose up against the government by killing the Xinye county official 'wei' [captain]. The Liu brothers, for their ancestral origin and rebellion from hometown Chongling (Zaoyang, Hubei), was called by the Chongling-jun army. The Liu brothers, after a defeat in the hands of the government troops, joined the Xin-shi Lv-lin-jun Army in repelling Wang Mang's imperial army at B[3]i-shui and Yuyang and killing government generals Zhen Fu and Liang Qiuci. Liu Xiu (5-57 A.D.), the 9th generation grandson of Han Emperor Gaozu, was born in a year when the rice had nine ears and the re light was observed in his room, for which he was named by 'xiu' [bright and numerous]. Born in Jiyang where his father was a county magistrate, Liu Xiu at one time studied SHANG SHU in the nation's capital, and harbored the wish to be an imperial garrison general and to marry with Yin Lihua, a beauty from a rich family in Xinye, i.e., 'shihuan dang zuo jin-zhi-wu, qu qi dang de yin-lihua'.
 
In A.D. 23, at Qing[1]yang, the combined Lv-lin Army selected Liu Xuan, a Liu family royal, as an emperor, restored the Han dynasty rule, called its army by the Han-jun army, and declared the era of Geng-shi [restart]. Wang Kuang and Wang Feng received the title of 'shang gong', Liu Yan 'da sima', and Liu Xiu 'taichang pian-jiangjun'. Emperor Wang Mang dispatched Wang Yi ('da sikong') and Wang Xun ('da situ'), and abouth 420,000 army, against the rebels in the Wancheng and Kunyang area.
 
In May of A.D. 23, the imperial army departed Luoyang for the south. Liu Xiu withdrew the rebels back to Kunyang from Yangguan (Yuxian, Henan). With the government troops converging on Kunyang, Liu Xiu and a small cavalry force exited the city for seeking the relief army in Dingling (Wuyang, Henan) and Yanxian. With over 10,000 cavalry and infantry reinforcements, Liu Xiu attacked the government troops which were laying the siege of Kunyang (Yexian, Henan). Liu Xiu then led a 3000-men force to cross the Kun-shui (Huishui, Yexian, Henan) River to attack the hind of the government troops. Liu Xiu's army killed Wang Xun. Meanwhile, the rebels charged out of the Kunyang city to pincer-attack the government troops, which led to a collapse of the government troops. The government troops, when fleeing across the Zhi-shui River, were drowned by the overflowing water. At Wancheng, Emperor Liu Xuan (i.e., Geng-shi-di) killed Liu Yan for disobedience but conferred the title of Marquis Wuxin-hou to pacify Liu Xiu. Liu Xuan killed Liu Yan at the suggestion of Zhu Wei ('da sima') and Li Tie. Later, when Liu Xiu, i.e., Eastern Han Emperor Guangdwu-di, encircled the Luoyang city, he sent a note to Zhu Wei in suggestion of a pardon should the city be surrendered. Zhu Wei, having himself bound with corps, ordered his followers to deliver him to Liu Xiu. Emperor Guangwu-di, like Soong Dynasty emperor Tai-zu, was one of the rare Chinese founding emperors who had good terms with his generals throughout the life.
 
On the Shandong peninsula, the red eyebrow rebels, after the failure to sack the Ju-xian county capital again, relocated towards the east. With Lv-mu's troops dissipating into the Chi-mei, Qing-du [green calf] and Tong-ma [bronze horse] bands, Fan Chong, with the extra headcounts, raided Donghai. In the battle against government official 'da-yin' for Yi-ping, the rebels suffered a defeat. The rebels then rampaged through the area of Chu, Pei, Runan and Yingchuan, returned to take Chenliu, sacked Lucheng, and went against Puyang.
 
Liu Ci suggested to Liu Xuan to allow Liu Xiu to go to 'he-bei', i.e., north of the Yellow River, to pacify the rebel groups, to which Zhu Wei was opposed. At the advice of Feng Yi, Liu Xiu bribed Cao Jing ('zuo chengxiang') to lobby with Emperor Geng-shi-di. On the way of crossing the river for the north, Liu Xiu was joined by acquaintance Deng Yu. North of the Yellow River, Liu Xiu obtained the help of Geng Yan, son of Geng Kuang who was 'tai shou' for Shanggu, and obtained the cavalry force from the Yuyang and Shanggu commandaries. Liu Xiu also obtained the support of King Zhengding-wang (Liu Yang). Liu Xiu went as north as today's Peking-Tientsin area as a result of the emergence of rivalry-Liu regimes in the land north of the Yellow River, where Liu Lin supported Wang Lang [who claimed to be son Liu Ziyu of late Han Emperor Chengdi] as Emperor Han-di [Han-ji-di] in Handan, and Liu Jie [a son of former Han King Guangyang-wang] echoed Liu Lin's regime.
 
In August, the Lv-lin army, after the Battle of Kunyang, dispatched two columns of army against the Xin Dynasty strongholds of Luoyang and Chang'an. In September, Wang Kuang's prong sacked Luoyang and killed Xin Dynasty generals Wang Kuang and Ai Zhang. In October of 23 A.D., Emperor Geng-shi-di relocated to Luoyang from Wan (Nanyang, Hebei). Liu Ci was appointed the post as prime minister ('cheng xiang'). At Luoyang, the emperor sent an emissary to pacifying the Chi-mei [red eyebrow] rebels. At Puyang, Fanchong sought suzeraity with Emperor Gengshi-di who was to set up the capital at Luoyang. Fan Chong and about twenty Chi-mei rebel leaders came to Luoyang and received the nominal titles with no fiefdoms. Fan Chong returned to Puyang where over 300,000 Chi-mei rebels started rebellion over the unfair treatment. Liu Gong, a brother of Liu Pengzi, did not return east with Fan Chong but stayed on to serve Emperor Gengshi-di for his learning in SHANG SHU.
 
The western prong, under Shen Tujian and Li Song, pushed to the Wuguan pass, where they pacified the Xin dynasty general Zhu Meng and killed the Xin dynasty general Soong Gang. In A.D. 23, the Lvlin-jun Army, under Deng Ye and Li Song, defeated Wang Mang's nine tiger-suffixed generals at Huayin. Deng Ye, after failing to sack Wei-kou, sent Wang Xian and a contingent across the Wei-shui River to take over Zuo-fengyi and attack Chang'an from the north direction. Li Song meanwhile ordered Haan Chen to attack Xinfeng (Lintong). Haan Chen defeated Xin dynasty general Dou Rong and chased to the Changmen-gong Palace of Chang'an. Wang Mang released the convicts from prisons for Shi Zhan to command. The convicts mutineered. On Oct 1, the Lv-lin army intruded into Chang'an through the Xuanping-men gate. Wang Mang escaped to Cangchi-Jiantai, a terrace inside of the Weiyang-gong palace, after the Lvlin-jun Army sacked Chang'an and defeated Wang Yi and Wang Xun's garrison army after a three-day battle. At the Jiantai Terrace, a merchant by the name of Du Wu killed Wang Mang. Gong Bin, a 'jiao wei' officer, cut off Wang Mang's head, with public exhibition at the Wan-shi market. The Lvlin-jun Army escorted Liu Pengzi, i.e., Emperor Gengshi-di, into Chang'an.
 
With the support of Yuyang and Shanggu commandary cavalry forces, the army from King Zhengding-wang (Liu Yang), and Xie Gong's reinforcement troops from Emperor Gengshi-di, Liu Xiu was able to defeat and kill Wang Lang at Handan. After quelling the 'he-bei' territory, Liu Xiu got rid of the superintendent Xie Gong sent by Emperor Geng-shi-di as well as the governors and magistrates assigned by Emperor Geng-shi-di. Liu Xiu defeated the rebels as well as the Xin dynasty officials, and after absorbing the Tong-ma [bronze horse] rebels, Liu Xiu was called by Lord Tong-ma-di. In June of 25 A.D., in Haocheng (Boxiang, Xingtai, Hebei), Liu Xiu declared himself an emperor, with the era of Jianwu [building up the martialness].
 

 
 
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

 
 
Emperor Geng-shi-di's Xuan-han Dynasty (23-25 A.D.) & Emperor Jianshi-di's Chimei-han Dynasty (25-27 A.D.)
 
In February of 24 A.D., Emperor Geng-shi-di further moved the capital to Chang'an. The emperor conferred kingship onto various rebel generals. At Zhu Wei's insistence, the non-Liu kings were downgraded to marquisdom. Li Song was appointed the post as prime minister ('cheng xiang') while Liu Ci took the post of 'qian-da-sima' and Zhao Meng the post of 'you-da-sima'. The emperor sent a decree to make Liu Xiu into General 'po-lu-jiangjun' and concurrent 'da-sima'.
 
Emperor Geng-shi-di, who took in Zhao Meng's daughter as wife, did not take care of the business. Geng-shi-di arrested Li Jiao over admonition. By late 23 A.D., rebellion erupted across the country again, with Wang Lang, who claimed to be son Liu Ziyu of late Han Emperor Chengdi, called himself Emperor Han-di [Han-ji-di] in Handan, and Liu Yong, who received Geng-shi-di's conferral as King Liang-wang, also called himself an emperor [i.e., Liu-liang-wudi] as well. (After Liu Xiu quelled the Wang Lang rebellion, Emperor Geng-shi-di conferred Liu Xiu the title of King Xiao-wang. However, Liu Xiu refused to answer Emperor Gengshi-di's call to go back to the capital city.)
 
In 24 A.D., Fang Wang, a person from Pingling, failed to stop Kui Qi and the Kui family members from going to Chang'an to support Emperor Geng-shi-di. In January of 25 B.C., while Emperor Geng-shi-di was in reign in Chang'an, Fang Wang (Fang Wangzhi) and Gong Lin sent a mission to fetch Ru-zi Ying (Liu Ying) to Linjing (Zhenyuan, Gansu) from Chang'an, and supported the last Western Han Dynasty emperor as the lord. In 25 B.C., Restoration Emperor Geng-shi-di (Liu Xuan) dispatched Li Song ('cheng xiang') and Su Mao to defeating Fang Wang and Ru-zi Ying. Emperor Ru-zi Ying was killed in battle.
 
The Chi-mei rebels, at Puyang, decided to attack Emperor Geng-shi-di's regime in lieu of returning to the Shandong peninsula to the east. The rebels split into two groups, with Fan Chong and Feng An taking over Changshe (Changge, Henan) and attacking Wancheng, while Xu Xuan, Xie Lu and Yang Yin taking Yangdi (Yuxian, Henan) and attacking Liang (Linru, Henan). In winter of A.D. 24, Fan Chong's prong crossed the Wuguan pass while Xu Xuan's prong penetrated the Luhun-guan [Yiyang, Henan] pass. Emperor Geng-shi-di sent Wang Kuang (King Biyang-wang), Cheng Dan (King Xiangyi-wang) and Liu Jun ('kangwei jiangjun') against the Chi-mei rebels. In January of A.D. 25, the Chi-mei rebels pushed to Hongnong (Lingbao, Henan). Restoration Emperor Geng-shi-di sent Su Mao to Hongnong, where Su Mao was defeated by the Chi-mei army. In March, Restoration Emperor Geng-shi-di further sent Li Song and Zhu Wei to Maoxiang, where they were defeated by the Chi-mei army and lost over 30,000 troops. Meawhile, at He-dong (east of the Yellow River), Wang Kuang and Zhang Ang, after a defeat in the hands of Deng Yu, fled to Chang'an. Zhang Ang suggested a relocation to hometown Nanyang.
 
In June, the Chi-mei rebels reached Zhengxian (Huayin, Shenxi). At the advice of Fang Yang (Fang Wangzhi's brother), the rebels, to counter Emperor Geng-shi-di, selected a Liu-surnamed teenager 'cowboy', Liu Pengzi, as the new Han emperor [i.e., Emperor Jianshi-di], and declared the era of Jian-shi. Among about six dozens of Liu-surnamed descendants of King Jing-wang of the former Chengyang-jun commandary, 15-year-old Liu Pengzi, with bare feet and unbriddled hair, was made into an emperor after he drew the ballots the last, for his youngest age, using a method of sortition ballot, i.e., the drawing of lots from a jar with one pre-written note of emperor, mixed with the blanks. Liu Pengzi was called a cowboy for the 'niu [cow] li [official]' job he held in the army. It was said that he could communicate with the cows and buffalos. Xu Xuan, who at one time served as a county prison official, was made into prime minister for his knowledge of YI JING, while Fan Chong himself took the post of 'yushi dafu' for lack of abilities to read and write.
 
Fan Chong and the rebels decided to rebel against the restoration emperor as a result of the Qi [the Shandong peninsula] witches' repeating prophecy statements about the rebels' destiny to act as county magistrates rather pure bandits. Further, Fang Wang, to avenge his brother Fang Wangzhi's death in the hands of the restoration emperor, instigated Fan Chong on the matter of replacing the regime.
 
Emperor Gengshi-di, after diffusing the subordinates' attempt at fleeing south for Nanyang, sent Wang Kuang, Chen Mu, Cheng Dan, and Zhao Meng to Xinfeng, and Li Song to Zhoucheng, for countering the Chi-mei army. After pushing to the Gao-ling (? Emperor Gaozu's mausoleum) area, the Chi-mei rebels obtained the defection of Zhang Ang, a general under the restoration emperor. The cause was to do with the discord between the restoration emperor and the ministers. The ministerss, including Shen Tujian, Zhang Ang and Liao Zhan wanted to abandon Chang'an for hometown Nanyang, and colluded with Hu Yin and Kui Xiao in a scheme to abduct the emperor for a homecoming trip. The emperor, having detected the plot, killed Shen Tujian. Zhang Ang and Liao Zhan then attacked the palace. The emperor fled to Zhao Meng's camp, where he suspected the loyalty of other ministers and ordered the killing of Chen Mu and Cheng Dan. Wang Kuang fled to join forces with Zhang Ang, and fought a citywide battle against the emperor, Zhao Meng and Li Song for one month.
 
Combining the troops with Zhang Ang, the Chi-mei rebels penetrated into the Dong-du-men city gate in September. Li Fan, to save brother Li Song's life, surrendered the city gate. After intrusion into Chang'an, Emperor Gengshi-di fled the city through Chucheng-men, where women ridiculed the emperor with a request for dismounting the horse to express gratitude for the pass to leave. At the advice of Liu Gong who chased behind the emperor to Gao-ling, where general Yan Ben had put the emperor under restricted freedom custody, Gengshi-di was persuaded by Liu Gong to surrender to Liu Pengzi, i.e., Emperor Jianshi-di in October. The Chi-mei rebels, with no descipline, ransacked inside of the palaces. Zhuge Zhi, a 'wei wei', could not stop the rampage after killing hundreds of soldiers. In the footsteps of Emperor Jianshi-di's Lv-lin army, Liu Xiu (i.e., Emperor Guangwu-di) relocated his capital to Luoyang in October of 25 A.D.
 
Emperor Gengshi-di was downgraded to Marquis Weiwei-hou and then upgraded to King Changsha-wang but was strangled to death by the Chi-mei rebel leader Zhang Ang and Xie Lu shortly afterwards. Zhang Ang and Xie Lu killed their former lord for fear that rivals could have used the deposed emperor against them - since the people of the capital city area had good feelings for the emperor after reflecting on the lootings by the troops of the new Chi-mei emperor. Hundreds and up to a thousand court maids of honor and late Emperor Gengshi-di's concubines locked themselves up in the Ye-ting [armspit] Palace, where they were to be starved to death after finishing up the meagre supply of grains from Emperor Jianshi-di.
 
In January of A.D. 26, Emperor Jianshi-di initially took brother Liu Gong's advice in proposing to Fan Chong for abdication. When Fan Chong promised to rein in the troops, the teeanger emperor was forced to stay on. Twenty days later, the rebel army soldiers again began the lootings. After finishing up all the grains inside of Chang'an, Fan Chong, Emperor Jianshi-di, and the rebels attacked west towards Longyou [i.e., Gansu], where Kui Xiao and the locals had holded up and built a stronghold. The rebels then moved to Mt. Nanshan, pushed to Yangcheng, returned to the outskirts of Chang'an, where they fought against and killed Restoration Emperor Army General Yan Chun at Mei2 (Mei2-xian, Shenxi). The rebels moved to Anding and Beidi, and continued on to Yangcheng and Fanxu for a campaign against strongmnn Kui Xiao's army, where they lost a lot of ranks to the frozen cold weather. The rebels dug up Emperess Lv-hou's tomb en route.
 
Deng Yu ('da situy'), a general under Liu Xiu, was sent across the Yellow River for the Guan-zhong terriroty. Deng Yu, after taking the empty Chang'an city, continued on to attack the Chi-mei rebels at Yuyi. After a defeat, Deng Yu fled back to Chang'an. The Chi-mei army returned to Chang'an, pushing Deng Yu into a retreat to Yunyang. In September, Emperor Jianshi-di was back in Chang'an. Liu Xiu sent Feng Yi to reinforcing Deng Yu. The Chi-mei army defeated Feng Yi at Huixi (percolating creek, i.e., Luoning, Henan) after faking a defeat. Feng Yi was to reveng on the defeat at the later Battle of Xiao-di.
 
Emperor Jianshi-di faced numerous enemies, including the former restoration emperor's remnants, the strongmen to the west of Chang'an, and the independent banditry forces to the south, as well as Liu Xiu's Han army. From the Han-zhong area, Yan Cen exited Sanguan Pass to reach Du-ling. Emperor Jianshi-di dispatched Feng An and over 100,000 strong army against Yan Cen. Taking advantage of this, Deng Yu attacked Chang'an, thinking that the weak and old troops were guarding the city. Xie Lu led a reielf army to Chang'an to defeat Deng Yu at Gao-jie [Gao street]. Yan Cen, combining forces with Restoration Emperor Army General Li Bao, battled against Feng An at Du-ling. Yan Cen was defeated, and Li Bao surrendered to Feng Yan. Li then colluded with Yan to defeat Feng An from inside out. Seeing the base flying the white flags, Feng An's troops were shocked and going stray, got drowned in the mountain rivers. With over 100,000 deaths from the battles, Feng An and several thousands of men fled to Chang'an, where the three capital districts were already in the mode of cannibalism.
 
In December, the Chi-mei rebels, still over 200,000 troops, out of grain supply, then decided to return east towards the sea coast in December. Emperor Guangwu-di (Liu Xiu), to intercept the Chi-mei rebels, ordered Hou Jing to station at Xin'an to stop the Chi-mei army's eastern move and Geng Yan to station at Yiyang to stop the Chi-mei army's southern move. In January of 27 A.D., Deng Yu crossed the river to attack the Chi-mei army but was defeated. The Chi-mei army exited the pass for a southern move. Feng Yi, having his soldiers wear the Chi-mei uniforms, defeated the Chi-mei army at the Battle of Xiao-di [Mianchi, i.e., foot of the Xiaoshan Mountain]. Over 80,000 CHi-mei soldiers surrendered. Liu Xiu personally went to Yiyang to intercept the Chi-mei army. Fan Chong and Emperor Liu Pengzi, using Liu Gong as a mediator, surrendered to Liu Xiu at Yiyang, with the weapons stacking as high as the Xionger-shan [bear ear] Mountain. Emperor Guangwu-di challenged Fan Chong to regroup the army for a duel, to which Xu Xuan kowtowed to express the complete subordination. Liu Xiu pardoned the Chi-mei rebels for their keeping alive the lord instead of killing the lord to surrender the lord's head as the other rebels did. Fan Chong and Feng An were said to have attempted rebellion in summer, for which they were killed.
 
 
Latter Han Dynasty 
 
In June of 25 A.D., in Haocheng (Boxiang, Xingtai, Hebei), Liu Xiu declared himself an emperor, i.e., Eastern Han Emperor Guangwu-di, with the era of Jianwu [building up the martialness] and the posthumous title of Han-shi-zu. In the footsteps of Emperor Jianshi-di's Lv-lin army which attacked Emperor Gengshi-di at Chang'an, Liu Xiu (i.e., Emperor Guangwu-di) relocated his capital to Luoyang in October of 25 A.D.
 
In January of 27 A.D., Liu Xiu's army defeated the Chi-mei army at the Battle of Xiao-di [Mianchi, i.e., foot of the Xiaoshan Mountain], followed by the surrender of Emperor Gengshi-di and the Chi-mei army at Yiyang. Meantime, Liu Xiu's Han army, under the command of Gai Yan, campaigned and defeated King Liang-wang (Liu Yong) at Suiyang. General Geng Yan separately quelled Zhang Bu at Qingzhou on the Shandong peninsula in a bloody duel, leaving corpses along the 80-90 li distance battle field. Later, Emperor Guangdu-di personally led a campaign to the east, and quelled King Hai-xi-wang (Dong Xian).
 
In April of A.D. 30, Kui Xiao refused to allow Emperor Guangdu-di to borrow a path in Long-xi (west Gansu) to attack Gongsun Shu in the Sichuan basin. Kui Xiao ordered General Wang Yuan to defend Longchi (Longxian, Shenxi). The Han army, crossing Mt. Longshan to attack Longchi, was defeated. On the Western Corridor, Dou Rong sought suzerainty with Emperor Guangdu-di and attacked Kui Xiao's Qiangic allied and Kui Xiao. Ma Yuan, a general under Kui Xiao, surrendered to the Han army. In spring of A.D. 31, Gongsun Shu conferred Kui Xiao the title of King Shuoning-wang, and dispatched reinforcements to aiding Kui Xiao. In autumn, Kui Xiao attacked the Anding-jun commandary (Guyuan, Ningxia) and pushed to Yinjia (Jingchuan, Gansu). Another prong attacked Ganxian. Han generals Feng Yi and Ji Zun defeated Kui Xiao's army. In spring of A.D. 32, Lai She, with a small Han contingent army, detoured to sack Lvyang to pose threat to Kui Xiao. Meanwhile, Dou Rong pincer-attacked Kui Xiao's army with the Han army. The Han army took over Tianshui-jun commandary. Kui Xiao fled to Xicheng. Wang Yuan defeated Cen Peng's Han army which was flooding the Xicheng city. The Han army pulled out of Long-xi. Kui Xiao was succeeded by son Kui Chun in 34 A.D. Kui Chun surrendered to Han after the Han army, under Geng Yan, Kou Xun, Lai She and Gan Yan re-launched the campaign against Long-xi. Wang Yuan fled to seek asylum with Gongsun Shu.
 
The Han army under Wu Han ('da sima'), in March of A.D. 35, attacked Yizhou, the domain of Cheng-jia Dynasty emperor Gongsun Shu [who first declared himself King Shu-wang and then simoulatenously with Liu Xiu's enthronement, declared himself Emperor Bai-di or the white/western emperor]. Wu Han and Cen Peng attacked west along the Yangtze, while Lai She and Gan Yan attacked south from Long-xi. The Yangtze force pushed all the way to Jiangzhou (Chungking, Sichuan). Cen Peng, leaving an army to lay siege of Jiangzhou, attacked Dianjiang and Pingqu, i.e., today's Hechuan. In June, Lai She defeated Wang Yuan, took over Xiabian (Chengxian, Gansu) and Hechi, and intruded into today's northern Sichuan. Gongsun Shu sent an assassin to killing Lai She. Liu Shang, a royal member, took over the command to continue attacking south.
 
Gongsun Shu's army defended Guanghan, Zizhong (Ziyang) and Huangshi (Fuling). Cen Peng circumvented around the battle line by moving along the upperstream Yangtze to sack Huangshi (Fuling) and then travelled over 2000-li distance to the midstream Min-jiang River to take over Wuyang (Pengshan, Sichuan) and threaten Guangdu (Chengdu). Gongsun Shu sent an assassin to have Cen Peng killed. Wu Han took reinforcements to the Guangdu front. (Note in the ancient times, the Chinese took the Min-jiang River as the origin of the Yangtze.)
 
In January of A.D. 36, Wu Han defeated the Shu army at the Min-jiang crossing of Yufujin (fish belly crossing, i.e., Meishan, Sichuan). Wu Han laid siege of Wuyang, sacked Guangdu, and threatened Chengdu. Wu Han, with 20,000 infantry and cavalry, was defeated by the Shu emperor. Combining forces with Liu Shang on the southern bank of the Jin-jiang River, the Han army engaged with the Shu army several times on the plains between Guangdu and Chengdu. (Jin-jiang was the source of the Kin Kong hotel name in Shanghai, and Guangdu was a name widely used in SHAN HAI JING.)
 
Zang Gong, after taking Fan (Pengxian) and Pi[2] (Pixian), converged with Wu Han. In November, the Han army encircled Chengdu. Yan Cen, with 5000 dare-to-die commandos, defeated Wu Han's Han army at Shiqiao, somewhere to the south of Chengdu. The Han army induced Gongsun Shu into a proactive attack, and defeated and wounded Gongsun Shu. Yan Cen, after Gongsun Shu's death, surrendered to Wu Han. Wu Han conducted a massacre of the city. China was reunited again.
 
Emperor Guangwu-di was one of the few Chinese founding emperors who had good terms with his generals throughout the life. Later, son-emperor Liu Zhuang (Han Emperor Ming-di), in 60 A.D., ordered to make a drawing of Guangwu-di's twenty-eight generals at the Yuntai-ge Palace Building. Han Ye, in HOU HAN SHU, made biographies for all twenty-eight Yuntai [cloud terrace] generals.
 
 
TO BE CONTINUED !
 
 
Written by Ah Xiang
 
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],