|Pre-History||Xia-Shang||Zhou||Qin||Han||3 States||Jinn||16 Nations||South-North||Sui-Tang||5 Plus 10 States||Soong||Liao||Xi Xia||Jurchen||Yuan||Ming||Qing|
|Tragedy Of Chinese Revolution||Terrors||Wars||China: Caste Society||Anti-Rightists||Cultural Revolution||6-4 Massacre||Land Enclosure||FaLunGong|
Videos about China's Resistance War:
The Battle of Shanghai & Nanking;
Bombing of Chungking;
The Burma Road
Videos about China's Resistance War: China's Dunkirk Retreat (in English); 42 Video Series (in Chinese)
The first recorded official landing would probably be the expedition forces led by General Wei Wen and Zhuge Zhi in 230 A.D. At that time, Taiwan was named the 'Yi-zhou continent'. Wei Wen and Zhuge Zhi of Wu Dynasty, during Three Kingdom time period, with 10000 armored soldiers, were in search of the 'Yi-zhou continent' [alien land] and the 'Tan-zhou continent' [probably Japan, i.e., the panacea island that Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's emissary Xu Fu was destined for]. Moreover, the fleets of Wu Dynasty, during the Three Kingdom period, had visited farway lands such as Champa [today's southern Vietnam and Cambodia] and today's Thailand. The native Taiwan people were called 'shan-yi [mountain alien]' by Shen Ying of Wu Dynasty, with descriptions of rich soils, grain planting, weaving, winery, and weaponry using dear horns, grinded stone arrowhead and stone hatchets. (Do note that 'shan-yi [mountain alien]' of the 3rd century may not be the same as today's Gaoshan-zu [high mountain minority] who were forced onto the mountains by waves of migration from outside of the island.)
However, the early civilized ways of life in the 3rd century Taiwan, as described by Shen Ying, had apparently fallen out in the course of history in a similar fashion to many lost civilizations such as Maya. Taiwan aboriginals were still commonly known as cannibals in later part of the 19th century: When Taiwan aboriginals killed Ryukyu fishermen, Japan mounted a short-term campaign in 1874 after Manchu left an impression that it had no particular interest in suzerainty over the cannibals in Taiwan. Per Wang Zhonghan citation of related research, at the time of Southern Song Dynasty, Jurchens had fled to the Penghu Islands (Pescadores) and Taiwan when the Mongols overtook northern China. Southern Song Dynasty managed the Pescadores by subjecting the island to Jinjiang county of Quanzhou prefecture, and in 1171, built 200 houses for military farming projects on both Islands [Pescadores and Taiwan]. Further, Wang Zhonghan cited Qing Dynasty's Zhu Jingying in stating that Song Dynasty currency, dating from Taiping Era [976-984], Zhidao Era [995-997], Tianxi Era [1017-1021] and Yuanyou Era [1086-1094], had been excavated on the Taiwan Island. Civilized seeds never survived in Taiwan.
Historical Confusion As To Name & Location Of Taiwan
Confusion arrose in early historical records as to the name and location of Taiwan. While Wu Dynasty, during Three Kingdom time period, designated Taiwan as 'Yi-zhou', chronicles from Sui Dynasty onward had possibly adopted the categorical term of "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] for all islands in the seas, to the southeast of the Chinese coastline. However, the skipping of Taiwan by Zheng Heh's Ming China fleets had given a clue that the Taiwan island was not a 'civilized' place as the rest of the world was. Also interesting would be sentences in Chinese chronicles [i.e., "Yuan Shi"] stating that "alien merchants [from Arab, Persia, India, Malaccca and Thailand], who came to China to trade, did not mention Taiwan ..."
Scholar Wang Zhonghan, like many other historians, had stated that ancient Chinese used "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] for the designation of Taiwan. Prevalent websites from "Taiwan nativity movements" or "Taiwan independence movements" also identified with the ancient "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] designation for Taiwan. Confusion could possibly be rooted in the ambivalence inside of "Yuan Shi", in which it pinpointed "liu-qiu" as opposite to Penghu [the Pescadores]. However, "Yuan Shi" was also self-admitting the fact that they did not know whether the March 29th, 1292 trip was actually destined for "liu-qiu" or not since the guide, i.e., Wu Zhidou, disappeared upon home-coming back in Penghu [Fujian coastal port, not the Pescadores] on April 2nd for fearing the loss of three people killed by aboriginals while attempting to land on a 25-kilometer-long island days earlier. (My intuition here is that in Mongol times, both Taiwan and Penghu [the Pescadores] were grouped together as Penghu, as evidenced by the description of strong currents in the Taiwan Straits that could blew away 99 out of 100 ships.)
Having pointed out the categorical term of "liu-qiu", one could easily find some inconsistency in "Sui Shu" (The History of Sui Dynasty) to validate the point that "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] was not necessarily Taiwan, but truly the real Ryukyu [i.e., what Japan called by Okinawa]: Around A.D. 608, Sui Emperor dispatched Chen Leng and Zhang Zhenzhou to Ryukyu, and the two, departing from Yi'an, first sailed to Gaohua-yu Island, then after two more days, sailed to Xi-bie-yu [?] island in between, and then one more day later, reached Ryukyu. The Japanese emissary, who accompanied Fei Qing [Fei Shiqing] back to China in A.D. 608, claimed that cloth and shields that Zhu Kuan had grabbed from "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] were from the 'Yi-ye-jiu' statelet, which validated the close relationship between aboriginals along the archipelogo.
Both "Sui Shu" and Zhao Rushi's A.D. 1225 book "Zhu [various] Fan [foreign countries] Zhi [records]" mentioned that "liu-qiu" [Ryukyu] was 5-6 days trip to the east of Quanzhou of Fujian Prov, while Penghu Islands (Pescadores) and Taiwan are in fact situated to the exact southeast of Quanzhou. It is clear to me that the Ryulyu Island referred in Sui records meant for Okinawa, while the two stopover island happened to be Diaoyutai Islands, i.e., what the Japanese called by Senkaku Gunto [Pinnacle Islands] after attacking and taking Taiwan in the context of the First Sino-Japanese War.
Beginning from Ming Dynasty, records about Taiwan began to show up in details, but with no trace of civilization. "Ming Shi" lumped together about one dozen island countries or statelets, including Liu-qiu [Ryukyu], Luu-song [Luzon], He-mao-li, Mei-luo-ju [Malacca?], Sha-ya-na-bi-tan, Ji-long [Keelung, i.e., Taiwan], Puo-luo [Wenlai, i.e., Brunei], Ma-ye-weng, Gu-ma-la-lang, Feng-jia-shi-lan, and Wen-lang-ma-shen. Here, the distinction was made between Liu-qiu [Ryukyu] and Ji-long [Keelung, i.e., Taiwan]. "Ming Shi" (History of Ming Dynasty) stated that Zheng Heh, who conducted seven expeditions between 1405 and 1433, disliked Taiwan for its not catching up in submission of tributes to the emperor as the rest of the world did. Zheng Heh should know that Taiwan people, with no statelet or king, had no way to send in tributes or have relations with mainland China. "Ming Shi" recorded that Taiwan was called 'Ji (chicken) Long (hen-house) Shan (mountain)', a name which might have mutated into today's Jilong or Keelung Port. There was a confusion in "Ming Shi" in regards to the position: Ji-long-shan was said to be to the northeast of Penghu-yu Islands and hence it was also called 'Beigang' or the northern port. Alternative name would be 'Dongfan' or land of eastern barbarians. Because Taiwan islands' streams were not salty, it had another name called 'dan-shui-yang' or non-salty sea. Taiwan's land was recorded to be 1000 Chinese li distance from Jilong in the north to Langqiao in the south, and 900 li distance from Duo-luo-man in the east to Wang-cheng in the west. Another corroborating sentence in distinction of Liu-qiu [Ryukyu] and Ji-long [Keelung, i.e., Taiwan] would be Heh Kai's proposal to Ming Emperor Chongzhen in A.D. 1635: Heh Kai stated that "Taiwan, an island beyond Penghu Islands (Pescadores), could be reached after two days and nights of sailing if departing from Zhangzhou and Quanzhou of Fujian Prov... To drive away red-haired devils as well as the bandits, sea ban must be enforced so that bandits could not make a living and the red-haired devils could not make a profit..." Note that from Fuzhou port to Jilong, sailing would take 5 'geng', with 10 'geng' being equivalent to 24 hours.
Ming government treated the Penghu Islands (the Pescadores) as its territories, but not Taiwan. It is said that the Mongol Yuan Dynasty had established a post on the Penghu Islands (Pescadores). Before that, by A.D. 1171, magistrate Wang Dayou of Quanzhou prefecture of southern Song Dynasty built 200 houses on the Pescadores for sake of military farming. But in A.D. 1388, the Ming government abolished the garrison station.
Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in A.D. 1492, Portuguese navigator Diaz reached the Cape of Good Hope in 1486, and Portuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama, opened the sea route between Europe and India by way of the Cape of Good Hope in A.D. 1497. This was the era of the great voyages and "great discoveries". However, the sea routes between Europe and India never needed to be re-discovered. The Arabians had sailed along the eastern coast of Africa for hundreds of years, and they had visited India, Malacca, Vietnam, and China all along. At the time of Han Emperor Huandi (reign A.D. 147-167), a series of emissaries from the west visited China via sea, arriving by sea from the south of Rinan Commandary (today's central Vietnam). Indian envoys were received at the Han Court in A.D. 159 and in A.D. 161, and an emissary from Daqin, i.e., the Roman Empire, arrived in A.D. 166. During China's Three Kingdoms time period, another Roman envoy arrived in Wu Dynasty, and when he left China, he requested with Sun Quan for a dozen pigmy people to be sent to Roman Emperor as a gift. (Sun Quan caught pigmy people somewhere south of the Huai River. The pigmy people, however, died en route to Rome.) During A.D. 399-414, one Chinese monk, Fa Shien, had returned to China via the sea route, after spending years studying Buddhism in India. Tang Dynasty had recorded that East Roman emissaries had visited China via the sea route. Marco Polo certainly returned to Europe via the merchants' fleet. When First Ming Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhuang) expelled the Mongols from Peking, there was an East Roman (Byzantium) emissary stranded in the Yuan Dynasty capital. Zhu Yuanzhuang made arrangement for the Roman emissary to return to Constantinople via a merchant fleet.
You could only say that human beings do not have good memories. The Hawaiians, 500 years before the Europeans came, had continuous voyages between the Islands of Hawaii and the various Polynesian islands. Suddenly, the Hawaiians lost the navigation skills and lived in total seclusion.
Portugal was the first European power to invade Asia. Vasco da Gama reached Calcutta in 1497. Portuguese established two castles in India in 1501 and 1502. In A.D. 1510, they captured Goa of India, and in A.D. 1511, they destroyed the kingdom of Malacca. The Sino-Portuguese War of 1521-1522 would see Portuguese driven off Guangdong's coast. From 1547 to 1549, Ming Governor Zhu Wan, also the imperial commissioner for coastal defence of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces, launched three attacks at the Portuguese, wiping out Portuguese stronghold at Shuangyu (Ningbo, Zhejiang), and killed and captured over 239 Portuguese at Wuyu (Zhuangzhou, Fujian) and Zoumaxi (Shaoan, Fujian). The Portuguese, who were driven off from Zhejiang and Fujian coasts, later returned to the Guangdong coastline. In A.D. 1553, the Portuguese, claiming that their merchandise was wet due to a storm, requested with Deputy Coastal Magistrate Wang Bo for landing at Macao for sake of drying their goods. Once they landed, they refused to leave, and moreover built houses and castles. Yuan Jianbang and Yuan Guixiu, in their book "Brief History of Macao" (Zhongliu Publishing House, HK, 1988 edition) cited Huang Wenkuan's research that the Portuguese had bribed Wang Bo by means of a secret treaty, with clauses such as i) surrendering 1000 taels of silver to Wang Bo per year, and ii) changing the name to Portugal from Folangji [Falangji, i.e., the Franks], and etc. The Ming Court did not check out the fake name of Portugal till A.D. 1565, by which time the Ming court once again declined Portugal's "tributes".
In A.D. 1517, a Portuguese fleet, on the way to Japan, sighted Taiwan and called it "Ilha Formosa", namely, "beautiful island". However, 50 years before the Portuguese sailing, Ming China had dispatched seven royal expeditions across the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. Ming China abruptly terminated sea-farring adventures. Otherwise, they would have met the Portuguese on the seas.
The Malayo-Polynesian Aborigines
The Malayo-Polynesian aborigines had dwelt on Taiwan for many thousands of years. "Ming Shi" recorded that Taiwan had no king, but 15 'she' (societies or tribal communities); that larger 'she' possessed over thousand people, and smaller 'she' 500 to 600 people; that the aboriginals had no clothing, men had piercings in their ears, women cut their side teeth for decorations, and they liked tattoos on hands and feet; that they liked to engage in village-to-village fights and kill other people; that they liked to hunt deers with sharp iron-arrowed bamboo spears; that Taiwan had no system of taxation; that the Taiwan people respected the bigger households with more kids; that the Taiwan people were afraid of seas and oceans and would rather die than sail to neighboring lands for exchanges; that they caught fish only in mountain streams and they disliked eating chicken or birds.
Prof Wei Chu-Hsien, in "China & America", had research into 'bat cave' drawings on the Taiwan Island and concluded that ancient Taiwan aboriginals had migrated there from coastal China about 5 to 6 thousand years ago. http://mbe.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/2/214 carried an article about the new research paper by Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, claiming that "The reanalysis of two previously published ancient mtDNA population data sets from Linzi (same province) then indicates that the ancient populations had features in common with the modern populations from south China rather than any specific affinity to the European mtDNA pool". The people identified in this research paper had apparently pushed out the original coast dwellers who migrated across the seas to Taiwan and Southeast Asia.
The Wo-kou Pirates & Taiwan
Ming China's records described the Taiwan island as a place dwelled by the barbarians and permeated with pestilence and other tropical diseases. It was also a place of hideouts for the pirates, outlaws and other bandits. History said that the Japanese pirates began to raid into China as a result of the unsuccessful Mongol invasion. The pirates, in collusion with Chinese outlaws, knowned as Wo-k'ou, had been plundering the Chinese coast for hundreds of years, and they used Taiwan as a base or hideout. When chased by the Ming forces, these pirates would flee to the Penghu Islands (the Pescadores), and then to Taiwan. When 'Wo-kou' (Wa Japan pirates) raided the coasts of Fujian Province during late Jiajing Era (1522-1566), General Qi Jiguang was assigned the post of da jiangjun or grand general. Qi Jiguang drove off the pirates, and Wo-kou fled to seek refuge on the Taiwan Island. A follower of Wo-kou pirates, called Lin Daoqian, being unhappy over Wo-kou's control over him, sailed to a different place of Taiwan and cultivated the land into the Daoqian-gang Port. Taiwan aboriginals, under the pillaging by the Wo-kou pirates, vacated the beach lands for the high mountains. Later, Chinese merchant ships sailed to Taiwan and had exchanges with the aboriginals.
'Wo-kou' (Wa Japan pirates) continued to raid China. In the autumn of 1584, a Japanese pirate, by the name of Duo-yan-chang-ang, led 3000 cavalry on an attack at Liujiakou, i.e., the Liuhe River rivermouth on the southern bank of the Yangtze. A Ming captain, Shen Yourong, led 29 brave soldiers against the pirates at night and defeated them. After that, Fujian governor (zhong cheng) ordered Shen Yourong, who was pian jiangjun (para-general) at Xiamen (Amoy), to campaign against the Japanese pirates on Taiwan. In early 1603, Shen Yourong led 21 ships against Taiwan. On the same snowy night, Shen lost 7 ships to typhoon near the Penghu Islands. But Shen managed to continue on his sailing. Upon arriving in Taiwan, Japanese pirates sailed their ships out of the port for a confrontation. Shen Yourong burnt 3 Japanese ships, retrieved 370 Chinese taken captives by the pirates, and drove the Japanese pirates off the Taiwan Island. Further details about pirates could be seen at Japanese Piracy, Shogunate Tallies, Korea & Taiwan Island.
By the end of Wanli Era (1573-1620), 'hong (red) mao (hair) fan (barbarians)', i.e., the Dutch, reached the island, and the island came to be know as Formosa.
Taiwan & The Dutch
It would be in Ming Dynasty's history that we found description of modern Europeans, namely, 'cat-eyed', 'eagle-mouthed', and 'red-haired'. Interestingly, Ming Chinese did not talk too much about the Portuguese who were known as 'Folangji' (a word mutated from the Franks and could be linked to the cannons the Arabians manufactured on basis of the European design), while the Dutch was nicknamed 'Hongmaogui', namely, red-haired devils. In this sense, the Portuguese could appear much more different than the Dutch, and it made sense if the Portuguese sailors were mostly Italians who enjoyed relatively darker hair than northern Europeans.
In A.D. 1595, the Dutch, under command of Cornelius Houtman, arrived at Java. In A.D. 1602, Dutch ships appeared near the Chinese coasts and met resistance by the Portuguese. The Portuguese villified the Dutch in front of the Chinese and hence the Dutch failed to get ashore. In A.D. 1602, the Dutch, for competing with the Portuguese, formed the "Dutch East India Company", a company chartered for the monopolized trade as well as managing newly acquired colonies. In A.D. 1603, the Dutch first attacked the Portuguese in Macau, but got repelled after sinking several Portuguese ships. The Dutch tried to wrestl Macao from the Portuguese, but were defeated again. In A.D. 1604, the Dutch fleet, under Captain Van Warwijk, planned to attack Macau for a second time. Having encountered a hurricane, Van Warwijk led three ships to Penghu (the Pescadores) in August of the year. Penghu was abandoned by the Ming army already. The Dutch built a castle on the island. Van Warwijk dispatched an interpreter (Lin Yue) to Fujian Province, requesting for exchange of commerce, but Lin Yue was arrested by the Chinese. Further, Ming Dynasty dispatched Shen Yourong for quelling the Dutch disturbance.
Shen Yourong first ordered a ban of trade with Dutch, making the Dutch difficult to advance or to retreat. Shen Yourong led 20 ships and the Dutch interpreter (Lin Yue) to Penghu for expelling the Dutch. Shen Yourong personally went to see Van Warwijk, explained the system of Ming China, rebuked Van Warwijk for his bribes of 30,000 gold nuggets, and stated that he had no authorization to commence trading with the Dutch. Shen Yourong released the interpreter and exchanged gifts with Van Warwijk. Shen Yourong also informed Van Warwijk that a Chinese traitor, Pan Xiu, who guided the Dutch to Penghu, would be penalized by execution. On Dec 15th of 1604, Van Warwijk left the Penghu Island.
In A.D. 1619, Dutch took over Jakarta of Indonesia and named it "Batavia". By the end of 1620, the Dutch intercepted ships between Macau and Malacca, acquiring information that the Spanish government intended to occupy a Taiwan port to counter the alliance of the Netherlands and Britain. Dutch Governor at Batavia, Jan Pierszoon Coen decided to attack Macau again and take over Penghu and Taiwan ahead of Spain.
On April 10th, 1024 Dutch, under commander Cornelis Reyeresn, sailed in 8 ships to attack Macau. On June 24th, the Dutch arrived at Macau, bombarded Fort Saint Francois for five days, and landed 800 sailors ashore. But the Dutch were defeated, with a loss of 136 men in addition to 126 men wounded. Withdrawing from Macau, on July 11th, 1622, the Dutch landed on the Penghu Islands which had altogether 100-200 people. Using a Chinese fisherman as a guide, Dutch commander Cornelis Reyeresn led two ships to seek Anping Harbor of Taiwan Island on July 26th for detecting the quality of the place as a port; they returned to Penghu on July 30th. Anping Harbor of Taiwan had been frequented by the Japanese and Chinese merchant ships several times a year, with the Japanese buying deer skin from the aboriginals and the Chinese selling silk products to the Japanese.
The Dutch thought Anping Harbor was difficult to defend against outside attacks and decided to build a castle on Makung of the Penghu Islands on August 2nd. On Aug 7th, a Dutch, by the name of Van Meldert, led three ships to Fujian and asked a seaside official (shou bei) Wang Mengxiong relay a letter to Fujian Governor (hu tai) Shang Zhouzuo for exchange of commerce. On Sept 29th, Wang Mengxiong sailed to Penghu and gave Shang Zhouzuo's reply to the Dutch commander, asking the Dutch to vacate the Penghu Island and stating Ming China's refusal to trade with the Neatherlands.
The Dutch built a fortress in Makung and harassed Portuguese vessels sailing in the Taiwan Straits. On the the Penghu Island, the Dutch castle had a square side of 56.5 meters and it was equipped with over 20 cannons. The Dutch had about 10 warships around the island. On Feb 23rd of 1623, Ming Chinese official stationed at Batavia proposed to the Dutch that Ming China would be willing to commence trading with the Neatherlands should the Dutch vacate the Penghu Island (i.e., the Pescadores). Ming China softened its stance by informing the Dutch that they could retreat to Taiwan from the Pescadores.
From June 5th to June 13th of 1623, typhoon destroyed some walls of the fort. Dutch raided the Fujian coast and abducted 1150 Chinese labor for rebuilding the fort. Among 1150 Chinese, 571 died of hard labor and bad nutrition, and another 486 later died of illness on board the ship for Batavia. "Ming Shi" recorded that the Dutch captured 600 Chinese fishing vessels during the time period; Penghu-xian County records stated that altogether 1300 people were abducted by the Dutch.
On July 23rd, 1623, Commandeur Christiaan Francx's relief fleet of one big ship and four small ships arrived at the Penghu Island. On Oct 28th, Christiaan Francx led 4 ships to Amoy for trade talk. On Nov 18th, Ming official tricked Christiaan Francx onto the shore and captured some of the Dutch. "Ming Shi" recorded that 60 Dutch, including Christiaan Francx, were decapitated. At night, shou bei Wang Mengxiong led 10 ships, which were disguised as fishing vessels, for a fire attack at two Dutch ships and burnt one ship. The second Dutch ship fled to the two other ships in the outer sea, and they left for the Penghu Island on Dec 7th.
The Ming government issued a decree in September 1623 banning all Dutch ships from approaching the southeast coast of China. In January 1624, Ming forces, under Fujian xun hu Nan Juyi, attacked the Dutch on the Penghu Island, and after eight months, the Dutch agreed to withdrawing from the Pescadores in exchange for retreat to the Taiwan Island. Nan Juyi recruited soldiers from Quanzhou area and purchased ships. On Feb 20th of 1624 (Jan 2nd per lunar calendar), Nan Juyi ordered that Wang Mengxiong attacked the Dutch on the Pescadores. Wang Mengxiong intruded into Zhenhai-gang port of the Pescadores, and fought the Dutch and built the stone wall defence side by side, with casualties on both sides. Wang Mengxiong forced the Dutch into Fengkui-cheng castle. Nan Juyi also ordered that du si or colonel Gu Sizhong led an army on an attack at the Penghu-zhen town on the Pescadores. From late May to early June, Nan Juyi personally saild to the island and supervised two Ming circuit district governors in launching a third attack at the Dutch. On July 13th, Nan Juyi ordered that navy general Sun Guozhen led Liu Yinglong and Hong Jiyuan for an attack at the Dutch fleet somewehere near the Chinese sea goddess monastery. On July 29th, Nan Juyi landed on the island and arranged for both land and sea offensives. On the island, the Ming army cut off the water supply to the Dutch. On August 3rd of 1624, Dutch commander Marten Sonk arrived at the island with relief. 850 Dutch soliders were retrieved from Taiwan. Meanwhile, Ming army swelled to 10,000 and 200 ships from original force of 4000 men and 150 ships. The Dutch dispatched a negotiator for peace talk with zong bing Yu Zigao (son of Yu Dayou). The Dutch was informed that Ming China intended to evict the Dutch from the Pescadores only and that the Dutch could go to Taiwan at will. On August 18th, Ming armies launched a three-prong attack. On Aug 24th, the Dutch raised the white flag to show surrender. Beginning from Aug 26th, the Dutch began to dismantle the castle in accordance with Ming China's demands and finished demolition by Sept 10th. Thereafter, the Dutch sailed to Taiwan.
Ming China's war with the Dutch was extraordinary in that Ming Chinese exerted great sacrifice in fighting a rising European power of unprecendented fire power. Nan Juyi stated in his report that the Dutch ships were extremely big and could bombard the small Chinese ships to powder and pieces over 10 li distance. Li Ao, a critic of the KMT government on Taiwan, echoed Li Hongzhang's comments that Manchu China's confrontation with red-hair devils (i.e., British) was an extraordinary event not foreseen by China for 3000 years and that Britain, with its military might and fire-power, was an enemy China could not match during the course of past 1000 years. Wrong ! The cousins of "red-hair devils", i.e., the Dutch, had arrived at Java in 1595 and the Chinese coast in A.D. 1602. From A.D. 1603 to 1624, Ming China exerted hundreds of ships and thousands of soldiers to repelling the Dutch from Chinese coasts and the Pescadores Islands. Often, numerous small Ming ships encircled few big Dutch warships for sake of winning the fight. Ming China mobilized a huge field army for landing on the Penghu Islands (i.e., the Pescadores) and after fierce fighting, forced the Dutch into withdrawal. Dozens of years later, Zheng Chenggong, son of pirate-turned Ming General Zheng Zhilong, would first adopt the approach of "defeating the aliens by means of aliens' weapons". Zheng Chenggong, whose merchant fleets had sailed to the four corners of the seas, actively purchased weapons, firearms and cannons from the Dutch. In February 1662, Zheng Chenggong successfully expelled from Taiwan the Dutch who, having colonized the island from 1624 to 1662, had latinized the aboriginals' language to the extent that the aboriginals no longer remembered their own native language. In the ensuing hundreds of years, Manchu Qing China had been mostly occupied with "pleasure-seeking and literature-decoration", a 1916 comment by Japanese Prime Minister in regards to Yuan Shi-kai's death and its influence on the rise and fall of the Republic Of China. (The worst thing is that today's decadent Communist China is not any better than the Manchu rulers. Red alerts !!)
In A.D. 1635, a Ming Dynasty minister, Heh Kai, submitted to Emperor Chongzhen a tactic for quelling the sea upheavals. Heh Kai mentioned the turmoil of Yuan Jin, Li Zhong, Yang Lu, Yang Ce, Zheng Zhilong, Li Kuiqi, Zhong Bin and Liu Xiang and recommended the destruction of the piracy base in Taiwan. Heh Kai stated that Taiwan, beyond the Penghu Islands, could be reached within two days by sea, departing from Zhuangzhou and Quanzhou ports; that coastal people went to Taiwan for taking advantage of the benefits of fishing and salts; that some people, taking advantage of Ming's lack of military influence, had gathered there to be rebels and bandits; that the Dutch, now having built castles on the island, had colluded with the non-obedient Chinese and made Taiwan into a big tribal country. Heh Kai proposed a 'sea ban' (blocade of the coastal areas) to cause the Dutch nowhere to trade or profit and the non-obedient Chinese nowhere to make a living, and a campaign against the Dutch after successes from the blockade of the coastal areas.
The Piracy Along the Chinese Coasts
Japanese Piracy & Shogunate Tallies
Zheng Chenggong's Recovery Of Taiwan
Ancient China's Island Policies
Two islands, Taiwan and Hainan, were not far away from China's coastline. Their fate was different. Hainan was colonized several times by Han China, but Taiwan was skipped in early efforts. China was not interested in colonizing the island of malaria, Taiwan. Early China did possess navy to mount major campaigns, as evidenced by naval operations along the coast of present-day Fujian during the third and second centuries B.C.E. Former Han, in its wars on Nan-Yue in 111 B.C., dispatched a fleet to Panyu, namely, today's Canton, at the mouth of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) Delta. The fleet pursued the Nan-yue remnants to the Gulf of Tongking in Vietnam. At the end of Later Han Dynasty, Sun Ce (brother of Sun Quan, the founder of Wu Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms) mounted an expedition, by sea from the Hangzhou Bay, to the mouth of the Min River in 196 A.D. Lü Dai of Wu Dynasty attacked the Shi family in Jiaozhi (today's Vietnam) by both land and sea in A.D. 226.
Under Han China, Hepu commandery was in charge of the shoreline between Guangzhou and Hanoi, including the Hainan strait and the Leizhou peninsula. Pearl fisheries were the incentive for Han to exercise control. The West River of today's Guangdong Province was utilized for trading and transportation. Hepu county had access by land to the West River in Yulin. As noted by http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html, "Hepu was the base for long-distance sea traffic, ... that officials of the emperor's private apartments were sent on missions as far as India to exchange the gold and silks of China for precious stones, curios and trinkets, while the pearls they brought back were as large as two inches diameter, far more valuable than those collected locally. The goods were assessed and traded in the market at Hepu, and then joined the local production of pearls for portage to the West River and then by the rivers and canals to the north."
During the 170s and 180s AD, Han Emperor Lingdi of Later Han Dynasty sought for the establishment of Gaoliang commandery over east Leizhou peninsula. Attempts were made to establish posts on Hainan Island. At the end of the second century B.C., after the conquest of Nan-Yue, Emperor Wudi set up two commanderies on the island, i.e., Dan'er ("drooping ears") and Zhuyai ("shore of pearls"). Frequent rebellion by locals caused Dan'er to be abolished in 82 B.C., and Zhuyai in 46 B.C. At the beginning of Later Han Dynasty, a county named Zhuyai was re-established. Han Emperor Mingdi was said to have received tribute from Dan'er.
http://www.anu.edu.au/asianstudies/south_china.html noted that "during the Han period, ... coastline of present-day Fujian... An outpost of the empire was maintained by the counties of Dongye and Houguan, at the mouth of the Min River by present-day Fuzhou... Something was known of Taiwan, then called simply Yizhou ... "Barbarian Island", but there was no official interest in the place. Further to the north, from the time of Han Emperor Shundi, the county of Yongning occupied the mouth of the Ou River by present-day Wenzhou in southern Zhejiang. None of the coastal settlements, however, appear to have exercised more than nominal control over their hinterland, and there was no drive to do so. The greater part of the mountain country of southeastern China, including all of Fujian, and great areas of eastern Guangdong, southeastern Jiangxi and southern Zhejiang, was unoccupied land outside the frontiers of the empire ..."
The Cessation of Taiwan to Japan
KMT's Crackdown On Feb 28th, 1947
In early 1946, senior communist cadres Cai Xiaoqian and Zhang Zhizhong arrived in Taiwan for leading the CCP provincial work commissariat of Taiwan. In March, Zhan Shiping [alias Wu Ketai], who sought opportunity to go to the mainland as a Japanese military interpreter in 1944 and then enrolled in the communist party in Shanghai after the Japanese surrender, was dispatched back to Taiwan as well. Wu Ketai re-enrolled in Taiwan University, worked for two communist-controlled publications under the leadership of Cai and Zhang, and began the work of recruiting communist members among college and middle school students and teachers from Taiwan University, Chenggong [success] Middle School and Keelung High School. Recruited members after Feb 28th, 1947 Incident included Guo Xiuzong and Chen Bingji. Wu Ketai personally recruited Zhong Haodong, the schoolmaster of Keelung High School, in addition to former schoolmate Li Denghui [i.e., later President of ROC in Taiwan]. After the communist-instigated anti-America student movement of Dec 1946 in Peking, Taiwan communists, who were subordinate to the CCP East China Bureau, received instructions for launching an anti-America protest as a synchronization act. On Jan 7th, 1947, close to a purported headcount of ten thousand students, under the direction of Zhan Shiping, Guo Xiuzong & Chen Bingji, took to the streets, with the tall lad Li Denghui walking in the front with sign.
In Taiwan, prior to Feb 28th, 1947 Bloody Incident, Cai Xiaoqian possessed about 70 communists on top of the former Taiwan communist remnants. Separately, Taiwan communists continued to possess another lineage in Zhuanghua area under the leadership of legendary female Xie Xuehong, a branch entitled the "Taiwan Nationality Branch" that was subordinate to Japanese communists in colonial Taiwan at the instruction from the Third Comintern. However, Xie Xuehong was reluctant to submit herself to Cai Xiaoqian but reported direct to the CCP East China Bureau. The Xie Xuehong faction, after Japanese routing of the Taiwan communists in 1931, had oriented themselves towards peasant associations and worker unions, and furthermore, had mostly enrolled in Li Youbang's KMT Three People Youth League after Taiwan recovery in 1945, an ambiguous organization that Li Youbang had launched in mainland China during the resistance war time period.
On Feb 27th, inspectors from provincial "exclusive market bureau" under Chen Yi's provincial magistrate publicly beat a vendor by the name of Lin Jiangmai. The next day, people beat the drum on the streets, calling for a boycott by shop owners. Some people destroyed a police post on Taiping Street, while some other people charged into Taipei office of provincial "exclusive market bureau", beat to death two staff workers, injured four others, and burnt the stockpiles of match, cigarette, liquor and one car. Taiwan people rose up against Chen Yi's KMT government. On the streets could be seen corpses of KMT government employees. In cities and towns across the island, local gentry and intelligentsia established "handling committee" which were infiltrated by special government agents.
Unlike the student movement which was rallied after two days' preparation, Taiwan communists had no prediction nor foresight as to the sudden eruption of the Feb 28th, 1947 incident. Three days after the incident, on March 1st, communists were still trying to figure out as to what role to play. In Taipei, Liao Ruifa, the communist secretary in charge of the provincial worker movement, informed Wu Ketai of two approaches to be adopted by communist "armed struggle committee", i.e., i) half of the communists to be engaged in organization for armed struggles against the KMT government, and ii) half of the communists to be engaged in propoganda work. Student leader Chen Bingji refused to go to the "handling committee" in the Sun Yat-sen Hall due to infightings among activists, something that appeared to Chen Bingji to be a government tactic to delay the operation. On Mar 4th, the minority people did not come down the mountain owning to the non-delivery of supplies as promised. The plans to attack KMT police and government facilities were frustrated owing to lack of military and political organization by the rebels.
Resistance in provincial capital of Taipei collapsed after KMT reinforcements sped to the island. In Danshui, schoolmaster Chen Nengtong led the students, including Ji Chaoqin, for taking over control of the police station. After the army came, the schoolmaster and an athletic teacher were arrested on March 9th and never came back. Student Ji Chaoqin fled to HK for Xie Xuehong's faction. In Taoyuan, about 100 rebels under Lin Qiusheng planned to attack Mt Wufengshan for releasing Zhang Xueliang from the life-term imprisonment.
Only noticeable communist-organized resistance would be that in Jiayi city, which was under the helm of Zhang Zhizhong the director of both organization and military department of CCP provincial commissariat for Taiwan. Zhang Zhizhong, with control over Li Maodou in Tainan, Chen Cuandi in Douliu and Xu Fen in Jiayi, had established the "Democratic United Army of Taiwan" which took over Jiayi on March 4th. Three days later, Zhang Zhizhong retreated to Jiayi Airport for a continuous resistance till the KMT reinforcement rolled in.
In Zhuanghua area, where Taiwan people fought the 1895 noble-minded Mt Baguashan Battle against Japanese, Xie Xuehong and her followers from the Three People Youth League organized an armed resistance. After the failure of the uprising, Xie Xuehong fled to mainland China. While in Shanghai, Xie Xuehong and Yang Kehuang, like Chen Bingji, had to wait for turns to be escorted across the KMT blockade line for entry into communist-liberated areas. In May, Xie Xuehong and Yang Kehuang rerouted to HK instead, where they established the Taiwan Democratic Autonomous League.
After the abortive Feb 28th Uprising, both Wu Ketai and Chen Bingji fled to Shanghai's Taiwan Fellow Native Society which was an undercover communist organization, and would not return to Taiwan till the autumn. Upon return to Taiwan, Chen Bingji enrolled in the CCP. Chen Bingji, together with Li Xunshan, Li Cang jiang, Lin Ruyu and Li Denghui, organized the "Neo-democracy Comrade Society". At the turn of Oct-Nov, Li Xunshan, himself a communist, suddenly announced his identity at a gathering and obtained the nodding from participants to enroll in the CCP collectively, which was validated by CCP secretary Liao Ruifa.
TO BE CONTINUED !!!!!
written by Ah Xiang
This website expresses the personal opinions of the webmaster (email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com). In addition to the webmaster's comments, extensive citations and quotes of ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing the Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without the prior written permission, on the pre-condition that an acknowledgement or a reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
WARNING: Some of the pictures, charts and graphs posted on this website came from copyrighted materials. Citation or usage in the print format or for the financial gain could be subject to fine, penalties or sanctions without the original owner's consent.
ECON 101: US Interest Rate Down = China Exchange Rate Up !
Republican China in Blog Format