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How much betterment today's Chinese peasants have when compared with coolies of the 19th century ??? Not any better whatsoever. The so-called international trade, in the form of trading the abstract 'labor' in lieu of physical flow of 'labor', had only thrived on the miseries of Chinese peasants, i.e., modern coolies in the caste society. Bhagwati's immeserization growth theory, rarely mentioned these days, should provide the best argument against the so-called "free" trade.
Scholar Yan Qinghuang [Yen Ching-hwang] of HK University had authored a book entitled Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials [i.e., Coolies and Mandarins] and pointed out that the British Opium War of 1839-1842 had coincided with the prosperity of slave-nature trafficking of Chinese coolies overseas, a trade that was first started by the Dutch in the 17th century. To understand how much miseries Chinese coolies had encountered, just read the following 19th century commentary in a Peruvian newspaper "South Pacific Times":
Manchu Qing Emperor did not realize the seriousness of coolie trafficking till the Shanghai Incident. On July 29th, 1859, a French ship, Ge-te-lu-de, sailed away with abducted Chinese coolies. Relatives of some of the coolies converged around the Yangjingbang (i.e., pidgin English river) area in the attempt of intercepting the ship. The Chinese attacked two British sailors, killing one, and later attacked a British doctor who tried to intervene together with a customs officer. The next day, angry Shanghaiians attacked 6 Thai tourists in mistaking them as the British henchmen involved in coolie abduction.
Also in 1859, the British, having removed Governor-general Ye Mingshen from Canton during the Second Opium War, pushed through so-called "legal emigration" for the Chinese to go overseas. From 1866 onward, new Manchu Governor-general for Guangdong-Guangxi Provinces, Rui-ling, began to exert full efforts in cracking down on the coolie trafficking. From 1872 onward, Rui-ling enforced an approach of cutting off the supply of coolies to Macau in addition to destroying coolie broker-smugglers. Rui-ling campaigned against foreign smuggler ships frequently, and by AD 1873, Macau's coolie shops were basically empty per an American emissary to Peking (i.e., Williams). Besides, Britain Governor Kennedy decreed a ban of coolie ships from docking at Hong Kong beginning on Aug 23rd. By Dec 27th, Macau Governor Jie-liu-e-li reluctantly banned coolie trading as well. The Manchu government, beginning from 1872, dispatched diplomatic missions and personnels to Cuba and South America for investigating the Chinese slavery, marking an important step in exercising protection of overseas citizens who suffered under the European colonial yokes.
The British, Amoy & the Human Trafficking
The British, which stationed warships near Gulangyu of Amoy for protecting its interests extracted from the 1842 Nanking Treaty, engaged in human trafficking no less notorious than the African slave trade. Departing from Amoy would be: a French shipment of Chinese coolies to Liu-ni-wang Island in 1845 and a Spanish shipment of 800 Chinese coolies to Cuba in 1847. At Amoy, 5 British firms and 1 German firm, often with governmental consuls acting as company executives, had sold 8,281 coolies from 1847 to 1853, and as much as 50,000 could have been abducted each year from the port of Amoy.
In 1847, the British governor claimed that British revenues from Amoy was 72,000 pounds, about 3 times the combined value from all other ports, a manifestation of profiteering from the slave trade in trafficking Chinese coolie to British Guana, Trinidad and Jamaica. Peru passed its law for importing Chinese coolie in Nov 1849, and Australia imported 2,666 Chinese coolies from 1848 to 1852. French-controlled islands and Spanish-controlled Philipines all imported Chinese coolie from Amoy. Peru, the Pacific Islands, the West Indies, the North Africa countries, South Africa, and Australia had all engaged in Chinese coolie slave trade. Chinese coolies built the Panama Railway.
America was no exception. Per Ah Ying, Chinese were first "shanghai'ed" to California in 1847 in the aftermath of the American annexation of the Mexican provinces. The second wave of coolies came in 1865 when the U.S. constructed continental railways and highways. Chinese coolies built the US railroads and highways across western US territories, with names of 'China Basin' and 'China Camp' dotted throughout the American West. (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/cubhtml/cicTitles12.html contained a dossier of files on "The Chinese in California, 1850-1925". The "Chinese Exclusion Act" was based on a 1879 California state law which discriminated against the Chinese as scapegoats for the 1877 economic recession. The Peking Treaty of 1880 buried inside such clauses as allowing the US government take measures against Chinese coolies. See cprr.org/Museum/Fusang.html for the Chinese Railroad Men working as coolies in America under White men's ferocious racial discrimination. In California, Chinese coolies dug the canal, built the dykes, and turned 400,000 acres of Sacramento marsh land into the agricultural land. Also see SAN LUIS OBISPO'S CHINESE for the context of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. The U.S. government, after acquiring Hawaii in the summer of 1898 and Philippines in Dec 1898, applied the "Chinese Exclusion Act" to the Chinese on the two islands, and further, President Theodore Roosevelt signed into law to have the "Chinese Exclusion Act" applied throughout US-controlled islands and territories over the world, making the Chinese the lowest caste, a fundamental cause in the Chinese suffering in ethnic cleansing which occurred in the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia etc. There had occurred an anti-American boycott in 1905 in reaction to the racially discriminating U.S. policies toward Chinese coolie workers inside the United States. Leftist writer Ah Ying pointed out that the anti-American boycott originated from China's opposition to 1904 American attempt at renewing the 1880 Peking Treaty, by citation of which the US had expanded excluding-Chinese constraints to as many as 61 clauses. In 1943, CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT was repealed by the American Congress, with China awarded a yearly immigration quota of 102 persons.)
Rioting in Amoy first began in 1847 against the British and by Nov 24th, British marines shot dead 10-12 Chinese. Yen Ching-hwang stated that Macau would take the place of Amoy beginning from Nov 1852 when riots broke out as a result of Chinese attacking a British smuggler for protecting a henchman. British and American merchants then turned to Shantou for trafficking coolie. In 1855, angry Chinese took custody of an American captain for his trafficking activity. As a result of British authority's desire for maintaining a good face in HK, smugglers flocked to Macau instead.
Portuguese & Macau
Portuguese did not get their greedy ambition realized till after Manchu China lost the 1839-1842 Sino-British Opium War.
In AD 1514, i.e., 9th Year of Ming Emperor Wuzong's Zhengde Era, the first Portuguese ship arrived at Guangdong Prov coastline. More ships came to China thereafter. In AD 1517, Fernas Peresd Andrade and Thomas Pirez led eight warships to the Pearl River Mouth. Two ships sailed along the river to Canton where the two guys requested for a meeting with Ming Dynasty's governor-general in the name of Falangji [Fulangji] Statelet. Local officials, unable to find the name of 'Fulangji' in the list of alien statelets, requested with the emperor for disposal of Portuguese 'tributes'. An Arab who worked for the Portuguese as an interpreter would bribe Ming official Wu Tingju for approval to go to Peking. Ming Dynasty ordered that Fernas Peresd Andrade return to Malacca while Thomas Pirez, i.e., Portuguese emissary, was retained in Canton for three years. Ming Emperor Wuzong (Zhu Houzhao, r. 1506-1521) made a southern tour. The same Arab bribed an eunuch by the name of Jiang Bin to have Thomas Pirez meet with the emperor. Thomas Pirez was said to have taught Emperor Wuzong the language of Portuguese. In AD 1518, Fernas Peresd Andrade's brother, Simao Addrade, led 4 ships to the river mouth where he erected fences, built houses, set up barracks, and lay a stone monument. Records from Xin'an-xian County stated that the Portuguese encircled the land of Dunmen, manufactured weapons, occupied islands, robbed ships, and killed Chinese. Some descriptions claimed that Portuguese, being cannibals, even ate little children for food.
In AD 1520, Ming Dynasty verified that Fulangji (i.e., Portugal) had incorporated the land of Malacca that was considered a Ming vassal. Two Ming yu shi (censor) officials, Qiu Daorong and He Ao, submitted proposal for expelling the Portuguese from the coast for Portuguese's bombarding Canton in prior year and disturbing markets of Canton. By 1521, Emperor Shizong (Zhu Houcong, r 1522-1566) issued the decree of expulsion right after enthronement. The Arabic interpreter was executed, while Thomas Pirez was driven to Guangdong coast from Peking. Thomas Pirez later died in prison in Guangdong Prov. Simao Addrade slipped away. Meantime, Portugal Governor for Malacca dispatched Diego Calvo to Canton with shiploads of sandalwood and pepper. However, Ming official Wang Hong led an attack at Diego Calvo. Calvo fled during a night. Portuguese then sent a fleet of 5 ships and 1000 men for another landing at Dunmen, and moreover built garrisons on Dayushan Island. Hence, the Sino-Portuguese War of 1521-1522 broke out.
During Sino-Portuguese War, Wang Hong took advantage of Portuguese ships' difficulty in manoeuvring the change of direction and attacked the Portuguese with fire materials fully loaded in small Chinese ships. Records from Ming Emperor Shizong's Factual Chronicles, per scholars Yuan Bangjian and Yuan Guixiu, stated that Ke Rong (Ming general against Japanese pirates), Wang Yingsi (hundred houselhold official), and Pan-ding (a so-called 'culvitated or converted person of alien origin) climbed up two Portuguese ships, killed about 35 Portuguese, captured 43 Portuguese alive, caught about 10 men and women (non-military?), and caused numerous others fall off the ships and get drowned in the seas. Some confusion as to the punctuation of the wording: Ming Emperor Shizong's Factual Chronicles stated that 3 other Portuguese ships came to the relief; ? burnt the two ships caught earlier; Wang Yingsi sacrificed his life; and the Portuguese fled.
In AD 1522, Ming China re-asserted the old policy of 'sea ban', decreeing 1) that the ports of Quanzhou of Fujian and Ningbo of Zhejiang be closed down, 2) that only Canton port be allowed to operate, 3) that foreign merchants must present the proof of their government's submission of tribute before they could trade, 4) that foreign merchants of each country could only sail to China at pre-designated interval of years, on one ship, with maximum personnel capped at 100. Inside of Ming Dynasty appeared two factions, the con and pro as to 'sea ban' (with variant forms like 'seafarring ban' for the Chinese as well as 'iron export ban' for the Chinese merchants). By AD 1535, Ming court loosened the ban, with a coastal official by the name of Huang Qing taking bribes from foreigners and moving the 'trading & ships governing office' to Haojingao (i.e., Macao) from Dianbai-xian county. Ming China's "trading & ships governing office" was originally located at Canton, moved to Dianbai county during Zhengde Era, and finally relocated to Macao by Huang Qing in 1535. Historians speculated that among Huang Qing's annual surrrender of 20,000 units of gold as taxes could be Portuguese bribery.
After the defeat in Pearl River Mouth, the Portuguese sailed towards Fujian-Zhejiang coasts and colluded with Japanese pirates in engaging in "simoultaneous commerce and piracy", killing coastal Chinese near Zhuangzhou of Fujian and Ningbo of Zhejiang. From 1547 to 1549, Ming Governor Zhu Wan, also the imperial commissioner for coastal defence of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces, launched three attacks at the Portuguese, wiping out Portuguese strongholds at Shuangyu (Ningbo, Zhejiang), and killed and captured over 239 Portuguese at Wuyu (Zhuangzhou, Fujian) and Zoumaxi (Shaoan, Fujian). Portuguese records stated that as many as 800 Portuguese might have died and 37 ships burnt during the war with Governor Zhu Wan for Zhejiang Prov.
Portuguese, who were driven off from Zhejiang and Fujian coasts, had returned to Guangdong coastline. They bribed local officials for rights to trading, and dwelled on an island called Langbaiao as temporary residency. In AD 1553, Portuguese, claiming that their merchandise was wet due to a storm, requested with Deputy Coastal Magistrate Wang Bo for landing at Macao to dry their goods. (Deputy Coastal Magistrate had 1000 soldiers under him.) Once they landed, they refused to leave, and moreover built houses and castles. Yuan Jianbang and Yuan Guixiu, in their book Brief History of Macao (Zhongliu Publishing House, HK, 1988 edition), cited Huang Wenkuan's research that Portuguese had bribed Wang Bo by means of a secret treaty, with clauses such as i) surrendering 1000 taels of silver to Wang Bo per year, and ii) changing the name to Pu-tao-li-a (Portugal) from Fo-lang-ji (Falangji), and etc. By 1557, Portuguese built permanent houses in Macao. Though, Portuguese did not get to trade in lands. In AD 1563, Macau possessed 4100 Chinese, 900 Portuguese and Malaysian/Blacks. Ming Court did not check out the fake name of Portugal till AD 1565, by which time Ming court once again declined Portugal's "tributes". In Macau, Portuguese men first interbred with women they brought over from Africa, India and Malaysia, and then found the supply of Chinese women.
By 1582, Ming China signed an official treaty with Portugal in regards to lease of Macao, stipulating that Portuguese surrender 500 taels of silver to Xiangshan County per year. (Portuguese additionally might have surrendered 20,000 taels of silver in taxation.) Some officials inside Ming China still objected to Portugal's leasing Macao, especially after the Portuguese built a church on Qingzhoushan Mountain across the waters in 1606. In 1608, Xiangshan County magistrate Cai Shanji stipulated ten rules for managing Macao. In AD 1613, Guo Shangbin rebuked Portuguese in front of the emperor. Xiangshan County magistrate Zhang Dayou petitioned for destructing the church. Later in 1621, official Feng Conglong dispatched people for destroying the church with no resistanace from Portuguese. In AD 1618, Coastal Magistrate Yu Anxing stipulated 5 rules for managing Portuguese under the system of 'bao jia' (i.e., collective household supervision and punishment), and inscribed the rules on stone monument. By AD 1621, Macau population reached 25,000. By AD 1640, 40,000, among whom Chinese numbered 20,000 and Portuguese numbered 6000. In AD 1623, Portuguese, on the pretext of defending against the Dutch, built a highrise city wall with batteries on it, with a perimeter extending 1380 'zhang' (equiv to 10 Chinese feet). Though Deputy Coastal Magistrate Xu Ruke destroyed the wall in AD 1624-1625, the remaining base had become a dividing line between Macao and Xiangshan County, till AD 1849. During the first half of 19th century, Portuguese traded heavily with Japan as well as interbred with Japanese women. When Japan persecuted Catholics, they kicked out Japanese women who lived with Portuguese men. Batches of Japanese women as well as Japanese catholics fled to asylum in Macau. Portuguese found supply of Chinese women again when Manchu took over control of China and drove lots of refugees into Macau.
Manchu China at first adopted the "beachland clearance" policy, forcing Chinese off the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian and Zhejiang for sake of cutting off Zheng Chenggong's anti-Manchu forces. Portuguese, together with Chinese, were relocated away from Macau and Qianshan. In AD 1668, Manchu Qing Emperor Kangxi decreed that Portuguese could retain Macau as their dwelling place. Emperor Kangxi did not revoke the "sea ban" till AD 1684, and coastal people returned to their home villages by then. Emperor Kangxi, in AD 1685, opened four coastal cities for international trade, which included Macau, Zhuangzhou, Ningbo and Yuntaishan. The locally-born mingle Portugese, who possessed relatively less right and prestige versus Lisbon-dispatched Portuguese, at one time joined the 1688-1704 Timor War, which caused a big population drop due to war-related death.
Manchu China inherited the old management system. Guangzhou, i.e., Canton, was where the customs office was. Hence, foreigners must go to Canton to transact business and then return to Macau for the night stay. Macau became merely a residential quarter for the Chinese merchants and Portuguese who worked in Guangzhou. In AD 1725, Manchu prohibited non-Portuguese foreigners from dwelling in Macau. In AD 1731, Xiangshan County established panels for managing Macao and moved the office to Qianshanzhai. In 1743, Xiangshan County moved the office to Wangxiachun, next to Macao. In this year, Portuguese had killed some Chinese merchant. In 1748, Portuguese had killed some Chinese again. Portuguese culprits were punished by the Chinese party. 12 new rules were made and inscribed on the stone by magistrate Zhang Rulin. In AD 1743, Macau population recovered to 5,500, among whom 3,500 were Portuguese. In AD 1746, Portuguese King issued a decree that non-Portuguese westerners could not stay or do businesss in Macau, causing those westerners relocate to Canton. Xiangshan county magistrate reported this event to provincial official, and Manchu court notofied Macau authority that those westerners who received Manchu approval could dwell in Macau.
Scholar Yan Qinghuang [Yen Ching-hwang] of HK University stated that among Macau's population of 4049 in AD 1810, White men counted 1172 while White women counted 1846. By AD 1830, Macau possessed 4,049 Portuguese (White men 1202 and White women 2149) and 30,000 Chinese. Yen Ching-hwang concluded that the abnormally high number of White women in Macau exemplified the fact of prostitution in Macau. Macau already became a spot of crime syndicates with prostitution, human trafficking, opium, and etc. Macau was to replace Amoy as the next launching pad for trafficking Chinese coolie.
Yen Ching-hwang had authored a book entitled Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials and pointed out that British Opium War of 1839-1842 had coincided with the properity of slave-nature trafficking of Chinese coolies overseas, a trade that was first started by the Dutch in 17th century. Yen Ching-hwang stated that Xiamen (Amoy), a port which had replaced historical Quanzhou, would become the first port to see Chinese coolie sold overseas. (Departing from Amoy would be: French shipment of Chinese coolie to Liu-ni-wang Island in 1845 and Spanish shipment of 800 Chinese coolie to Cuba in 1847. At Amoy, 5 British firms and 1 German firm, often with governmental consuls acting as company executives, had sold 8281 coolie from 1847 to 1853, and as much as 50000 could have been abducted each year from the port of Amoy. In 1847, British governor claimed that British revenues from Amoy was 72,000 pounds, about 3 times the combined value from all other ports, a manifestation of slave trade in trafficking Chinese coolie to British Guana, Trinidad and Jamaica. Peru passed its law for importing Chinese coolie in Nov 1849, and Australia imported 2666 Chinese coolie from 1848 to 1852. French controlled islands and Spanish-controlled Philipines all imported Chinese coolie from Amoy. Rioting in Amoy first began in 1847 against the British and by Nov 24th, British marines shot dead 10-12 Chinese. British stationed warships near Gulangyu for protecting its interests extracted from the 1842 Nanking Treaty.) Yen Ching-hwang stated that Macau would take the place of Amoy beginning from Nov 1852 when riots broke out as a result of Chinese attacking a British smuggler for protecting a henchman. British and American merchants then turned to Shantou for trafficking coolie. In 1855, angry Chinese took custody of an American captain for his trafficking activity. As a result of British authority's desire for maintaining a good face in HK, smugglers flocked to Macau instead.
More, Portuguese specialized in selling Chinese women and Chinese girls overseas as sex slaves throughout the latter half of 19th century. (One Jesuit's 1563 account stated that he had taught Christianity to two batches of 450 and 200 Chinese women slaves before they were sold to Portuguese merchants and officials in Goa as sex slaves; Archbishop at Goa, Dom Ignacis De Sama Terez, stated in 1725 that Chinese women slaves were often cruelly killed by the wives of Portuguese merchants and officials; and in 1855, a British ship, Englewood, carried over 40 Chinese girls around age 7-8 [abducted from Ningbo area] for transfer to a Portuguese called Martinez in Amoy port. Note that White males have a sick & clanstine opinion even today: Chinese women are good for sex ! (The prosperity of sex slave trafficking could perhaps been vindicated by the huge population of Chinese-looking Indians in Goa of India. One would have to pity the men and women of Chinese, both ancestral and posterior, whom the creator Jewish & Christian God had decided to deliberately left out as the "non-chosen".)
Portuguese did not get their greedy ambition realized till after Manchu China lost the 1839-1842 Sino-British Opium War. In AD 1839, imperial commissioner Lin Zexu toured Macau for banning opium trading and made a census check which showed that Macau had 727 households or 5612 Portuguese as well as 1772 households or 7033 Chinese. After China lost the Opium War, Macau became a lawless portal for illegal human & drug trafficking. In AD 1846, newcomer Portuguese Governor F de Amarabl began to encroach on Chinese territories. Beginning from 1849, Portugal no longer paid China rent for Macau. From 1847 to 1875, 99,149 out of 150,000 Chinese coolies sold to Cuba departed from Macau. Human trafficking firms increased to 300 in AD 1872 from 5 in 1856. Yen Ching-hwang estimated that about 15000 to 20000 coolie were sold overseas each year from 1856 to 1964, till the trade was banned in 1874. In Macau, Portuguese specialized in selling Chinese women and Chinese girls.
Zheng Guanying (1842-1922), a reformist, once blasted over 200 coolie trafficking firms of Macau, accusing Portuguese government of making one dollar for tax and giving two dollars for bribery with each Chinese coolie abducted and sold overseas. Zheng Guanying pointed out that numerous coolie had died of illness and bad treatment and that some coolie had deliberately burned the ship in the attempt of dying with the ship rather than be sold to remote lands. Zheng Guanying authored 14 volumes of admonition book entitled Sheng Shi Wei Yan (i.e., precarious talks in a prosperous world), in which he advocated parliament, military apparatus and industry-commerce development for China.
Later in the century, both British in HK and Manchu government interfered in Macau's coolie trafficking. Though coolie trading stopped, Macau population remained at about 70,000 to 80,000 by 1920. In AD 1887, Portuguese obtained the right of permanent residency in Macau from Manchu government. Macau did not get to return to China till Dec 20th 1999.
The 1924 Canton Foreign Merchant Corps Rebellion would lead to an influx of people to Macau to as much as 200,000. When Canton and HK were sacked by Japanese in 1939 and 1941 consecutively, Macau population reached 400,000. Further details would be seen at macau.htm
TO BE CONTINUED !
Written by Ah Xiang
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