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Videos about China's Resistance War:
The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking;
Bombing of Chungking;
The Burma Road
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
Second European Campaign (AD 1236-1242)
Back in AD 1229, Batu Khan ("Bathy rex Tartarorum") , son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan, defeated most of the Bulghar posts. In the winter of AD 1236, Ogedei sent an army of 150,000 against Qin-cha and Russia, with Batu, Subetei, Moengke et als in charge. (Luo Xianglin stated that the Mongols raised an army of 500,000.) After finishing off the Volga Bulgars north of the Caspian, they went northward to attack the Rus tribes. In December 1237, Subetei and Batu led an army of 600,000 across the frozen Volga River. In AD 1237, the Mongols under the command of Moengke attacked the Riazan city. The chieftan Youli (Yuri?) and his son were recorded to have defended the city. Subetei captured Youli's son and intended to take over the wife of Youli's son for the beauty. When the woman jumped off the city wall to commit suicide, Subetei ordered the city to be slaughtered. Next, the Mongols attacked the city of Keluomuna and killed their leader by the name of Ruoman (Roman). The Rus relief army from Vladimir was defeated, too. The Mongols went to siege the city of Moscow and captured the grandson of Youli the Second. The capital was the Vladimir city (Moscow). Youli and his sons and nephews all died in fighting against the Mongols. By the summer of AD 1238, all northern Russian principalities, including Rostov, and Vladimir (Moscow), were taken over. The Mongols went as north as the forests for sake of clearing the rear of Rus. Only Novgorod escaped the Mongols, but Novgorod would have to pay tribute to the Mongols.
Subetei then turned south to the steppe region around the Don. One year later, the Mongols turned southwest. After a siege of dozens of days, the Mongols took over a city called Tu-li-si-ge by means of sending some disguised soldiers into the city. (I just don't know how they manage to change the facials or to hire the local mercenaries with the same facials for sneaking into the city.) Three days later, the spies opened the city gate and the Mongols sacked the city and slaughtered all.
The Mongols then went southward to attack Qin-cha (Kipchak). The old chieftan (Huotuosihan or Khan Huotuoshi), hearing the arrival of the Mongols, fled to Majia (i.e., Hungary). Some accounts put the number of Kipchak or Cuman refugees somewhere near 200,000. King Béla IV of Hungary offered the Cumans protection in return for their conversion to Christianity and providing 40,000 fighters in the defence against the Mongols.
After clearing the northwest of the Caucasus, the Mongols went to attack Southern Russia, i.e., Kiev. In November 1240, the Mongol army crossed the Dnieper River. At this time, the Kiev chieftan had gone north to help the dead Youli the Second. Hence, the Kiev chieftan became the head of the Rus capital Vladimir, while the Chernigov chieftan (Mihaile) had relocated to Kiev as the new head. (Kiev was the Rus capital for three hundred years before they moved to Vladimir. Also note that the name Rus came from Norse which was to say that the Rus conquerors had heritage from the Scandinavian pirates who crossed the Sea three hundreds before that time.)
On December 6th of AD 1240, the Mongols captured Kiev. The Mongols attacked the Chernigov city before Kiev. Chernigov chieftan (Mihaile or Mikhail ?) had defeated several waves of the Mongol attacks via pouring boiling water over the city wall. Then, Tadu decided to attack Kiev and personally led the siege. Chernigov chieftan (Mihaile) fled to today's Poland. One general by the name of Dimitri surrendered to the Mongols and then encouraged the Mongols to go west. Note the Mongols had conquered Russia during the infamous winter seasons which turned out to be the fatal enemy for both Napoleon and Hitler.
In December 1240, Batu, at Przemysl, sent an ultimatum to King Béla IV of Hungary demanding the surrender of the Cumans. Bela immediately rallied his Hungarians as well as other European principalities for relief. In the spring of 1241, Tadu divided his Mongol army into 2 columns: Baidar & Kaidu to attack Poland with a force of 20000, and Subetei & Tadu to attack Majia (Hungary) with a force of 50000. Luo Xianglin stated that the Mongols, after Kiev, split into four routes for attacking Poland, Silesia, Galcia, and Hunagary [Ma-jia], respectively. The forerunner column to attack Poland would be led by Subetei's son, Kaidu. http://historymedren.about.com/library/prm/bl2mongolinvasion.htm stated that "in February 1241, the Mongol army left its base in southern Russia and crossed the frozen rivers into central Europe. The force consisted of about 70,000 men, two-thirds of whom were light cavalry and the rest heavy cavalry, though all were equipped with bows. They were nominally commanded by Batu, but once again he was guided by Subotai." Baidar and Kaidu [i.e., the grandson of Ogadei] attacked Poland in early March 1241 as a diversionary tactic. Batu and Subotai passed through the Carpathians into Hungary on March 12, while dispatching a small force commanded by Kadan [i.e., son of Ogadei] to the southern flank for entry into Transylvania.
Poland boasted of four tribes at that time under the Piastow family. To the north, Kaidu (Khaidu) swept through today's Lithuania and Poland. Lithuania was left largely intact and later the Lithuanians would become a strong power between the Baltic and the Black Sea. Two Polish chieftans were either defeated or just fled in face of the Mongol attacks. http://historymedren.about.com/library/prm/bl2mongolinvasion.htm stated that "sweeping in a northward arc past the edge of the Carpathians and into Poland, Kaidu and Baidar sacked Sandomir, defeated an army of Poles and other Slavic forces under Boleslav at Kraków on March 3, and defeated another Polish army at Chmielnik on March 18. Turning their attention back to Kraków, the Mongols seized and burned the city on March 24, then assaulted the Silesian capital of Breslau a few days later. Breslau held out..." On March 24, at Cracow, Boleslav V (the Brave) of Poland, i.e., a cousin of Henry II, was killed. The remnants fled west to Liegnitz. Kaidu detached a tumen to raid along the Baltic coast. Kaidu raided westward into Silesia.
The third Polish chieftan, by the name of Heinrich (i.e., Grand Prince Henry II of Silesia or Henry the Pious) assembled an army of 30,000, comprising of 2 columns of Germans, 2 columns of Poles, and one column of Heinrich's own people. Exact terminologies would be "Polish knights, Teutonic Knights, and French Knights Templar", plus German gold miners from Goldberg. Luo Xianglin stated that the 1st & 2nd route of the Mongol armies for the Polish Campaign then converged for an attack at Liegnitz. Kaidu and Baidar intended to attack Henry II before King Wenceslas I of Bohemia [i.e., Henry II's brother-in-law] came to the relief with 50000 soliders. Henry II mis-calculated the arrival time of the Bohemian army and marched toward Jawor. The Mongol army marched to Wahlstadt ["chosen place"] for Henry II to arrive. On April 9, 1241, on the Walstattt Plains, near the city of Liegnitz (Legnica, Poland), the Polish-German joint armies, with so-called Teutonic knights included, fought against the Mongols. http://historymedren.about.com/library/prm/bl2mongolinvasion.htm stated that "upon seeing the Tartars, Henry drew up his forces in four squadrons and placed one after the other on the Wahlstadt. The first group was made up of knights from various nations, supplemented by the miners from Goldberg under the command of Boleslav, son of the margrave of Moravia. Sulislav, the brother of the late palatine of Kraków, led the second group--Krakovians and knights from Welkopole. The third group consisted of knights from Opole, led by the Opolian Duke Meshko, and Teutonic Knights from Prussia under the Heermeister Poppo von Ostern. Duke Henry led the fourth group, which was made up of men at arms from Silesia and Breslau, knights from Welkopole and Silesia, and French Knights Templar." Using the trick of "false flight and ambush", the Mongols decimated the European joint armies: the light cavalry on the Mongol ponies against the hauberk-wrapped knights with lance and the broadsword. Henry II was killed and his head was carried around on a spear at the head of the Mongol army until it rotted away. http://historymedren.about.com/library/prm/bl2mongolinvasion.htm stated that "in accordance with a Mongol custom used to count the dead, an ear was cut from each dead European. The Tartars filled nine sacks with ears. Contemporary records show that 25,000 of Henry's men were killed." Wenceslas and the Bohemians retreated upon hearing of Henry II's death.
Then, the Mongols took over Warsaw. Catapults, made by the Persian engineers, were deployed for injecting poisons and rocks into the city. (Catapults would be used again at the city of Xiangyang during the four and half year siege later, AD 1267-1272.) The whereabouts of the Chernigov chieftan (Mihaile or Mikhail) was unknown.
Then, the Mongols marched southeast. They met stiff resistance from the Bohemians at a place called Ao-le-mu and had to evacuate from today's Czeckslovakia. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+mn0024) mentioned that Kadan (another son of Subetei), with 30,000, "advanced through Transylvania, into the Danube Valley, and into Hungary. They entered Moldavia, Bukovina and Transylvania through Tihuta/Birkau/Borgo Pass. In mid April, Kadan and Kaidu joined the main Mongol army under Batu in central Hungary."
In early April of 1241, Batu crossed the Carpathian Mountains into Hungary. Batu sent another note to Majia (Hungary), requesting for handover of the Kipchak chieftan (Huotuosihan). Batu had earlier sent Julianus (a Dominican friar) and the Cuman prisoners to King Bela IV, but the message was ignored. A Polish messenger's letter from Batu to Bela was also ignored. Hungary, having received about 40,000 Kipchak [Cuman] people, ordered that they convert to Catholics. A Catholic priesthood leader, against the order of the Hungarian king, led a Christian army for a fight with the Mongols outside of the city, but he got defeated by the Mongols in a swamp. The Hungarians and Archduke Frederick of Austria blamed the Mongol attack on the Kipchak chieftan and killed Huotuosihan [Khotyan] for sake of pacifying the Mongols. The Kipchaks or Cumans left Hungary for Bulgaria, plundering all the way. (http://historymedren.about.com/library/prm/bl2mongolinvasion.htm adopted an European account stating that in January 1241, Archduke Frederick of Austria, having arrived in Buda, was "ferried across the Danube River to the small merchant town of Pest when a riot broke out--some say at his instigation--in which the Cumans' khan, Khotyan, was killed and his head thrown into the street... Archduke Frederick returned to Austria to observe the coming war from the sidelines.)
Cai Dongfan stated that the Mongols refused to leave even though the Cuman khan was dead. The Hungarian King (Beila, i.e., King Bela IV of Hungary) led a surpise attack at Batu and chased Batu's army outside of the city. At this time, Subetei came to the aid of Batu. The Mongols lured King Bela into a battle at the city of Mohi, on the banks of the Sajo River, on April 11. This is two days after the battle of Liegnitz. In April 1241, the Hungarian king fled the city of Budapest and the Mongols took over the city . (Some Mongol expert at http://www.coldsiberia.org detailed that Hungarian armies, "about 80,000 died in one battle and another 100,000 in consequent battles for Pest at the Sajo river, where Batu feigned a crossing during the evening of April 10, while Subedei crossed the river elsewhere covered by the dark of night." )
Meanwhile, Kadan took over Hermannstadt. Baidar and Kaidu fought across Moravia to meet with Subetei (Subotai) and Batu. But, at the city of Grobnok, the Croatians stopped the Mongols. The Mongols then took over the city of Lahore.
The Mongols spent the rest of the year consolidating their control of Hungary east of the Danube River. Late in 1241, the Mongols crossed the frozen Danube. Scouting columns raided into northern Italy, toward Venice and Treviso, and up the Danube toward Vienna. The Mongols chased Bela into Aosi (Austria) and Niemisi (Germany), pillaging and killing all the way to the Adriatic in Dalmatia. The Mongol reconnaisance was seen near the city of Vienna. (Some Mongol expert at http://www.coldsiberia.org mentioned that "during the whole campaign, the European countries were incapable of resolving their differences to fight a common enemy. Austria seized parts of Hungary and the pope was rumored to be trying to induce the Mongols to attack his rivals and enemies").
On Dec 11, 1241, Ogedei Khan died in Mongolia. The regency was taken over by his widow Toregene (Empress Mazhen-shi, reign 1241-1246). In Feb 1242, the news of Ogedei's death came to Batu's camp. Batu led his armies back to the east. The Mongols moved through Dalmatia and Serbia, then eastward and they destroyed the kingdoms of Serbia and Bulgaria before crossing the lower Danube. The Mongols evacuated Hungary and moved into the south Russian steppe. Batu established his capital at Sarai, near the Caspian and Volga, and his statelet would be known as Khanate of Kipchak or the Golden Horde which would rule Russia for 250 years, till AD 1480. Guyuk was elected Grand Khan in AD 1246.
Ogedei built several palaces in different places and indulged himself in sex with his 6 empresses and over 100 concubines. (Ogedei Khan was responsible for establishing a postal relay system, and Luo Xianglin claimed that the Southern Soong Chinese had commerce with the Mongols from the Lianshui-jun Garrison in the Yangtze-Huai river areas to Karakorum via today's coastal Shandong Province.) Against the advice of Yelu Chucai (Yeh-lu Chu'tsai), Ogedei went hunting and died in some ranch. When Ogedei died, Guyuk was still campaigning in the west. Hence, the sixth empress, Toregene (Mazhen-shi), decided to take over the regency with the support of a Muslim minister called Aodulaheman. Aodulaheman was appointed the post as a prime minister, and he colluded with a Mulism woman called Fatima in controlling the Mongol court. Yelu Chucai hence resigned his post for retirement. When Genghis Khan's only remaining brother led a force towards the capital, Toregene would recall Yelu Chucai for mediation. Yelu Chucai died in AD 1243. At this time, Guyuk returned from the west. Aodulaheman and Fatima, for sake of continuing their control of the court, proposed to Toregene that Batu should come back for an assembly before Guyuk could be enthroned. After four years (1242-1246), Batu still refused to come east though the Mongol soldiers had returned home. In AD 1246, Subedei died at the age of 70. When Toregene got ill, Guyuk was enthroned as the Khan. A Franciscan friar, John of Plano Carpini, as a papal envoy, witnessed the event. After the death of his mother, Guyuk killed Aodulaheman and threw Fatima and her female entourage into the river. While touring the west in AD 1248, Guyuk got ill and passed away. Guyuk's widow, Oghulgamish, holding their son, took over the regency without disclosing the death of Guyuk. Oghulgamish did consult with Touli's dowager concubine. Guyuk was titled Emperor Dingzong posthumously.
Touli's dowager concubine had earlier warned Tadu of Guyuk's western tour. Tadu was on his way to the east to see Guyuk when he received the news that Oghulgamish had taken over regency. In the west, Batu held an assembly by himself, attended by descendants of Jochi and Touli. Descendants of Chagadai and Ogedei refused to attend. At the assembly, Khubilai and Muoge, sons of Touli, refused to acknowledge Guyuk's son as the heir. Subetei's son proposed that Batu be the khan. Batu recommended Mengke as the candidate. Oghulgamish's representative then went east to notify Oghulgamish of the assembly's decision. Oghulgamish was unhappy and said the assembly should be held in the east, not west. Batu then ordered that a brother accompany Mengke to the east. Another assembly (kuriltai) was held, but descendants of Chagadai, Ogedei and Guyuk refused to attend. In AD 1251, Batu's people hence forcefully declared Mengke as the new Khan. Touli was titled Emperor Ruizong posthumously. Mengke would frustrate an attempt by the assasins sent by Guyuk's son, and further, Mengke either killed or exiled the descendants and dowager empresses of both Ogedei (Taizong) and Guyuk (Dingzong), making them feuds of the Ogedei family.
Two brothers, Khubilai and Hulegu, would play active roles now. Khubilai was responsible for managing the region south of the Gobi Desert. Khubilai would use two Chinese intellectuals, Yao Shu and Xu Heng, and a Huihe'r (Uygur?) man called Lian Xixian. Khubilai recommended another Chinese, Liu Bingzhong, to Mengke for the construction of the Kaiping city later.
Mengke deprived the Ogedei descendants of some of their former domains, making him and Khubilai inherit the lands of East Asia. A limit was put on the domains of the successors of Chagadai, which was to end along the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush. Hulegu, later Ilkhans ("subservient khans") of Iran, would rule beyond the Chagadai domain. Meanwhile, Batu had conducted some limited raids into today's Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Serbia and Bulgaria.
In 1252 and 1253, Khubilai ordered Subetei's son to attack Dali (i.e., Nanzhao) in today's southern Chinese province of Yunnan, with three columns. Dali King, Duan Zixing, surrendered. Then, the Mongol army invaded the Shanshan statelet in the Chinese Turkistan and entered the Tibetan Plateau thereafter. A Tibetan lama led the Mongols into the capital. The Tibetan chieftan surrendered. Khubilai entered Tibet and met the lama. When Mengke recalled Khubilai, Khubilai would take the 15 year old son (Phagsba) of the lama back to northern China and made him the Imperial Tutor when Khubilai got enthroned later. Subetei's son was ordered to march to the southwest and he conquered various southwestern statelets and tribes such as Baiman, Wuman, Guiman, Luoluosi, A'bo and A'lu etc. Tonkin or Annam (northern Vietnam) was invaded. In AD 1255, Batu died. In 1257, the Vietnamese king, by the name of Chen, fled to an island and Hanoi was sacked. The Vietnamese king surrendered and the Mongols left after a stay of nine days.
Mengke, Hulegu & Mongol Third Wave To The West
Hulegu [Fu-la] was ordered to go to the west to quell the Muslim rebellion in the early 1250s A.D. Hulegu marched along the northern side of the Tianshan Mountains, passing Alimali (present-day Korgas), and reached the bank of River Amu-darya in AD 1256. Then, he invaded a country called Munaixi (Hashasheen or Assassin or Arsacia?) to the south of the Caspian with three columns. The chieftan of Munaixi tried to negotiate for peace. Hulegu said the Muslims must destroy all their city and castles before they could talk for peace. Under the siege, the Munaixi chieftan surrendered to the Mongols and destroyed their city and surrounding fifty castles. Guo Kan, a Chinese general who served the Mongols since the times of his grandfather, was responsible for fighting the "assassin" Muslim sect. But Hulegu still killed the chieftan and then ordered the city slaughtered. The remnant Persians/Arabs fled to today's Baghdad. In AD 1258, Hulegu reprimanded the Abbasid Caliphate, Mu-si-ta-xin, for offering asylum to the Munaixi people. Hulegu defeated the Caliphate by flooding the Arabic camp. Then, they went on to lay a siege of the city of Baghdad and bombarded the city from all directions. Hulegu refused to see Mustaxin's elder son for surrender talk. Mustaxin surrendered in Feb of AD 1258. Alternative saying is that Guo Kan captured the caliphate when the caliph fled on a boat on the Tigris River. Hulegu ordered the city to be slaughtered, except for the Catholics and foreigners. For seven days, about 800,000 people were slaughtered. Mustaxin's harem of 700 women were either killed or taken over by the Mongols. Hulegu ordered Mustaxin and his elder son to be killed by wrapping them in blankets for the horses to trample on. Only Mustaxin's junior son was spared and he later married a Mongol woman and bore two sons for continuing their lineage. The Abbasid caliphate hence ended.
Hulegu then ordered General Guo Kan [?-AD 1277], a Chinese from today's Shenxi Prov, to invade today's Syria, Saudi Arabia, Cyrus and India, while he led an army against Arabia in AD 1259. Mesopotamia and Syria were conquered, and Damascus was taken in April, 1260. Chinese chronicles from the Yuan Dynasty stated that Guo Kan campaigned against the Fu-lang statelet which was thought to be the European crusaders' castle, conquered 120 cities and castles, and subdued numerous chieftans. The Muslim refugess flocked to today's Egypt. Hulegu & Guo Kan returned to Mongolia upon Mengke's death. (Guo Kan was to participate in the campaigns against the Southern Soong Dynasty, to enjoy the title as a "wan hu" [10000 households], and to assume the post of magistrate for Haining of today's Zhejiang Prov in AD 1276.)
The Mongols continued on towards Egypt. In September, 1260, a Mamluk army, i.e., Turkic mercenaries hired by Egypt, led by Baibars, defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in today's Palestine. (The Egptians would later drive out the Crusaders from Antioch in AD 1291.) Baibars was a former Mongol warrior who knew how to use the Mongol tactics. Syria fell under the Mamluk control. In AD 1261, Mamluk Baybars invited a descendant of the Abbasid caliphate to come to Cairo and reign as a puppet caliph. The new Abbasid caliphate was the puppets of the Mamluks during the time period of AD 1260 - 1277 when Baybars was in charge. In AD 1265, Baybars conquered Caesarea, and in 1268, took over Jaffa and Antioch. In AD 1270, the Eighth Crusade began. Baibars made an alliance with Berke Khan, Batu's brother and successor. Berke had converted to Islam. When Hulegu sent an army to Syria to punish Baibars, Berke came to the aid of Baibars. Hulegu, in order to counter Baibars and Berke, had to seek alliance with the kings of France/England and the Pope. Berke withdrew when Khubilai sent 30,000 troops to aid the Ilkhans. In the Ilkhante, provinces were governed by Turkish viziers who finally replaced the Ilkhan khanate with the death of Abu Said in 1335.
Mengke Khan Attack on the Southern Soong Dynasty
Khubilai was recalled to Karakorum (Helin) by Mengke Khan due to some dissension sowed by the Mongol ministers. After expressing loyalty and kinsmenship, the two brothers came to good terms. Thinking that an ex-Mongol emissary, dispatched by Mazhen-shi, had died in the Southern Soong custody, Mengke decided to raise a huge army against the Chinese to the south. The Mongols attacked today's Sichuan-Shenxi areas again. After crossing the Jialingjiang River, the Mongols sacked Jianmen [sword gate] and Chengdu. A Chinese general at Hezhou, by the name of Wang Jian, successfully defeated several waves of the Mongol attacks. After half a year of siege, the Mongols retreated after their general (Wang Dechen) died of a stone attack by the Soong Chinese. In August 1259, Mengke Khan hence got ill and died on Mount Diaoyushan of Hezhou Prefecture after a reign of nine years. (Alternative saying was that the khan was killed in the battle by the Southern Soong Chinese.) Mengke Khan was entitled Emperor Xianzong posthumously. The Mongols hence called off the campaign.
Meanwhile, Khubilai just crossed the Huai River and arrived at Huangpo [Huangpi], in today's Hubei Province. Hearing of Mengke Khan's death, he would write to Subetei's son in the hope of attacking Soong from two directions. Two Chinese brothers under Khubilai, Dong Wenbing and Dong Wenyong, crossed the Yangtze River to lay siege on E'cheng of today's Hubei Province. The Soong Chinese at Han'yang, under Prime Minister Jia Sidao, secretly negotiated for peace with the Mongols by promising 200,000 units of silver and silk, respectively. Khubilai then returned north. Subetei's son was coming to the east and attacked today's Hunan Province. Hearing of the peace deal, Subetei's son went north, too. Jia Sidao killed a few hundred Mongol hind army when Subetei's son passed through and then claimed to Soong Emperor Lizong that he had defeated the Mongols. Jia Sidao was conferred the title of Duke Weiguo-gong.
Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
Before returning to Helin, Arik-Buka (Ariq-boeke), a junior brother of Khubilai, held an assembly in Helin and declared himself 'khan'. Khubilai stopped at Jinlianchuan (Kaiping, i.e., Duolun, Cha'haer, Inner Mongolia) and declared himself Khan without an assembly. Yao Shu and Lian Xixian were ordered to make an announcement of the Khubilai's enthronement in the Chinese language. A Chinese era was declared, and the year would be the First Year of the Zhongtong Era, AD 1259. Liu Bingzhong and Xu Heng revised on Genghis Khan's governmental structure of 'Duanshi-guan' (criminal prosecutor), 'Wan-hu' (10,000 head military chief), and the Jurchen-style titles of 'yuan-shuai' (marshal) and 'xuan-hu' (pacifier) for provinces. New structure will be i) 'zhongshu sheng' (state affairs), ii) 'shumi yuan' (military affairs), and iii) 'yushi tai' (promotion and demotion of officials). Lower levels will include shi, jian, yuan, si, wei, and fu. Provincial affairs would be handled by 'xing-sheng', 'xing-tai', 'xuan-hu', 'lian-fang' and 'muming zhangguan', and levels included 'Lu' (comprising of several provinces), 'Fu' (province or prefecture), 'Zhou' (smaller prefectures) and 'Xian' (county). But discrimination against the Chinese was rampant. The Mongols would assume the primary posts while the Han Chinese the deputy posts. Tax administration could only be laid in the hands of Muslims - allies of the Mongols. A caste society was established, and four levels were differentiated: 1) the Mongols, 2) Se Mu Ren or Semuren (i.e., commonly taken as literal 'se' [various colored] and 'mu' [categoried] people -actually meaning various classes of people), 3) Han-Ren (i.e., the northern Chinese, the Khitans etc), and 4) Nan-zi (the southern "Chinese-barbarians"). After the conquest of China, the Mongols implemented the barbarian Droit du seigneur onto the villagers. (See Xu Dachao, a Soong-Yuan survivor from today's Suzhou, "jin yu lu [records from the ember of the Mongol fire]".) However, the Chinese women must have killed their first-born babies in light of the fact that the Mongol gene was rare among today's Chinese population.
Arik-Buka (Ariq-boeke), a junior brother of Khubilai, held an assembly in Helin and declared himself 'khan'. Lian Xixian, on his own initiative, frustrated the attempts of Arik-Buka's emissaries (Liu Taiping and Huo Luhuai) at today's Peking and defeated a general who answered Arik-Buka's order. Khubilai then attacked Arik-Buka and drove him off in AD 1261. The two brothers fought against each other for five years. After being in reign for five years, Khubilai Khan declared the new era of Zhiyuan in AD 1263. (In AD 1271, the Mongols adopted the dynastic name Yuan.) At the advice of Liu Bingzhong, Khubilai Khan, in AD 1264 [the 5th year of Soong Emperor Lizong's Jingding Era], moved his capital to today's Peking, i.e., winter capital Dadu ("great capital") or Khanbalik in Marco Polo's Cambaluc. This is in addition to a summer palace at Shangdu (the Xanadu of Coleridge).
Khubilai Khan sent an embassy, comprising of scholar officials Hao Jing, He Yuan and Liu Renjie, to Southern Soong. The Southern Soong Prime Minister, in order to hide his previous treachery acts from Emperor Lizong (Zhao Yun, reign AD 1224-1264), would imprison the Mongol emissaries. Khubilai Khan sent another emissary to Soong border general Li Tingzhi. Li's report to Emperor Lizong was covered up by Jia Sidao. Khubilai Khan issued a war decree in the second year of the Zhongtong Era (Ad 1260). The Mongol governor-general in charge of the Huai River and Yangtze areas, Li Zhan (Li Tan?), defected to Soong in the spring of the third year of the Zhongtong Era. Hearing of that, Khubilai Khan ordered that Shi Tianze to attack the defector general at today's Ji'nan, Shandong. After a few months' siege, the Mongols took over Ji'nan and killed Li Zhan via a cruel penalty of splitting the body.
The Siege Of Xiangyang (AD 1267-1272)
Around A.D. 1264, during the fifth year of the Zhongtong Era, Khubilai Khan changed the name of his era to the Zhiyuan Era. Arik-Buka was spared and came to surrender. At this time, a Soong officer at Tongchuan, called Liu Zheng, who was being resented by Jia Sidao, surrendered his 15 prefectures to the Mongols and he was conferred the posts of 'xing(2)sheng(3)' and 'an-hu-shi' for today's Sichuan areas. Liu Zheng proposed to have the Soong Chinese's grain supply cut off at Xiangyang. Soong Chinese General in Sichuan, Lü Wende, did not pay attention to Liu Zheng's building up the castles and cutting off Xiangyang from Sichuan. Lü Wende said that Xiangyang had ten years of grain supply. General Lü Wenhuan at Xiangyang wrote to Lu Wende, but he was ignored. Liu Zheng and A-zu led the Mongols to Xiangyang and encircled it for four-five years. The new Soong Emperor, Duzong (Zhao Qi, reign AD 1264-1274), conferred Jia Sidao important posts and added an extra title called 'Tai Shi', i.e., imperial tutor. Jia Sidao was extolled as comparable to the Archduke Zhou of Western Zhou Dynasty. Jia Sidao pretended to resign several times, but Emperor Duzong would not let him go. Jia Sizong continued to shield the news of the Xiangyang siege from the emperor. When a concubine told Duzong that Xiangyang had been under siege for 3 years, Jia Sidao would order that the woman be killed. The notoriety of Jia Sidao was best illustrated by another story: When one concubine of Jia Sidao saw a young man on the bank of the Xihu Lake (West Lake) and exclaimed about the beauty of the young man, Jia Sidao would order that the young man be killed in front of the concubine. In Sichuan, after Lü Wende died, his brother-in-law, Fan Wenhu, took over the post; but Fan, like his predecessor, refused to send the relief army to Xiangyang. At one time, Jia Sidao ordered Li Tingzhi and Fan Wenhu to aid Xiangyang. Fan Wenhu and his 100,000 were defeated. Two generals under Li Tingzhi, Zhang Shun and Zhang Gui, sailed along the Han-shui River; Zhang Gui broke through the Mongol siege lines, and Zhang Gui died on the Han-shui River. Zhang Shun barely entered Xiangyang alive. After finding out that Xiangyang was in great urgency, Zhang Shun, hiring two brave men, departed Xiangyang for sake of appealing for aid with Fan Wenhu. But soon after Zhang Shun broke through the Mongol siege lines, he encountered some Mongol ships, was caught by the Mongols, and Zhang died in the Mongols' hands. Then, the sister city of Fancheng was taken over by the Mongols, and two generals, Fan Tianshun and Niu Fu, died. The Mongols deployed catapults (made by the Persian engineers) against the outer wall of Xiangyang and destroyed it. Everytime Lü Wenhuan climbed up the citywall, he would have tears while facing the south. A Mongol general called on Lü Wenhuan to surrender, saying that Lü Wenhuan had done his job by guarding Xiangyang for five years. After they broke the arrows to swear forgivenness and sincerity, Lü Wenhuan surrendered and was conferred the post of 'Da-dudu' or governor-general for Xiangyang and the Han-shui River areas.
Demise Of Soong Dynasty
At this time, Emperor Duzong died, and his four year old son, Emperor Gongdi (Zhao Xian, reign 1274-1275), was made emperor in A.D. 1275. The Mongols sent Shi Tianze and Boyan (Bayan, grandson of Subetei) on a full campaign against Soong. Shi Tianze died en route. Bayan ordered that A-zu head the first column and depart for the Yangtze from Xiangyang, with Lu Wenhuan as the fore-runner general; the 2nd column was to be headed by Mang-wu departing from Yangzhou, with Liu Zheng as the forerunner general. Bayan took over numerous cities on the way, slaughtered one town, and killed and captured numerous Soong generals. Soong Dowager Empress Xie-shi had no choice but to rely on Jia Sidao for fighting the Mongols. More Soong generals surrendered, including Fan Wenhu in Sichuan, Chen Yi in Huangzhou (the Huanggang area, Hubei). Hearing that Liu Zheng had passed away, Jia Sidao had a short ecstasy and led an army of about 130,000 against the Mongols, but he was defeated on the Yangtze River. In today's Jiangsu areas, around the Yangtze, Zhenjiang and Jiangyin were deserted in face of the Mongol attacks. Jia Sidao sent an emissary to Bayan for peace, but met with declination. Jia Sidao requested with the dowager empress for relocation of the Soong capital. Empress Xie-shi refused to move.
Several ministers at the Soong court requested that Jia Sidao be deprived of his posts, and Soong released former Mongol emissaries like Hao Jing as a good-will gesture. At this moment, Zhang Shijie of E'zhou (Hubei Province), Wen Tianxiang of today's Jiangxi and Li Fei of today's Hunan came to the east to help the Soong court. Jiankang (i.e., Nanking) was deserted by a Soong general. Changzhou and Wuxi were next taken by the Mongols. Khubilai Khan then sent Lian Xixian and Yan Zhongfan to Soong for talking about a ceasefire. Lian Xixian requested with Bayan for bodyguards, but Bayan advised that the more bodyguards Lian was to take with him, the more likely the Soong Chinese might harm him. Lian obtained 500 soldiers, but once Lian arrived at the Dusong-guan Pass, Soong General Zhang Ru killed Yan Zhongfan and captured Lian Xixian. (History of the Yuan Dynasty stated that Lian was killed, too.) Bayan reprimanded Soong's acts, and sent another emissary, Zhang Xu, to the Soong court together with a Soong emissary. Again, Zhang Xu was killed by a Soong border general. Then, the Mongols stopped the peace talks and attacked Yangzhou on the north bank of the Yangtze (Changjiang River). The Mongols then attacked Yangzhou and defeated two generals under Li Tingzhi. The Jiading city surrendered next. Zhang Shijie's navy was defeated on the Yangtze by a Mongol fire attack. Wen Tianxiang arrived in Lin'an (Hangzhou) the capital, but Empress Dowager did not take his advice. Jia Sidao was expelled from the capital and he was killed by the escort official en route of exile. Taizhou of today's Jiangsu was lost to the Mongols, and Changzhou was slaughtered. In today's Hunan, Li Fei died, and both Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces were lost. After taking over the Dusong-guan Pass, the Mongols were closing in onto the Soong capital. A Soong minister called Liu Yue was sent to the Mongol camp for peace, but Bayan declined it, saying the Soong Emperor obtained the throne from a kid and would lose it in the hands of a kid. Lu Xufu was sent to the Mongols for expressing a wish to be a Mongol nephew, but the Mongols declined it. Soong's new prime minister, Chen Yizhong, sent Liu Yue to the Mongols in the attempt of expressing ackowledgement as a Mongol vassal, but Liu Yue was killed by a Soong Chinese civilian en route, at Gaoyou of today's Jiangsu Province. The Mongols then sacked Jiaxing and An'jie of today's Zhejiang Province. Wen Tianxiang and Zhang Shijie advised that the Soong court relocated to the islands in the seas, but Prime Minister Chen Yizhong decided to send in the imperial seal to Mongols for a surrender. Bayan requested that Chen personally came to the Mongols' camp, and Chen fled to Wenzhou, a southern Zhejiang coastal city. Zhang Shijie led his people into the sea. Wen Tianxiang was made the rightside prime minister and was ordered to go to the Mongols for peace. Wen was arrested by Bayan after he accused Bayan of invasion. In A.D. 1276, Bayan took over Lin'an and forced downager empress to issue the surrender order. The Soong royal family, including downager empress and Emperor Gongdi, was sent to today's Peking.
Late Emperor Duzong had two more sons, 11 and 6 year old, respectively. They fled to Wenzhou before Lin'an was taken by the Mongols. Chen Yizhong sailed them to Fuzhou of today's Fujian Province where a new Soong court was set up. Eleven year old Zhao Shi was made into Emperor Ruizong (reign AD 1275-1278). Zhang Shijie, Su Liuyi, and Lu Xiufu consecutively arrived in Fuzhou. Chen Yizhong was retained as the leftside prime minister, while Wen Tianxiang, after fleeing from the Mongols, also arrived in Fuzhou and acted as the rightside prime minister. The Soong court lasted another three years before a final demise. The Mongols continued to push south. Canton (Guangzhou) of today's Guangdong Province was taken, and Soong General Huang Jun died. Yangzhou on the Yangtze Bank were taken, and General Li Tingzhi was captured and killed. The Mongols then invaded today's Fujian Province. The Soong Court was frequently on the run, from one island to another, along the coast, and the new Soong Emepror died of illness within two years. The now eight-year-old brother, Zhao Bing, was made into the new emperor Di-bing in AD 1278. Note Di-bing had no posthumous imperial title at all. Chen Yizhong died in Hai'nan, Lu Xiufu was made into the leftside prime minister. When the Mongols attacked again, the Soong Court fled to Yashan, somewhere near Macao. Mongol General Zhang Hongfan led a surprise attack at Chaoyang (Chaoshan areas, Guangdong Province) and captured Wen Tianxiang who later wrote the famous poem entitled 'Ling Ding Yang' or 'the Lingding Sea'. At Hai'nan, Zhang Shijie nailed together his fleet, trying to defend the straits. Zhang Shijie declined Zhang Hongfan's persuasion for surrender. After a defeat, Zhang Shijie broke through the siege with 16 ships. When chased by the Mongols, Lu Xiufu, with young emperor on his back, jumped into the sea with emperor on his back after driving his family into the sea. Zhang Shijie met with a hurricane near the Hailingshan Mountain, preyed that his ship sink should the Heaven intend to capsize the Soong Dynasty, and died when his ship was sunken. Soong Dynasty officially ended in AD 1279, after a total of 320 years, including 152 years in southern China. The Soong royal tombs would be dug up by a Central Asian monk for treasures. Khubilai Khan declared the dynasty of Yuan ("first" or "beginning") in this year.
In today's Sichuan Prov, as said by Liu-sha-he, the Mongols sacked today's Chengdu city for a second time and left 1.4 million skeletons. Liu-sha-he cited Yuan Dynasty's Heh Qingquan in stating that the Mongol army killed the Chengdu people in batches of 50 and repeatedly pierced the dead bodies to make sure victims had been actually killed. (Liu-sha-he also had comments on the Di barbarians' massacring Chengdu in 301 AD as well as rebel Zhang Xianzhong's slaughter in AD 1644.)
The Death Toll in the Hands of the Mongols
Forums where this webmaster had extensive discussions on the Mongol/Manchu massacres
About the Song population. It is
about time for me to go against the history books, and use my judgment to make
a case as to how many people had been killed and how the household ratios
changed during the said time period.
The Invasion of Japan
Before subjugating Southern Soong, Kubilai sent a fleet of 150 boats against Japan in A.D. 1274. Marco Polo supposedly had travelled to and stayed in China during the period of AD 1275 - 1292. (Some Chinese scholars double-checked Marco's records with the official Mongol history and validated the authenticity of Marco Polo's accounts.) Two years after the 1279 conquest of Southern Soong, Kubilai's empress, an Onggirat woman, passed away. The Mongol khans had a custom of marrying the Onggirat women, a convention passed down from Genghis Khan. A niece of the empress would become the new empress. But Khubilai, though getting older, chose to go to the capital of Shang-du (i.e., Kaiping) for sake of indulging himself in concubines there (i.e., concubines from the past emperors). Kubilai hired a Muslim as his finance minister, and this person, A-he-ma, had done his best to exploit the people in the iron and salt trades. The A-he-ma nepotism would include over 500 officials across the country. A-he-ma would later be killed by a 'qian hu' (1000 household official) who issued an order in the name of the crown prince. Khubilai then renovated politics a bit by ordering Guo Shoujing to recompile the calendar, promoting the overseas trading, and inviting Confucius' descendant as the academy official. Rebellions broke out in coastal China of today's Fujian and Guangdong. Owing to rumors about the Soong Dynasty's revival, Khubilai relocated former Soong Emperor Gongdi (now Duke Yingguo-gong) to Shang-du and ordered ex-Soong prime minister Wen Tianxiang be executed should he refuse to surrender. Wen Tianxiang wrote a poem, stating that "Confucius proposed that one should die for compassion (Ren) and Mencius suggested that one should die for righteousness (Yi). Only when righteousness is fully exhausted will the compassion be derived. What should I endeavour after educating myself with so many books of the ancient saints? However, I am sure that I feel no guilty about myself from this death moment on." (Confucius wording for 'Ren' should mean a broader sense of human perfection, similar to nirvana in Buddhism. 'Ren' also meant nucleus in Chinese, as used for the nucleus of various fruits like apple.) Khubilai, impressed by this poem, conferred a title of Duke Lulingjun-gong on Wen Tianxiang posthumously.
In A.D. 1281, Kubilai sent another expedition, with more than 160,000 soldiers, to Japan, but a typhoon destroyed the fleet, with those soldiers already on the Japanese shore mostly killed by the Japanese. (The Japanese only spared the Southern Chinese and made them into slaves. Later, three Chinese fled to the continent.) According to Venerable Master Dongchu (1908-1977), Soong Dynasty's monks, who contributed to building the Japanese Zen buddhism in Kamakura, worked diligently to obtain the Japanese assistance to revive the deposed Soong dynasty. Monk Zu-yuan was said to have prayed days and nights in wishing his words to transform into the devine soldiers against the Mongol invaders. In Dongchu's opinion, Kubilai's motivation in invading Japan was for sake of eradicating the Soong Chinese monks who were agitating in Japan for the restoration of Soong Dynasty.
The idea to have contact with Japan started in A.D. 1265 when a Koryo emissary, Zhao Yi, told Khubilai that Japan could be reached. The second year, Khubilai sent He De and Yin Hong to Japan via Koryo where King Wang Zhi ordered his people to accompany them on the sea trip. He De and Yin Hong failed to get in touch with any Japanese official and returned home. Khubilai then sent Pan Hu to Japan where Pan Hu stayed for 6 months; but Pan did not get to see any Japanese official. In A.D. 1269, Koryo minister Lin Yan usurped the kingdom, and Khubilai sent over a 10,000-men army for sake of accompanying the Koryo King back to the throne. Then, Khubilai sent Zhao Liangbi to Japan where Zhao met a Japanese governor; Zhao was told that the Japanese refused to meet the prior Mongol emissaries because the Koreans had repeatedly said that the Mongols intended to invade Japan. The Japanese governor then suggested that Zhao Liangbi return to China since the Japanese capital was too far away. Zhao ordered that his follower and Japanese emissaries return to China first. Yao Shu and Xu Heng advised Khubilai that the Japanese emissary had come to China for sake of detecting the military might of the Mongols and recommended to Khubilai that he treat the Japanese the same way the Japanese treated the Mongol emissary. The Japanese emissary returned to Japan without seeing Khubilai. Zhao Liangbi returned to China then, but was ordered to make one more trip to Japan. Japan was ruled by the shogunate at that time, and the national policy was to close off the seashore. In A.D. 1274, the Koryo king passed away. Khubilai married over his daughter to the new Koryo king and then ordered that Koryo send an auxiliary force of 5,000 on a campaign against Japan. Khubilai altogether assembled 900 ships and an army of 20,000 for invading Japan. However, the Japanese refused to fight the Mongols; the Mongol army retreated after running out of arrows and capturing a few Japanese. (See http://www.fascinatingearth.com/Kamikaze%20-%20Divine%20Wind.htm. for alternative account of the first invasion.)
The next year, Khubilai sent Du Shizhong and He Wenzhu to Japan, but the Japanese again refused to receive them. In A.D. 1280, Du Shizhong was dispatched to Japan again, but the Japanese minister killed Du after being enraged by the letter from Khubilai. Khubuilai then ordered that rightside prime minister A-lou-han and Fan Wenhu lead an army of over 100,000 on a campaign against Japan. (Alternative accounts claimed nearly "4,500 ships equipped with about 145,000 troops"). A-lou-han died en route in Koryo. Khubilai then ordered leftside prime minister An-ta-ha to substitue for the position of dead A-lou-han. However, Fan Wenhu had already started the war on his own initiative. Before arriving at an outer island near the Japanese coast by July, 30-40% of the ships, under the command of 'wan hu' (ten thousand household official) Li Debiao, had already fled towards Koryo as a result of huge sea winds (called the "divine wind" or kamikaze in Japanese). When the hurricane blew again, Fan Wenhu also fled to Koryo on August 1st. A lower level official, 'bai hu' (officer in charge of 100 households), would be in charge of the remaining Mongol army, about 100,000 people. When this 'bai hu' ordered that the Mongols landed on the island to cut trees for repairing the ships, the Japanese made an assault on them. One third of the Mongols were killed, one third drowned in the seas, and one third taken prisoners. Out of the 20-30,000 prisoners, only 10,000 Southern Chinese were spared. One Southern Chinese, by the name of Yu Chang, fled home to report the defeat. Two more Chinese, Muo Qing and Wu Wanwu, fled to the continent, too. Fan Wenhu later blamed the defeat on 'wan hu' (officer in charge of 10,000 soldiers) Li Debiao, but Khubilai could not locate Li Debiao since Li had dispersed his soldiers and hid himself in Koryo as a civilian. Then, Khubilai ordered a new campaign against Japan, and this was only halted when he shifted his priority to the campaign against Champa.
According to Venerable Master Dongchu (1908-1977), Kubilai, after two failures in invading Japan in A.D. 1274 (i.e., the Battle of Wenshui) and 1281 (i.e., the Battle of Hong'an), changed strategy to pacifiy Japan by utilizing the buddhists. Among monks sent to Japan would be Yi-shan-yi-ning from Mt Putuoshan of today's Zhenhai, who arrived in the Hakata Bay in A.D. 1299, with Yuan Emperor Chengzu's letter. Yi-shan-yi-ning, who was put under arrest at one time as a spy by the Shogunate headed by Hojo Sadatoki, was allowed to preach buddhism and was accorded meetings with the Shogun. Eighteen years later, Yi-shan-yi-ning passed away in Japan, with the Japanese eulogizing him as the most excellent person from the Soong land and the Japan nation's state tutor. Throughout the history of 92 years' rule over China, Japan never acknowledged the Mongols as an orthodox dynasty of China.
Champa & Annam
Champa, located to the south of Annam, refused to acknowledge being a vassal of the Mongols. The Mongols, under Suodu, departed Canton with over thousand ships. Champa boasted an army of 200,000. After being defeated by the Mongols, the Champa prince fled to the mountains and sent a minister to the Mongol camp for surrender. Unguarded, Suodu was later defeated by a Champa ambush. Suodu requested for a relief army. Khubilai ordered that his ninth son, Duohuan, i.e., King of Zhennan (i.e., quelling the south), lead an army southward via Annam. The Annam King agreed to supply grains, but refused to lend the path to the Mongols. A brother of the Annam King, Chen Jun, took charge of fighting the Mongols. Annam King sent over one thousand ships to aid his brother. After several rounds of fighting, Annam King requested again that Mongols leave Annam per the treaty signed with Mengke Khan before. The Mongols attacked the Annam camp and took over the capital. Annam King fled, and one brother by the name of Chen Yiji surrendered. The Mongols met with shortage of grain and pestilence in the Annam capital and hence called off the campaign. When fleeing northward, the Annam army attacked them with poisonous arrows at a river crossing. Duohuan barely escaped alive. Suodu, not knowing the retreat of Tuohuan, was ambushed at another river crossing. Suodu committed suicide by jumping into the river. Having incurred heavy losses, Khubilai was advised not to attack Annam for now. In AD 1284, Khubilai conferred the Annam kingship onto Chen Yiji and ordered King of Zhennan Tuohuan to lead a campaign against Annam. The Mongols took over the Annam capital again, and Annam king fled to the island. By the spring of AD 1288, pestilence erupted again. When the Mongols retreated, Annam King assembled a land/sea army of 300,000 and circumvented to the hind of the Mongols. Tuohuan barely escaped alive, and he was reprimanded by Khubilai with a prohibition to return to Peking. The Annam king, Tran Nhon-ton (Chen Ri-xuan), however, sent over a gold statute and requested for pardon. Khubilai hence sufficed with the status of Annam. Burma, however, was invaded by another Mongol king. About 12 tribes of so-called 'Xi-nan Man' or the Southwestern barbarians were conquered, and Burma acknowledged vassalage. Thailand, India, Southeast Asian statelets, hearing of the Mongol conquest of Burma, sent in tributes. Khubilai intended to invade Japan and Annam again. One minister, Lu Shirong, who raised money via over-circulation of the paper currency, was executed. Crown Prince Zhenjin passed away.
The Mongol Internal Strife
Khubilai Khan obtained his throne without a proper assembly, and hence he had lost the kind of mandate over ruling the other Mongol khanates. By moving the capital to Peking from Karakorum (rebuilt by Ogedei in AD 1235), he had changed the old Mongol yasaq. In the very beginning, Jochi's son, Batu, ruled the region to the north and west of Lake Balkash (extending from today's Hungary to the Kirghiz Plains, and from the lower Danube to the Caucasus); Chagadai was given the southwestern region to the east of River Amu-darya and to the southeast of River Syr-Darya, including today's Afghanistan, Turkestan, the former Naiman territories around the Altai, and central Siberia; Ogedei was awarded China and East Asia; Tului, the youngest of the four sons, was to have central Mongolia. Later, Tului's sons exterminated the ruling of Ogedei's descendants and diminished the domain of Ogedei's descendants, and the Chagadai domain was curtailed; Hulegu was given the territories beyond the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush. Nominally, Khubilai Khan was in charge of all khanates: 'Amu-darya Xingsheng' was in charge of the Ilkhante and Kipchak Khanate; 'Lingbei (north ridge) Xingsheng' was in charge of the Ogedei Khanate [Tacheng]; and two 'yuan shuai (marshal)' offices were in charge of the Chagadai Khanate [Ili]. A separate 'Liaoyang Xingsheng' was in charge of today's Manchuria. After declaring his dynasty of Yuan, Khubilai Khan could only be considered a ruler of China and Mongolia.
Khubilai Seeking For Confucians
Invading Java, Declaring Amnesty, and Khubilai's Death
Emperor Chengzong (Borjigin Temur, reign A.D. 1294-1307)
Successors of Chinggis - Continuing Conquests
The Development & Demise of the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1261-1368)
To be continued !
written by Ah Xiang
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