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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
Antiquity The Prehistory
Fiery Lord
Yellow Lord
Xia Dynasty 1991-1959 BC 1
2070-1600 BC 2
2207-1766 BC 3
Shang Dynasty 1559-1050 BC 1
1600-1046 BC 2
1765-1122 BC 3
Western Zhou 1050 - 771 BC 1
1046 - 771 BC 2
1121 - 771 BC 3
Eastern Zhou 770-256 BC
770-249 BC 3
Sping & Autumn 722-481 BC
770-476 BC 3
Warring States 403-221 BC
476-221 BC 3
Qin Statelet 900s?-221 BC
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
248-207 BC 3
Western Han 206 BC-23 AD
Xin (New) 9-23 AD
Western Han 23-25 AD
Eastern Han 25-220
Three Kingdoms Wei 220-265
Three Kingdoms Shu 221-263
Three Kingdoms Wu 222-280
Western Jinn 265-316
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16 Nations 304-420
Cheng Han Di 301-347
Hun Han (Zhao) Hun 304-329 ss
Anterior Liang Chinese 317-376
Posterior Zhao Jiehu 319-352 ss
Anterior Qin Di 351-394 ss
Anterior Yan Xianbei 337-370
Posterior Yan Xianbei 384-409
Posterior Qin Qiang 384-417 ss
Western Qin ss Xianbei 385-431
Posterior Liang Di 386-403
Southern Liang Xianbei 397-414
Northern Liang Hun 397-439
Southern Yan Xianbei 398-410
Western Liang Chinese 400-421
Hunnic Xia Hun 407-431 ss
Northern Yan Chinese 409-436
North Dynasties 386-581
Northern Wei 386-534
Eastern Wei 534-550
Western Wei 535-557
Northern Qi 550-577
Northern Zhou 557-581
South Dynasties 420-589
Liu Song 420-479
Southern Qi 479-502
Liang 502-557
Chen 557-589
Sui Dynasty 581-618
Tang Dynasty 618-690
Wu Zhou 690-705
Tang Dynasty 705-907
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Posterior Han 947-950
Posterior Zhou 951-960
10 Kingdoms 902-979
Wu 902-937 Nanking
Shu 907-925 Sichuan
Nan-Ping 907-963 Hubei
Wu-Yue 907-978 Zhejiang
Min 907-946 Fukien
Southern Han 907-971 Canton
Chu 927-956 Hunan
Later Shu 934-965 Sichuan
Southern Tang 937-975 Nanking
Northern Han 951-979 Shanxi
Khitan Liao 907-1125
Northern Song 960-1127
Southern Song 1127-1279
Western Xia 1032-1227
Jurchen Jin (Gold) 1115-1234
Mongol Yuan 1279-1368
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Manchu Qing 1644-1912
R.O.C. 1912-1949
R.O.C. Taiwan 1949-present
P.R.C. 1949-present




Early Han Dynasty was, in fact, a restoration of Zhou Dynasty's feudal system. Numerous independent statelets were in existence. The Chen Sheng & Wu Guang rebellion against Qin resulted in restoration of some of the ex-Zhou principalities. General Xiang Yu declared himself 'Hegemony King of the Western Chu Principality', in addition to conferrals of 18 kings. During and after the Chu-Han Wars, Han Emperor Gaozu or Gaodi (Liu Bang) had conferred kingship onto numerous generals who contributed to the overthrow of the Qin Empire and the later campaigns against General Xiang Yu.
Early Han Dynasty, however, was also commented to have inherited Qin's cruel system and layout without any fundamental changes or reforms. Han Emperor Gaozu had an official called Xiao He who had once served as an ex-Qin clerk in a county. Xiao He, being conferred the post of 'xiangguo', i.e., prime minister, would be responsible for maintaining the existing layout of the Qin system. Three branches of ex-Qin governance were utilized, namely, chief counselor (chengxiang or xiangguo), grand marshal (taiwei), and censor-in-chief or inspector-in-chief (yushi dafu). Chief Counselor was supposed to rule over nine chief ministers (jiu qing) and thirteen departments. By Emperor Wudi's times, censor-in-chief was in charge of inspecting on 13 circuits (zhou or fu) with circuit inspector (cishi) in charge, 100 commandaries and 1200 counties.
Qin's cruel laws began with reformer-legalist Shang Yang and got much more crueler under Li Si. In early Han times, cutting off the feet, peeling off the noses as well as inscribing the black ink marks on faces were still common. Criminal law reform would begin with Han Emperor Wendi (reign 179-157 BC). In 175 BC, Wendi's 4th year, a famous doctor called Chunyu Yi offended some powerful patient and was sentenced for 'bodily penalty'. Since Chunyu Yi once served as a county magistrator in Taicang County, he was sent to the nation's capital for incarceration ('bodily penalty'). Chunyu Yi had five daughters, with the youngest one called Tiying. Tiying submitted a request to Emperor Wendi, singing JI-MING (rooster cuckoo) and CHEN-FENG (morning breeze) of SHI JING and saying she would be willing to be sold to the government as a slave for substituting her father's bodily punishment. Hence, Emperor Wendi was moved by Tiying and decreed that 'bodily penalty' be abolished. Later Han Dynasty histoian Ban Gu, who was twice imprisoned and died in prison the second time, wrote the first five character poem "YONG SHI" praising Tiying's bravery and filiaty. (In Jinn Dynasty, poems were made up about the Li Ling and Su Wu stories of parting at He-liang in today's Outer Mongolia to infer that Li Ling and Su Wu first initiated the five character format for poetry.)
The domain of early Han China was not as extensive as the Qin Empire. Independent statelets would be the Nan-yue Statelet, Min-yue Statelet and Dong-yue Statelet. The non-Chinese statelets would include Dian-Yue, Yelang and etc. After being defeated by the Huns, Han Emperor Gaozu or Gaodi adopted a pacifying policy by supplying the Han princess for inter-marriage with the Huns. Emperor Huidi and Empress Luhou as well as Emperor Wendi and Emperor Jingdi followed through with the old policies. It would be during the times of Han Emperor Wudi (reign 140-87 BC) that Han China's territories would expand in all directions. Wudi would launch offensives against the Huns, retake the control of southern China, and invade today's Manchuria and Korea.
Han Dynasty's notable deeds would be the restoration of Confucianism as the creed for ruling the nation. (This compliment, widely quoted by historians, should be looked at through a different perspective. As Lin Yutang said, the Chinese practiced Legalism in essence while Confucianism on surface. More than that, Daoism had much more effect than the former two. See Confucianism versus Daoism below.) At the times of Wudi, around 124 BC, 'Tai Xue', i.e., university or the Grand School, was created for attracting talents and The Five Classics became the official moral and political ideology of the state. 50 doctoral students were enrolled. By 50 BC, the palace school had 3000 students enrolled, and by 1 AD, the graduates would staff the bureaucracy. Wudi, meaning the "Martial Emperor", was also credited with inception of the emperial eras. The definition of the Chinese New Year, i.e., the second New Moon after the winter solstice, could be dated from the inception of the Taichu Era in 103 BC. The 'Recommendation System' was adopted for purpose of having the talented people sent to the prefecture capitals and the nations's capital as reserve for the officialdom. Han Dynasty's 'Tai Xue' would be the model for Western Jinn Dynasty's 'Guo Zi Xue', Toba Wei Dynasty's 'Si Meng Xue', and Sui-Tang and Yuan's 'Guo Zi Jian'.
Serving under Wudi would be the historian Sima Qian (Szu-ma Ch'ien, 145-86 BC) who, having undergone castration for offending Wudi on the matter of absolving Li Ling's surrender to the Huns, lived with humiliation in order to finish his history book, Shi Ji ["Historian's Records"]. Sima Qian underwent castration for lack of surrendering the financial resources to redempt the conviction. Han Dynasty usually allowed people to either pay money or undergo castration in exchange for absolving from the death penalty. Also note that in ancient China, death row convicts would be absolved from execution during the year a new emperor was enthroned. It is called the 'imperial amnesty'. Death convicts were usually executed in the autumn of the year, i.e., autumnal executions. (Shi Ji was not officially sanctioned by the court. Later, during the times of Latter Han Dynasty, another historian, Cai Yong, was executed by Wang Yun for sake of stopping him from compilation of a history book.)
Han Dynasty possessed the typical characteristics as far as the pattern of power corruption was concerned. There would appear the 'empress power' ('in-law power'), 'eunuch power' and 'warlord power'. Gradually, the tripartitie functions lost their influences, and the departments like 'shangshu sheng' (state affairs) and 'zhongshu sheng' (secretariat) would weign on the emperors. The influence from people in palaces, the 'empress power', led to the demise of the Western Han. Wang Mang, who usurped the Western Han dynasty and founded the Xin Dynasty, derived his power from Empress Wang. All three forms of power corruption led to the demise of the Eastern Han dynasty. We would touch on this in the sections below.

Demise Of Qin & the Chu-Han Wars
Emperor Shi Huangdi, Qin's First Emperor, was enthroned at the age of 13. During the 26th year of his reign, by 221 BC, Shihuangdi completed the unification of China and he established the so-called 'Jun-Xian System', namely, the commandary-county system, at the advice of his prime minister, Li Tsu (Li Si). Shihuangdi re-zoned his country into 36 commandaries in lieu of conferring the title of dukes and kings onto his sons. In the next 11 years, Shihuangdi would be responsible for attacking the Huns in the Hetao [sheath] and Ordos areas, building the Great Wall, standardizing the writing system, coins and measures, paving the highways across the country, and digging the canals to link up the water system.
But, three years after Shihuangdi's death, by 207 BC, rebellions, touched off by the Chen Sheng & Wu Guang Rebellion of 209 BC, would overthrow the Qin rule. In 207 BC, Qin's ennuch prime minister, Zhao Gao, killed the second emperor, Hu Hai, in an attempt to negotiate peace with rebel Liu Bang. Liu Bang declined the request to divide the Qin land into two parts. Prince Zi Ying, who killed eunuch Zhao Gao with the help of two sons, succeeded as the third emperor. In this year, 206 BC, Zi Ying surrendered to Liu Bang after being on the throne for 46 days. Liu Bang was able to take over Qin's capital because General Xiang Yu had entangled the major Qin armies in the former Zhao Principality territories. Xiang Yu then entered Qin's capital, Xian'yang, and killed Qin's last emperor, Zi Ying and the Qin's royal family members. Xiang Yu, with a stronger army, pushed Liu Bang into a fief in the Hanzhong territory. Xiang Yu then divided the land of China to over a dozen fiefs, with him proclaimed as the hegemony king under a nominal Chu Emperor Yidi's rule. Before long, the fiefdoms fought against each other; Xiang Yu killed Chu emperor Yidi; and Liu Bang successfully defeated all rivals, and established a unified Han dynasty.
The Chen Sheng & Wu Guang Rebellion
In 209 BC, 900 recruits from Yangcheng in the ex-Chu Principality area were on the way of being dispatched to the northern post of Yuyang (near today's Beijing). However, the rainy season stopped them from going further. Fearing the Qin's punishment of death penalty for missing the schedule, two team leaders, Chen Sheng & Wu Guang, killed two Qin captains and declared an uprising in the name of restoring Chu.
Chen Sheng & Wu Guang took over the Qixian County in today's Hubei Province soon. Chen Sheng sent someone called Ge Ying on a campaign to the east, and Chen himself went to attack the Chenxian County with tens of thousands of rebels he assembled in a matter of months. Two Confucians, Zhang Er & Chen Yu, came to see Chen Sheng and recommended that Chen Sheng restore the ex-Zhou principality descendants as kings of the various principalities. Chen Sheng, however, declared himself King of 'Zhang-Chu', namely, king of expanding Chu. Chen Sheng dispatched Wu Guang as 'proxy king' on a northward campaign against today's Henan Province. Zhang Er & Chen Yu requested with Wu Guang for 3000 soldiers to attack the ex-Zhao territories, and Wu Guang sent Wu Chen as head of this expedition into north of the Yellow River. When Ge Ying arrived at Jiujiang, on the Jiangxi [west] side of the Yangtze River, he met an ex-Chu royal descendant, Xiang Jiang, and Ge Ying enthroned him as King of Chu. Hearing that Chen Sheng already declared himself King of Zhang-Chu, Ge Ying killed Xiang Jiang. But Ge Ying still got executed by Chen Sheng for his mistake. Chen Sheng sent Deng Zong to Jiujiang, instead, and he also sent Zhou Shi to the ex-Wei territories to fight the Qin armies. Wu Guang, failing to take Yingyang of today's Henan Province, took advice from someone called Cai Ci and sent Zhou Wen on a western expedition against the Qin capital in today's Shenxi Province. On the road to the Qin capital, Zhou Wen was joined by tens of thousands of people. Confucius' 8th generation grandson, Kong Fu, recommended to Chen Sheng that he should make preparations for bitter fights with the Qin armies. Wu Chen, after cossing the Yellow River at Baimajin, took over more than 30 towns and counties in a matter of months and occupied the ex-Zhao capital of Handan. Zhang Er & Chen Yu persuaded Wu Chen into declaring himself King of the Zhao Principality. Wu Chen, against Chen Sheng's order to go west to aid Zhou Wen, sent Han Guang to the ex-Yan territories in the northeast, Li Liang to Changshan of today's northern Shanxi, and another general to Shangdang of today's Shanxi Province. Qin Emperor Huhai took the advice of Zhang Han in arming the convicts on the Lishan Mountain. Zhang Han faced up with Zhou Wen and drove Zhou Wen out of the Hanguguan Pass.
In Peixian County, today's Jiangsu Province, 48 year old Liu Bang, an ex-Qin county official who was hiding in Mount Dangshan (in today's Anhui Province) for setting free the Lishan-destined convicts, answered Chen Sheng's uprising by killing the county magistrate. In the Yangtz Delta, Xiang Liang and his nephew, Xiang Yu, killed governor Yin Tong of the Kuaiji Commandary and they assembled an army of 8000 men, the later so-called 'brother-soldiers from east of the Yangtze River'. (In the ancient times, the Wu-Yue people around the Yangtze Delta were famous for carrying the swords and their belligerency, similar to the Japanese samurai.)
Zhou Shi attacked the ex-Wei city of Dicheng. An ex-Qi royal descendant, Tian Dan, killed the county sheriff and declare himself King of the Qi Principality. Tian Dan went on to drive Zhou Shi away. Zhou Shi, rejecting a request from his soldiers to be a king, sought from Chen Sheng (the Zhang-Chu King) an ex-Wei royal descendant, Prince Jiu, as King of the Wei Principality. Wu Chen's general, Han Guang, declared himself King of the Yan Principality after defeating the Qin armies in the ex-Yan territories. By this time, the Chu-Zhao-Qi-Wei-Yan statelets were restored.
After Li Liang took over Changshan of today's Shanxi, King Zhao, i.e., Wu Chen, ordered his general to attack Taiyuan of today's Shanxi. The Qin armies played a trick of dissension. Li Liang killed Zhao King (Wu Chen). Zhang Er & Chen Yu located an ex-Zhao royal descendant, Zhao Xie, and made him the new King of the Zhao Principality. Li Liang, after being defeated by the new Zhao king, surrendered to Qin General Zhang Han. Qin General Zhang Han had earlier defeated the western expedition led by Zhou Wen, and Zhou Wen committed suicide after a defeat. Proxy King Wu Guang was still encircling Yingyang at this time, but he refused to listen to opinions from two of his generals. Hearing of Zhou Wen's defeat, the two generals under Wu Guang killed Wu Guang with a pretext of an order from King Chen Sheng. Soon, the two generals (Tian Zang and Li Gui) were defeated by Qin General Zhang Han and got killed. Qin General Zhang Han went on to attack Chen Sheng. Chen Sheng was killed by his driver, Zhuang Jia, after being a king for 6 months. Chen Sheng's general, L Chen, buried Chen Sheng on Mount Dangshan. (Later, Han Emperor Liu Bang would order 30 families to guard Chen Sheng's tomb, and Chen Sheng was treated as the 'father of revolution'.)
After the death of Chen Sheng, someone called Qin Jia located an ex-Chu royal descendant and make him King of Chu. L Chen met a rebel called Qiong Bu (Ying Bu). Together, they retook Chenxian County from the Qin armies. Hearing that Xiang Liang & Xiang Yu had crossed the Yantze River, Qiong Bu went to join their camp. The Xiang army, numbering 8000, was cheated across the Yangtze by a Zhang-Chu general who issued an order in the name of dead King Chen Sheng. Chen Ying, an ex-Qin clerk of Dongyang County, combined forces with Xiang Liang. Together with Chen Ying & Qiong Bu, the Xiang army swelled to 40-50,000 men. Another rebel, by the name of General Pu(3), led 10-20,000 people to the Xiang camp. The Xiang armies went on to route the new Chu king at Pengcheng. The Xiang army then had a first battle with the Qin army, but Xiang Liang was defeated by Zhang Han. Xiang Liang then attacked Xiecheng. At this time, Liu Bang, together with Zhang Liang whom he met en route, came to Xiang Liang to borrow soldiers. Xiang Liang invited Liu Bang to a meeting for selection of a new Chu king. An old man called Fan Zeng recommended finding an ex-Chu royal for the post. The grandson of Chu King Huaiwang, a shepherd at the time, was enthroned and he was entitled Chu King Huaiwang. Zhang Liang proposed to Xiang Liang for restoration of the Haan Principality. Zhang Liang located an ex-Haan royal called Cheng and restored the Haan(2) Principality.
Qin General Zhang Han attacked the rebels in the Wei Principality. The Qi-Chu joint armies went to the relief. Zhang Han killed Qi's King (Tian Dan) as well as Wei General Zhou Shi. The Wei King (Prince Jiu) commited suicide. Xiang Yu rescued Jiu's brother, Prince Bao. Zhang Han went on to attack a Qi city which was guarded by Tian Rong. The Qi people enthroned Tian Jia, the brother of pre-Qin-era ex-Qi King Jian, as the new king. Tian Dan's brother, Tian Rong, did not obey to the new Qi king. The Xiang armies helped Tian Rong in defeating the Qin armies. But Tian Rong would not follow Xiang Yu in pursuit of the Qin armies. The Tian Dan family enthroned the son of the dead Qi King (Tian Dan) as another new Qi king. Xiang Liang's army went on to take over the Dingtao City and killed Qin General Li You (son of dead Qin prime minister Li Tsu). In an ensuing battle, Xiang Liang was defeated by Zhang Han and got killed. Hence, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang retreated towards the south and moved Chu King Huaiwang to Pengcheng. Hearing that Qin general Zhang Han went northward to attack the Zhao territories, King Huaiwang sent Prince of Wei, Bao, to retake the Wei territories. King Huaiwang decreed that whoever entered the Qin capital first would be conferred the title of King of the Qin Principality. Both Liu Bang and Xiang Yu requested for the task to attack Qin. Zhao King Xie, being attacked by Qin General Zhang Han, requested for relief. Hence, Xiang Yu was eager to go to the Zhao territories to fight Zhang Han for sake of avenging his uncle's death. Liu Bang campaigned towards the Qin capital.
The Demise of Qin
In the land of the Zhao Principality, Zhang Er, Zhao's prime minister, was unhappy that his blood-brother pal (Chen Yu) did not send enough relief army to him. The two would become feuds after the war. Chen Yu deserted the Zhao Principality for the mountains. Zhang Er's son, Zhang Ao, would come to Julu to aid the Zhao Principality. Once General Xiang Yu arrived in Julu, the allied armies began to battle with the Qin armies. Qin General Wang Li was captured, and Qin General Zhang Han and his 200,000 army surrendered to Xiang Yu after the mediation of Sima Xin. (Sima Xin had once rescued Xiang Liang from Qin's prison dozens of years ago.) Xiang Yu, on the way westward, killed the 200 thousand Qin prisoners of war.
Liu Bang was able to take over Qin's capital because General Xiang Yu had entangled the major Qin armies in the Zhao Principality. Earlier, on the road, Liu Bang was joined by Peng Yue and his thousands of rebels. An old Confucian called Li Yiji came to serve Liu Bang. Li Yiji would use a trick in taking over the crossroad town of Chenliu, and Li Yiji's brother (Li Shang) led 4000 men to attack Kaifeng. Zhang Liang came to join Liu Bang at this time. Hearing that Zhao General Sima Mao had crossed the Yellow River to attack Qin, Liu Bang hastened his war efforts for sake of being the first to enter the Qin capital. Liu Bang went south to attack Luoyang first, and then Nanyang of today's Henan Province. Then, Liu Bang went westward, taking over the Wuguan Pass (Danfeng of today's Shenxi Prov). Qin Prime Minister, Zhao Gao, killed Qin Second Emperor Hu-Hai in order to negotiate a peace with Liu Bang's Chu army. Liu Bang declined the request to divide the Qin land into two parts. Qin Prince Zi-Ying, a grandson of Qin Shihuangdi, succeeded as the third emperor, and he, with the help of two sons, killed Zhao Gao when Zhao Gao came to Zi-ying's home for inviting Zi-ying to the palace as the new emperor. In this year, 206 BC, Zi-Ying surrendered to Liu Bang after being on the throne for 46 days.
When General Xiang Yu arrived at the Han'guguan Pass, he met with Liu Bang's soldiers who refused to allow him to enter Qin's land. Xiang Yu, with soldiers four times more than Liu Bang, ordered Ying Bu (Qiong Bu) to attack Han'guguan. Liu Bang, using the tips from Zhang Liang, bribed Xiang Yu's uncle, Xiang Bo, for reconciliation. There was a banquet called the Hongmen Banquet from which Liu Bang slipped away alive. Xiang Yu would enter Qin's capital, Xian'yang, and he killed Qin's last emperor (Zi Ying) and Qin's royal family members. After pillaging Qin's "Er Pang Gong Palace" which ran for 300 Chinese li distance, Xiang Yu ordered that the palace be burnt. The fire went on for three months. Xiang Yu sent soldiers to the Lishan Mountain to dig Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's tomb as well. The lootings took one month to move to Xian'yang. Then, Xiang Yu would make Chu King Huaiwang the so-called Emperor Yidi and proclaimed himself the King of Xichu Ba Wang, namely, i.e., hegemony king of the Western Chu Principality. General Xiang Yu rezoned the country into the following vassalage states:

    King of Han for Liu Bang, with domains covering today's Sichuan Province and Hanzong (the land between today's Sichuan and Shaanxi);
    King of Yong for Zhang Han, with domains covering west of the ex-Qin capital, Xianyang;
    King of Sai for Sima Xin, with domain covering the areas between east of Xianyang and the Yellow River;
    King of Di for Dong Yi, with domain covering Shangjun;
    King of Xiwei (Western Wei) for King Bao of Wei, with domain moved to the east of Yellow River;
    King of Henan for Shen Yang, with domain covering Luoyang city, today's Henan Province;
    King of Haan for King Cheng of Haan, with domain at the Yangdi city;
    King of Yin for Sima Mao, with domain inside of the Yellow River Bend;
    King of Dai for King Xie of Zhao, with domain around the Dai Prefecture;
    King of Changshan for Zhao Er, with domain at the ex-Zhao Principality;
    King of Qiujiang for Qiong Bu, with domain around Dangyang;
    King of Hengshan for Wu Rui, with domain in the middle Yangtze River areas;
    King of Linjiang for Gong Ao, with domain covering Jiangling, today's Hubei Province;
    King of Liaodong (today's eastern Liaoning Province) for King Han Guang of the Yan Principality, with domain moved to today's southern Manchuria;
    King of Yan for Zang Tu, with domain covering today's Beijing, Hebei Province;
    King of Jiaodong for King Tian Shi of the Qi Principality, with domain relocated to today's eastern Shandong Province;
    King of Qi for Tian Du, with domain covering the ex-Qi principality;
    King of Jibei for Tian An, with domain covering today's northern Shandong Province.
The Chu-Han Wars
Liu Bang's Han Dynasty would come from the title of King of Han(4). General Xiang Yu, after pillaging the Qin capital, left for Pengcheng. On the way, Xiang Yu took King of Haan(2), Haan Cheng, into custody for his allowing Zhang Liang to escort Liu Bang westward. Xiang Yu killed King Cheng of Haan(2) shortly thereafter. King of Yan, Han Guang, refused to relocate to today's eastern Liaoning Province, and King Zang Tu expelled Han Guang and chased him to death at the Wuzhongshan Mountain. Xiang Yu conferred Zang Tu the Liaoning land as well. King of Jiaodong, Tian Shi, was killed by his general Tian Rong. Tian Rong sent an army to defeat King of Qi, Tian Du. Tian Rong further killed King of Jibei, Tian An, and declared himself King of the Three Qi Lands ('San Qi'). Tian Rong then conferred the seal of a general on Peng Yue and ordered Peng Yue to attack the Liang (Wei) places. Chen Yu would come out of seclusion and request for aid from Tian Rong in attacking the King of Changshan, Zhao Er, his one time blood brother. Chen Yu welcomed the King of Dai (previously King Xie of Zhao) back to Zhao, and King Xie conferred Chen Yu the kingship of Dai.
Liu Bang, at Xiao Heh's recommendation, used Haan Xin as 'Da Jiangjun', i.e., the grand marshal. Haan Xin, pretending that the Han(4) armies were busy repairing the so-called 'zhan dao', wood and bamboo roads carved in the middle of the cliffs circumvented to Nanzheng. (The 'zhan dao' road was burnt by Zhang Liang earlier to show to Xiang Yu that Liu Bang had no ambition for the east.) Haan Xin would soon arrive at Chencang and defeat the King of Yong, Zhang Han. Zhang Han committed suicide. Within one month, King of Sai (Sima Xin) and King of Di ( Dong Yi) both surrendered, and Liu Bang retook the old Three Qin Lands ('San Qin').
Xiang Yu ordered that Zheng Chang be the new King of Haan(2) for sake of countering Liu Bang's Han(4) armies. Xiang Yu also ordered a campaign against Peng Yue. Thinking that Peng Yue received the backing from Tian Rong of Qi, he would concentrate on fighting the Qi armies first. Liu Bang dispatched an ex-Haan(2) royal called Xin to the old Haan(2) land as the new King of Haan(2). Liu Bang conferred Marquis Chengxin-hou onto Zhang Liang; Liu Bang dispatched Li Shang on a campaign against the Shangjun and Beidi commandaries. In 205 BC, Liu Bang dispatched a column to fetch his father and wife, but the contingent was stopped by Xiang Yu's army. Xiang Yu ordered that Emepror Yidi leave Pengcheng so that he could come back to the city, and thereafter ordered that King of Qiujiang (Ying Bu) send assassins to kill Chu Emepror Yidi [righteous emperor]. The King of Haan(2), Haan Xin, defeated Zheng Chang. The King of Henan (Shen Yang) surrendered to Liu Bang. Liu Bang devised the 'three elderly' system for each county he occupied. After pacifying today's Shenxi Province, Liu Bang crossed the Yellow River at the Linjin-guan Pass and arrived at the He-rui land. The King of Yin (Sima Mao) was defeated and he fled to his capital Chaoge. Liu Bang dispatched Fan Kuai against Chaoge. In today's Shandong Province, Xiang Yu defeated Tian Rong; Tian Rong fled his capital Chengyang for Pingyuan where he was killed by the civilians; Xiang Yu erected Tian Jia as the new king of Qi. The Qi people located Tian Heng (Tian Rong's brother) as their king, drove off Tian Jia and retook Chengyang. At Chaoge, Han2 Xin tricked Sima Mao out of the city by pretending a retreat and then ordered that Fan Kuai, Guan Ying and Zhou Bo to ambush Sima Mao. Sima Mao was captured, and he surrendered to Liu Bang. A Chu du wei, Chen Ping, fled to the Han camp and was recommended to Liu Bang by General Wei Wuzhi. Chen Ping first answered Chen Sheng's rebellion and then joined the ranks of Xiang Yu. Chen Ping proposed that Liu Bang lead a surprise attack at Pengcheng by taking advantage of Xiang Yu's entanglement in today's Shandong Province. Chen Ping was conferred the post of hujun zhongwei, i.e., captain for pacifying the army. Upon arriving Luoyang of today's Henan Province, Liu Bang met an elderly called Dong-gong who proposed that Liu Bang uphold the slogan that his army was to fight Xiang Yu on behalf of Chu Emperor Yidi who was assasinated by Xiang Yu. Liu Bang ordered that his army mourn Yidi for three days and sent decrees across the nation.
The King of Wei, Bao, answered Liu Bang's decree. King of Zhao followed. Liu Bang assembled an army of 500-600,000, comprising of soldiers from the Sai, Di, Haan, Wei, Yin, Zhao and Henan principalities. When Peng Yue reported that he had defeated the Chu army, Liu Bang ordered that Peng Yue be the prime minister for King of Wei. Liu Bang took over Pengcheng without a fight.
The Chu Army remnants fled to Chengyang to report to Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu personally led 30,000 men back to Pengcheng. Xiang Yu drove Liu Bang out of Pengcheng. Altogether over 100,000 Han army were destroyed by Xiang Yu, and another 300-400,000 fled the battle scene. The Chu army chased the Han army to the Sui-shui River of today's Anhui Province, and another 100,000 Han army troops were drowned in the river. Liu Bang barely escaped after begging two Chu generals for mercy. Liu Bang's family members at Fengxiang were captured by Xiang Yu. While passing through a village, Liu Bang met an old man by the name of Qie who married his daughter to Liu Bang. (Concubine Qie would be tortured to death by Empress Lhou later.) Liu Bang converged with his General Xiahou Ying, and the two met two of Liu Bang's children en route. When being chased by Chu General Ji Bu, Liu Bang tried to rid his children of the chariot. Xiahou Ying rescued the two children and carried them on his horseback. Liu Bang converged with the army led by L Ze, the brother of empress Lhou. King Yin, Sima Mao, died in this battle; King Sai (Sima Xin) and King Di (Dong Yi) surrendered to Xiang Yu. King Zhao et als fled home. Liu Bang's father, Taigong, and wife L-shi, were both captured by Xiang Yu.
Zhang Liang proposed that Liu Bang confer the lands east of the Hanguguan Pass onto Haan Xin, Peng Yue and Chu General Ying Bu for sake of fighting Xiang Yu. Liu Bang dispatched an emissary for seeking an alliance with Peng Yue. Then, Liu Bang relocated to Yingyang for re-organization. Xiang Yu arrested the mother of a Han general called Wang Ling; Wang Ling's mother committed suicide for sake of having his son serve under Liu Bang instead of surrendering to Xiang Yu. Haan Xin led a relief army to Yingyang, and Xiao He dispatched the homeland soldiers to the aid of Liu Bang, too. Haan Xin took charge of the Han army and defeated the Chu army at Yingyang, Nanjing and Suocheng. Liu Bang conferred the title of crown prince on his five year old son, Liu Ying, and ordered that Xiao He and the crown prince guard homeland inside of the Hanguguan Pass. King Wei, Bao, requested for going home on the pretext that his mother was ill; Liu Bang released Bao; Bao rebelled against Liu Bang upon return to Pingyang; Liu Bang dispatched Haan Xin against King Wei Bao. Haan Xin deliberately prepared ships at Linjin to attract the attention of the Wei army, while he secretly made the wooden cauldron, crossed the river at Xiayang and defeated the Wei army at Dongzhang. Han General under Haan Xin, Cao Can, defeated Wei General Wang Xiang and took over the city of Anyi. At Quyang, Haan Xin and Cao Can fought with King Wei and captured Wei Bao. Then, the Han army went to take over the capital of Pingyang. Wei Bao's family was sent to Liu Bang, and Liu Bang took over Bao's concubine (Bo-shi) as his own and bore Liu Huan (i.e., later Han Emperor Wendi). (Wei Bao was said to have rebelled against Liu Bang because an necromancer stated to Bao and wife Bo-shi that Bo-shi's son would be an emperor in the future.)
Haan Xin requested for 30,000 men for sake of fighting the Zhao principality. Haan intended to take over Zhao, Yan and Qi one by one before fighting Xiang Yu. At Pingyang, Haan Xin was joined by Zhang Er. Chen Yu, prime minister for Zhao, rebelled against Han because he heard that his feud Zhang Er (an one time blood brother) was serving Han. Haan Xin went on to attack Dai, the land conferred onto Chen Yu. Three columns of army led by Cao Can, Guan Ying and Zhang Er defeated Dai prime minister and took over the Daicheng city. Cao Can was recalled by Liu Bang. Haan Xin recruited more soldiers locally and then went to fight the Zhao army of 200,000 at the Jingjingkou Pass. A Zhao counsellor, Li Zuoche, proposed to lead an army of 30,000 to cut off the Han army's grain supply. Chen Yu failed to adopt the advice. The road to the Jingjingkou Pass was said to be so narrow that only one chariot could pass at one time. Haan Xin secretly ordered that qi duwei [cavalry captain] Jin Xi circumvent to the back of the pass, that zuo qi jiang Fu Kuan and Zhang Cang (tai shou of Changshan) set up an ambush near the front of the pass, and a column of the Han army stand against the bank of a river. In the early morning, Haan Xin told soldiers that they could have breakfast after finishing off the Zhao army. When the Zhao army came out of the pass to fight Haan Xin, Haan Xin pretended to flee towards the river. For the whole morning, the two armies fought bitterly near the river bank. When Chen Yu called for a retreat, he was ambushed by Fu Kuan and Zhang Cang near the pass. Jin Xi took over the pass and captured King Zhao Xie. Chen Yu (Prince Cheng'an-jun) was defeated and killed by the Han armies. Haan Xin ordered that the Zhao King be executed. Haan Xin gave an reward to have Li Zuoche captured, and Li Zuoche proposed to Haan Xin that he should send a messenger to Yan for pacifying King Yan (i.e., Zang Tu) instead of driving the weakened Han army soldiers to the Yan land and that then the Han army could then go to the east to fight the Qi Principality. King of Yan surrendered to Haan Xin.
Liu Bang then ordered that Zhang Er be the new Zhao king and that Haan Xin fight Qi. At Qiujiang, a Han emissary, Sui He, successfully persuaded Ying Bu into an alliance with Liu Bang against Xiang Yu.
Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

Western Han Dynasty (Former Han Dynasty)
Han Emperor Gaozu continued the practice of General Xiang Yu by conferring the kingship to the non-Liu generals and ministers. For example, King Lu Wan of the Yan Principality, was one of the non-Liu kings. At one time, Lu Wan sent his general Zhang Sheng to Modu (a Hunnic king) in the attempt of stopping Modu from aiding Chen Xi. But, Zhang Sheng, incited by the son of ex-Yan king Zang Tu who had been seeking asylum with the Huns, had decided to go againt Lu Wan's will. King Lu Wan acquiesced when he thought to himself that the non-Liu kings had now been reduced to only two, himself and King of the Changsa Principality while Han Emperor Liu Bang had conferred 8 king titles onto his own kinsmen (6 being Liu Bang's own sons and 2 the sons of his two brothers). The 8 kings would be for Qi, Chu, Dai, Wu, Zhao, Liang, Huaiyang and Huainan. Han Emperor sent his general Fan Kuai to campaign against King Lu Wan when he heard of the Yan Principality's collusion with the Huns. The Han Emperor passed away shortly. King Lu Wan, hearing about the emperor's death, led his people northward and surrendered to Hinnic King Modu. King Lu Wan was conferred the title of 'Eastern Hun Ru King'. By that time, only one non-Liu king was in existence.
Among the non-Chinese statelets would be the Nan-yue or Nan Yue Statelet led by Zhao Tuo, an ex-Qin general. Here, the prefix 'Nan' means southern. Also in existence would be Min-yue Statelet and Dong-yue Statelet. Among the southern nomads, the Yelang Statelet, located in the southwestern mountains of today's Sichuan Province, was the biggest of all. Further to the west will be a statelet called Dian-yue, located in today's Yunnan Province. North of Dian-yue would be a statelet called Qiongdu. Half a dozen small statelets existed to the southwest of Sichuan Province at that time.
When the Huns raided northern China, first Han Emperor Liu Bang sent Xin, King of the Han(2) Principality, to resist the Huns. But Xin, after being encircled by 100-200 thousand Huns, decided to negotiate with the Huns for peace. Emperor Liu Bang accused Xin of being a coward, and Xin, for fear of punishment, surrendered to Modu. The Huns, with an army of 400 thousand, then encircled a whole army led by first Han Emperor Liu Bang (i.e., Han Gaozu) on Mount Baideng for 7 days. It was said that Modu had placed 4 groups of horses with respective colors in four directions, arranging his battle engagement in a strategical way. The siege was ended only after Liu Bang's counsellor, Chen Ping, bribed Modu's wife by bragging about the number of beauties in the Chinese court palace and hinting that they could replace her should Modu succeed in capturing the Chinese capital. When attacked by the Huns again, Liu Bang's counsellor, Liu Jing, proposed that the elder princess be married over to Modu. Liu selected a court maid of honor and sent her to Modu as his own daughter. Lou Jing further proposed that the prestigious families of the former Zhou principalities, Chu-Zhao-Jing(3) familes of Chu in sourthern China and the Tian-Huai families of Qi in today's Shandong Province, be relocated to Chang'an for sake of defence against the Huns as well as easy management of those remnant Zhou Dynasty people. Altogether over 100 thousand people, including many dispatched by the other kings in their respective principalities, were focefully relocated to Chang'an.
After King of the Han (2) Principality defected to the Huns, prime minister of the Dai Principality, Chen Xi (a friend of Marquis of Huaiying, Haan Xin), rebelled against the Han (4) Emperor. Chen Xi himself defected to the Huns after losing battles to the Han Emperor, while Haan Xin (who had earlier encouraged Chen Xi to plot the rebellion out of anger at the Han Emperor for demoting him to marquis from king) was executed together with his wife and mother's lineages, i.e., the so-called 3 lineage extinction, by Han Empress Lu Hou. King Peng Yue of the Liang Principality did not answer the call to quell the Chen Qi rebellion. He was arrested by Emperor Liu Bang and put to death by Empress Lu Hou. In 195 B.C., Emperor Liu Bang mounted an eastern campaign against Ying Bu (Qiong Bu), i.e., King of Huainan. King Ying Bu of the Huainan Principality was accused by his minister of plotting to rebel against the Han Emperor, and during the battle, he wounded Han Emperor Liu Bang with an arrow. Ying Bu was killed by his relative, King Wu Chen of the Changsa Principality. En route of return, the emperor passed through hometown Peixian, where he assembled the old acquaintances for a drinking party, on which occasion he beat the drums and in tears, sang the famous 'Da Feng Ge' [whirlwind] song: dafeng [strong wind] qi [kicking up] xi [modal word] yun [clouds] fei-yang [flying astray]; wei [awe] jia [imposed on] hai-nei [within the seas] xi gui [returning] guxiang [home]; an [how to] de [obtain] yongshi [brave men] xi [modal word] shou [guard] sifang [the four borders]?
During the Chen Xi rebellion, Chen had requested for aid from King Modu; Modu, however, did not assist Chen Qi at the beginning because of his inter-marriage with the Han Dynasty court. King Lu Wan of the Yan Principality sent his general Zhang Sheng to Modu in the attempt of stopping Modu from aiding Chen Xi. But, Zhang Sheng, incited by the son of ex-Yan king Zang Tu who had been seeking asylum with the Huns, had decided to go againt Lu Wan's will. King Lu Wan acquiesced when he thought to himself that the non-Liu kings had now been reduced to only two, himself and King of the Changsa Principality while Han Emperor Liu Bang had conferred 8 king titles to his own kinsmen (6 being Liu Bang's own sons and 2 the sons of his two brothers). The 8 kings would be for Qi, Chu, Dai, Wu, Zhao, Liang, Huaiyang and Huainan. Han Emperor sent his general Fan Kuai to campaign against King Lu Wan when he heard of the Yan Principality's collusion with the Huns. Han Emperor passed away shortly. King Lu Wan, hearing about the emperor's death, drove his people northward and surrendered to King Modu. King Lu Wan was conferred the title of 'Eastern Hun Ru King'.
After the death of Han Emperor Liu Bang, King Modu sent over a letter humiliating Han Empress Lu Hou via proposition of a marriage between him and Empress Lu Hou and hence a combination of the Hunnic Empire and the Han Empire. Empress Lu Hou declined it and sent over some other Liu family girl to continue the inter-marriage with the Huns.
Han Emperor Huidi
In 188 B.C., Emperor Huidi passed away. Lv-hou took over the regency power.
The Lv Family Interregnum
Qi King Daohuiwang, i.e., Liu Fei, was the founder emperor's eldest son but was born by a Cao-shi woman who had a lower ranking than Empress Lv-hou. In 201 B.C., Liu Fei was conferred the Qi land, with 70 cities. In 193 B.C., Liu Fei came to the nation's capital, and had a banquet with Emperor Xiaohuidi, over which dowager-empress Lv Hou wanted to kill Liu Fei for sitting together with the emperor. Liu Fei proposed to surrender the Chengyang-jun to Princess Luyuan, and hence got permission to leave the capital.
In 187 B.C., Lv-hou conferred his brother's son, Lv Tai, the land of Ji'nan-jun commandary. In 186 B.C., Liu Zhang, i.e., Qi King Aiwang Liu XIang's brother, came to the nation's capital. Lv Hou conferred Liu Zhang the title of Marquis Zhuxu-hou, and years later further made Liu Xingju, i.e., Liu Zhang's brother, Marquis Dongmou-hou. In 181 B.C., Lv-hou upgraded Marquis Yingling-hou Liu Ze to King Langya-wang. In 180 B.C., Lv-hou put King Zhao-wang Liu You under house arrest at the nation's capital. With all three Zhao kings revoked the rankings, Lv-hou assigned three Lv family members as King Yan-wang, King Zhao-wang, and King Liang-wang.
After Lv-hou died, Lv Lu4 became 'shang jiang-jun' (the upper general) and Lv Chan became 'xiang-guo' (prime minister). Liu Zhang, who learnt of the Lv family's scheme from his wife, sent a messenger to King Qi to have him take an army to the nation's capital for cracking down on the Lv family. The Qi king, using 'zhong wei' (captain) Wei Bo's scheme, managed to have his prime minister Zhao Ping put under control. Further, the Qi king induced the Langya king to come to Linzi, and put him under house arrest. The Qi king then took control of the Langya king's army. Qi King Aiwang then pronounced the march against the capital, claiming that the Lv family had killed three Liu-surnamed Zhao kings, eliminated the Liu-surnamed Zhao-Liang-Yan states, and divided the Qi land into four parts. Lv Chan, 'xiang-guo' (prime minister), dispatched Guan Ying to countering the Qi army. Guan Ying, upon arrival at Xingyang, stopped to make liaison with the Qi king, instead. The Qi king then attacked to take over the Ji'nan-jun territory from the Lv family.
Liu Zhang killed Lv Can at the capital. Zhou Bo, 'tai wei' (grand captain), then eliminated the Lv clansmen. King Langyang-wang, who persuaded the Qi king into releasing him, arrived at the capital, and suggested to Liu Zhang and the Liu family loyal members that the Qi king could not be made into an emperor because the king's father-in-law was very cruel and ferocious, like the Lv faimly. The choice was for King Dai-wang to be emperor.
In 179, Emperor Xiaowendi, i.e., King Dai-wang, was enthroned. When Emperor Wendi was enthroned, he returned the Qi land, that was subdivided by late dowager empress Lv-hou, back to the Liu-surnamed kings and princes. The emperor returned the land of Chengyang, Langyang and Jinan back to the Qi state, with King Langyang reassigned to be King Yan. Qi King Aiwang (Liu Xiang) took back the former Qi land. After Qi King Aiwang (Liu Xiang) died, son Liu Ze succeeded as Qi King Wenwang. The emperor gave Chengyang-jun to Liu Zhang as King Changyang, and assigned Jibei-jun to Liu Xingju as King Jibei. King Jibei was later killed for rebellion. Two years after quelling King Jibei's rebellion, the emperor made the late Qi King Daohuiwang Liu Fei's seven sons into marquis. When Qi King Wenwang died after fourteen years, there was no son to inherit the land. Emperor Wendi took back King Wenwang's land. The emperor subdivided the Qi land again for Qi King Daohuiwang Liu Fei's sons, making them into kings. The Qi-guo territory was made into seven states. Later in 154 B.C., when King Wu Liu Bi4 rebelled, four Qi kings answered the call of King Wu and King Chu, including King Jiao-xi, King Jiao-dong, King Zai-chuan and King Ji'nan.
Han Emperor Xiaowendi

Han Emperor Jingdi
In 154 B.C., King Wu, Liu Bi, rebelled against the emperor on the pretext of helping the emperor purge the evil ministers. Altogether seven Liu-surnamed kings from Wu, Chu, Zhao and Qi land joined the rebellion. Han Emperor Jingdi, to appease the rebels, ordered the execution of minister Chao Cuo. However, the King of Wu refused to quit the rebellion. Scholar Mei Cheng, who had advised against the Wu king's rebellion before it went into eruption, authored a second article of advice for the Wu king. With the rebel army approaching the Han capital, Emperor Jingdi empowered Zhou Yafu with leading an army against the rebels. Zhou Yafu, who was noted for punishing the emperor's superintendent at the army camp, defeated the rebels. King Wu fled to the Yue land, where he was killed.

Relationship with the Huns
In the early time period of Former Han Dynasty
(202 B.C. - A.D. 220) , the Han emeprors used to marry princess to the Hunnic kings in exchange for peace, which proved to be futile. (Many times, the Han emperors used the court maids of honour in lieu of princess. In contrast, the later Tang Dynasty sent over the orthodox princess to Tibet.) It would be during the reign of Emperor Wudi (140-86 BC) that the Chinese fought back.
Han Emperors Wendi and Jingdi were renowned for their frugality. Their policies as to the Huns would be pacifying. Han Emperor Wudi, however, embarked upon a policy of expansion. From the mouth of a defecting Hun, Wudi learnt about a country called Yeh-chih Major to the west of the Huns. Hence, he sent an emissary called Zhang Qian, a Hun guide called Tangyifu and 100 people on a trek across the west. Zhang etc was arrested by the Huns soon, and he was forced to live among the Huns for dozens of years and he had married and bron two children. Zhang, however, did not forget about Wudi's order, and he fled with his Hun guide to the west and reached the state of Da'yuan, and with the assistance from Da'yuan king, was escorted to Kangju where the Kanju king assisted him further on his trip to Bactria where the Yeh-chih Major settled down. Upon Zhang's return from the west after a span of 13 years, Emperor Wudi first ordered 4 expeditions to the southwest of China to search for a route to India. This is because Zhang Qian reported that he saw Zangke (a place in today's Sichuan Province) bamboo products and Sichuan clothing which the Bactria merchants said were shipped over from India. Emperor Wudi then ordered expeditions to the west.
Zhang Qian told Emperor Wudi that Han should marry over a princess to the Wusun Statelet so that the Huns would lose their support in Western China, a strategy called 'cutting off the right arm of the Huns'. Zhang said that Wusun originally dwelled around Dunhuang, Gansu Provice and the areas around the Qilian Mountains, together with Yeh-chih. But Yeh-chih attacked them. The son of Wusun king would ask the Huns to help them in defeating the Yeh-chih. Zhang was ordered again to go west with hundreds of messengers. When those messegers returned to the capital, they did a calculation and derived the number of 36 statelets across the west of China. Wudi sent expeditions into the Hunnic territories frequently, and historians said he had used up his royal savings in waging the war on the Huns. The Wusun horses were originally called 'Tian Ma', namely, the Hevenly Horses, but later Emperor Wudi renamed the Wusun horses 'Xi Ji Ma' or western-most horses while the Da'yuan horses were given the name of 'Tian Ma'.
Between 130 and 121 B.C., the Chinese armies drove the Huns back across the Great Wall, and weakened the Huns in Gansu Province as well as on what is now Inner Mongolia. Famous Chinese generals, like Wei Qing and Li Guang would emerge in this time period. After General Ho Chu-ping (Huo Qubing) defeated the Huns and pushed into Ferghana Valley in 102 BC, the Huns suffered setbacks and made peace with Han. General Huo Qubing set up the Qiuquan Commandary in Gansu Province, and later three more commandaries were set up, Wuwei, Zhangye and Dunhuang. For the first time, Chinese colonized in non-Chinese territories. Civilians were relocated to guard the posts along with the army. After General Li Guangli campaigned against the ancient state of Dayuan in Central Asia, more posts were set up on the Silk Road. From Dunhuang to the Qinhaihu Lake, hundreds of 'farming soldiers' were stationed.
When the small statelets, like Gushi and Loulan, tried to harass Han emissaries, Emperor Wudi sent General Zhao Puonu on a campaign against the two statelets. General Zhao caught the King of Loulan and conquered Gushi. When Da'yuan refused to trade their horses with Han, and further killed Han emissry and robbed the gold horse, Emperor Wudi sent General Li Guangli on a campaign against Da'yuan in 104 BC. General Li Guangli's first campaign, with tens of thousands of convicts, failed to capture a city called Yuecheng in between. General Li Guangli returned with less than 20% of the forces in about 2 years, but Emperor Wudi stopped him from coming inside of the Yuemeng Pass. General Li Guangli stayed in Dunhuang. At this time, a Han general lost 20,000 men to the Huns. Wudi decided to conquer Da'yuan first before concentrating on the Huns. He ordered 60,000 second-class citizens and convicts, 100,000 buffalos, and 30,000 horses on a new campaign against Da'yuan. After a siege of over 40 days, Da'yuan killed their king and surrendered to Han. Han retrieved a dozen top-class horses and over 3,000 middle-class horses and returned.
Frictions with Huns continued. A Han emissary, Su Wu, was detained and sent to Lake Bajkal to be a shepherd for 19 years, only to be returned after Huo Guang (General Ho Chu-ping's brother) requested for Su with the Hunnic king who had initially cheated Huo in saying that Su was long dead. In 100 BC, Wudi sent a mission of over 100 people, led by an emissary called Su Wu, to the Huns, and Su Wu was detained by the Huns. Wudi later dispatched an army to punish the Huns. One contingent of 5000 arrow soldiers from southern China, led by General Li Ling (grandson of Li Guang), was encircled by the Huns numbering 30000, and General Li Ling surrendered to the Huns. In 90 BC, General Li Guangli and his 70,000 troops were defeated by the Huns, and Li Guangli himself surrendered to the Huns and he was killed by the Huns. Li Ling was asked to see Su Wu by Hunnic kingLi told Su that Su's wife had already remarried and Su's two brothers had died in China. But Su Wu refused to surrender. Li gave a Hun woman to Su as his wife. When Su returned to China, he had only eight of his previous companions with him.
By the time of Emperor Xuandi (reign 73-48 BC), south of Tianshan Mountains was under Han Chinese control. A Hunnic king called 'Rizhuowang' (king of sun chasing) offended Hunnic chanyu or king, and hence he defected to Han China, yielding to Chinese the original Hunnic control of northern part of Chinese Turkistan. Hunnic internal turmoils once led to the existence of five 'chanyu'. By 62 BC, north of Tianshan Mountains was firmly controlled by Chinese as well. Colonization went as far as the ancient state of Sache. This post was responsible for reporting on the situations in such states as Kangju and Wusun. The defection of 'Rizhuowang' had to do with Hunnic Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king) taking over the power with the help of ex-queen. 'Rizhuowang' was the brother of the dead Hunnic king. 'Rizhuowang' sent an emissary to Han governor-general at Quli, Zheng Jie, for help. Zheng Jie sent an army of 50000 and escorted 'Rizhuowang' to Han capital, Chang'an.
When the new Hunnic chanyu killed two brothers of 'Rizhuowang', the sun of the old Hunnic chanyu set up an independent court, calling himself 'Huhanye Chanyu'. After the death of the usurping Hunnic Chanyu, three more Hunnic leaders proclaimed themselves 'chanyu', leading to co-existence of five 'chanyu'. Around 53 BC, hearing that 'Huhanye Chanyu' obtained the support of the Han Chinese, the last competing 'chanyu', Zhizhi, sent his son to Han Court as a hostage as well. Zhizhi, being afraid of Han for his killing Han emissary, relocated to the west, namely, the ancient Jiankun Statelet. This relocation also had to do with the request from Kangju king who intended to attack the Wusun Statelet. Then governor-general Gan Yansou answered the call from Wusun and sent 6 columns of armies to defeat Kangju and 'Zhizhi Chanyu'. Zhizhi's descendants would later call themselves the Kirghiz.
During the reign of Emperor Yuandi, 48-32 BC, one of the Hunnic kings, 'Huhanye Chanyu', surrendered to Chinese, and colonization reached Cheshi.
The Hunnic empire split into two hordes in 51 BC, with the Eastern Horde (or Southern Horde) subject to China. In 33 BC, 'Huhanye Chanyu', came to Han capital for the second time and was married with lady Wang Zhaojun, a court maid of honour. (Lady Zhaojun, like many princesses and maids of honour married with Huns or other nomads before and after her, would later re-marry with the successor Hunnic King, a practice adopted by the nomads throughout history.) Peace ensued for dozens of years.

Confucianism vs Daoism During Early Han Dynasty
Mr Lin Yutang proposed during early 20th century the notion that the 'ancient Chinese were Confucian superficially, a Daoist innerside, and a legalist in governance.' A careful perusal of the early Han Dynasty history will show the kind of interwining nature of the three schools of thought in governance and philosophy. Should China ever possess a legalist philosophy, it was very much overturned during the Han Emepror Wudi's reigh, when the Confucian ranking system in regards to the king, the father and son etc was adopted. However, the Confucian and Daoist thoughts were never in conflict with each other for the Chinese intellectuals of the next two thousand years.
Han Dynasty founder (Han Emperor Gaodi, Liu Bang) was never fond of Confucians. When receiving a 60-year-old confucian by the name of Li Yiji, Gaodi deliberately had two maids wash his feet; when Li Yiji challenged Gaodi on the matter of not showing respect for the old confucian, Liu Bang called the name of 'shu ru' (i.e., damned confucian); Liu Bang did not show respect for Li Yiji till Li Yiji cited the success and failure stories in history as examples for Liu Bang to win the war against Qin Empire. After the unification of China, Gaodi at one time employed Shu-sun Tong, a Qin-era 'bo-shi' (doctorate), for making the imperial rituals, and appointed him the post of "tai chang", i.e., imperial attache. Shu-sun Tong later served the Crown Prince as "tai fu", i.e., imperial tutor. (Later, Qing historian Hong Liangji commented that the Qin empire had its demise in the hands of Shu-sun Tong. Why so? Because, Shu-sun Tong, as Qin Emperor Hu-hai's doctorate official, had told Hu-hai not to worry about the Chen Sheng & Wu Guang rebellion while he himself fled the capital to join Xiang Liang's rebellion.)
Per LULIN ZHUAN of HAN SHU, at the very beginning of the Han dynasty, there was a revival of studies of CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN. Zhang Cang, Jia Yi, Zhang Chang, and Liu Gong-zi ("taizhong dafu" {imperial admonition minister}, with the name Liu Gong-zi literally meaning Prince Liu but not necessarily a Liu royal family prince who should be termed 'wang" or a king, instead) all liked to edit CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN. Though, the book was never given the imperial attention till the Xin dynasty time period. One version of CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN was said to be passed down from Zhang Cang (Marquis Beiping-hou), a former Qin-era "yu shi" (imperial censor), who was said to be a disciple of scholar Xun Qing. Zhang Cang was said to have passed CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN to Han Dynasty scholar Jia Yi ("tai fu" or tutor for the Liang state); Jia Yi passed to grandson Jia Jia; Jia Jia passed to Guan4 Gong ("bo shi" for King Hejian-xian-wang); Guan4 Gong passed to son Guan4 Changqing ("ling" or magistrate for Dangyin); Guan4 Changqing passed to Zhang Chang ("jing-zhao yin", magistrate of the capital) & Zhang Yu ("yu shi" or a censor); Zhang Yu passed to Xiao Wangzhi ("yu shi" or a censor; and "tai fu" or tutor for the crown prince) and Yin Gengshi; Yin Gengshi passed to son Yin Xian, Di Fangjing, and Hu Chang; Hu Chang passed to Jia Hu; and Jia Hu passed to Chen Qin whose son Chen Qin passed to Xin Dynasty usurper emperor Wang Mang. It was said that Liu Xiang and Liu Xin had studied CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN from Yin Xian and Di Fangjing. Also, the Zuo family lineage book claimed that the Zuo family descendants fled the Wang Mang imperial recall by changing the surname and seeking anonymity in the related Qiu-surnamed hometown.
At the time of Emperor Xiaohuidi and dowager-empress Lv Hou, a few scholars were appointed some nominal posts, such as Yuan Gusheng and Haan Ying in the area of SHI JING, Zhang Sheng and Ou Yang in the area of SHANG SHU, Hu Wusheng and Dong Zhongshu in the area of CHUN QIU. At the time of Emperor Jingdi (reign 156-141 BC), Confucians Hu Wusheng (a former Qi territory person) and Dong Zhongshu (a former Zhao territory person) were made into 'bo shi', i.e., doctorate officials, for the research into Confucius' book CHUN QIU (Springs & Autums). It was said that Hu Wusheng and Gongyang Shou (who was a descendant of Gongyang Gao, a student of Confucian student Zi-xia) who were responsible for putting the Gongyang school of interpretation of CHUN QIU into the book format.
However, history said that Emperor Wendi liked 'xing ming' (the legal system) while Emperor Jingdi did not make Confucian appointments. More, dowager-empress Doutaihou had a personal preference for the Yellow Elderly school of thought, namely, the Laoism, which was also interpretated to be longevity studies attributed to the Yellow Emperor and Lao-zi. At one time, Yuan Gusheng offended dowager-empress Doutaihou when commenting on the Lao-zi books as shallow. Dowager-empress Doutaihou cursed the Confucian books as belonging to the "cheng-dan" people, a term referring to Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's decree to force whoever was in possession of SHI JING, SHANG SHU and the books related to the hundreds of schools of thoughts to work as the citywall builders. More, Dowager-empress Doutaihou ordered Yuan Gusheng to fight the wild boars as punishment.
In 140 BC, when Emperor Wudi got enthroned at the age of 16, he would make a decree that local governors send in learned persons to the capital, and over one hundred intelligentsia, include Dong Zhongshu of Guangchuan, Gongsun Hong of Zichuan, and Yan Zhu of Kuaiji, came to the capital. Wudi disapproved of the old officialdom policy which was to have officials (worthy of a pay of 2000 units of grains) recommend their sons and nephews for various posts. The new decree, 'advocating thrift people and recomemending filial people', discounted the family origin. A good story about Wudi would be his assigning Yan Si (an old man who went through two prior emperors' rule without any promotion) for the post of du wei (governing captain) of Kuaiji Commandary. Wudi was impressed by Dong Zhongshu's article which advocated Confucianism as the creed for ruling a nation. Wudi conferred Dong a post as prime minister for King of Jiangdu (Liu Fei).
Prime Minister Wei Guan suggested to Wudi that only few Confucian intelligentsia like Gongsun Hong and Yan Zhu should be retained while the rest non-Confucians could be sent back to their homes. After Wudi replaced Wei Guan with Dou Ying (nephew of Dowager Empress Doutaihou), Dou Ying and Tian Fen would locate two Confucians for Wudi: Zhao Guan and Wang Zang. Zhao Guan and Wang Zang were two of the thousand students of an eighty-year-old Shen-gong of ex-Chu Principality. Shen-gong was renowned for his research into ancient Shi Jing [classics of poems]. Shen-gong was invited to the capital by Wudi, but Shen-gong somehow performed modestly for sake of avoiding palace struggles. Dowager Empress Doutaihou, who previously intended to kill 'bo shi' Yuan Gu who served under Emperor Jingdi, would force Wudi into having Zhao Guan and Wang Zang arrested for propagation of Confucianism. Dowager Empress Doutaihou was fond of Daoism and hated Yuan Gu, Zhao Guan and Wang Zang for advocating Confucianism. Zhao Guan and Wang Zang, who offended Doutaihou for advising Wudi on prevention of the empress intervention in politics, committed suicide inside the prison. Under the pressure of Doutaihou, Wudi deprived Dou Ying and Tian Fen of their posts. Shen-gong claimed illness and went home. Confucianism did not get developed until much later.
After the death of Dowager Empress Doutaihou, Tian Fen was assigned the post as prime minister. Dong Zhongshu, who was conferred a post as prime minister for the King of Jiangdu (Liu Fei), was impeached by an official called Zhufu Yan in 135 BC. Han General Guan Fu tried to mediate over the relationship of Tian Fen and Dou Ying, but he offended Tian Feng in a marriage banquet in 131 B.C. With the help of Dowager Empress Wangtaihou, Tian Feng made Wudi order that both Guan Fu and Dou Ying be executed. Guan Fu's whole family were exterminated.
Wudi's brother, King of Lu, discovered some surviving books hidden by the 8th generation grandson of Confucius (Kong Zixiang) inside of the walls of Confucius' house. Zhang Tang, a censor or inspector under Wudi and a cruel criminal law official, would order 'bo shi' scholars to research into Shang Shu and Shi Jing. (Zhang Tang was notorious for his childhood article 'Interrrogating Mice' on which occasion he caught and interrogated mice after digging through the mice's underground caves to catch the mice for mice's stealing his family's grains.)
In 130 B.C., at the age of 80, Gongsun Hong, who claimed illness after returning from the Huns as an emissary, was recommended to the court again. Yuan Gu was over the age of 90 by that time. Gongsun Hong was conferred the post as yushi dafu, i.e., censor-in-chief.
Zhufu Yan, using Jia Yi's ideas, proposed to Wudi to have the various Liu kings divide their domain into smaller fiefs among their brothers and sons so that the various Liu kings would not be strong enough to pose a threat to the central government. Zhufu Yan also proposed the pacifying policies with the Huns; but, after General Wei Qing and General Li Xi defeated the Hunnic kings in Loufan and Baiyang and took over the Hetao land south of the Yellow River in 127 BC, Zhufu Yan changed his mind and proposed to Wudi to have a castle built on the north bank of the North Yellow River Bend in the same way as Qin Emperor Shihuangdi did. Gongsun Hong advised against Zhufu Yan's proposal by citing the futile attempts of Qin Shihuangdi in mobilizing 300,000 people for building the castle. Wudi concurred with Zhufu Yan in relocating over 100,000 people to the north bank. Zhufu Yan impeached King of Yan for his lasciviousness. King Yan was ordered by Wudi to commit suicide. Zhufu Yan was dispatched to King of Qi as prime minister. Angry that his daughter could not be married over to King Qi, Zhufu Yan impeached King Qi for King Qi's affairs with a sister. King Qi committed suicide. Gongsun Hong impeached Zhufu Yan for King Qi's death. Wudi ordered Zhufu Yan and his family be executed. Wudi deprived Xue Ze of the prime minister post; Gongsun Hong was conferred the post of prime minister (the post that belonged to three so-called 'san gong' or three duke-equivalents) and the title of Marquis Pingjin in 124 B.C. Gongsun Hong, following the practice of eminent princes of the Warring States time period, set up several guest houses for attracting talents and counsellors. Gongsun Hong appeared thrifty and pious, but were jealous of talents and extravagent inside. Dong Zhongshu had criticisms of Gongsun Hong. Gongsun Hong somehow inhibited Wudi's attempt to recall Dong Zhongshu.
With Gongsun Hong as prime minister, Emperor Wudi instituted the position of wu jing bo shi, i.e., Five Classics Doctorals and ordered that prefectures and the various Liu kingdoms dispatch learned youths to the capital as doctoral students. Confucius' ninth generation grandson, Kong An'guo, was among the doctorals teaching the students.
Gongsun Hong recommended Ji An for the post of rightside nei shi and recommended Dong Zhongshu for the post of prime minister for the King of Jiaoxi (Liu Rui), in the attempt of ridding the two political enemies by means of a 'borrowed knife'. Dong Zhongshu resigned his post for retirement shortly thereafter and then finished a 100,000 character book entitled Chunqiu Fanlu (miscellaneous dews from Spring & Autumn era).
Hu Wusheng [and his disciple Gongsun Hong] and Dong Zhongshu had been responsible for making CHUN QIU GONG-YANG ZHUAN a state teaching textbook. Among the two compendium-nature annotation books for CHUN QIU, namely, Gong-yang-gao's 11-volume CHUN QIU GONG-YANG ZHUAN [a Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state], and Gu-liang-chi's 11-volume CHUN QIU GU-LIANG ZHUAN [another Han dynasty book covering 242 years of the Lu state], the latter appeared to be of the nature of rebuttal against the former. Both books, which were postulated to have been passed on from the disciples of Confucian student Zi-xia, were in the format of questions and answers, apparently a compilation of the classroom teachings. (Zuo-qiu Ming's 35-volume CHUN QIU ZUO-SHI ZHUAN was not given the proper status during the Former Han Dynasty time period. During the Han dynasty, two other CHUN QIU versions of ZOU-SHI and JIA-SHI at one time existed before they were lost into oblivion.)
Zhang Tang was conferred the post of ting wei (court captain). Zhang Tang and Gongsun Hong colluded with each other, but Ji An refused to show respect for the two. Zhang Tang had under his service a learned doctoral student called Ni Kuan; Ni Kuan was known to Wudi for his article that Zhang Tang submitted to Wudi. In 124 BC, Wei Qing was conferred the post of Da Jiangjun (Grand General or Generalissimo) for defeating the Hunnic 'rightside virtuous king' and capturing 150,000 Huns; Wei's three babies and his generals were conferred the marquisdom titles; Wei Qing married with a 40 year old widow, Princess Pingyang. Though, Ji An still showed no respect for Wei Qing. The next year, Wei Qing led 6 columns against the Huns. General Zhao Xin surrendered to the Huns. General Huo Qubing, however, had a small victory. Wudi, to enrich the depleted royal savings spent on the campaigns against the Huns, decreed that officialdom could be bought with money.
The King of Huainan, Liu An (179-122 B.C.), hired eight elderly intelligentsia, Su Fei, Li Shang, Zuo Wu, Chen You, Wu Bei, Mao Zhou, Lei Bei and Jin Chang, and completed the alchemy and legends book, Huai Nan Zi, a.k.a. HONG (swan) LIE (ardent). The eight elderly intelligentsia, called by 'ba [eight] gong [grandpa]', had their name set for the BAgong-shan Mountain on the northern bank of the Fei-shui River. The alchemy work accidentally led to the invention of tofu, for which Liu An was accredited with the founding master of the tofu industry. BEN CAO GANG MU confirmed this invention. Coming to the nation's capital, Liu An submitted the book to the emperor. Among the series of books written by Liu An's hanger-on guests, there was a CHU CI style poem which called for the return of the king's grandson from the wilderness: Wangsun (king's grandson or a royal) you (going into the wilderness) xi [modal word] bu (no) gui (return), chuncao (spring grass) sheng (growing) xi [modal word] qiqi (luxuriant). Liu An, a grandson of the founding emepror Liu Bang, assumed from his father in 64 B.C. one of the three subdivided fiefs of the original Huainan-guo territory which was assigned to in 203 and taken back from Ying Bu in 196 B.C. For his raising a few thousand hanger-on guests, Liu An was susceptible to being accused of rebellion. King Huainan committed suicide when he was accused by Lei Bei, one of the eight renowned scholars, and one of his own garndsons, of attempting to rebel against Wudi. Zhang Tang tried the accomplices and exterminated the families of the people involved, including Liu AN's wife and two daughters. The Huainan fief was downgraded to the Jiujiang Commandary.
The King of Hengshan, Liu Ci, followed the suit of Liu An. The Hengshan fief was reduced to a commandary. The emperor's seven year old prince was made a crown prince. Marquis Bowang-hou (Zhang Qian) was dispatched to the west again.
Also notable would be a figure called Dongfang Shuo who, per research of some scholar, had been said to have travelled to the Arctic area more than 2000 years ago. The basis of this claim would be Dongfang Shuo's writings in regards to the 'extreme darkness' and the 'extreme daylight' for six months, respectively.

Xin Dynasty
At one time, two daughters of Lady Wang Zhaojun were invited by Wang Mang to visit the Han court, and Hunnic king promptly sent over one of the Lady Wang's daughters to the Han Court. This girl stayed in Han court for one whole year. After Wang Mang usurped the Han Dynasty, and named his dynasty Xin, namely, new, he would re-cast the seals bearing his new dynastic names and sent those seals to the Hunnic kings in exchange for the old seals conferred by Han Emperors. Later, the Huns found out about the trick and rebelled against the Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty. Wang Mang would fail to quell the Hunnic rebellions. He called upon the two sons of the brother of Lady Wang Zhaojun and sent them to the Huns frequently as 'ambassadors of friendship'. The two sons of the brother of Lady Wang Zhaojun would often contact the husband of the elder daughter of Lady Wang Zhaojun to broker peace. Wang Mang, however, continued his tricks and he at one time took the husband of the elder daughter of Lady Wang Zhaojun as a hostage, intending to support him as the new Hunnic king. During Wang Mang's reign, the Hun-Han relationship was the worst. Subsequent turmoils and rebellions which overthrew Xin Dynasty would allow the Huns to re-take control of parts of Chinese Turkistan.

Map linked from http://www.friesian.com

Latter Han Dynasty 
Written by Ah Xiang

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],