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In ancient Chinese records, the name of Choson (Chao-xian) had appeared in almost all dynastic chronicles. There are two mythical books that are worthy of special attention: "Shan Hai Jing" and "Huai Nan Zi" (The Book by King Huai-nan of Han Dynasty). "Shan Hai Jing", namely, the Book or Classics of Mountains and Seas, recorded most of the myths and legends of ancient China, and this book, said to have been authored by Lord Yu (r. BC 2204-2195 ?) and assistant Bo-yi, strangely, had the stories and accounts of lands as far as Europe and the Americas. Korea or Choson, as a springboard for accessing Sakhalin, the Bering Straits, Aleutian Islands and Japan, land and sea, was usually first mentioned.
Chaoxian (Korea) as Recorded in the Book or Classics of Mountains and Seas
1) Chaoxian (Korea) was to the east of Lieyang
Specifically, "Shan Hai Jing", with a corroborated history of at least the 4th century B.C.E. by annotator Shi-zi (i.e., teacher of Qin reformer Shang Yang), stated in the section on the "Eastern Records in the Immediate Seas (Chapter 13)" (hei nei dong jing) that Chaoxian (Korea) was to the east of Lie-yang when talking about the geography of "north of the [Bohai] Sea" and "south of the mountain". (Note that the "seas" component of "Shan Hai Jing" could be relatively new in comparison with the "mountain" part of "Shan Hai Jing". Hence, the writings on Chaoxian (Korea) in "Shan Hai Jing" were after-the-matter-of-known-facts.)
Gu Mingxue proposed that "lie-yang" meant the northern bank of the Lie-shui River while the river was speculated to be the Jeanyeong or Zaining-jiang River of Korea. (The soundex word "lie" was used to denote the three rivers of Korea, while the same character had appeared in a different record in Han Dynasty to point to a Lie-kou rivermouth, i.e., the estuary of both the Deadong (Datong-jiang) River and the Jeanyeong River, where one of Han Dynasty Wudi's two-prong attack force against Korea had converged upon.) Gu's point was that when "Shan Hai Jing" was referring to Chaoxian (Korea) as located to the east of the Yan Principality of Zhou Dynasty and to the east of Lie-yang, it was after the matter of the fact that the Yan Principality army had invaded and defeated Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea), to the effect that Ji-zi Chaoxian was said by "Shan Hai Jing" to be subject to Yan.
This webmaster's reservation is that when the ancient people wrote down "lie-yang-dong", it could not mean two adjectives to point to the east of the northern bank of "lie" but the east of a place called "lieyang". -- The above extrapolation by Gu Mingxue on the "Lie-yang" as to the boundary record of Yan in "Shan Hai Jing" would furthermore invalidate the age of the said book as it could mean that the said book could not have been written earlier than the 4th to 3rd centuries B.C.E, when Yan Principality General Qin Kai attacked Donghu (eastern Hu) and Ji-zi Chaoxian consecutively around 300 B.C.E.
2) Chaoxian (Korea) was at Lieyang
Alternatively, someone called Wang Li attempted to explain where Ming-yi (bright Yi) of the Nine Yi people lived or where Ji-zi [who departed for Ming-yi's land at the end of Shang Dynasty] was. Wang Li used comma to separate the characters "lie-yang" and "dong" - as suggested by Zhang Boquan -- to state that "Shan Hai Jing" meant Ji-zi Chaoxian to be located right at Lieyang, followed by words of the east sea and south of the northern mountain in lieu of the popular explanation which was "east of Lieyang, north of the sea and south of the mountain". Further, Wang Li claimed that Lieyang is the ancient Liang-shui River and today's Taizi-he River in Benxi County, east of Shenyang (Mukden). More, Wang Li cited Zhang Hua's Bo Wu Zhi (Records of the extensive list of things) to state that Ji-zi Chaoxian was actually located in today's Liaodong peninsula, where Yan Principality attacked, uprooting Ji-zi Chaoxian and forcing them into a flee to the Korean peninsula. Zhang Hua (232-300 AD)'s statement was that after Yan attacked and destroyed Chao-xian, the Ji family people escaped into the sea to reach [the] Korean [peninsula] where they became the mentor of the "[Chao]Xian-guo" nation. --This means that Ji-zi Chaoxian was not situated in the Korean peninsula or Wang-xian-cheng (today's Pyongyang) at the beginning [or the 11th century B.C.E.] but after Yan defeated them at Lieyang around 300 B.C.E. More confusing was the viewpoint that what Zhang Hua meant by "going into the sea" was what the Korean kings and emperors did for the last thousand years, namely, escaping onto the Jiang-hua Island off the coast in crises.
Other than the above dispute, the rest of history was much clearer in stating that the ancient Koreans under the Ji-zi family would not retake today's northwestern Korea and the Liaodong (eastern Liaoning) peninsula territory till the Qin Empire decimated the Zhou principalities, including Yan, in the unification war of the early 3rd century B.C.E. What "Shan Hai Jing" inferred to was that Yan and Chaoxian (Korea), in the 3rd century B.C.E., had demarcation along the Jeanyeong River, with the north side belonging to the former while the latter controlling the east (or southwest) side of the river.
3) Chaoxian (Korea) and "tian du"
Scholar Gu Mingxue further dug up the entry in the "Records of the Immediate Seas (Chapter 18)", which listed Chaoxian (Korea) with "tian [heaven] du [meaning other than the poison denotation in Chinese character itself]", and speculated that the second part "tian du" could not be the later denotation of "shen du" or "yin du" [Indus] for India but a transliteration of the later more clearly pronounced words of "xian [precarious pass] du [meaning the gorge denotation in Chinese character itself]", a county among 18 counties of the Liaodong commandary recorded in Ban Gu's geography section of Han Shu --which would be what the ancient Koreans called Pyongyang by "wang [king's] Xian [precarious pass] cheng [fort]", namely, Wang'gom-song. The point here is significant in that Wang'gom-song would be the source of the later 13th century A.D. Korean forgery for the legendary overlord of Tan-gun (lord of the rosewood tree) Wang [king] Jian. The Koreans pretentiously claimed that China's history Wei Shu talked about Tan-gun establishing the capital at "A-si-da", albeit leaving out the details about the exact Wei Shu they were referring to. Kim Il Sung, who ordered to have Ji-zi's clothes-cap tomb [which could be built in A.D. 1102] dug up and destroyed in 1959, had a Tan-gun tomb built in 1993-1994, on basis of the 1932-1936 tomb.
By the way, the "Records of the Immediate Seas (Chapter 18)" stated that Chaoxian (Korea) was within the East Seas and located at a corner of the North [Bohai] Sea. Numerous other books, such as Guan Zi, Shang Shu Da Zhuan, which also extensively discussed the name of Chaoxian (Korea), could be later 'good-intentioned' forgeries as we discussed in the prehistory section. The next reliable record would be Sima Qian's Shi Ji, which was contemporary of Han Emperor Wudi's invasion of Korea.
--The speculated county name of "tian [heaven] du" ("xian [precarious pass] du) could mean a make-up of Han Dynasty or a Han Dynasty pick of an ancient name should there exist such a name. In Wang Jia's Shi-yi-ji (Records of Collected Extant Records), there was a reference to a visit by an Mu-xu Statelet Indian to Yan King Zhaowang [335-279 B.C.E.] during the king's 7th year reign, which could mean that buddhism had already spread to China in the 4th century B.C.E.
There were three major components to "Shan Hai Jing", namely, "The Book on the Mountains", "The Book on the [Inner-] Seas & the Book on the [Over-]Seas" and "The Book on the [Overseas] Wilderness", with the section on mountains covering the viscera of Mother Earth as known in the Central Kingdom of China in the 4th century B.C.E. at minimum, the section on the [Inner-]Seas and [Over-]Seas to have credible geography on the Korea peninsula while the rest being difficult to pinpoint in an exact match, and the section on the [Overseas] Wilderness, such as the American continents, being fuzzy and incredulous.
Other than "Shan Hai Jing" (i.e., written in the 4th century B.C.E. or earlier), there was Zhan Guo Ce, a book that Liu Xiang, during Han Dynasty Emperor Chengdi's reign, compiled on basis of the remnant records of the Warring States time period, in which Su Qin, a strategician (strategist) working on behalf of Yan Principality to build alliance among various statelets against the Qin hegemony during the 4th-3rd centuries B.C.E., had discourse on the countries to the east of Yan, listed as i) Chaoxian (Korea) and ii) Liaodong (east of Liao-he River or the Liaoning peninsula), i.e., two separate statelets. This (Zhan Guo Ce) could mean that Yan had basically rezoned the newly-acquired territory of ancient Korea, up to the northern bank of the Jeanyeong River as 'Liaodong'. (See below description of the Yan-Donghu war to see how the Dong-hu barbarians pushed south to have apparently wedged between Yan and Chaoxian or Ji-zi Korea, and how Yan General Qin Kai defeated the Dong-hu and subsequently defeated Ji-zi Korea.)
More about Shan Hai Jing is available at http://www.imperialchina.org/ImperialChina/?p=331
Chaoxian (Korea) as Recorded in the Book of Changes
Not to leave out anything, the earlist Chinese book that referred to the land of Korea could be Zhou Yi, i.e., Zhou King Wenwang's 'milfoil divination' (Yi Jing, Book of Changes), a divinity development that the Zhou Dynasty founder contrived by developing ancient overlord Fu-xi '8 Gua' into '64 Gua'. In the Book of Changes, the clear reference was the conferral of the land of Korea onto Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi, with the words stating that Ji-zi was in the land of 'Ming-yi', i.e., the brightness Yi people --which could be the 'Yang-yi' or the Sun yi living along the Shandong coast during the 3rd millennium B.C.E., one of the Nine Yi people, with nine meaning nothing other than numerous in Chinese, similar to the Yuezhi's nine Zhaowu clans in central Asia or the Nine Name Hu Clans.
Though, scholar Liu Yuwen had a brilliant re-analysis of the geography concerning the earliest record about Chaoxian (Korea) in "Huai Nan Zi" (The Book by King Huai-nan of Han Dynasty), and combining the extensive records in "Shan Hai Jing" (The Book or Classics of Mountains and Seas), concluded that the locality of 'Ming-yi', i.e., the brightness Yi people, was in fact right in the heart of the Shandong peninsula. This could only mean that Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi, moving east towards the coast, had initially dwelled in the Yang-yi (Sun Yi) country, i.e., today's Yishui-Juxian area and what the Han Dynasty denoted as the Ji-xian County [i.e., Ji-zi's county], before a further move across the Yellow Sea to today's Pyongyang area of Korea or more likely across the Bohai Inner Sea to southern Manchuria. --This makes sense in that the cross-sea trip to Manchuria or Korea was one fourth of the total detour length if moving along the coast, while the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in my opinion were just like the Chesapeake Bay in James A. Michener's novel. See below description on Sushen-shi (Manchuria), Guzhu (Liaoning) & Shan-rong (Hebei-Liaoning) to understand that the land trip was an unlikely feat versus an easy sea trip to southern Manchuria or to the Deadong (Datong-jiang) River and the Jeanyeong River on the northwestern Korea coast.
Chaoxian (Korea) as Recorded in the Book by King Huai-nan of Han Dynasty
Huai-nan-zi (The Book by King Huai-nan of Han Dynasty) stated that departing Jie-shi-shan (said to be Wu2di4 county of northwestern Shandong by Liu Yuwen), the easternmost [Sinitic] territory could be reached by taking the route of Jie-shi-shan, Chaoxian (morning freshness, i.e., the same name for Ji-zi Korea), and Daren-guo (i.e., tall men's country). Huai-nan-zi, which was compiled by thousand scholars under King Huai-nan [179-122 B.C.E.] at today's Yangtze-Huai territory, had more than adopted the writings of the "Shan Hai Jing" of the 4th century B.C.E., in that it had the same copiousness and comprehensiveness of Lv-shi-chun-qiu (Lv Buwei's Annals on Springs & Autumns) which in turn had repeated the geography recitals of "Shan Hai Jing". The illustration here, however, was to point out that the original Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea) could be very well located on the Shandong peninsula, and with ongoing hundreds of years of wars between the Zhou Dynasty and the [misnomer] Dong-yi people, Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea) might have already crossed the Yellow Sea to the Korea peninsula or the Bohai Sea to Manchuria, the actual incident of which was of course not recorded in the Chinese history.
As validated by Liu Yuwen, Huai-nan-zi correctly pinpointed the easternmost Chinese territory as the Shandong coast, not the fancy land beyond the seas, and named the known places in Shandong as the place where the sun rose, the land of Fu-mu tree (i.e., the later Fu-sang tree), the countryside of the Qing-tu (greeen earth) and forests, and the domain of ancient overlords and saints Tai-hao and Xia Dynasty king Mang. Liu Yuwen used "Shan Hai Jing" to prove Daren-guo (i.e., tall men's country) to be Fu-fu or Kua-fu; Liu Yuwen used the Lord Yao section of "Shang Shu" (Remotely Ancient History) to prove the name of the easternmost place to be Yang-gu (i.e., Sun valley), or the place of the Yu-yi people, and then used the Yu Gong (Lord Yu's Tributes) of "Shang Shu" (Remotely Ancient History) to prove that Qingzhou (i.e., Qing-tu) was the same place as Yu-yi and Yang-gu. Liu Yuwen used Lv-shi-chun-qiu (Lv Buwei's Annals on Springs & Autumns) to prove that Fu-mu was the same as Qing-qiang or Qing-qiu (green hill), and Liu Yuwen used Sima Qian's Shi Ji to show that the same easternmost place was named Pan-mu. Liu Yuwen used miscellaneous geography books, prefecture and county records and historians' records to first pinpoint the ancient "Qian-shen" (thousand horses) county as the locality of Qing-qiu, where Qi Lord Jinggong grazed the horses, and then cited ancient interpretation of Qing-tu as what Yu Gong (Lord Yu's Tributes) meant by Qingzhou and what the history invariably designated as the place of Qingzhou. Liu Yuwen used "Shan Hai Jing" to prove Chao-yang (facing the Sun) Valley was to the immediate south of Qing-qiu, while Chao-yang (facing the Sun) Valley was the same as Yang-gu.
The conclusion reached by Liu Yuwen was that what Huai-nan-zi referred to was in fact "Chao-yang" (i.e., facing the Sun) by what it termed Chao-xian. Liu further extrapolated it to be what history referred to as the high "Chao-wu" (dancing in the morning) mountain near Chefoo and/or near Chengshan, where the ancient people adored the rising Sun god, which then conflicted with the south-north geography of "Chao-yang" and "Qing-qiu" as the sun-watching mountains would be at the easternmost tips of the peninsula --the locality to the east where the sun rose, the land of Fu-mu tree (i.e., the later Fu-sang tree), the countryside of the Qing-tu (greeen earth) and forests etc. Note Huai-nan-zi wrote down the [misnomer] Chaoxian land to be between Jie-shi-shan and Daren-guo. Daren-guo, i.e., the tall men's country, was historically taken as the later Yexian County or today's Laizhou. Liu Yuwen further disputed what Shan Hai Jing meant by Ji-zi Korea being located at the corner of the North [Bohai] Sea to state that it could be some lagoon sea that no longer existed --which was in this webmaster's opinion going beyond the correct interpretation of Huai-nan-zi to refute the established facts about Ji-zi Korea from the 4th century B.C.E. In another word, Shan Hai Jing, when talking about Ji-zi Korea in the 4th century B.C.E., had incorporated the facts about Ji-zi Chaoxian which existed actually in the Korean peninsula, while Huai-nan- zi, in the 2nd century B.C.E., was possibly using the ancient records about Chao-xian's initial existence on the Shandong peninsula from beyond the 4th century B.C.E. The lagoon sea theory, however, fully corroborated Shan Hai Jing's account as to the Daren-guo situated within the seas.
We want to put forward a caution here. No matter how the Shang Dynasty exodus took place to reach Korea, Shang Prince Ji-zi of the 11th century B.C.E., the 'Ming-yi' and the Chaoxian (Korea) designation of the 4th century B.C.E., apparently all belonged to the Sinitic family, as all available ancient Korean words as recorded in the book Fang Yan (i.e., Dialects) by Western Han Dynasty minister Yang Xiong, all appeared to be one syllable characters, none like multiple syllables as today's Tungusic or Korean languages are. (The names of ministers for King Wei Youqu, as expounded below, however, appeared to be multiple syllables should we discount the first character 'xiang' as the surname.) See below for the detailed discussion on the misnomer Dong-yi [Eastern Yi] and the Tungunsic invasion of Korea to overpower the continental traits below. Also refer to Sima Yi's exterminating the Gongsun Family who ruled southern Manchuria and northern and central Koreas for almost half a century and in A.D. 238 deporting 40,000 households of Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria, yielding the area to the Tungunsic.
The Misnomer Dong-yi (Eastern Yi) Origin
Ancient Chinese had different terms for barbarians in four directions. Dongyi or Yi-of-the-East will be designations for people in the east, i.e., the offsprings from the two clans of Tai-hao-shi and Shao-hao-shi, i.e., ancient overlords of China from antiquity, who were innumerable epochs beyond the known history. The term meant for different people during different stages of history. Legendary overlords of China, like Yandi (Fiery Lord) and Huangdi (Yellow Lord, r. bc 2697-2599 ?), might be both born near Qufu of Shandong Province in the east, and Lord Yandi, Lord Huangdi and Lord Zhuanxu were recorded to have treated Qufu of Shandong as the capital. Sima Qian's "Shi Ji" mentioned that Huangdi (Yellow Lord), in the east, climbed Mount Wan-shan (i.e., Fan-shan in today's Langya, Shandong Peninsula). (Among the ancient eight Chinese overlords, clearly seven belonged to the same old family. The lineage of Yandi (Shen-nong), Huangdi, Shaohao, Gaoyang (Lord Zhuanxu), Gaoxin (Diku), Tangyao (Lord Yao), and Yushun (Lord Shun) is spelled out in prehistory section. Even barbarians could be traced to the same family as Chinese founders. Kong An'guo of Han Dynasty claimed that among the four evil tribes exiled by Lord Yao, Hundun were unfilial descendants of Huangdi the Yellow Lord; Gun was unfilial son of Lord Zhuanxu; the 'Sanmiao' (Qiangic) people were said to be unfilial descendants of Yandi the Fiery Lord.)
At the very beginning, there was no 'east' connotation to the Yi people as the people living in the eastern Chinese coast, i.e., the offsprings from the two clans of Tai- hao-shi and Shao-hao-shi, were categorically called by 'Yi', a word that semantically meant the people carrying bows, not to do with the later denotation as the 'Eastern Barbarians". During Zhou Dynasty, as a result of confrontation between the Zhou people who were from the west, and the remnant Shang people who were the natives dwelling in the middle China and along the eastern coast, the records began to carry passages after passages of fightings between the pretentious 'Central Kingdom' Zhou people and the so-called barbarians (i.e., rebels) in the originally Shang Dynasty land to the east. (During the time of the Five Nomadic Groups Ravaging China, Liu Yuan, the Hunnic rebel, claimed that the Zhou Dynasty royal house had origin from the Yi to the east, which could be construed to mean that the Zhou Dynasty people, decendants of the Yellow Overlord and the Xia Dynasty, had their original activities traceable in today's Shandong peninsula.)
At the earliest time of history, the explicit barbarians mentioned would be Xunyu to the north, albeit leaving out details as to who the Xunyu people were. What was known from geography was that the Yellow Overlord fought the Zuolu Battle, in Zuolu [chasing deers], near today's Kalgan, against the Chi-you people who were later known as China's agriculture god and the war god. The records that were repeated after the battles between the Yellow Overlord and the Fiery Overlord (who could be the same person as Chi-you) and between the Yellow Overlord and the Chi-you were interesting in stating that descendants of the Fiery Overlord and/or descendants of Chi-you had gone to the so-called "bei-xiang", i.e., the northern countryland. Later, the Khitans claimed that they descended from the Fiery Lord. The Xianbei people, i.e., the Yuwen-shi clan, hundreds of years before the Khitans, also claimed that they descended from the ancient Chinese overlord.
By the time of Lord Yao (Tangyao, r. bc 2357-2258 ?), the northern barbarians were specifically named Shan-rong, Xianyun and Xunyu, but nothing explicit was mentioned of the east other than the following legends: Lord Shun (reign 2257-2208 BC ?) suggested to Lord Yao to have Gun (Lord Yu's father) executed on Mount Yu-shan (feather mountain, in today's Linyi County, Shandong Prov) for creating detente onto the 'Yi' barbarians (i.e., the original [Sino-Tibetan] dwellers who pushed east from west [possibly replacing ancestors of today's Miao & Man people or the Hundred Yue people - who in turn pushed out the ancestors of the Taiwan natives and the Philippino onto Taiwan and the islands in Southeast Asia] and dwelled on the coast versus the late-coming Sino-Tibetans who came from the west). However, Lord Shun himself was said to be a 'Yi'. The Yi people, as emphasized earlier, originally did not carry the directional denotation but for sure played the dominant role of influence in prehistoric China as all ancient Chinese overlords had their activities in today's eastern China, not western China. After Lord Shun would be Lord Yu, i.e., someone who were cited by the barbarian rulers to be born in the barbarian land of the west and known as Rong-yu, i.e., someone who was born in the Rong barbarian land of the west, which was inferred to be in today's Sichuan.
As pointed out by scholar Zhang Fan in his article, "A Research Into Shang Totems and the Confucius Ancestry", Lord Yu, per "Mo-zi", had spread teachings to the nine Yi people in the east. (See Xia-Shang Dynasties for details on the numerous Eastern Yi groups, including: Quan-yi [doggy Yi], Yu-yi, Fang-yi, Huang-yi [yellow Yi], Chi-yi [red Yi], Bai-yi [white Yi], Xuan-yi [black Yi], Feng-yi [phoenix Yi], Zi-yi, and Yang-yi [sun Yi] etc.) The Bai-yi [white Yi] is interesting here in that the later Xianbei people from Manchuria, who was Tungunsic in nature, was called by the northern Chinese to be "bai lu", namely, the White-robe enemies. More, Shang Dynasty, i.e., ancestors of Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea), as recorded in the wars against Zhou King Wuwang, was said to be a country adoring the white color. Today's Koreans, who had a tradition of wearing the white-colored clothes, could have inherited the same heritage as the Xianbei people who constantly raided into the korean peninsula the same way as they ravaged northern China, or the Xianbei had directly inherited the white-color customs from Ji-zi. In ancient Chinese classics Jinn Yu of Guo Yu, there was an entry stating that Zhou King Chengwang, after quelling the rebellion of Shang prince Wu-geng, convened a meeting in Qi-yang [south of Mt Qishan) among vassals, and among attendees would be the lords from the Chu statelet and the Xianbei, who were assigned the side job of watching the posts and burning the bon fire for their non-nobel status. This could mean that the original Xianbei people could be from the Yi land, where Shang prince had mustered the forces for rebellion. (Also note that in Confucius' times, the ancient Chinese began to feel fuzzy about the whereabouts of the ancient Nine Yi people. Frequently, Confucius and his disciples referred to a mythical land beyond the seas to be the land of the Nine Yi people without defining the actual locality. Often times, later historians inferred the land of the Nine Yi people to be in Japan. On one rare occasion, Confucius seemed to be referring to a gentlemen's country to the east and implied it to be the country under the rule of descendants of Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi, with whom Confucius himself shared the same origin as a sunset noble family from the Song Principality. This gentlemen's country would have to be somewhere in southern Manchuria and northern Korea.
Scholar Wang Zhonghan pointed out that the character 'Yi', having appeared as Shi-fang statelet in Shang Dynasty's oracle bones, would still exist in today's Shangdong-Jiangsu provinces and around the Huai-shui River by the late Spring & Autumn time period of Eastern Zhou Dynasty. Wang Zhonghan, after analyzing the wars between the Zhou people and numerous Yi people, had concluded that the "Eastern Yi" [in the Shandong Peninsula] had declined as a result of expeditions by Duke Zhou-gong and Zhou King Cheng-wang in the early Western Zhou time period; that the "Huai-yi" [around Huai-shui River] emerged from the middle to late time periods of Western Zhou Dynasty; that the "Nan-yi" [in southern or southeastern direction] rose up in influence at the time of Zhou King Liwang; and that by the time of Qin-Han Dynasties, the 'Dong-yi' people would be designation for the people in northeastern China, including Korea and Japan.
The Korean Claim As True Descendants Of the Misnomer Dong-yi (Eastern Yi)
The character 'Yi', as shown above, was originally a neutral word denoting the people living in today's eastern China and along the coast, but later mutated its meaning to mean for the barbarians in the east, i.e., the misnomer Dong-yi, and later again expanded to be more an inclusive word to mean all aliens or barbarians without the directional distinction. The big Korean school of thought, discussed in the prehistory section, claimed that the Koreans were true descendants of the misnomer Dongyi [Dong-yi] people.
Alternative historical records stated that Lord Shun was more of the 'Yi' nature, with one claim stating that Lord Shun, of the Yao2 surname, was born near Mount Yaoqiu, near Yuyao of Zhejiang Province in the Yangtze Delta. (Ancient records of the Kuaiji Commandary stated that Lord Shun was from Shangyu County and that Yaoqiu was 30 Chinese li away from Shangyu; Zhou Chu's "Feng Tu Ji", i.e., Records of the Winds and the Soils, stated that Lord Shun was a Dong-yi. --Zhou Chu, living in the era when the orthodox northern Chinese migrated to the south under the pressure of the northern barbarians, might have over-zealously extrapolated the origin of the ancient saints to southern China. Back in the spring and autumn time period of Zhou Dynasty, the ancient Chinese were still certain that the dialects of people living in today's Shandong [i.e., people of Jiang-surnamed clans on the Shandong peninsula who had taken over the place since the beginning of Zhou Dynasty in the 11th century BCE] versus those living in the Hundred Yue area south of the Yangtze were not inter-exchangeable. However, the people in the Wu area, i.e., today's Suzhou that was adjacent to the Gu-yue or the Ancient Yue people, had commonality with the mid-Yangtze Chu people [i.e., possibly descendants of those people who were pushed out of the Shandong peninsula in the mid-3rd millennium BCE.)
Also note that the Shang Dynasty people took pride in Lord Shun being their ancestors. According to Sima Qian's "Shi Ji", the ancestor of the Shang people was named Xie, a son of Lord Diku. Legends said that Xie was born after his mother, Jiandi (Yousong-shi woman, a statelet located in Yuncheng of Shanxi Prov), swallowed an egg of a black bird (swallow). Lord Yao conferred Xie the post of 'si tu' and the last name of 'Zi'. Lord Shun conferred Xie the land of Shang (known later as Shangluo County of today's Henan Province in one account but was disputed to be somewhere else, more like in the Shanxi-Hebei borderline area) for aiding Yu in flood control. The fourteen generation descendant would be Tang (Shang-Tang), founder of the Shang Dynasty. (The origin of the Shang Dynasty could be a puzzle as there were 5-6 discourse on where the Shang Dynasty founders came from; however, there was one interesting account pointing to Shang Dynasty founder-king Wang-hai [i.e., King Hai] herding animals in today's Yi-xian land, i.e., somewhere near Peking. This shed light on the origin of the Shang ruling clan as being similar to the Yellow Overlord of the Kalgan area, i.e., someone of nomadic nature and non-agricultural.)
The Korean claim would be complicated by the fact that Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi was dispatched to Korea to be ruler of Choson during the 11th century B.C.E. This episode, from the Chinese point of view, would have introduced civilization to the Manchuria/Korea border areas which was otherwise occupied by the barbarians and/or the Sushen-shi people dating from the 23rd century B.C.E., who were known for its stone arrow that was similar to what was excavated on the American continent. By the time of China's Han Dynasty, the southern Korean peninsula was ruled by Mahan, Qinhan and Bianhan, among which Qinhan and Bianhin appeared to be more of Chinese nature. After Ji-zi's Choson would be the Wei-man usurpation during the 3rd century B.C. and Han Emperor Wudi's invasion of Korea during the late 2nd century B.C. Thereafter came waves of Tungusic invasions from the north, similar to northern China's experiences of nomadic ravaging by five nomadic/barbarian groups. (Koguryo, a Tungusic people from Manchuria, claimed descent from ancient Lord Zhuanxu (Gao-yang-shi) and adopted the surname of 'Gao' (i.e., 'Ko') as their clan name. The Koguryo people, following the time period of the Xianbei ravaging of North China and North Korea, pushed south to establish a dynasty in Korea, and was to give modern Korea the name Koryo. In China, at about the same time, two clans, i.e., the Gao clan and the Yuwen clan of the Xianbei origin, had usurped Tuoba Wei Dynasty to establish the Eastern Wei and Western Wei dynasties. The Yuwen clan, in their tracing ancestry, claimed to have descended from the ancient Chinese overlords of the Yellow Overlord and the Fiery Overlord.)
Hence, the identities of Koreans had changed dramatically during the course of history. As one reader speculated, "modern-day Koreans" might very well have "appropriated their (Dongyi) history and myths". Charcoal remains of 2000-year-old rice in western Japan pointed to China's Yantze Delta as the place of origin. DNA studies conducted on human remains excavated in the Shandong Peninsula suggested southern and northern points of origin for Jormon and Yayoi Japanese. On basis of various historical records and modern technology analysis, I would speculate: i) that early Korean culture was very much connected with eastern China as a result of the nascent human migration from south to north and ii) that Tungusic invasions from Manchuria gradually overtook the early Continental traits. Also refer to the section on the Diao-yi for this webmaster's view as to the original Nine Yi people not being not homogeneous but could be living in the interface ground among the main Mongoloid groups of the Sino-Tibetan, the Hmong-Mien and the Tungunsic, plus people of the Hundred Yue nature [as ancient Chinese records juxatoposed 'yi' with both 'di' and 'yue' to become 'yi-di' and 'yi-yue']. We could further deduce that as a result of the mixing-up of the Hmong-Mien people and the Tungunsic people in today's Hebei Province and on the Shandong Peninsula, we then have the phenomenon of the later people in Manchuria, Korea and Japan sharing the same archaic traditions as recorded among the ancient Nine Yi people of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. The archaic 'Yi' traditions would include the historical practice of "dun ju" (squatting, which mutated into the Manchu practice of one leg kneeling on the ground while another leg bending at the knee, a Manchus protocol for seeing the superiors), slate coffins, and bearing down the newborn's head with stone, etc. In all cases, Tungusic or continental, the Koreans shared inseparable relations with the Chinese.
The Dong-yi (Eastern), Niao-Yi (bird) & Dao-yi (Island) Transformation
Sima Qian's "Shi Ji" stopped at Wudi's overthrowing of Wei-man Choson. In descriptions of Xu Fu's elixir-seeking journeys, Sima Qian did repeat ancient Chinese legends about the islands of Peng-Lai, Fang-Zhang and Ying-Zhou (land in the sea). Chen Shou's "San Guo Zhi" covered the island of Japan and grouped the early Japanese in the section on Dongyi (Eastern Yi). Later history records referred to Japanese as Dao-yi (Island Alien). Sima Qian, in parapgraphs about the Prefecture of Ji-zhou (ancient land that was today's Shanxi Prov but was appropriated to Hebei Prov to mean Beijing) in section on the Xia Dynasty, used the designation of Niao-Yi (bird) for barbarians in the east and northeast. The interpretation would be that Niao-yi would be those people who made a living by capturing birds and beasts.
In ancient times, the Yi was associated with the word 'niao' for bird as a totem, and there were at minimum eight to nine different 'niao-yi' people in eastern China. The Shang Dynasty (16th-1066 BC) people, considered to be a group of the Yi people, were recorded to have treated 'Xuan Niao' (i.e., Black bird, possibly sparrow) as their totem. (Manchu legends as to the birth of their founder had something to do with swallowing the red fruit dropped by a bird.) Toba Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534), in return for being called the nickname of 'suo lu' (pigtailed enemies), called southern Chinese by the derogatory name of 'niao yi' (i.e., bird aliens) for possibly southern Chinese pitched accents or generic-kind of name for southeastern Chinese and islanders. In later times, the Yi designation would be associated with a word 'dao' for island, pointing to the barbarian peoples in East China Seas. (Both the character 'niao' and 'dao' looked quite close and might have corrupted consecutively during the course of history.) See the Japanese section for descriptions of various statelets beyond Japan.
More about the "Eastern Yi People" is available at http://www.imperialchina.org/ImperialChina/?p=311
Sushen-shi, Guzhu & Shan-rong
The first recorded statelet to the northeast China direction would be Sushen-shi bordering the Japan Sea. Sushen first submitted their renowned arrows and bows to Lord Shun during the 25th year reign of Lord Shun (reign 2257-2208 BC ?), and Sushen continued to pay pilgrimage to Zhou Dynasty. The Sushen tribe was later known as Yilou. Chinese history recorded succeeding names like Wuji [Huji], Mohe, Bohai and Nuzhen tribes in the same area.
Also on record would be a statelet called Guzhu (i.e., lonely bamboo), that existed in the Shang Dynasty time period, a Shang vassal state. It was said that the Zhou Dynasty founder, Ji Chang, managed his statelet so well that old people went to the west of China for retirement, and two princes of the Guzhu Statelet, Bo-yi and Shu-qi of the Mo-tai-shi clan, came to live in the Zhou land. During the Zhou Dynasty, the barbarians closer to the Chinese would be called Shan-rong or the Mountain Rong (aka Beirong or Wuzhong) in the northeastern China. The Mountain Rongs, at one time, went across the Yan Principality of today's Hebei Province to attack the Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province; 44 years after that, they attacked Yan again; the Yan-Qi joint armies, under the joint command of Qi Counsellor Guan Zhong, Marquis Qi Huan'gong, and Count Yan, drove them out and moreover penetrated into the Rong land. Around 664 BC, Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. Yan hence extended control over the Guzhu and Lingzhi territory, i.e., today's Lulong, Qianxi and Qian'an, between Peking and the Shanhaiguan Pass (Qinhuangdao).
In 332 B.C., Yan, in the context of the decline of the Zhou court, proclaimed themselves a king, and the ancient Koreans under the Ji-zi family followed suit to proclaim themselves a king on the pretext of defending the Zhou court. During the Warring States time period (i.e., later part of the Zhou Dynasty), the barbarians in today's northeast China, i.e., successors of Shan-rong, came to be known as Dong Hu or the Eastern Hu people. A Yan Principality General, by the name of Qin Kai, after returning from Donghu as a hostage, attacked Donghu and drove them away for 1000-li distance at the turn of the 4th to 3rd centuries B.C.E, or about 300 B.C.E. Yan built the Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. After defeating the Eastern Hu to the north and northeast (i.e., today's southern Manchuria), Yan attacked Ji-zi Chaoxian (Korea) and expanded beyond today's Liaodong peninsula to reach the Yala River, the Chongchon River [the Man-fan-han River per Yu Huan's Wei Lv], and consecutively the Deadong (Datong) River [per Shan Hai Jing]. Yan hence extended its territory by another 2000-li distance to the east. Around 290 B.C., Yan began to build the Great Wall extending from Zaoyang (Kalgan) towards southern Manchuria; after defeating the Eastern Hu in about 300 B.C., the Great Wall extended to Xiangping (Liaoyang), and Yan then extended the Great Wall deep into the Korean peninsula, towards the Deadong River and Chong'ch'on River. (It was said that it was Han Emperor Liu Bang who went beyond the Qin Great Wall by extending it to the Deadong River from Chongchon River, which later Tang Emperor Taizong took as the terminal point of the Qin Great Wall.) After Qin defeated Yan and reunited China in 221 B.C., Ji-zi Chaoxian, under Ji Fou, submitted to Qin China.
Choson (Ji-zi Chaoxian [Korea])
While Koreans boasted of the founding of the "ancient Choson" by Tangun (i.e., Tan-jun, by the name of Wang Jian, who was a forgery that derived from the Wang'gom-song fort [Pyongyang]) in 2333 BC, Chinese records pointed to Ji Zi or Ki Jia or Chi Tsu (ex-Shang Dynasty prince) being dispatched to Korea by Zhou Dynasty Archduke as a ruler. Ji Zi was conferred the title of Marquis by Zhou Dynasty. He devised eight clauses of teachings for his citizens, and it was said that during his reign, people did not have to close doors at night. Ji Zi's dynasty lasted over 40 generations, till Ji Zhun proclaimed himself a king instead of a marquis. http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~korea/Old_1.html states that "in 1122 BC (note different calendar was used here), there was an alleged arrival of Kija from Shang China." Ji-zi was the uncle of last Shang ruler. http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org proposed a different story, namely, the Ji-zi exodus happened during the first campaign of Zhou King Wuwang, sometime before Zhou overthrew the Shang rule. It said that the group of people who migrated to Korea would be about 5000 in total. The Korean school of thought used a different calendar than what Chinese had adopted. Their timeframe for Zhou Dynasty would be 1122 BC - 256 BC. Ancient records show that Ji-zi was imprisoned by last Shang King Zhouwang and would not be set free till Zhou King Wuwang took over the Shang capital. Ji-zi exodus must have occurred after Shang's demise. History also claimed that after Shang Prince Wugeng's rebellion, another group of Shang remnants fled to ancient Su-shen-shi Statelet in Manchuria, and speculations went as far as North American continent for a link of American Indians and Shang Chinese.
"Choson" would be the same name today's Chinese use in designating the Peninsula. It means 'morning freshness ' or 'morning dews'. The second word in 'Choson' could have probably mutated from the word 'Xian', meaning fairy; and it could also be River Xian-shui, i.e., one of the three ancient rivers in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. One Koryo classics, "Dong-guo [eastern statelet] yudi [domain] shenglan [slendid view]", interpreted Chaoxian [Choson] as meaning the brightness [xian] of the morning [chao] sun, which was what the forgery Chinese classics Shang Shu Da Zhuan put forward, in contrast with other Chinese classics which invariably pointed to the three rivers near Pyongyang as the source for the name Chaoxian - a conflict with Chinese classics Huai Nan Zi which listed Chao-xian as a place on the Shandong peninsula where Shang Prince Ji-zi could have initially dwelled.
During the Warring States (403-221 BC), there was an invasion by Qin Kai of Yan Principality in 311 BC, which caused ancient Korea a loss of 2000-li territory. Qin- kai, after returning from Donghu as a hostage, would attack Donghu or the Eastern Hu barbarians and drive them away for 1000 li distance. Yan built Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. (Qin-kai was said to be ancestor of the lad called Qin Wuyang who accompanied Jing Ke on the journey to assassinating Qin Emperor Shihuangdi.) Today's Koreans called their peninsula via a term of "Beautiful 3000 Li Territory", i.e., a measure of 2100 Korean li from north to south and 900 Korean li from west to east; and a comparative unit of measure could be used for interpretating the ancient "li" measure. By the end of Qin Dynasty [221 -206 BC], rebellions of Chen Sheng & Wu Guang and in-fighting between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu led to an inflow of tens of thousands of Yan-Qi-Zhao peoples to the Korean Peninsula. In early years of Han Dynasty (206 BC-23 AD), a Yan Principality general called Wei Man (alternatively called Ji [zhou royal name for the Yan state] Wei-man) entered Korea around 196-195 BC and he later usurped the Ji-zi family kingdom. (An excellent account of Korea's history would be that by a Korean veteran at http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org. It is said that Wei Man "pushed southward through the Chabiryong Pass to the Han River and subjugated the neighboring state of Chinbon. In the northeast, Wiman's forces conquered the Imdun tribes in the southern Hamgyong region. At its height, Wiman (wei-man) Choson controlled several hundred miles of territory across the waist of the Korean peninsula.")
In 128 B.C., Hui-jun (king for the Hui Korean), by the name of Nan-lv, who surrendered to Wei-man, defected from Chaoxian (Korean) King Wei Youqu and took 280,000 people to the Liaodong peninsula for seeking protection under Han Dynasty. Han Emperor Wudi approved the relocation and made the dwelling area the Hai-jun Commandary so as to weaken Wei-man Chaoxian. In 109 BC, the Han court envoy to Choson, She He, killed the Korean escort and claimed to Wudi that he killed a Korean general. The Koreans avenged later by killing She He, i.e., "du wei" (captain) for Liaodong. Using She He's death as a pretext, Emperor Wudi dispatched two armies against Choson in the autumn of 109 B.C., via sea and land, respectively. Wudi's campaigns against Korea had to do with his worries about a possible alliance between the Huns and the Koreans. Wudi was also unhappy about Choson's cutting off the trade routes between China and the state of Chen (Chenhan or Chinhan) which was on the southern end of the Korean peninsula. Yang Pu, with 7000 soldiers from Shandong, crossed the Bohai Sea [disputed to be the Yellow Sea] for Korea, while Xun Zhi, with 50,000 troops, consisting of some convicts, attacked from Liaodong. The land army, without coordinating with the sea route, initiated an attack and was defeated. The sea prong, not knowing the demise of the land route, pushed against today's Pyongyang with limited number of troops, and was defeated as well. Unable to subjugate Choson in the first campaign, Wudi sent another envoy to Choson and succesfully persuaded the Korean King into sending the prince to China's court as a hostage. But a Chinese general's attempt of dismantling the Korean prince's entourage aborted the peace efforts. Renewed fighting caused Choson to disintegrate internally. Xiang-li-xi-qing [could be 'xiang' as the surname, like Xiang Lixi, while 'qing' meaning minister] (Yok-kye), a Choson minister, fled south to the State of Qin-han with two thousand households including metallurgists, farmers and etc. In the summer of 108 B.C., Ni-xi-gu-xiang-can or Ni-xi-xiang-can ['xiang' could be the Sinitic surname, while the name was actually Ni-xi, Xiang Can], a minister of the Choson King, assassinated their king and surrendered to the Chinese. Wei-man Choson and Wang'gom-song fell to Chinese. Thereafter, Wudi established four commandaries. Ni-xi-gu-xiang-can and Xiang-haan-tao were conferred the title of marquis by the Han court. In 107 BC, Lelang Commandary was set up; in 106 BC, Xuantu Commandary was set up. The four commandaries, in the order of north to south, would be Xuantu, Lindun, Lelang, and Zhenfan, with Xuantu along the Yalu River and Zhenfan to the south of today's P'yong'yang. Under the new commandary system, Chaoxian (Korea or Chosen) became merely the name of one of 25 counties of Lelang Commandary that was subject to the Youzhou Prefecture near today's Peking.
As detailed at http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org, "Lolang, a newly-constructed walled-city on the south bank of the broad T'aedong River near Wang'gom-song, became the seat of power for China's colonial policy in Choson." However, the Chinese control gradually waned. "After twenty-five years of determined opposition by local populations, China abolished the Chen-fan and Lin-t'un military districts." In 82 BC, Commandaries Zhenfan and Lindun were eliminated, and the areas under their jurisdiction were transferred to the administrative rule of Lolang and Xuantu. In 75 BC, Xuantu commadary was moved "from former Yemaek territory to an area in east central Manchuria."
Reading through Chinese records, the conclusion would be that the domain of Korea or Choson under Ji-Zi or Wei-Man was limited to the areas in and around today's eastern Liaoning Province and northern Korea. Emperor Wudi's control of the Korean Peninsula still failed to reach the southern tip. It would be during the time period of late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms that China would control the whole segment of the Korean Peninsula, with influences extending to the southern tip. General Gongsun Du, under the order of Dong Zhuo (who hand-picked the last Han emperor), crossed the sea to campaign in Korea and set up several commandaries including Daifang and Lelang. General Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian, ? -255 A.D.) of Wei Dynasty (AD 220-265), one of the Three Kingdoms of China, would be responsible for defeating Koguryo and extended China's influence to Japan.
The Tunguzic Speculation
The Korean language belonged to the Altaic family. The language family "Altaic" is a much later concept, devised by some Russian colonialists in the 20th century. in history, we have today's French, descendants of the Barbarian Franks, speaking the Latin family while Rome was already gone with Lingua Latina, an example that language does not determine origin and ethnicity. The Korean language, belonging to the so-called Altaic language family against the Sino-Tibetan language family of the Chinese, however, could be a much later phenomenon. Further, recent linguists had determined that the language that were spoken today had a short history. Example, the Indo-European languages were formed about 7000-8000 years ago. Hence, the so-called Altaic language family could not have been formed much earlier than 8000 years ago, in comparison with the Sino-Tibetan language family. As detailed below, ancient Korea was invaded by the Puyo and Koguryo peoples, i.e., barbarian tribes from Manchuria. Ji-zi's Choson and Wei-Man's Korea, more Sinitic than of Manchuria origin, could very well be different from later Koguryo as far as language / speech was concerned. The archaic Korean language was said to have already disappeared in Korea, but it was said to have retained some elements in the Japanese language.
The Three Haan [Han2] Statelets
The South Koreans call their country 'Haan'(2) or 'Han'(2) (i.e., Da Haan Minh Guo) for a reason. There were several kingdoms by the name of 'Haan'(2) in today's South Korea 1600-2200 years ago, known collectively as the Samhan States. The prefix "sam" (san in Mandarin) means three in Chinese. According to Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi, during China's Han(4) Dynasty, there were on the Korean Peninsula three states with this suffix: Mahan, Chenhan (Chinhan), and Bianhan (Pyonhan). The 'Han(2)' states are mostly states comprising of alliance of city-walled tribes. Mahan was situated to the west of the Korean Peninsula and did not have walls around their cities. Mahan had around 50 tribes and over 100,000 households.
Wei-Man (Ji Wei-man), a Yan Principality general under King Lu Guan (Han Emperor Liu Bang's childhood pal) who rebelled against Han in 195 B.C. and fled to the Huns for asylum after a defeat, crossed the Deadong (Datong) River into Korea, where they requested for asylum with Korean King Ji Zhun (Ki Chun), the ruler of Old Choson and son of Ji Fou. Wei-Man assembled the Chinese refugees and, in a matter of years, went to Wang'gom- song (near P'yong'yang) where he defeated the Korean King. King Ji Zhun fled to southern Korea where he proclaimed himself the King of Haan (2) among the Mahan tribes. Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi recorded that Wei-Man drove many of Ji Zhun's palace people into the sea, and there was speculation that some of the Ji Zhun people fled to Japan. (According to the Xianyu-shi clan's family lineage history, Xianyu in today's Taiyuan, like those in Korea, were descendants of the Ji-zi line.)
Chen Shou recorded in 3rd-4th century that some Koreans were still treating Ji Zhun as their ancestor. Chen Shou also recorded that the people in the state of Chenhan (Chinhan) claimed that their ancestors came from China's Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) and they were allocated the land to the east of Mahan State. Chenhan's language was different from Mahan, their people called their state by a Chinese name of "bang" (the same character as the first name of Han First Emperor Liu Bang), and they looked resembling to the Qin Chinese in clothing style. Chenhan was also called Qinhan, with a prefix representing the Qin Dynasty. Chenhan originally has 6 states and it later split into 12 states. The Chenhan people were not allowed to have their own king, and had to obey to Mahan. The Chenhan people were capable of producing iron and supplied iron to both Mahan and the Wa people in Japan. Bianhan (Pyonhan) also had 12 states. Together with Chenhan's 12 states, there were about 40-50,000 households. Chen Shou said that Chenhan and Bianhan peoples lived together among themselves and they did possess city walls.
http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org stated that "China's overwhelming presence on the Korean Peninsula affected not only Choson, but the southern Samhan states, where there was strong interest in acquiring the benefits of China's highly advanced culture. China had a great interest in Korea's natural resources, and whenever the Han Chinese sought economic gain or political submission from areas beyond their direct rule, they traditionally granted local leaders titular office and rank, official seals and ceremonial attire. In exchange, the Chinese got what they wanted without having to resort to force. Unlike the volatile Xiungnu to the north, southern Korea's inhabitants were primarily settled people who seemed quite willing to adopt most of the essential elements of Chinese culture. The leaders of the three Samhan States were generally eager participants in this tributary relationship. Through such exchanges, southern Korea's tribal societies not only absorbed the benefits of Chinese culture, they maintained their political independence in the process. Although the entire region tended to remain a Chinese sphere of influence, the Samhan states achieved impressive new developments on their own despite China's presence and sowed the seeds of a new social dynamism in Korea."
The Dong-hu: Xianbei & Wuhuan
The modern Koreans, for the relationship of their ancestors [Koguryo and Paekche] to the Malgals, deserve a trace of the link back to the Dong-hu, i.e., the Xianbei & the Wuhuan, as well as the Fuyu people.
The Chinese records categorically said that "the ancestry of the Manchus can be traced back more than 2,000 years to the Sushen tribe, and later to the Yilou, Huji, Mohe and Nuzhen tribes which were natives to the Changbai Mountains and the drainage area of the Heilong River in northeast China." Here, the name Sushen would be used for ancient Manchurians during the Zhou Dynasty time period, Yilou during early Han Dynasty time period, Wuji [Huji] during Toba's Northern Wei Dynasty, Mohe (Malgal) during Sui Dynasty, Bohai (Palhae) during Tang Dynasty, and Ruzhen (Nuzhen) during Song Dynasty. The confusing part would be the time period when Manchuria and Korea experienced the first wave of Tunguzic invasion, namely, after Han Dynasty and before Toba Northern Wei Dynasty. (The Chinese way to tell the continuity of people in one area was unscientific: Sushen-shi was recorded to have sent in bows and arrows using stone arrowhead and promenade arrow-shaft during the 25th year reign of Lord Shun [reign 2257-2208 BC ?]. When Marquis Chen-guo asked about a fallen eagle with a stone arrowhead, Confucius reminded the marquis of an early record on the history book stating that Sushen-shi had sent in arrow tributes to Zhou King Wuwang who subsequently subscribed Sushen-shi characters on them and allocated them to various vassals as a gift. Marquis Chen-guo did locate the ancient arrow in the storage and found it to be same. Sushen-shi, living in Manchuria bordering the Japan Sea, had sent in tributes after Zhou King Wuwang built roads leading to four barbarian directions. However, the hair style could determine the ethnicity. Tuoba Xianbei, who were ascertained to have lived near today's Gaxiandong in northern Xing'an Mountain Range, might have differed from the Xianbei-Wuhuan to the south, in that the Tuoba mostly wore pigtails, for which they were called Suo-lu, i.e., pigtailed enemies. Further, the Jurchens and the later Manchus had apparently adopted the customs of both the Tuoba and the Xianbei, in that they cut their hair at the front and bundled the remaining hair into pigtails at the back.)
The Xianbei, who expanded to the Western Corridor area in the wake of the Hunnic decline, defeated last Hunnic ruler Feng-hou in 118 and took over the Hun remnants.
The demise of Han Dynasty saw the Xianbei and the Wuhuan taking over the old territories from the Huns in the northern borders (i.e., today's Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia) as well as invading into the Korean Peninsula. At the time of Han Emperor Huandi [reign 168-189], the Xianbei, under the leadership of Tanshikui, took over the Huns' habitat, and attacked the Wusun territory to the west, the Dingling to the north, and the Fuyu to the east. Tanshikui set his tent at Choushui [Huailai], near Mt Danhanshan (Shangdu), north of Gaoliu (Yanggao of Shanxi).
The Tanshikui alliance disintegrated after the death of Tanshikui. (The later Khitans were said to be descendants of the Tanshikui Xianbei.)
Chen Shou commented that the Ke'bineng Xianbei had at one time covered the territories from the Liao River of Manchuria in the east to Yunzhong/Wuyuan in the west. The Xianbei had prospered after Cao Cao conquered the Wuhuan during the Cao Cao-Yuan Shao wars. The Wuhuan people were absorbed by both Cao Cao and Xianbei, and its name disappeared thereafter, only to re-emerge in the 10th century war with the Khitans.
Han Prime Minister Cao Cao's Campaign against the Wuhuan
Yan Zhi & Wang Xiong Pacifying the Xianbei
Cao Wei Dynasty's Campaign against the Gongsun Family in Manchuria
In 207, at the advice of cousellor Guo Jia, Cao Cao launched a punitive campaign against the Wuhuan. Exiting the Lulongsai Pass and trekking deep into the mountains, Cao Cao's army penetrated to Liucheng (today's Chaoyang), i.e., Wuhuan's home base in today's southern Manchuria, and at the Battle of Bailangshan (white wolf mountain), defeated Wuhuan chieftan Tadun who offered asylum to two sons of Yuan Shao. Wei General Zhang Liao killed Tadun in a surprise charge downhill. (Cao Cao won over Yan Rou when he campained against the Wuhuan in A.D. 206.) Wuhuan chieftans were all decaptitated by the Gongsun family when they fled to Liaodong (east Liaoning Province) for asylum. Yuan Shang fled to Pingzhou (Liaoyang) for asylum with Gongsun Kang. Over 10,000 Wuhuan households under Yan Rou relocated to China under the order of Cao Cao. The Wuhuan people would then serve Cao Cao as the mercenary cavalry.
During the Qinglong Era, about 235 A.D., Cao Wei Emperor Mingdi (Cao Rui) took the advice of Wang Xiong ["ci shi" for Youzhou], who had Ke'bineng assassinated by some swordsman called Haan Long. The brother of Ke'bineng was selected as the new chieftan. With Ke'bineng killed, the Xianbei alliance kind of collapsed, and the Cao Wei Chinese court extended control into the whole territory of today's Inner Mongolia and Southern Manchuria. Among the Eastern Xianbei, there would exist chieftans like Suli, Mijia and Jueji in Liaoxi (western Liaoning Prov), Youbeiping (northwest of Beijing) and Yuyang. Jueji's son was conferred the title of King Qinhan (befriending Han), and Suli's brother, Chengluegui, succeeded the King title, too.
In A.D. 236, Sushen-shi, who had not submitted tributes to China since early Zhou Dynasty, came to Wei China on a pilgrimage. After pacifying Wuhuan-Xianbei as well as the Sushen-shi people at the Japan Sea, Wei China, in A.D. 237 and 238, launched a third campaign against the Gongsun Family and wrestled control of southern Manchuria and northern-central Korea.
As we are to further elaborate below, Cao Wei Dynasty, to clear the threat from the north in order to concentrate on fighting against the Shu-Han and Sun-Wu dynasties to the south, made further long-distance excursions into Manchuria to defeat the Gongsun Family after routing the Wuhuan. By deporting 40,000 households of Sinitic Chinese or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria in A.D. 238, Sima Yi effectually yielded the area to the Tungunsic people. Among the Xianbei who were to take the place of the Wuhuan to dominate the area would be the clans of Duan, Murong and Yuwen.
Fuyu [Puyo (Buyeo)] & Koguryo
As a result of Han Emperor Wudi's campaigns, the eastern Liaoning area and today's northern Korea, where four Chinese commandaries were set up, would become a springboard for reaching other peoples to the east. Two groups of Eastern Hu nomads existed to the west of four commandaries, the Xianbei and Wuhuan nomads in today's western Liaoning Province. To the northeast of Xuantu Commandary would be an ancient country called Yilou (ancient name being Su Shen [Sushen]) which had surrendered treasures to Zhou Dynasty since the ancient times. Su-shen apparently had its border on the Japan Sea. To the north of Xuantu Commandary would be a country called Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) which originally was subject to the Xuantu commandary. (Yilou was subject to Fuyu from at least the 1st century B.C.E. to the early 3rd century A.D., after which Yilou, for the first time since early Zhou Dynasty, submitted the stone arrows to Wei China in A.D. 236 after becoming relatively independent of the Fuyu domination. Yilou, in the 2nd century A.D., was at one time subject to Koguryo as well, which shared the Fuyu lineage.)
Fuyu, part of the ancient "Mo" and "He" people who could have lived in today's northern Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia, had moved into Manchuria under the pressure of the ancient "Xianyun" [i.e., predecessors of the Huns] according to classics Shi Jing. Fuyu was speculated to be the ancient Bai-min [white clothing people] or the ancient Fa-ren [hair people]; however, in light of the eastern migration, Fuyu might not be of the same people as the original natives of Manchuria, such as the Su-shen-shei people bordering the Japan Sea. --The possible explanation was that the so-called Mo-hui people were a combination of the Mo (He) people from today's Inner Mongolia and the Hui people who were speculated to have been pressured into a move into central Manchuria [from the Shandong peninsula and North China] when the Zhou people overthrew Shang Dynasty, a claim that would equate the "Hui" people as belonging to the same category as Shang Prince Ji-zi's exodus.
Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) bordered with Koguryo to the south, Yilou to the east, Xianbei to the west and Luosui (soft water, ? Nenjiang River in Liaoning-Amur provinces) to the north. According to Chen Shou, Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) had 80,000 households. Fuyu shared the same customs as the Huns on the matter of taking over the concubines of late father or late brothers. Fuyu adopted the practice of live burial, with the burial objects reaching hundreds in headcount. The Fuyu kings themselves could be sacrificed to the god should the people experience droughts and disasters. (Fuyu's superstition could be compared the later Japanese practice of selecting one crewman as a sacrificial object on the sea journey to the Chinese continent, with the victim killed should the journey run into storms or other disasters.)
Fuyu later split into two parts, i.e., North Fuyu and East Fuyu, with the founder of East Fuyu (i.e., Zhu-meng, founder of Koguryo) moving to the northeastern coast of the Korean peninsula. Split from East Fuyu (Koguryo) would be the Paekche. Later, in A.D. 723, Da-mo-lou, i.e., descendants of North Fuyu which was destroyed by Korguryo, came to Tang Dynasty together with the Shi-wei tribe by the name of Dagou (Dadu). History stated that Da-mo-lou dwelled near the Du-na River which flew into the Amur River towards the northeastern direction.
During the latter part of the 1st century B.C., Tungusic Puyo tribes moved south towards the Yalu and T'ung-chia [Datong-jiang] River basins from the Manchuria's Sungari [Songhuali] River basin. http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org stated that "five Puyo clans led by Chu-mong [Zhu-mang] rode into the rugged mountainous country of the Yemaek and established new settlements of their own. ... By 37 B.C., the territory emerged as the confederated kingdom of Koguryo. ... Koguryo emerged within the territory administered by China's Xuantu Commandery and developed in the context of a nearly continuous conflict with the Chinese. King Yuri-myong, who succeeded Tong-myong in 19 B.C., ruled Koguryo from his rugged mountain stronghold at Kungnae-song [Guonei-cheng]..."
Koguryo was said to have been founded in 37 B.C. According to Chen Shou, it was located thousand li (an ancient unit for distance) to the east of today's eastern Liaoning Province. Their ancestors had come from the background of the Tungunzic people in Manchuria. (The Xianbei and the Wuhuan were also referred to as Tungunzic people. I will say the Xianbei and Wuhuan, after being driven away by the Huns from todday's eastern Inner Mongolia, had mixed up with the original Tungunzic people in Manchuria.) It bordered with Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) to the north and Woju (Ohcho?) to the east. It had 30,000 households. Koguryo was recorded to have same language and customs as Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo). Its capital was at a place called Wandu. In camparison with Fuyu, the Koguryo land was all mountains and it had no plains or lakes. It had five tribes at one time: the Weinu Tribe, the Juenu Tribe, the Sunnu Tribe, the Guannu Tribe, and the Guilou Tribe. During the Xin Dynasty (AD 9-23), Emperor Wang Mang had tried to recruit the Koguryo people in the campaigns against the Huns. But the Koguryo people refused to participate in the campaign, and most of the Koguryo soldiers fled northward as bandits. Governor Tian Tan tried to capture the Koguryo soldiers but got killed. Emperor Wang Mang tricked the Koguryo marquis into arrest and killed him. Wang Mang thus renamed Koguryo or Ko-guryo into Xia-guryo. In here, the prefix "Ko" means high, and "Xia" means lower in Chinese. By the time of eighth year of first Latter Han (AD 25-220) Emperor Guangwudi's reign, the Koguryo marquis sent emmisary to the Chinese capital in the name of a king (rather a marquis).
In late Latter Han (AD 25-220) Dynasty, Koguryo King Gong (Gao Gong) began to raid into Liao-dong and Xuantu commandaries. Both Woju and Dong-hui (i.e., Eastern Hui-mo) were subject to the Koguryo King. In A.D. 111, during Han Emperor Andi's Yongchu Era, the Fuyu king, with 7-8,000 cavalry, raided into the Lelang Commandary. In A.D. 120, Fuyu submitted to Han Dynasty, sending son Yuqiutai (Wigutae) to the Chinese capital of Luoyang with tributes. In December of A.D. 121, when Koguryo King Gong (Gao Gong), with an alliance of Ma-haan and Hui-mo troops, laid a siege of the Chinese Xuantu Commandary, the Fuyu king send Yuqiutai (Wigutae) and 20,000 army to the aid of the Chinese prefecture and commandary army in repelling the Koguryo invasion.
The Gongsun Family Exercising Control over Southern Manchuria and Northern Korea
By the end of Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25-220), General Gongsun Du, under the order of Dong Zhuo, took over today's eastern Liaoning Province in A.D. 184, and was conferred the post of governor-general. Gongsun Du later sent generals Gongsun Muo and Zhang Pi to southern Korea where they defeated the Han(2) [Haan] people in southern Korea. Gongsun Du's son, Gongsu Kang, set up a new commandary called Daifang (or Taifang) in central Korea, in addition to the Lelang Commandary in North Korea. Daifang Commandary was in charge of both southern Korean and the Wa State in Japan. King Yuqiutai [or Yu-qiu-Tai, Yu chou Tai] of Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo), submitted to Gongsun Du and was married with a daughter of the Gongsun family. Gongsun Du based his intermarriage on the consideration that Fuyu was in an important situation of being sandwiched between the Xianbei and the Koguryo. (In the late 230s A.D., Cao Wei Emperor Mingdi secretly ordered that Liu Xin of Daifang Commandary and Xianyu Si of Lelang Commandary attack the Haan-hui [central and southern Korea] and Wa statelets.)
Sima Yi's Forced Migration of the Sinitic Chinese Back to China from Southern Manchuria and Northern Korea
In Xiangping (Liaoyang) of Manchuria, the Gongsun family, starting from Gongsun Du ("tai shou" for Liao-dong and "zhou mu" for Pingzhou), through Gongsun Kang and Gongsun Gong, to Gongsun Yuan, ruled the relatively peaceful area for about half a century, A.D. 190 to 238. Gongsun Du's territory extended to the Korean mid-peninsula, the eastern coast of Shandong, and the Luan-he River. In Liao-dong Commandary alone, the population used to be 64,158 households as recorded by "Jun-guo Zhi" (records on the commandary and fiefs) in "Xu-Hanshu" (Continuum to Han-shu). After the fall of Dong Zhuo and the rise of Ts'ao Ts'ao (Cao Cao), Gongsun Kang (i.e., Gongsun Du's son), killed Yuan Shang and sent the head to Ts'ao Ts'ao, thus being conferred the title of Marquis of Xiangping. Gongsun Du's grandson, Gongsun Yuan (i.e., Gongsun Kang's son), who forced Gongsun Gong (i.e., Gongsun Kang's brother) into abdication in A.D. 228, would later play the trick of submission and defection among the Wei and Wu dynasties of Three Kingdom China.
In A.D. 232, Wei Emperor Mingdi ordered the first sea-land campaign against Liao-dong (i.e., southern and eastern Manchuria), with Tian Yu ("ci shi" for Pingzhou) attacking via sea and Wang Xiong ("ci shi" for Youzhou) attacking by land. After defeating the Wei Army, Gongsun Yuan submitted a petition to Wu Dynasty to express loyalty. In A.D. 233, Sun Quan, the Wu Dynasty emperor who conferred the title of King Yan onto Gongsun Yuan, dispatched a fleet with 10,000 reinforcement to the port near today's Dairen in southern Manchuria. Wei Dynasty then announced a new campaign against Gongsun Yuan, which forced Gongsun Yuan to waver between Wu and Wei. After killing the Wu emmisaries (Zhang Mi et al.) and sending their heads to Wei Dynasty, Gongsu Yuan was conferred the title of Duke of Lelang and the post as "da sima". However, Gongsun Yuan treated the Wei emissary with suspicion as well as displayed troops during reception. In A.D. 237, Wei Emperor Mingdi, after aligning Guan Qiujian and a massive army at the Liao-dong border, ordered Gongsun Yuan to pay a visit to the capital of Luoyang, which forced Gongsun Yuan into rebellion. Gongsun Yuan, thinking that nobody could control him in the remote areas of Korea, fought against General Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian, ? -255 A.D.) of Youzhou Commandary, who enjoyed the titles of "ci shi" (satrap) for Youzhou, "jiang jun" (general) for Du-liao (trans-Liaohe River area), and "xiao wei" (colonel) for the Wuhuan barbarians. The two armies confronted each other at Liaosui (Haicheng) across the Liao-he River. Guan Qiujian's campaign aborted as a result of the high water flooding. Gongsun Yuan claimed to be King of Yan, declared the era of Shaohan, and sent emissary for liasion with the Xianbei. Guan Qiujian, together with Sima Qi, attacked King Yan Gongsun Yuan at the turn of A.D. 237 and 238. Over 5000 remnants from the Yuan brothers, who sought asylum in Liao-dong, surrendered to Wei. Sima Yi, under the order of Cao Wei Emperor Mingdi (Cao Rui), campaigned against the Gongsun regime in the first lunar month of A.D. 238. Other than the 40,000 army attacking over the land, a navy force departed Dengzhou of Shandong for Manchuria. Gongsun Yuan, other than having his ministers wrote letter to the Wei court, sent apology to the Wu court in the hope of deflecting the coming war. In June of A.D. 238, the two armies confronted each other at the Liao-he River again. Sima Yi, having distracted the defenders to the south, made a stealthy river-crossing to the north and attacked towards Xiangping. Outside of Xiangping, the Wei army intercepted Gongsun Yuan's army which was en route of return to relieving the capital city of Xiangping. The Xiangping defenders surrendered months later after running out of supply, while Gongsun Yuan and son Gongsun Xiu broke out of the siege with a few hundreds of cavalry. Sima Yi exterminated the whole family of Gongsun Yuan at the Yan-shui (Taizi-he) River, ending 50 years of Gongsun family's ruling in Manchuria and Korea.
At Xiangping, Sima Yi massacred over 2000 senior officers and officials from General Bi Sheng downward, and further assembled over 7000 men above the age of 15 for another round of slaughter. Furthermore, Sima Yi deported 40,000 households of Sinitic Chinese [per Biography of Emperor Xuandi in Jinn Shu], or over 300,000 people back to North China from Manchuria, yielding both a power vacuum as well as a population vaccum in the area and giving rise to the Tungunsic Xianbei, Fuyu and Koguryo people. By A.D. 280, about 42 years later, the total population combining Liao-dong with Xuantu, Daifang and Lelang of Korea numbered a little over 100,000 people per Geography Section of Jinn Shu. The loss of Sinitic Chinese led to the loss of stalwarts against the Tungunsic people [including the ancient "Mo" ("He") and "Hui" people] who subsequently took over the area as their lasting homeland.
With the cross-see campaign, the Wei Chinese control was exerted over the areas of Lelang and Daifang commandaries on the Korean peninsula. Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian, ? -255 A.D.) of Wei Dynasty (AD 220-265), one of the Three Kingdoms of China, would be responsible for defeating Koguryo and extended China's influence to Japan.
Wei China's Campaigns against Koguryo
During the Wei Dynasty (AD 220-265) of the Three Kingdoms period, the Koguryo peoples raided into the Chinese territories frequently. Gongsun Kang had at one time destroyed a state established by one of the two grandsons of Koguryo King Gong. The other grandson bore a son to be named the same name as their ancestor, Gong. This new Koguryo King Gong, i.e., Dong-chuan-wang (Dongcheon-wang), had earlier in the years assisted Wei China in its campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
General Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian) of Youzhou Commandary dispatched Governor of Xuantu, Wang Qi, to Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo). Wang Qi successfully persuaded Fuyu in providing support to the Chinese army in the campaign against Koguryo. In the Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) state, there was a city called Mo which could be the same as the Mo state as recorded in the Chinese history. [Mo or Huimou would alternatively be known as Yemaek or Wimo.] Chen Shou recorded that the Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and Koguryo peoples shared the same language, but different styles of clothing and temperament. After Cao Wei destroyed Gongsun Yuan, they found in the Fuyu palace lots of jade artifacts from the past generations, including the "Seal of King Hui-wang" as conferred by the Han Dynasty.
But years later, the Koguryo under Gong rebeled against China. In A.D. 244, Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian, ? -255 A.D.), departing Xuantu Commandary, attacked Koguryo, chasing the Koguryo king, Dong-chuan-wang (Dongcheon-wang), all the way to Dong-woju at the Japan Sea. While Wang Qi's prong pushed to the Sushen-shi sea coast, Liu Mao and Gong Zun's prong, from Lelang and Daifang commandaries, attacked north to subjugate various Hui and Mo statelets, pressing "Hui" Marquis Bunai-cheng into a surrender. In May of A.D. 245, Guan Qiujian (Wu Qiujian, ? -255 A.D.) inscribed the battle victory on a huge stone and returned to China. Seventy years later, Koguryo rebuilt the capital city of Wandu-cheng, and after years of encroachment onto the Chinese commandaries, finally took control of Lelang Commandary in A.D. 313. (The destruction of Koguryo in A.D. 245 gave rise to the state of Silla to the southeast of the Korean peninsula. In A.D. 342, the new Wandu-cheng city was burnt down again by the invading force of Anterior Yan under Murong Huang, which led to the rebuilding of the old Wandu-cheng city. Koguryo, in A.D. 371, suffered a major defeat in the hands of revitalized Paekche, with its King Gogugwon-wang killed by Paekche King Geunchogo-wang at the Battle of Pyongyang.)
Yilou, Woju, Eastern Woju & Northern Woju
General Guan Qiujian of Youzhou Commandary fought the wars against Koguryo in 244 AD, forcing Koguryo King Gong into fleeing to Woju. (The Woju people were located in the Xuantu Commandary after Han Emepror Wudi defeated Chosen King Wei Youqu in 108 BC. Being attacked by the Mo people, Woju relocated to the northwest of Koguryo, and it was at one time a county under Lelang Commandary. Woju was conferred the title of marquis. Woju submitted to Koguryo later.) Eastern Woju was said to have similar language as Koguryo. Still one more Woju would be called Southern Woju. All Woju statelets shared the same customs though they were apart by 800 Chinese li distance.
Governor-general Wang Qi was ordered to press on against Gong. After another defeat, King Gong fled to Northern Woju, a state which bordered Yilou to the south. (Yilou would be where the ancient Su-shen state was or Sushen-shi people were.) Yilou was famous for its long bow with poison arrowheads. It was on the seaside that Wang Qi asked people whether there were people in the sea. Chen Shou said the people of Yilou looked similar to Koguryo and Fuyu, but the language differed from each other. Locals said there was an island to the east where there was a habit of sinking a virgin girl every July of the year. That island could be either Sakhalin or Japan. Limited pieces of the Fuyu language was available from the Chinese history book. Per the section on alien domains in Zhou Shu, Paekche, which was said to be of the Fuyu lineage, called their kings by "Yuluoxia" while queens by "Yulu"; in contrast, the Ma-haan people called the Paekche king by "jizhi" which sounded similar to the name of Ji-zi Chaoxian. Per Japanese linguist Kindaichi Haruhiko, the Chinese denotation on the stone monument of Koguryo king Hao-da-wang showed that the Fuyu language pronounced number three as "mi", number seven as "nan", and number ten as "dedunhu", which were similar to that of the Japanese reading.
In the 2nd century, Yilou had to submit tributes to Koguryo in addition to Fuyu. In early 3rd century, Yilou resisted the rule of Fuyu. Yilou, which submitted tribute to Wei China in A.D. 236 and 262, was attacked by Koguryo in A.D. 280 as punishment for robbing the Koguryo border people, enjoyed a time period of relative independence after Koguryo suffered defeat in the hands of Paekche, but was attacked again by the revived Koguryo in A.D. 398. Riding on ships, the Yilou people often pirate-attacked Bei-woju (northern Woju) which was located at the Tumen Rivermouth.
Hundreds of years later, the Yilou [or Sushen] people were called by Huji. During Toba Wei Dynasty, the Mohe (Malgal) was renamed to the old name of Huji. The Huji then were called by the Malgals during Sui Dynasty, who were very much a mixed-up people by that time. The Shiwei people shared the same language as the Huji people. They dwelled in the upper Heilongjiang River. The location was to the east of the Turks, the west of the Huji, and the north of the Khitans. They were connected with Koguryo in the south, around today's Changbaishan Mountains as well as with the Shiwei in the north. During the second year of Tang Emperor Taizong, AD 628, the Huji land was made into Yanzhou Prefecture. The Huji tribes joined Koguryo in resisting Tang Dynasty. During the tenth year of Kaiyuan Era, AD 722, Tang Emperor Xuanzhong set up Heisui-fu or Blackwater Governor office in the Huji land. Sumuo, one of the Huji tribes, sought protection with Koguryo, and after Koguryo's demise in the hands of Tang, became independent and established the State of Po'hai (Bohai or Parhae). The Heishui [Blackwater] Mohe (Malgal) dwelled in the old land of Sushen.
This group of people were called the Bohai (Parhae) during Tang Dynasty, and the Ruzhen (Nuzhen) during Song Dynasty. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. When later Jurchens defeated the Khitans, the Jurchens sent an emissary to Bohai, saying that Jurchens (Nuzhi) and Bohai were of same family. Note Bohai was recorded to have possessed a written language, music, government and rituals.
When Han Emperor Wudi quelled Manchuria and Korea in 107 B.C., Xuantu Commandary was organized, and the Koguryo territory was treated as a county. The Koguryo people later rebelled against Han Dynasty by building a castle on the eastern border of the commandary, designating it with a name called Gou-lou. The sound is similar to the later statelet name. Koguryo was said to have been founded by Zhu-meng [59-19 B.C.] in 37 B.C. on the bank of the Foliu [Fuer] River. Founder Zhu-meng, also known as Dongming (Dongmyeong, i.e., brightness in the east but could be a mutation of Zhu-meng as 'ming' in ancient Chinese was equivalent to the 'meng' word for engendering or oath, which had the same sound as 'meng' in Zhu-meng), rose up in Gaojuli [Koguryo] county of Xuantu-jun Commandary [i.e., Xinbin-xian county of Liaoning Prov].
History chronicle "Bei Shi" (History of Northern Dynasty) stated that the Fuyu king obtained the daughter of He-bo (river god) and bore an egg after being chased by the sunlight. This egg was not touched by dogs, pigs, horses and buffalos when deserted to the wilderness. The birds were said to have covered the egg with feathers. After the birth-mother wrapped it with clothing, a boy, i.e., Zhu-meng (i.e., meaning a good arrow shooter), came out of the cracked egg. When persecuted by the Fuyu court ministers, Zhu-meng fled across a river. He crossed the river by calling on turtles and tortoise to make a bridge. Zhu-meng claimed to be son of the SUN god and maternal grandson of the RIVER god. Zhu-meng made his statelet Koguryo in a place called the Qi-sheng-gu-cheng castle [Huanren county of Liaoning Prov] and adopted Gao (i.e., Ko) as surname, which means "high" in Chinese.
Samguk Yusa cited older Korean records to state that the founder of North Fuyu was Xie Mushu, i.e., father of Xie Fulou, and that North Fuyu was launched in 59 B.C.E. The Koreans claimed that the Koguryo was launched by Zhu-meng in 37 B.C.E. Per Korean book Samguk Yusa, Koguryo was the [new] Fuyu statelet at Zoumou. Further, Samguk Sagi stated that Xie Fulou, the North Fuyu king, prayed for son with the mountains and rivers, and went to the East Fuyu (Dong-buyeo) land, where he found a baby whom he called by Jin-wa (golden baby). The Koguryo people and the Fuyu predecessor were successively recorded by San Guo Zhi, Liang Shu and Bei Shi to have adopted the Shang Dynasty's practice and customs, namely, treating the month of lunar December as the start of the new year and lunar October the as time for the sacred heaven-praying ceremony as well as wearing the white-colored clothing and decorations. The October ceremony, with adoration of a cave spirit, was called by 'Dong [eastern] Meng [oath]".
What happened was that Zhu-meng, who was being persecuted by Fuyu clansmen, fled to Zuoben, where he was married with Zhao-xi-nu, a daughter of local chieftan Yan-tuo-bo, and born two sons. Zhu-meng left behind his elder son in the original North Fuyu land. The elder son, i.e., future Koguryo king Liuli-wang, came to Zuoben to look for Zhu-meng, and was made into crown prince. Among three of Zhu-meng's sons, Foliu (Biryu) and Wenzuo (Onjo), after the arrival of the elder prince from Fuyu, departed for the central Korean peninsula where they were to found the Paekche kingdom and subjugate Ma-haan at about 10 A.D. The grandson of Zhu-meng, Muo-lai, later had the [North] Fuyu kingdom subjugated and merged. Muo-lai's grandson, i.e., Gao Lian, sent emissaries to Tuoba Wei Dynasty per Zhou Shu. In A.D. 3, the Koguryo capital was moved to Guonei-cheng city [Ji'an city of Liaoning Prov]. Another major city called Wandushan-cheng was built inside today's Ji'an of Jilin Prov. The Koguryo statelet bordered with Woju to the east, Chaoxian (Korea) and Hui-mo to the south, and Fuyu to the north. Koguryo in about the 2nd century subjugated and merged those small statelets around.
During the Xin Dynasty (AD 9-23), Emperor Wang Mang had tried to recruit the Koguryo people in the campaigns against northern nomads. But the Koguryo people refused to participate in the campaign, and most of the Koguryo people fled northward as bandits. Governor Tian Tan tried to capture the Koguryo people but got killed. Yan You tricked the Koguryo marquis into arrest and killed him. Wang Mang thus renamed Koguryo or Ko-guryo into Xia-guryo. In here, the prefix "Ko" means high, and "Xia" means lower in Chinese. By the time of eighth year of first Latter Han (AD 25-220) Emperor Guangwudi's reign, the Koguryo marquis sent emmisary to the Chinese capital in the name of a king (rather a marquis).
Chinese refugees fled to Korea at times of turmoil. Koguryo often raided into the Chinese commandaries to abduct people, and sometimes returned the abducted people back to the Chinese commandaries. In 122, after the death of Koguryo King Gong the previous year, the new king returned some people to Xuantu Commandary. Samguk-sagi claimed that large number of Chinese fled to Manchuria in A.D. 197. In 217, the Chinese from Pingzhou (Liaoyang) fled to Koguryo. Samguk-sagi claimed that in A.D. 302, Koguryo King Meichuanwang-yifuli commanded 30,000 troops to invade Xuantu Commandary (Mukden) and abducted 8,000 people for relocation to the Pyongyang area, and further in October of 313, invaded the Chinese Lelang Commandary to abduct people.
In A.D. 319, when Jinn China fell apart, the Chinese "ci shi" at Pingzhou, Cui Bi, had at one time rallied an alliance of Koguryo, Yuwen-shi Xianbei, and Duan-shi Xianbei against the Murong-shi Xianbei. After a defeat, Cui Bi fled to Koguryo. The Murong Xianbei raided deep into the Korean peninsula. According to the Biography on Murong Yun in Jinn Shu, Murong Yun's grandfather, i.e., Murong He, was a descendant of Koguryo.
History chronicle "Xin Tang Shi" (The New History of Tang Dynasty) stated that Koguryo, with capital at Pyongyang (i.e., China's equivalent Chang-an city, meaning "forever peaceful"), was where Han Dynasty's Lelang Commandary was. Major cities include Guonei-cheng and Han-cheng (Seoul). It had twelve levels of officialdom, five tribes, and 60 prefectures and counties. Confucian filielty of three year mourning for parents was adopted. Oblatory gods included stars, sun, ke-han (khan), Ji-zi (i.e., Shang Dynasty prince), and a devine cave. Koguryo moved its capital to today's Pyongyang of Korea in A.D. 427, i.e., the 4th year of Tuoba Wei Dynasty's Shiguang Era.
Mo (Huimou, Wimo Or Yemaek)
In southern Manchuria and northern Korea, there was numerous statelets by the name of 'Mo'. The Chinese records categorically said 'Mo' was an ancient ethnic group in Manchuria. But it did not specifically link it to any other major group. Fuyu, for the records showing their adoption of the Shang Dynasty customs of treating October as the first month of the year and wearing the white-clothing, could be descendants of the former Shang Dynasty people. Though, it is not clear how those Shang Dynasty people relocated to Manchuria, the same way as Shang Prince Ji-zi or as part of the Ji-zi exodus, or as part of the "Mo" ["He"] people who were pressed to the east by the "Xianyun" barbarians as recorded in Shi Jing. Note that in Zhou King Muwang's travelogue Mu Tian Zi, there was an inference to the effect that Shang Dynasty remnants were assigned the fief of the Northern Yellow River Bend as the god of river. (Prof Wei Juquan speculated that the Mo people had later related to the Arctic area to beome the Eskimo, for the 'mo' soundex.)
Reading through Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi, the conclusion would be that the Fuyu people had in their possession the ancient 'King Mo Seal'. This seal was found in a jade box that was sent to Xuantu Commandary for safebox keeping. Inside of the Fuyu territories, there was a city by the name of Huimou (alternatively called Yemaek or Wimo). Later, during the Toba Wei Dynasty time period, a Paekche king sent in a note to the Wei emperor, stating that they shared the same roots as Koguryeo, namely, descendants of Fuyu King Yu-qiu-tai. During the Jinn Dynasty time period, Paekche took advantage of turmoil in China to take control of Liaoxi (west of Liao-he River) and Jinping commandaries (between Liucheng and Beiping) while Koguryeo grabbed Liaodong (east of Liao-he River). The Mo city could be the same as the Mo state as recorded in Chinese history. Since Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo) and Koguryo peoples shared the same language, the speculation would be that the Mo people were the source of origin for Fuyu. (The deduction was that North Fuyu defeated the "Hui" people in today's Jirin area, and took over the "Hui" capital city of Hui-cheng.
Chen Shou's San Guo Zhi further said that to the south of Koguryo would be Chosen (Chao-xian) [meaning Ji family-controlled Ma-haan, perhaps] and Hui-mo. Also mentioned would be that both Woju and Dong-hui (i.e., Eastern Hui-mo) that were subject to the Koguryo King. Still more reference to 'Mo' would be a group called 'Yi-mo' (alien Mo) who drove Eastern Woju people to the northwest of Koguryo. Still one more name related to 'Mo' would be a statelet called 'Xiao-shui-mo', meaning a 'Mo' statelet dwelling near a small river. This name applied to a so-called alternative race of Koguryo, a group of people who did not compete with the Koguryo people who had a habit of dwelling near the big river. The small river of 'Xiao-shui-mo' was situated to the west of an ancient county called Anping and it flowed southward into the sea. 'Xiao-shui-mo' was famous for producing a kind of bow called the 'Mo Bow'.
San Guo Zhi records showed that the Chinese used 'Mo' as a categorical designation for the people in the area. After Emperor Wudi invaded Korea in 108 B.C., the territory of Wei-Man Chosen was divided into four commandaries, with the Woju city belonging to Xuantu Commandary. A city called Bunaicheng was established to take charge of seven counties in eastern Korea. In A.D. 30, Latter Han Emperor Guangwudi appointed all the chieftans as the county marquis. The Bunaicheng chieftan was named 'Mo Hou' or Marquis Mo. When Usurper Emperor Wang Mang campaigned against Koguryo, a minister called Yan You named the Koguryo people as 'Mo Ren', i.e., the 'Mo' people. By the time of late Han Dynasty, under the reign of Emperor Huandi and Emperor Lingdi, the Chinese fled to Korea in hordes because the so-called 'Han Hui' [Mo] was strong while China proper was in turmoil. The reference here would be to equate Han(2) or Haan as the same statelet as 'Mo', or a combination of 'Haan' and Hui [Mo]. The 'Haan' [Han2] would be the more Sinitic statelets like Qinhan in southern Korea.
San Guo Zhi continued to say that 'Hui' or Hui-mo bordered with Qinhan to the south and the sea to the east. It had 20,000 households, all cultivated under the eight clauses of Shang Dynasty Prince Ji-zi. The people would include tens of thousands of Chinese refugees who came to Korea during the demise years of Qin Dynasty. It possessed the titles like 'Hou Yi Jun' (marqui city prince) and 'San Lao' (three elderly people), titles from Han Dynasty. The history said all Eastern Korea was under Marquis Mo who had the seat at the Bunaicheng city. San Guo Zhi said the elderly people mentioned that they were of same ethnical background as the Koguryo people to the north. The people adopted the Chinese way of marriage, namely, the people of same last name could not marry each other. As mentioned in previous paragraph, by the time of late Han Dynasty, under the reign of Emperor Huandi and Lingdi, Korea was referred to as the so-called 'Han Hui', pointing to the statelets like Qinhan in Southern Korea. When Gongsun Kang was ordered to launch Daifang Commandary in the desolate areas to the south of Lelang, he attacked the so-called Han-hui. When Chinese tried to divide eight states of Qinhan for sake of giving them over to Lelang Commandary, the Han-hui people rebelled. Governor Gong Zun of Daifang Commandary and Governor Liu Mao of Lelang Commandary joined forces and conquered Han-hui in late 230s AD. (Gong Zun was killed in the war.)
Ouyang Xiu of Song Dynasty, in his book New History Of Tang Dynasty, said that the founders of Silla were descendants of the Bianhan people who historically dwelled in the area of then Lelang Commandary. (Ouyang also recorded that to the east of Silla there were a group of people called the 'Tall Guys' who were cannibals and that Silla had to dispatch thousands of soldiers to guard against them.)
http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org gives details of the tribes involved: "In 57 BC, the six clan chieftains of the King's Council met in the village of Kyongju, capital of the small walled-town state of Saro. They formed a new political alliance among the several smaller tribal states in the old Chinhan territory east of the Naktong River and chose Pak Hyokkose of the Kumnyang clan as their first leader. By consolidation and outright conquest, the walled-town state of Saro linked itself with other walled-town states in the area, gradually expanded its frontier beyond the confines of the Kyongju plain, and evolved into the rather large confederated kingdom of Silla. "
The change to Silla's demographic composition happened at the time Guan Qiujian attacked and destroyed Koguryo. Du You, in Tong Dian, carried on the account that the Silla statelet originated from Xinlu, part of the Chen-haan country, which was one among a dozen tribal statelets. After Guan Qiujian's campaign, Silla collected various groups of people in the area to form a statelet. The confusing part was that a new Silla king appeared to be some Paekche [not necessarily a royal member] who fled into Silla from Paekche. At the time of Fu Jian's Anterior Qin Dynasty, the Silla king, Lou-han, first sent in tributes. During the 2nd year of the Putong Era of Liang Dynasty Emperor Wudi, Silla King "Mu [last name] Qin" [first name] dispatched emissary on the Paekche embassy to southern China. By the time of Sui Dynasty, Silla King "Jin [last name] Zhenping [first name]" sent tributes to China, with a claim that the Jin (gold) lineage had lasted over 30 generations. The Chinese history stated that they never figured out why the last name changed for Silla, but it was known that Silla was originally subordinate to Paekche, but as a result of Paekche's extraction of labor and manpower for attacking Koguryo, Silla was able to collect refugees and escapees to strengthen the country, and with the rise of population, embarked on merging Ren-na and Jia-luo and other small states to become one of the three competing kingdoms on the Korean peninsula.
Ouyang Xiu of Song Dynasty, in his book The New History Of Tang Dynasty, said the Paekche derived from the Tungusic Puyo tribes in Manchuria. As stated earlier, among three of Koguryeo founder Zhu-meng's sons, Foliu (Biryu) and Wenzuo (Onjo), after the arrival of the elder prince from [North] Fuyu, departed for the central Korean peninsula where they found the Paekche kingdom in about 18 B.C.E. south of the Han-jiang [Seoul] River. After Foliu (Biryu) committed suicide, Foliu's people went to Wenzuo (Onjo), making the new country name to Paekche (Bai-ji, hundred families) from Shi-ji (ten families). The third son, Wenzuo (Onjo), came to be known as Paekche King Wenzuo-wang. Under attacks by Ma-haan, Wenzuo moved around along the Han-jiang River numerous times. The Korean history purportedly claimed that Paekche subjugateed Ma-haan at about 10 A.D., which conflicted with the Chinese records.
Per Chinese history book Sui Shu, the Paekche founder was someone called Yu-choutai (Yu-qiutai), a descendant of Dong-ming (i.e., Zhu-meng). Further, in the late 230s A.D., Cao Wei Emperor Mingdi secretly ordered that Liu Xin of Daifang Commandary and Xianyu Si of Lelang Commandary attack the Haan-hui [central and southern Korea] and Wa statelets, which was to say that the Paekche kingdom was not a true country with established domain yet. Later, during the Toba Wei Dynasty time period, a Paekche king sent in a note to the Wei emperor, stating that they shared the same roots as Koguryeo, namely, descendants of Fuyu King Yu-qiu-tai.
In A.D. 111, during Han Emperor Andi's Yongchu Era, the Fuyu king, with 7-8,000 cavalry, raided into the Lelang Commandary. In A.D. 120, Fuyu submitted to Han Dynasty, sending son Yuqiutai (Wigutae) to the Chinese capital of Luoyang with tributes. In December of A.D. 121, when Koguryo King Gong (Gao Gong), with an alliance of Ma-haan and Hui-mo troops, laid a siege of the Chinese Xuantu Commandary, the Fuyu king send Yuqiutai (Wigutae) and 20,000 army to the aid of the Chinese prefecture and commandary army in repelling the Koguryo invasion. Here, the Korean records conflicted with the Chinese records in regards to the continuous existence of Ma-hann around the year of A.D. 121 --whereas the Koreans claimed that Paekche had destroyed Ma-hann which was ruled by the Ji-zi family since the days of Wei-man invasion of Korea. In Han Dyansty, governor-general ("tai shou") for Liao-dong, Gongsun Du, who was appointed the frontier post by Han Emperor Lingdi in 184 A.D., married his daughter to Choutai (Qiutai). King Yuqiutai [or Yu-qiu-Tai, Yu chou Tai] of Fuyu (Puyo or Puyeo), submitted to Gongsun Du and was married with a daughter of the Gongsun family. Gongsun Du based his intermarriage on the consideration that Fuyu was in an important situation of being sandwiched between the Xianbei and the Koguryo.
During the Jinn Dynasty time period, Paekche purportedly took advantage of turmoil in China to take control of Liaoxi (west of Liao-he River) and Jinping commandaries (between Liucheng and Beiping) while Koguryeo grabbed Liaodong (east of Liao-he River). There was dispute about the accuracy of this claim as Paekche was unlikely to cross the sea to take control of some territory to the west of the Liao-he River. Jinn Dynasty assigned the name of Paekche Commandary onto the Paekche king. After the demise of Jinn Dynasty, Paekche maintained relations with dynasties in southern China and upheld the calendar from the Liu Song court. Du You, in Tong Dian stated that the Paekche people had worshipping ancestor Yu-qiu-tai (a king of Fuyu) four times a year.
At one time, in A.D. 371, Paekche intruded into today's Pyongyang area, defeated Koguryo and killed the Koguryo king. in 372, Paekche sent an embassy to Jinn China. In 429, Paekche sent an embassy to Liu Song Dynasty in South China. However, after the revival of Koguryo, Paekche went downslope. In 472, Paekche sought the military alliance with Tuoba Wei Dynasty against Koguryo. In 475, Koguryo sacked Paekche's capital, forcing the latteer into striking an alliance with Silla. Toba Wei Emperor Xiaowendi [reign 471-499] sent an army to defeat Paekche. Paekche had to relocate the capital to the south. In AD 538, Paekche moved capital to Sibi, and renamed itself South Fuyu. During Tang Dynasty time period, General Su Dingfang in A.D. 660 led a cross-sea campaign against Paekche. After the Tang-Silla armies destroyed Paekche, the old Paekche land was rezoned into five governor-general offices. However, Silla soon encroached on the Paekche land, with Paekche remnants fleeing to seek asylum with the Turks and the Malgal tribe. Silla rebelled against Tang in A.D. 672. Meanwhile, the majority of Koguryo people were exiled to China by Tang Emperor Gaozong, yielding to a dramatic demographic change on the Korean peninsula, namely, the dominance of the Silla people throughout the peninsula.
Wa Japan & the Ancient Koreans
There are very important questions here. Is Wa State mentioned in China's records in early 1st century A.D. the same as that which existed during China's Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618)? Is the Wa State the same as the Yamato? And, is the Yamato Kingdom the same as the Nippon (i.e., Chinese Ri Ben or English Japan) of late 7th century AD? We will touch on these topics in Japanese section. Below, we will mention the relationship between the Wa State and the Koreans.
The Wa people in then Japan had close relationships with the Chenhan and Bianhan peoples in southern tip of the Korean Peninsula. The Daifang Commandary of Wei China, located near the present capital city of Seoul, was in charge of affairs of the Wa State.
http://plaza14.m bn.or.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/jimmue/jimmue.html said that "Chiu-T'ang-shu or old T'ang History (*5) contains the Records on Japan and Wa-state, and one passage in it radically contradicts the existing dogmatic interpretations advanced by historians of ancient Japan. According to this passage, Wa-state was granted a gold seal by Kuang -wu of Later Han dynasty."
Hou Han Shu, written in the 5th century, stated on basis of San Guo Zhi that "the King of Wa resides in the country of Yamadai (disputed to be Yamaichi as a result of the error by the author of Hou Han Shu). In the second year of the Jienwu Zhongyuan era, namely, A.D. 57, the Wa Nu Country (located in south of Wa) sent an envoy with tribute and he called himself Dafu. Guangwudi bestowed on him a seal. In the first year of the Yongchu era (A.D. 107), during the reign of Andi, the King of Wa presented one hundred sixty slaves. During the reigns of Huandi (147-168) and Lingdi (168-189), the country of Wa was in war and conflict raging on all sides and there was no ruler till a woman named Pimiko was selected as a ruler."
The Wa people requested for pilgrimage to Chinese capital with Governor-General Liu Xia of Daifang Commandary. Diplomatic emissaries were frequently exchanged, and seals were conferred upon the Wa Queen by Wei China. In the first year of Zhengshi, A.D. 240, Governor Gong Zun sent Ti Zhun to Wa. In Jan of A.D. 238, the Queen of Wa sent an emissary (da fu Nan-sheng-mi) to Daifang Commandary, requesting pilgrimage for seeing Chinese emperor. In Dec, Emperor Mingdi (Cao Rui) acknowledged receipt of 4 Wa males and 6 Wa females, and conferred the title of Qin-wei-wo-wang (king befriending Cao Wei) onto Wa Queen plus hundred bronze mirrors, pearls, silk and other precious gifts. In A.D. 240, Gong Zun dispatched Ti Jun to Wa for conferral, and proxy Wa king replied with thanks. In A.D. 243, Wa king dispatched Wa da fu to China. In A.D. 245, Wei China conferred Nan-sheng-mi a title. In A.D. 245, Governor Gong Zun and Governor Liu Mao defeated Marquis Bunai-hou. In A.D. 247, Marquis Bunai-hou sent tribute to Cao Wei and was conferred the king of Bunai-Mo. Later, around A.D. 247, when the Wa State in Japan had internal turmoil because Himiko was at odds with the King of Kunu (Bei-mi-gong-hu-su), Queen Himiko (Pimiko) requested with the new Governor-General of Daifang Commandary, Wang Qi, for assistance. An official called Zhang Zheng was dispatched to the Wa State in the 8th year of Cheng-shih or A.D. 247. When Pimiko passed away, Iyo, a girl of thirteen, was made queen. Pimiko death led to a turmoil with thousand deaths. Pimiko live burial included hundreds of slaves and servants. When Zhang Zheng returned to China with two dozens of Wa people, it was already dozens of years later and China was ruled by Western Jinn Dynasty which had usurped the Wei Dynasty in A.D. 265.
The Mysterious Fourth Century
About one hundred years of history, from Queen Himiko era of A.D. 269 to the so-called Homuda Invasion of A.D. 369, was in a kind of black box. There is no way to find out what happened to Himiko's Wa State or her rival state of Kunu. Some speculations exist: Himiko Wa of Kyushu absorbed Kunu and expanded into Yamato in Honshu, Kunu absorbed Wa and expanded into Yamato, or an invasion force from Korea landed in Kyushu and then expanded into Yamato in Honshu. To find out what might have happened, we would have to examine the traces of history from later times.
Liu Yu's Song Dynasty (AD 420-479), according to Liang Dynasty (AD 502-557)'s Shen Yue, had conferred the (blank) title of 'King of Six States' of Wa, Silla, Qinhan and Bianhan etc onto Wa King. Throughout the short history of Eastern Jinn & Liu Song dynasties, the Wa Japanese had sent numerous missions, and one Korean mission, with Japanese emissary on board, was recorded to have cried aloud when they saw the dilapidated Jinn Chinese capital which just went through an war as a result of internal rebellion. The contacts between Japanese and southern Chinese were understandable in that the northern China was in the hands of the nomads and the traditional Korean route was already cut off at the time. Liu Song Dynasty's designation of 'King of Six States' could be a good proof that the Wa State (Wa-koku) did exert influences over Peninsula Korea in some way as a result of colonization by the Koreans. The two successive dynasties of Qi (AD 479-502) and Liang (AD 502-557) continued to receive Japanese emissaries. Liang reaffirmed the title of 'King of Six States' to the Wa State.
Song Shu recorded that in A.D. 421, Wa King Zan sent over tributes and Liu Song Emperor Gaozu decreed that Wa Statelet could be exempted from the requirement due to sea perils. It further stated that in A.D. 425, Wa King dispatched a 'sima' called Cao Da to Liu Song court. When Wa King, Tsan [Zan] died, his brother, Zhen , came to the throne. He sent an envoy to the Liu Song Court with tribute in A.D. 438 in the name of "King of Wa, Paekche, Silla, Imna, Chinhan, and Mahan (Mok-han) and Generalissimo Andong Da Jiangjun (i.e., the general who pacifies the east)." In A.D. 443, Wa King Ji (Sai) was also confirmed the same title as King of 6 states. In A.D. 451, the title of 6 states was changed a bit, to Six States of Wa, Silla, Imna, Kara, Chin-han, and Mok-han. "Paekche" was replaced by Kala (Kara). In A.D. 462, the son of Wa King, Xing (Ko), was confirmed the same title. King Bu, Ko's brother, was last granted the title in A.D. 478. Nan-Qi Shu recorded that Wa King Wu (Bu) was promoted to Zhendong Da Jiangjun (i.e., the general who quells the east), King of Wa, and 'du-du' or governor of Seven States in A.D. 479, and Liang Shu recorded that King Bu was further promoted to Zhengdong Da Jiangjun (i.e., the general who campaigns in the east) in A.D. 502. Song Shu or History of Liu Song Dynasty did not expound the relationship between Wa and Korea of the time, unfortunately. In A.D. 478, Wa King sent an emissary to Emperor Shundi, claiming that they had campaigned against 55 eastern statelets of hairy people, 66 statelets in the east, and 95 statelets in the north. Wa King also complained that Koguryo had raided his emissaries for Liu Song court. Wontack Hong, at http://gias.snu.ac.kr/wthong/, had a very good account of the intricacies involved in here. He pointed that many scholars ( including Hirano, 1977) believed that the "rulers of Yamato Wa were placed below the kings of Koguryeo and Paekche because when King was given the title of Andong Jiangjun in A.D. 462, ... , the king of Koguryeo bore the title of Zhengdong Jangjun and the king of Paekche Zhendong Da Jiangjun. ... The king of Paekche must have been in the position of an overlord ..."
Hong further stated that "Wa Kings could not have included the names of non-existent states (Chin-han, and Mok-han). One may then conclude that the remnants of Chin-han or Ma-han existed as other members of the Kaya Federation by ... fifth century. .. Town states constituting Ma-han and Chin-han were by themselves no longer independent political entities [having mostly been conquered by Paekche and Silla, except those remaining as the member states of the Kaya Federation]". Silla's position was apparently less than that of Paekche. "According to Samguk-sagi, Silla established the first contact with the Southern Chinese Dynasties in A. D. 521 by sending an envoy to the Court of Liang along with the Paekche envoy." Later, at one time, when Yamato Wa requested that their monks be sent to China under the umbrella of Silla embassy, the Silla flatly refused it.
The "Invasion" Theory
The Japanese could not agree upon any specific date as to their prehistory. The conventional world history book purportedly cited the event that happened in the year of A.D. 391 as something corrobarated by three parties, China, Japan and Korea. The Chinese record is to be searched yet for this claim. The Koreans flatly denied that it was an invasion into Korea by Wa Japan at all.
But in this year, http://home. earthlink.net/~dlturk/japanhistory/yamatohistory.html stated that the "Japanese forces cross to Korea, defeat Paekche and Silla armies and establish a small colony (called Mimana) on the southern tip of the pennensula. To thank the Japanese for helping save his territory from the Silla, the king of Paekche sends scholars to Japan. With them they bring the Chinese writing system." http://home. earthlink.net/~dlturk/japanhistory/yamatohistory.html made a rough time table for the Yamato Period to be A.D. 300-550. By adopting A.D. 300-550, the Jimmu Tenno Invasion would have happened around A.D. 300, instead of something like in the middle of first millennium BC. This certainly is close to the Korean claim that Paekche's Prince Homuda led a expeditionary force to Japan and colonized the country as Yamato. --See the Japanese section for Wontack Hong's claim that Homuda (namely, Homuda no Sumeramikoto, tenno Ojin, or Homuda-wake-no-mikoto, a.k.a. the god of Hachimanshin/Yahata-no-kami) led a expeditionary force to Japan and colonized the country as Yamato. (Also note the writeup on the nana tsusaya no tachi or the Seven-Pronged Sword, as well as the possible Japanese forgery in Nihonshoki in regards to adding the extra 120 years or two sexagenary cycles to the early history of Japan.)
What happened then in the fourth century at all?
Wontack Hong, at http://gias.snu.ac.kr/wthong/, firmly believed that the so-called invasion of Mimana in southern Korea was not an action on the part of the Wa Japan, but an on-route campaign by Paekche armies. The Paekche armies, in order to cross the see to Japan, would have no choice but to go through the territories of Mimana. Hong borrowed some research from a Japanese scholar called Egami (1964) who claimed that "Mimaki-iri-biko from Mimana" (i.e., a Chin-han ruler with connection to the Puyo people) was "the leader of the horse riding invasion force". In contrast with Egame, Hong claimed that it would be the Paekche who invaded Wa Japan and set up the Yamato State. Hong believed that Egame could not divest himself from the imperialist Japanese viewpoint that the Japanese could never be subjugated by an inferior race like the Koreans. In an academic article, Egami (1964) stated the 'Horserider Invasion' which was to say that "the alien people called the gods of heaven were a North East Asian people related to the peoples of Fu-yu [Puyeo] and Kao-chu-li [Koguryeo]... immediately prior to their invasion of Japan, they [the horseriding invaders] were based on the Mimana area in south Korea." Egame's theories, however, were built on undisputable artifacts excavated from the tombs of intermdiate and late Kofun time periods. The tombs had shown striking similarities to those in Korea, which made the Japanese into an awkward position should they deny the sudden continental influx in the 4th century.
The Koreans claimed that it would be the Paekche people who would later set up the State of Yamato. This school of thought had claimed that the Paekches, out of hatred for the Sillas who conquered their country, had embarked on a mission to hide or destroy their Korean identities. They basically wrote the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in late 7th and early 8th century to make the 'invasion' occur hundreds of years earlier than it actually occurred. http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org stated that "in the winter of 369 AD, Prince Homuda's expeditionary force landed on the northern shore of Kyushu at Hakata Bay on the westernmost of Japan's large islands... Prince Homuda's army pushed eastward for six years, encountering fierce resistance from many of the clans in its path... finally halted on the rich agricultural plain formed by the Yodo and Yamato Rivers at the head of Osaka Bay... Prince Homuda proclaimed the creation of his new kingdom, taking its name from the surrounding region and giving the country its first official 'name' - Yamato.
'Samguk Shidae': Korean's Three Kindoms
Samguk Shidae sounds just like Chinese as meaning the times of the three kindoms. In the Korean Peninsula, the 1st to 3rd centuries would mark a contentious period in which various Korean states fought with each other and the Han Chinese. With Kaya (42 AD-562AD) included, some historians refer to this period as "Four Kingdoms" instead of Korea's "Three Kingdoms".
Koryo Dynasty (918-1392)
Chosen Dynasty (1392-1910)
The Colonial Period under the Japanese Rule (1910-1945)
Liberation and the Korean War (1945-1953)
Contemporary Korea (Post-1953)
Tang China's Campaign against Koguryo & Paekche, and the End of Korean's Three Kindoms
By the end of Sui Dynasty, a half brother called Jianwu succeeded Koguryo King Gao Yuan. During Tang Emperor Gaozu's Wude Era (AD 618-626), Korean King Gao Jianwu sent in tributes. Tang Emperor, as a show of friendship, deported all Koguryo people dwelling inside of China, about 10,000 people, back to North Korea. Three years later, Korean King Gao Jianwu was conferred the title of Shang-zhuguo, Liaodong-jun-wang (King of Liaodong Commandary), and Gaoli-wang (King of Koryo). Some Daoists were dispatched to North Korea for teaching the Lao-zi thoughts. Korean King Gao Jianwu assembled several thousands of people for listening to the Daoist lectures.
Tang minister Pei Ju and Wen Yanbo advised against Emperor Gaozu in demanding that the Korean King must submit to the Tang China as a minister in accordance with Cao Wei Dynasty and Jinn Dynasty practices. One year later, Silla and Paekche complained that that Koguryo deliberately blockaded their diplomatic missions and the merchant corps' passage to China. When Tang emissary Zhu Zishe rebuked the Koguryo king, King Jianwu requested for pardon. At the times of Tang Emperor Taizong, King Jianwu sent in congratulation in regards to the capture of Turkic Khan Xieli and submitted a map about the Koguryo domain. When Tang Emperor Taizong dispatched troops for dismantling the Koguryo monuments at the site of Sui Dynasty soldiers' mass graves, King Jianwu began to build walls for defending against possible Tang invasions, with the defence walls leading from Fuyu in northeastern Korean coast [bordering the Japan Sea] to the seaside in northwestern Korean coast.
In A.D. 655, Silla requested with Tang China for military assistance after being invaded by the joint armies of Koguryo (Goguryeo), Paekche (Baekje), and Mohe (Malgal). Tang Emperor Gaozong initially was reluctant to attack Koguryo, knowing that his father, Tang Emperor Taizong, invaded Koguryo in A.D. 645 but failed to defeat it owning to the mountainous geography of the northern Korean peninsula. With Paekche (Baekje) continuing the attack at Silla in southern peninsula, Tang Emperor Gaozong answered Silla's new request in A.D. 660 to dispatch a land-sea expedition force against Paekche. In A.D. 660, Tang Emperor Gaozong, after failing to diplomatically resolve the issue, sent 130,000 troops to aiding Silla in an attempt to pin down Koguryo and Mohe's armies in today's southern Manchuria so as to relieve the pressure on Silla. The Chinese generals sent to Korea included Cheng Mingzhen, Su Dingfang, and Xue Rengui.
In lieu of the containment strategy against Korguryo from Liaodong to the north, Tang armies adopted the strategic approach to gain a foothold on the peninsula, with a plan to defeat Paekche, and then deal with Korguryo in a pincer-attack from south and north.
In A.D. 660, General Su Dingfang, with conferred title of omnipotent superintedent for Shen-qiu-dao (devine hill circuit), together with a Silla prince as deputy superintedent, departed Chengshan (Rongcheng, Shandong) for a cross-sea campaign. The Tang-Silla fleet defeated the Baekje forces at the Xiongjin (Woongjin)-kou (Jinjiang-kou) rivermouth. Ten days later, the joint army moved to take over the Paekche capital of Sabi. After eliminating Paekche in July of A.D. 660, Tang Dynasty establised five governor-general offices. Su Dingfang took prisoners to China, and retained Generals Liu Renyuan as the head of garrison forces.
Fu-xin, a follower of deposed Baekje king Fuyu Zhang, while defending the city of Zhouliu-cheng, sent emissaries to Japan for fetching Prince Fuyu Feng who were serving in Japan as a hostage in accordance with the A.D. 653 Japan-Paekche friendship agreement, and requested for Japan to send relief army. The Paekche mission took with them over 100 Chinese prisoners of war as gift for Japan. In order to keep the influence on the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese emperor made a decision to escort Fuyu Feng to Korea and dispatched a Japanese fleet to aid the remnant Paekche forces. In January of A.D. 661, the Japanese emperor moved the command to the west coast of Kyushu for directing the campaign, and sent troops to Korea for aiding Paekche.
Meanwhile, the remnant Paekche forces launched a counterattack at the Chinese garrison force in Xiongjin (Woongjin). Tang Emperor Gaozong ordered to dispatch General Liu Rengui to the relief of Xiongjin (Woongjin). In April of A.D. 661, about 44,000 Tang army, attacked Goguryeo via sea and land. In July, the Tang army reached Pyongyang but failed to sack the fort, and had to pull back. In August, the succeeding Japanese emperor ordered to send in a full army to Korea. In September, Fuyu Feng was escorted back to Korea. In March of A.D. 662, Goguryeo requested with the Japanese for engaging with the Tang army. Against the withdrawal order from Tang Gaozong to pull out of Korea, Liu Rengui petitioned for more reinforcement, and further proactively attacked to link up with the Silla army. After the China-Silla joint army sacked Zhenyan Fort, the Tang army was able to get grain supply from Silla.
In August of A.D. 663, the Japanese reinforcement arrived at the White River [Baijiang-kou or Baekgang in Korean] rivermouth, the estuary of a tributary of the Jinjiang (Geum) River. With the 7000-men reinforcement headed by Sun Renshi, the Tang army launched a two-prong attack at the Baekje remnants at the Zhouliu fort. While Liu Renyuan, Sun Renshi and the Silla army attacked via land, Liu Rengui's navy force and the Silla navy moved along the river to attack Zhouliu.
En route, Liu Ren'gui encountered the Japanese Navy near a place called Baisha (white sand) where about 170 Japanese ships were anchored, with the Paekche cavalry guarding the riverbank. The Japanese ships, upon seeing the Tang-Silla navy, charged out of the anchor area. During the subsequent navy battle, the Chinese-Silla joint fleet completely routed the Japanese fleet via a stragety of inducing into the center of the battle scene for an encirclement. According to Xin Tang Shu, the Tang navy, after four engagements, burnt 400 Japanese ships. This came to be known as the Battle of Baijiang-kou (white river rivermouth), or the Battle of the White River Village Estuary (Hakusuki-no-e no Tatakai or Hakusonko no Tatakai) in Japan.
Fuyu Feng and the Paekche cavalry, after seeing the defeat of the Japanese, fled the scene. At the Zhouliu fort, Baekje princes surrendered to the Tang army on September 7th after learning of the defeat of the Japanese navy. The remnant Japanese army evacuated from Korea on September 19th. Five years later, Tang Dynasty successfully eliminated Korguryo, making Silla the de facto ruling dynasty on the Korean Peninsula.
In Tang Dynasty, there existed large-scale human smuggling operations in Korea, with the Silla people sold to China as slaves. Hence the Korean settlements sprang up along the Shandong coast, especially the area opposite to Korea, such as in today's Rongcheng and Rizhao counties. Li Shidao, a Korguryo descendant, colluded with the Korean pirates in perpetrating the crime. Jang Bogo [790-846], who came to Tang China to serve in the Chinese imperial army, resigned to return to Korea in A.D. 824 to petition with the Silla king for the job to garrison the western Korean coast so as to ban the human trafficking. In Rizhao, Silla monk Zhi-yin rebuilt Monk Huishen's delapidated Tiantai-min-shi [pity of the heavenly terrace] Monastery as the Silla Monastery in early Tang Dynasty. In Ming Dynasty, a stone monument bearing three characters of "Ri Zhao Xian" (Rizhao County) was erected by Korean confucian Zheng Mengzhou when visiting the Silla settlements on the Shandong coast. In 1899, in the aftermath of the "Clergymen Incident of Rizhao (sunshine shower) County", the Germans looted China's treasures prior to evacuation, including, among others, three ancient stone monuments at the coastal Mt Tiantaishan in Rizhao County, including i) the Ju-guo ancestral reverence monument at the Wangxianjian (fairy seeking) Creek (possibly erected by the sun-worshipping Ju-guo people from the Shang-Zhou dynasty time period), ii) the reconstruction monument for the Shifeng-shi (stone phoenix) Monastery of Tanggu (spring valley), which was first built by Monk Huishen as Tiantai-min-shi [pity of the heavenly terrace] Monastery in the mid-5th century prior to his overseas trip to Fu-sang (?ancient Mexico), was rebuilt a second time by Silla monk Zhi-yin as the Silla Monastery in early Tang Dynasty, and was revamped by the Qin Dynasty descendants as Shi-feng-shi Monastery during Ming Dynasty; and iii) the stone monument bearing three characters of "Ri Zhao Xian" (Rizhao County) that was erected by Korean confucian Zheng Mengzhou when visiting the Silla settlements.
As to the Fuyu lineage, the Chinese history said the Tang Chinese captured the Fuyu family and brought them to China. Liu made Fuyu Rong, a royal family member who was loyal to China, swear with the Silla king that they would not war against each other, and further buried the sworn testaments underneath their royal palaces, respectively. Liu designated Fuyu Rong as governor-general of Paekche and then sailed home. Shortly thereafter, Fuyu Rong fled to mainland China out of fear for Silla. The Tang court later ordered the Fuyu prince to go back to Korea in A.D. 677, but Fuyu Rong was still afraid of going home. Tang China continued on to conquer Koguryo. This Fuyu prince was afraid of going back to Korea because Silla armies were in full control of his old land, and he was conferred some Chinese titles as an official in the Tang court. Fuyu Rong was ordered to go to Korea again, but he stopped short of the Korean peninsula and stayed in the old territory of Koguryo and he died there. This would mutute into a history riddle for many historians in the fallacious belief that two Fuyu (Paekche) kingdoms had existed, one to the south of Goguryeo, and the other to the north of Goguryeo. (The Paekche remnants certainly fled to Japan as well. http://plaza14.mbn.or.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/ikazuchi/ikazuchi.html claimed that "Prince Syon-kwang of Pekche and his people were given a residence at Naniha" of Japan in A.D. 664.)
The Demise of Koguryo
Koguryo was toppled by the allied army of Tang Dynasty and Silla in A.D. 668 after a history of existence for 705 years. In A.D. 668, 30,000 Koguryo people were exiled to the Yangtze and Huai-shui River areas as well as Shan-nan (i.e., south of Qin-ling Ridge [Nan-shan], southwest of Mount Funiu-shan, and east of Jialing-jiang River). By A.D. 670, the Koguryo rebellion was quelled altogether, and the remnants fled to Silla. The Silla relief army was defeated by Tang Dynasty, too. In A.D. 677, Korea ex-king Zang was released back to Korea with a conferred title of Liaodong-dudu (governor-general for Eastern Liaoning) and Chaoxian-jun-wang (King of Korea Commandary). When Zang colluded with the Mohe [Malgal] (i.e., the Jurchen ancestor), the Tang court ordered that Zang be exiled to Qiong-zhou (Qionglai of Sichuan Prov in western China) and that his folowers be relocated to He-nan (south of the Yellow River) and Long-you (Gansu Prov). When Zang died around A.D. 682, he was buried next to Turkic Khan Xieli's tomb. With the Koguryo territories merged by Silla and the remnants fleeing to the Turks and the Mohe [Malgal], the Gao-shi clan became almost extinct.
During A.D. 685-688, a grandson called Gao Baoyuan was conferred the title of Chaoxian-jun-wang (King of the Korean Commandary). Around A.D. 698, Gao Baoyuan was upgraded to Zhongcheng-guo-wang (King of the Loyal Statelet), but he refused to go back to the Andong area. The next year, Gao Baoyuan's son, Gao Dewu, was conferred the post of governor-general for Andong (the Yalu River mouth area), and the Gao-shi clan began to regroup. By late Yuanhe Era (AD 806-820), the Gao-shi clan submitted some music works to the Chinese court.
The Bohai (Palhae) Statelet
History chronicle "Xin Wu Dai Shi" (The New History of Five Dynasties) stated that after Tang Emperor Gaozong (reign 650-683) quelled Koguryo, the remnants were exiled to the China proper. Andong Governor-protector Office was established in today's Pyongyang. At the times of Tang Empress Wuhou, the Khitans attacked China's northern areas. Someone from an alternative Koguryo clan, i.e., Da Qiqi-zhongxiang, together with Mohe chieftan Qi-si-bi-yu, fled to Liaodong (i.e., east of Liao-he River) and divided the former Koguryo territories into two parts as their respective kingdoms. Empress Wuhou dispatched troops against the Mohe [Malgal] chieftan and killed him. Da Qiqi-zhongxiang's son, i.e., Da Zuorong, succeeded the throne and took over the remnants of the Mohe chieftan. With 400,000 people, Da Zuorong dwelled in former Yilou territory and submitted to Tang as a minister. Tang Emperor Zhongzong (r 684-684) conferred him the title of Bohai-jun-wang (Prince [king] of Bohai Commandary) and governor-general for Huhan-zhou Prefecture. The Da-shi clan descedants later inherited the title by making Bohai the statelet name. In A.D. 907, i.e., the first year of Posterior Liang Emperor Taizu (Zhu Wen, r 907- 915), the Bohai King submitted tributes.
History chronicle "Jin Shi" (The History of Jurchen Jin Dynasty) stated that after Tang Dynasty exterminated Koguryo, of the two Mohe [Malgal] tribes which were formerly subordinate to Koguryo, i.e., Limo, fled to Dongmoushan Mountain to build the later Bohai kingdom. Po'hai continued for a dozen generations till it was destroyed by the Khitans. After Jurchen Jin Dynasty overthrew Khitan Liao Dynasty, Bohai descendants began to submit to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty. When later Jurchens defeated the Khitans, the Jurchens sent an emissary to Bohai, saying that Jurchens (Nuzhi) and Bohai were of same family.
The other clan of the two Mohe tribes [which were subordinate to Koguryo] would be the Hei-shui (black water) clan which dwelled in Changbai-shan Mountain, i.e., the place where the Jurchens rose. The Jurchens, i.e., Ruzhi (Nuzhi), submitted to Koryo a long time ago. After the demise of Liao, Koryo submitted to Jurchen Jin in the same fashion as they did to the Khitans. History chronicle "Yuan Shi" (The History of Mongol Yuan Dynasty) stated that the Gao-shi clan, having lost the kingdom in A.D. 660s, re-established themselves after A.D. 685. In the 10th century, i.e., China's Five Dynasties time period, the Wang-shi clan replaced the Gao-shi clan as the ruler. Wang Jian was a general who once led about 100 ships against Posterior Paekche during the war from 909 to 915. Wang Jian, i.e., a native of Songyue-jun Prefecture, moved the capital to Songyue after establishing his kingdom in A.D. 918. For the next 400 years, from Wang Jian to Wang Wang, the Koryo throne did not change hand for 27 kings. In the times of Korean Kingdom Koryo, Chinese chronicles stated that Koryo, i.e., "Gao-li", means two words of Gao [high] and Li [beautiful] and interpreted it as "high mountain and beautiful water". The "Gao-li" would revert back to "Chao-xian" [Choson] in the late 14th century when the Li-shi clan replaced the Wang-shi clan. (Korean King [emperor] Li Xi, at the time of the Japanese control in late 19th century, had changed the country name to Da-Han [great Han2] in A.D. 1897.)
In A.D. 1216, at the times of Genghis Khan's Mongol invasion of Manchuria and North China, about 90,000 Khitan remnants, under Jin-shan and Liu-ge, intruded into the Koryo territory and took over Jiangdong-cheng (a castle to the east of Yalu River). Two years later, the Mongols dispatched Ha-zhi-ji and Zha-la against the Khitans. Koryo King Wang Que cooperated with the Mongols in quelling Yeluu Liuge. Zha-la petitioned with Genghis Khan to have Koryo submit tributes with 10 emissaries per year. Koryo emissaries continued till A.D. 1224 when the banditry murdered the Mongol delegation. In Aug of A.D. 1231, Yuan Emperor Taizong dispatched Sa-li-ta against Koryo. About 1,500 households of the Koryo people under Hong Fuyuan submitted to the Yuan army. Koryo King Wang Hao sent his brother Wang Ting for peace. The Mongols left 72 supervisors in Koryo. However, in June of next year, Wang Hao killed all 72 Mongol officials, rebelled against Yuan Dynasty, and fled to islands in the sea for seeking safe haven. Sa-li-ta, in the new campaign, died of an arrow wound. In April of A.D. 1233, the Yuan court sent over a rebuke decree. In Oct, Wang Hao attacked the Koryo people who submitted to the Yuan court together with Hong Fuyuan. In 1235, the Yuan court dispatched Tang-gu and Hong Fuyuan against the Koryo king. In A.D. 1238, two thousand Koryo people surrendered to the Yuan court and were assigned to Dong-jing (eastern capital). In Dec, Wang Hao dispatached Jin Baoding and Song Yanqi to the Yuan court for submission. Wang Hao refused to see the Yuan Dynasty emperor in person, but continuously dispatched large delegations to Mongol-controlled China. In the autumn of A.D. 1241, Wang Hao sent in a nephew as a hostage. During the reigns of Yuan Emperor Dingzong & Xianzong, Koryo stopped tributes. From 1247 to 1258, Yuan Dynasty campaigned against Koryo four times. Around A.D. 1259, Wang Hao sent in his son as a hostage. Wang Hao passed away in March of A.D. 1260. His son was released back to Koryo. In April of A.D. 1260, Koryo King Wang Zhi personally went to the Yuan court. In A.D. 1264, Wang Zhi personally went to the Yuan court again. During 31 years of Khubilai's reign, Koryo sent in tributes 36 times.
In 1392, Li Chenggui overthrew the Wang clan of Koryo, making himself a king. In a report submitted to Ming Dynasty Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, Li Chenggui requested for the sanctioning of a statelet name for Korea among two names of "He-ning [peaceful]" and "Chao-xian [morning freshness]", with "he-ning" being the domain of his father Li Zichun while acting as "wan-hu [ten thousand households]. Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang selected Chao-xian for the name of the Li dynasty of Korea.
TO BE CONTINUED !!!!!
The Mongol Invasion Of Japan Via Korea
The Japanese Piracy, Shogunate Tallies, Korea & the Taiwan Island
Imperialist Encroachments On Korea
The 1894 Sino-Japanese War Over Korea
The Korean Restoration Movement & the Interim Korean Government
KOREAN COMMUNISTS & THE JAPANESE INVASION OF MANCHURIA - 1930-1931 [Modified : Saturday, 31-Mar-2012 04:14:16 EDT]
The Koreans' Ethnic Cleansing against the Chinese During the 1931 Wanbaoshan Incident
The 1950-1953 Korean War
written by Ah Xiang
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