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*** Related Readings ***:
The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
The Legend of Mark Gayn
The Reality of Red Subversion: The Recent Confirmation of Soviet Espionage in America
Notes on Owen Lattimore
Lauchlin Currie / Biography
Nathan Silvermaster Group of 28 American communists in 6 Federal agencies
Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
Japanese Ichigo Campaign & Stilwell Incident
Lend-Lease; Yalta Betrayal: At China's Expense
Acheson 2 Billion Crap; Cover-up Of Birch Murder
Marshall's Dupe Mission To China, & Arms Embargo
Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
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Founding Of 'Da Jin' (Grand Gold Dynasty)
Eight Banner System
Twenty Five Years Of War Against China
The Battle Of Mountain & Sea Pass
Entering China Proper
Infamous Queue-Related Slaughters
Solidifying Rule Over China
Qing Emperor Shunzhi (Qing Shizu, Aixinjueluo Fu-lin, r. 1644-1661):
Qing Emperor Kangxi (Qing Shengzu, Aixinjueluo Xuan-ye, r. 1662-1722):
1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk & Pereira Thomas
Recovering Taiwan:
Qing Emperor Yongzheng (Qing Shizong, Aixinjueluo Yin-zhen, r. 1723-1735):
Qing Emperor Qianlong (Qing Gaozong, Aixinjueluo Hong-li, r. 1736-1795):
Qing Emperor Jiaqing (Qing Renzong, Aixinjueluo Yong-yan, r. 1796-1820):
The Opium War (1839-1842)
"Wangxia Treaty" [US] & Whampoa Treaty [France]
Second Opium Wars (1856–60) & Arson of Summer Palace
Taiping (Grand Peace) Heavenly Kingdom Rebellion
Foreign Enterprises Movement (Self-Strengthening)
the Manchu Military System: Brave-Camp Army & New Army
Russian Encroachments [1847-1900]
1876 Anglo-Chinese Yantai Treaty
1884-1885 Franco-Chinese War
Imperialist Encroachments On Korea
1894 Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War Over Manchuria
Rise of Yuan Shi-kai
Start Of Water-Melon Partitioning
Hundred Day Reformation
The Boxers & Invasion of Eight Allied Nations
Rise of Yuan Shi-kai (Continued)
Assasinations & Uprisings
'Retaining Railroad' Movement
Wuchang Uprising & Xin Hai Revolution
[ this page: the Manchu.htm ] [ next page: qing.htm ]

the Manchus were both a blessing and a disaster for China. The blessing would be its early territorial expansion which somehow prepared China proper for buffering the Czarist eastward expansion that would inevitably come in the last couple hundreds of years. The disaster would be its policy of 'closing off the seashore' for segregation of Ming remnants in Taiwan and Southeast Asia from the mainland Chinese. (the Manchu's territorial gain was at the expense of China's population drop from 51.66 million people in 1620 to 10.63 million people in 1651, a tragic loss from the Manchu invasion, which also exhibited the fact that China was not a country that could be easily conquered and that China's brave men were always willing to fall martyrdom in the resistance to the foreign invasion.)
Li Ao, a critic of the K.M.T. party on Taiwan, echoed Li Hongzhang's comments that the Manchu China's confrontation with 'red-hair devils' (i.e., British) was an extraordinary event not foreseen by China for 3000 years and that Britain, with its military might and fire-power, was an enemy China could not match during the course of past 1000 years. Wrong ! The cousins of 'red-hair devils', i.e., the Dutch, had arrived at Java in A.D. 1595 and the Chinese coast in A.D. 1602. From A.D. 1603 to 1624, Ming China exerted hundreds of ships and thousands of soldiers to repelling the Dutch from the Chinese coasts and the Pescadores Islands. Oftentimes, numerous small Ming ships encircled big Dutch warships for sake of winning the fight. Ming China mobilized a huge field army for landing on the Penghu Islands (i.e., Pescadores) and after a fierce fighting, forced the Dutch into withdrawal. Dozens of years later, Zheng Chenggong, son of pirate-turned Ming General Zheng Zhilong, would first adopt the approach of "defeating the aliens by means of the aliens' weapons". Zheng Chenggong, whose merchant fleets had sailed to the four corners of the seas, actively purchased weapons, firearms and cannons from the Dutch. In February of A.D. 1662, Zheng Chenggong successfully expelled from Taiwan Island the Dutch who, having colonized the island from 1624 to 1662, already latinized the aboriginals' language to the extent that the aboriginals no longer remembered their own native language. Before the Dutch, Ming China waged two wars against Portuguese during time periods of 1521-1522 and 1547-1549 for securing the territorial integrity.
the Manchu Qing China, in the ensuing hundreds of years, had been mostly occupied with "pleasure-seeking (hedonism) and literature-decoration" (inquisitions), a 1916 comment by Japanese Prime Minister Okuma Shigenobu in regards to Yuan Shi-kai's death and its influence on the rise and fall of the Republic Of China. (The worst thing is that today's decadent Communist China is not any better than the Manchu rulers. Note that "1957 Anti-Rightists Movement" had doomed China's fate for 20 years after finishing off China's half-century worth of elites and conscience, and June 4th, 1989 Massacre had routed China's elites & conscience once again and doomed China since 1989. China, in addition to losing to the Europeans and the Japanese tons of gold, silver & wealth that were accumulated over the span of 5000 years, would lose almost one century worth of good souls for nothing. Red alerts !!!)

Founding Of 'Great Jin Dynasty' (The Gold Dynasty)
The later Manchus could be just a kinsmen tribe of the original Jurchens, and at most descendants of the Jurchens who remained in the homeland throughout the Jurchen expansion in northern China during the period of 1115-1234 A.D. Similar to the legends about the Jurchen founders, the ancestor of the Manchu founders, Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, had wandered into a village where he was taken in as a distinguished guest and given a woman for marriage. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun was said to have been born after his mother swallowed a red fruit dropped by a sparrow. Bu-ku-li grew up under the foot of Changbaishan Mountain. When he asked who his father was, his mother told him the 'red fruit' story and gave him the last name of 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' which was translated into Chinese as the 'jin' or gold for Ai-xin and 'surname' for Jue-luo. Bu-ku-li-yong-shun, similar to the Jurchen founders, would somehow pacify the multiple-generation fightings between this village where he took as home and two other neighboring villages. He was supported by all three villages as chieftan, called 'bei-le'. Hence the 'Ai-xin-jue-luo' tribe came into existence.
Bu-ku-li-yong-shun descendants would relocate to a place called He-tu-a-la (i.e., later Xingjing). Jue-chang-an, the grandfather of later Manchu founder Nurhachi or Nurhachu (1559-1626), would gradually grow in strength. A Ming Dynasty general (Li Chengliang) at Liaoxi, in order to suppress the Jurchen growth, attacked the grandson-in-law of Jue-chang-an. Jue-chang-an and his son died as a result of conspiracy between the Huron Chieftan Ni-kan-wai-lan and Ming Dynasty General Li Chengliang. Nurhachi and his brother were among the Manchus captured by the Ming army. Nurhachi, for his extraordinary outlook, was set free by the wife of Li Chengliang per "Qing Shi Gao". "Qing Shi Gao" stated that Nurhachi acquired his stength after winning over the support from chieftans of the Saerhu fort, the Jiamuhu city and the Zhanhe city in A.D. 1583. Nurhachi, around the age of 25 at that time, would attack Huron Chieftan Ni-kan-wai-lan to avenge the death of his father/grandfather. Ni-kan-wai-lan fled to the Ming territories, and Nurhachi wrote a letter to the Ming court asking for handover of Ni-kan-wai-lan. The Ming court, however, only condoled Nurhachi with 30 horses, two coffins, the post of 'dudu' (i.e., governor-general) of Jianzhou-wei, and the title of General 'long-hu' (dragon and tiger). Nurhachi hence set up four banners of armies, and trained his soldiers. The original four banners were of yellow, red, white and black, and later blue replaced the color of black. (http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/7/2/67823.html pointed out that banner system was first set up in A.D. 1601.) Nurhachi attacked the Ming border castle to have Ni-kan-wai-lan captured and executed.
By the late Ming dynasty, three Jurchen tribes were known, Jianzhou or Chien-chou (Jianzhou Prefecture), Haixi or Hai-hsi (east of the sea or the Huron Lake), & Yeren or Yeh-jen (the uncivilized people). The territories in the Huron Lake area was named Haixi-wei [West-of-lake Garrison] by Ming Dynasty, and the Ye-he tribe was the biggest of the four sub-tribes in that area. Nurhachi united various tribes of Manchuria, pacified the neighboring Mongol tribes, and expanded their territory. Nurhachi first defeated the Ye-he Statelet at the Huron Lake. Ye-he married over a woman to Narhaci, and Huangtaiji was born by this Ye-he woman. The Ye-he tribe chieftan, considered a vassal of Ming Dynasty, was jealous of Nurhachi's expansion, and he called upon an army of 30,000, including some Mongols, for an attack on Nurhachi. "Qing Shi Gao" stated that Ye-he assembled three Huron tribes of Qula, Hada and Huifa, three Mongol tribes of Ke'erxin, Xibo and Gua'ercha, and three Changbai [Mt Forever White] tribes of Ne'yin and Zhusheli. Nurhachi thoroughly defeated the Ye-he tribe. The Ye-he tribe promised to send in their daughter for inter-marriage with Nurhachi, but the Ye-he tribe then decided to marry the princess to the Mongols. (The Ye-he family would later produce the Empress Dowger Cixi.) More Mongol tribes came to submit, including Ke'erxin and Khalka. Huangtaiji went to Mongolia to have an engagement with a Mongol princess of the Ke'erxin tribe.
By A.D. 1616, Nurhachi would proclaim the founding of 'Da Jin', namely, the Grand Gold Dynasty, at a place called Xingjing. Nurhachu declared the era of Tian Ming, i.e., the mandate of heaven. Huangtaiji, the eighth son, was conferred the title of No. 4 Beila, i.e., the fourth prince. The eldest son, Zhu-ying, was ordered to commit suicide for his intention to subjugate his brothers two years before.
The Eight Banner System
In addition to four princes, five ministers were instituted. In Aug of A.D. 1616, the Manchu armies went across the Heilongjiang [Amur] River and took over 11 castles. In A.D. 1617, Prince Ming'an of Mongol tribe Ke'erxin came to pay respect. The Manchus campaigned against islands in the sea (Huron Lake?, or ? Sakhalin Island in the Japan Sea) in this year.
Aside from the original four banners of yellow, red, blue and white, comprising of 7500 soldiers each banner, Nurhachi set up four extra 'embedded banners' of yellow, red, blue and white [in A.D. 1615 per http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/7/2/67823.html]. The so-called 'Eight Banner' system was used for organizing the armies into eight columns at times of war but released to agrcultural production at times of peace. Later, the Manchu under Huangtaiji set up eight Mongol and eight Chinese banners, respectively, on basis of the ethnic composition.
The original four banners were assigned as the left wing, and the embedded four banners were assigned as the right wing. In addition to the Manchu Eight Banners, some Mongol and Han ethnic eight banners were set up, and the total head-count reached 280,000. After the unification of China, the original four banners, about 100000 soldiers, were named 'Jin Qi' or the Forbidden Banners, which were deployed around the capital. The remaining 24 banners were assigned to some eight major provincial garrisons around the nation as the Stationed Banners. Nationwide passes, cities around the capital and Manchuria were staffed with another 25 garrisons. All banner officers and soldiers were hereditary.
The Manchu, after entering Peking, set up a Green-Camp Standard Battalion of about 500,000 comprising of the turncoat Ming armies. It was under the command of"bing bu" or the ministry of army. The Green-Camp was named after the color of its banner and it was ethnic Chinese. The Green-Camp was sub-divided into two parts, the 'Green-Camp At-The-Capital' guarding the capital and the Canal, and the 'Green-Camp At-The-Province'. By the time of eruption of the Taiping Rebellion, both the Banner and the Green Camp armies had rotten so much that they could not put up a fight.
Twenty Five Years Of War Against Ming China
Southern Manchuria, today's Liaoning Province, was historically the Ming Chinese territories. Since Qin Dynasty, the Chinese had fled to Manchuria for asylum. History repeatedly speculated that ancestors of the Khitans could be those coolies who fled the order of Qin Emperor Shihuangdi to build the Great Wall. Though, this speculation could be wrong in attributing the shaved heads of the barbarians to the Qin China's penalizing code of shaving the hair of the convicts - as the recent DNA analysis had proven that the barbarians of northern Mancuria belonged to the C-haplogroup people who arrived in Northeastern Asia 40 to 50 thousand years ago. Per Li Zhiting, the area from Shanhaiguan [the Mountain & Sea Pass] to Kaiyuan-Tieling had been fortified by a castle every 30 li distance. On the mountains, the beacon towers were built at a distance of every five Chinese li distance. Liao-dong, i.e., the area to the east of Liao-he River, was especially important for strategic defence as a result of its leveled span of land that linked to the Mongols to the west and northwest, the Jurchens to the east and northeast, and the Koreans to the east and southeast.
In A.D. 1618, Nurhachi, after making an oath of 'Seven Hatreds for the Ming Dynasty' (i.e., the Seven Grievances), would lead an army of 20,000 against the Ming border towns, including the city of Fushun. The leftside 4 banners were to attack Dongzhou and Magengdan, while the rightside 4 banners to attack Fushun. What happened here would be what some historians claimed to be a setup by Li Chengliang who, acting as the most powerful border general in Manchuria, deliberately abanoned the dozens of Ming forts in southern and eastern Manchuria to appease Nu'erhachi with whom Li Chengliang was said to have maintained trade relations for years. With the Manchus taking over the territory of southern and eastern Manchuria from Li Chengliang's treacherous action, the rise of the Manchus became a fact accompli.
Before arriving in Fushun, a Chinese intellectual, by the name of Fan Wencheng, came to Nurhachi's camp to serve as a counsellor. Nurhachi asked Fan whether Song Dynasty's prime minister Fan Zhongyan was his ancestor, and Fan replied 'yes'. (What an unfilial son Fan Wencheng was! Unfortunately, China was always not lacking opportunists and traitors: When a forest is growing bigger, you would expect different variety of birds to dwell inside !) Fan Wencheng wrote a letter to Li Yongfang (a Ming "you ji" [i.e., mobile fighter] general at Fushun), and somehow persuaded him into a surrender. (Li Yongfang later became a Manchu China founding general and his family enjoyed glory and wealth for hundreds of years to come.) Nurhachi then defeated Ming relief armies for Fushun and killed three generals. The Manchus killed Zhang Chengyin, a Ming "zong bing" [sub-prefecture military magistrate] general. In July, the Manchus took over the Yahuguan Pass and killed Ming General Zou Chuxian. When the news of defeat arrived at the Ming court, Ming Emperor Shenzong sent someone called Yang Hao to counter the Nurhachi Manchus.
The Battles Of Sa'erhu
In A.D. 1619, the Manchus attacked Ye-he and took over more than 20 castles. The Manchus retreated when they heard that Yang Hao had led the Ming army to the aid of the Ye-he tribe. Yang Hao, who had previously lost a battle to the Japanese Hideyoshi invaders in Korea, would lose the Battle of Saerhu.
Though Yang Hao mobilized an army of 200,000, including 20,000 Koreans and 20,000 Ye-he tribesmen, Nurchaci used the smart tactics and defeated the Ming armies one by one within a matter of one month. In March, the Manchus decided to attack the southern Ming contingent first. In the east, Ming General Du Song, departing Fushun, divided his forces between Sa'erhu and Jilin-ya (Jilin cliff). Under the Manchu attacks, Du Song and his deputies were all killed. In the west, the Manchus defeated the Ming army at Mt. Shaoqinshan. In the northwest, Ming General Ma Lin was defeated, and the Ye-he allies fled the scene. In the south, elder Manchu prince Daishan ordered that his soldiers, wearing Du Song's Ming army uniforms, mix up with Ming General Zhao Ting's 10,000 cavalry. The Manchus killed Zhao Ting during turmoil. Ming "jian jun" (supervisor, i.e., usually an eunuch) surrendered with his Korean allies after the flare of firearms backfired on the Ming camp. Hearing of the defeats, Yang Hao ordered that Ming's north column retreat. At Hulan, the Manchus ambushed the Ming Army's north column headed by Li Rubo. Korean General Jiang Hongli was released by the Manchu for sake of pacifying the Koreans. Yang Hao was arrested and demoted by Ming Emperor Shenzong (Zhu Yijun, reign A.D. 1573-1620), and "bingbu shilang" [supervisor of military ministry] Xiong Tingbi was conferred the post of "jing lüe" [i.e., managing governor] for Manchuria.
In April, the Manchus attacked Tieling. In May, the Korean king sent emissary to express gratitude to the Manchus for sparing the Koreans. In June, the Manchus attacked Kaiyuan and killed Ming General Ma Lin. In July, Ming "qian zong" (i.e., general in charge of 1000 soldiers) Wang Yiping surrendered to the Manchus, and Tieling was taken. The Mongol Tribe Khalka came to the aid of Ye-he, and the Manchus defeated the Mongols and chased Khalka "beile" [prince] Lejiesai to the Liao-he River. In August, two Ye-he forts were taken over and the Ye-he tribe was exterminated by the Manchus. In Oct, Khan Lindan of the Chaha'er Mongols sent a letter to the Manchus in a challenging tone, claiming an army of 300,000-400,000 Mongols. Five Khlaka tribes sent a emissary to the Manchus for an allied attack at Ming.
In A.D. 1620, the Manchus rebuked Khan Lindan of the Chaha'er Mongols. The Chaha'er Mongols killed the Manchu emissary, and the Manchus killed the Chaha'er emissary in retaliation. In Aug, the Manchus attacked today's Shenyang. In Oct, the Manchus relocated the capital to Saerhu from Jiefan. Ming Emperor Shenzong died in this year.
Loss Of the Two Banks of the Liao River
Before Xiong Tingbi left the Shanhaiguan Pass, Shenyang was under the Manchu siege. Xiong Tingbi fortified the Liaoyang city and distributed 180,000 soldiers around various forts. Nurchaci, unable to take over Shenyang, retreated northward to conquer the Yehe tribe. The new Yehe chieftan, before being executed by the Manchus, sworn that should Yehe have one descendant left, the Yehe people would avenge themselves by capsizing the Nurchaci tribe, and it turned out to be Dowager Express Cixi (i.e., Yehe-nala-shi) who led the Manchu Qing dynasty to its final demise in 1911.
Xiong Tingbi stayed in eastern Liaoning Prov for 3 years before he resigned under impeachment of an official of the new Ming Emperor Xizong (Zhu Youxiao, reign A.D. 1621-1627). Ming Emperor Guangzong, Zhu Youxiao, had a reign of only one year, A.D. 1260-1261. A civil official, Yuan Yingtai, who obtained "jin shi" (imperial scorer in civil services exam, after top 3 titles of 'zhuang yuan', 'bang yan' and tan hua'), was sent to Manchuria. When the Mongols suffered from a hunger disaster and came to Manchuria as refugees, Yuan Yingtai accepted all those Mongols and assigned them to Liaoyang and Shenyang cities. In A.D. 1261, Nurchaci obtained the cooperation of the Mongol refugees as 'trojan horse', sacked the city of Shenyang, and killed "zong bing" (garrison chief) He Shixian. Yuan Yingtai lost a fight outside of Liaoyang. The Manchus released the water of the citywall ditch and sacked Liaoyang, and Yuan Yingtai committed suicide. After that, over fifty forts east of the Liao River all surrendered to the Manchus. Xiong Tingbi was recalled for service by Emperor Xizong. Xiong Tingbi had a dispute with "xuan hu" (pacifier minister or sub-province governor) Wang Huazhen as to defending the city of Guangning or the Liao River. Wang Huazhen circumvented Xiong Tingbi in having Emperor Xizong approve his plan to recover the territories east of the Liao River instead. Wang Huazhen then crossed the river with 140,000 soldiers.
In July, the Zhenjiang city, along today's Yalu River at the Sino-Korean border, killed a Manchu general and surrendered to Ming General Mao Wenlong. In Nov, the Manchus ordered Prince Ah'min to attack Mao Wenlong's army. A Mongol clan from the Khalka tribe surrendered to the Manchus. Xiong Tingbi was recalled as "jing lüe" by Ming Dynasty. In 1621, Wu Xiang, i.e., father of later General Wu San'gui, passed the Ming imperial martial arts exam as "jin shi" and later married a sister of Zu Dashou. Zu Dashou was upgraded to "you ji" (mobile fighting) general under the command of Wang Huazhen. Wang Huazhen was "xun hu" [patrol & pacify, i.e., sub-provincial equivalent governor for Guangning garrison of Liaoning Prov].
After one year, in Jan of A.D. 1622, Wang Huazhen was defeated by the Manchus. Sun Degong, a "you ji" general under Wang Huazhen, surrendered the city of Guangning to the Manchus. All forts around Jinzhou were lost to the Manchus. Wang Huazhen and Xiong Tingbi burnt supplies and accompanied over 100,000 refugees back into the Shanhaiguan (Mountain and See) Pass. From Jinzhou to the Shanhaiguan Pass, about 200 kilometer long strip between sea and mountain was considered Hexi [west of the Liao-he River] Corridor. Zuo Guangdou ('yu shi' [censor or inspector]), teacher of Yangzhou defender Shi Kefa, recommended Sun Chengzong ('da xue shi' [grand scholar]) for the job of fighting the Manchus. (Zuo Guangdou was later imprisoned by the eunuchs.)
Five Khalka Mongol tribes came to submit to the Manchus. Seventeen princes from the Mongol tribe of Er'lute came to submit. In A.D. 1623, the Mongol tribe of Zhalute came to submit to the Manchu, and their crown prince (who served as a hostage with the Manchus) was released. In April, the Manchus attacked the Zhalute Mongol tribe for their killing a Manchu emissary. In A.D. 1624, Khalka requested for relocation to the Manchu territories. In Feb, the Manchus decreed that the Ke'erxin Mongols not to have exchange with the Khalka tribe. In May, Mao Wenlong invaded Huifa. In Aug, the Manchus destroyed Mao Wenlong's farming soldiers at the Yalu-dao Island. In A.D. 1625, the Manchu Prince Mang-gu-er-tai defeated the Ming army at Fushun. In Feb, the Khalka Mongols sent over their daughter to Huangtaiji. In June and Aug, Mao Wenlong continued to attack the Manchu at Yaozhou and Haizhou. In Nov, Huangtaiji went to attack Chaha'er Mongol Khan Lindan. Ming Dynasty conferred Gao Di as "jing lüe".
The Battle of Ningyuan
Sun Chengzong was conferred the post of "bingbu shangshu" [i.e., secretary of military ministry]. Sun Chengzong advocated the fortification of Ningyuan as buffer for the Shanhaiguan Pass. Sun Chengzong employed Zu Dashou & Zhao Shuaijiao as his generals, built various forts around Ningyuan, trained 110,000 soldiers, and tilled 50 acres of military farmland. Four years later, Sun Chengzong was impeached by a Ming eunuch called Wei Zhongxian who had earlier managed to have Xiong Tingbi executed. Yang Di was ordered to replace Sun Chengzong. In A.D. 1625, Yang Di contracted the defence line to the city of Ningyuan which was about half way between the Shanhaiguan Pass and the Jinzhou city.
At this time, Nurhachi moved the capital to Shengjing [today's Shenyang City], and built a grand palace with front, hind, right and left accessory palaces. Hearing of Sun Chengzong's departure, Nurhachi, in Jan of A.D. 1626, personally led an attack at Ningyuan which was guarded by Ming General Yuan Chonghuan [a native of Dongguan of Guangdong Prov]. With the help of the Jesuits, Yuan Chonghuan had built a kind of long-range cannons, named the "Red-hair Alien Cannon" [later changed by the Manchu to the 'Red-Coated Alien Cannon' for avoidance of using the "Yi" designation of barbarians by the Han Chinese]. Yuan Chonghuan employed a soldier from Fujian Province, by the name of Luo Li, who was learned in firing the cannons. Meantime, the Manchus led the Mongol soldiers on an attack of the Juehua-dao Island at the Sino-Korean border.
In April, the Manchus attacked five Khalka Mongol tribes for their betrayal. In May, Mao Wenlong attacked Anshanyi and Saerhu. The Ke'erxin Mongols sent an emissary to the Manchu to express gratitude. In Aug of 1626, Nurhachi (Nuerhachi) died at age 68, after a reign of 11 years. This would be during the 11th year reign of Tianming Era. Nurhachi was said to have died of the wounds he incurred from Yuan Chonghuan's "Red-hair Alien Cannon" at the Battle of Ningyuan (today's Xingcheng, Liaoning Province).
Yuan Chonghuan was conferred the post of "xun hu" (i.e., patrolling and protecting general or sub-provincial governor) of Liaodong, and Wang Zhichen took over the post of "jing lüe". Yuan Chonghuan renewed Sun Chengzong's policies of fortifications and military farming to the west of the Liao River. Two years later, in 1628, Zu Dashou was promoted to "zong bing" general for the A.D. 1626 victory at the Battle of Ningyuan-Jinzhou. Zu Dashou brothers, sons and nephews controlled the major forts and cities like Dalinghe [Jinxi-xian of Liaoning], Jinzhou, and Ningyuan.
The Manchus Sowing Dissension To Have Yuan Chonghuan Removed
Nurhachi's successor, Huangtaiji (1592-1643), the 8th son, would rename the Era to Tiancong from Tianming beginning from the next year. Huangtaiji was called 'Taizong Wenhuangdi' posthumously. (The name Huangtaiji was a combination of Chinese 'huang tai4 zi' and Mongol 'huang tai2 ji', both meaning a crown prince.) Huangtaiji was recorded to have red face and did not exhibit fear of coldness in the severe cold winters. Mongol Tribe Ke'erxin also sent in condolences.
The Han Chinese were treated as slaves by the Manchus. Huangtaiji decreed that the extra Han Chinese be separated from slaves and treated as civilians and that the Han Chinese select their own good men as leaders. Later, eight Han banners were set up, with the Manchus heading them. In Oct of 1626, the Zhalute subtribe of Khalka Mongols betrayed the Manchu alliance for the Ming dynasty. Huangtaiji ordered that elder brother Daishan campaign against them. Yuan Chonghuan sent a lama to condole Nuerhachu's death. 14 Khalka "bei le" sent in emissaries for condolence. Daishan defeated Zhalute Mongols, killed "bei le" Er'erzaitu and captured 14 more Mongol "bei le". Huangtaiji departed Shenyang for meeting Daishan at Tieling. One more Cha'haer tribe came to submit to the Manchus. Huangtaiji instructed Fan Wencheng to write a reply to Yuan Chonghuan. Yuan Chonghuan reprimanded Huangtaiji's emissary for challenging Ming China's suzerainty.
In Dec, Huangtaiji decreed that the Manchus be prohibited from trading iron weapons with the Mongols. Heilongjiang [black dragon river] people came to pay respect to the Manchu.
In Jan of 1627, the first year of Manchu Tiancong Era, Huangtaiji decided to attack the Koreans and the Mongols first. Huangtaiji dispatched Ah'min (2nd "bei le"), "bei le" Ji'erhalang, and Ah'jige etc against Korea. Huangtaiji and Yuan Chonghuan traded more letters. Huangtaiji intended to distract Yuan Chonghuan from the Korean expedition. At the rivermouth of Dongjiang (east river) on the border of China and Korea, Mao Wenlong, a Ming 'zong bing' general, was attacked by the Manchus. The Korean King requested for help with Ming Dynasty in driving the Manchus out of their country. (Korean King Li Chenggui had promised to Ming's first emperor Zhu Yuanzhang to be a Ming vassal forever.) The Manchus invaded Korea after two Koreans, who offended the Korean king, fled to seek asylum with the Manchus and then treacherously acted as guides. Huangtaiji circumvented Mao Wenlong who stationed at the Dongjiang Island, and crossed the Yalu River to attack the Yizhou city of Korea. Huangtaiji earlier faked an attack on the bank of the Liao River for diverting Yuan Chonghuan's attention. The Manchus took over Yizhou, Dingzhou and Anzhou prefectures of Korea. When the Manchus attacked the Korean capital, the Korean King sent over his cousin for peace talks with the Manchus.
After subduing Korea, Huangtaiji led his troops across the Liao River to attack Jinzhou. Yuan Chonghuan ordered that general Zhao Shuaijiao guard Jinzhou. Zhao Shuaijiao asked an eunuch to write letters to the Manchu for setting up a peace trap, hence delaying the Manchu attack for several days. With the relief army coming, Zhao Shuaijiao launched an attack and defeated Huangtaiji's Manchu Army. Then, Huangtaiji circumvented Jinzhou to attack the Ningyuan city. Yuan Chonghuan ambushed Huangtaiji with a column of army on the right side of the city. Huangtaiji faked to attack Jinzhou, but he actually retreated to Shenyang in an orderly manner. At this time, Yuan Chonghuan was reprimanded by the Ming court for not aiding Jinzhou, and Wang Zhichen was ordered to replace Yuan Chonghuan. Ming Emperor Sizong (Zhu Youjian, reign A.D. 1628-1644) got enthroned and eunuch minister Wei Zhongxian was executed. Yuan Chonghuan was restored his position by Ming Emperor Sizong in April of A.D. 1628.
In A.D. 1629, Ming General Kong Youde and Geng Zhongming, i.e., the future Manchu feaudatory generals in Southwest China, defected to the Manchus with Ming China's cannons arsenal and manufacturing bureau after Yuan Chonghuan cheated Mao Wenlong into an arrest and executed Mao Wenlong for his disobedience. (Mao Wenlong was recorded to have launched numerous attacks at the Manchus and should be considered a brave man. His execution should be considered an abuse of power by Yuan Chonghuan. Yuan Chonghuan paid his price later when the Manchu adopted Kong & Geng's advice in attacking Peking from Mongolia in a roundabout way. Kong Youde and Geng Zhongming had treated Mao Wenlong as step-father.)
Kong Youde and Geng Zhongming proposed to Huangtaiji that the Manchus invade China through the Mongol territories, attack Ming's Longjingguan Pass at the Great Wall and then march on Zunhua and Peking cities. To prevent Yuan from receiving an advance alert, Duo'ergun asked the two Ming generals to return to the Ming camp at Dengzhou on the Shandong peninsula. Duo'ergun stated that the Mongol tribe of Ka-er-xin must have guides for leading the way to the Longjingguan Pass. In Oct 1629, Huangtaiji, after spending days marching through the Mongol land, arrived at the Longjingguan Pass which was guarded by a few hundred Ming soldiers. The Manchu forces totalled about 60000. Then, Huangtaiji ordered that four banners attack the Da'ankou Pass and another four banners attack the Hongshankou Pass. The Manchus pressed on at Zunhua-zhou.
The Ming court sent an urgent request to Shanhaiguan for relief, and Zhao Shuaijiao led the relief army to a place called Sandunying where his army was destroyed by the Manchus. Zhao Shuaijiao committed suicide when Sandunying refused to allow him to enter the gate at night. Sandunying and Zunhuan were taken by the Manchu Qing army subsequently. Within one month, numerous cities, including Jizhou, Shunyi and Tongzhou, were sacked by the Mongols. When the Manchus arrived at the citywall of Peking, Mang Gui had led another relief army to the relief of Peking from the Shanhaiguan Pass. When Yuan Chongyuan led armies and two generals (Zu Dashou and He Kegang) to the relief of Peking, Huangtaiji was very much shaken. Yuan Chongyuan defeated the attacks by two Manchu princes. The Manchu failed to sack the Peking city. (Later in 1644, when Wu Sangui sent messenger to the Manchu for borrowing an army against Li Zicheng's rebel army, Duo'ergun was very much hesitant on the way to the Shanhaiguan Pass, thinking that it could be a Ming army trap: Duo'ergun asked how could Li Zicheng's rascal rebels sack the Peking city while he himself failed to do it three times.)
Huangtaiji then played a dissension to have Ming Emperor Chongzhen kill Yuan Chonghuan. Huangtaiji took the advice from Fan Wencheng to have two 'peace' letters written to the attention of Yuan Chonghuan and then have the two letters deliberately dropped near two city gates of Peking. After capturing two Ming eunuchs sent by the Ming emperor for investigating into the two letters, Huangtaiji ordered a Chinese officer to deliberately talk about the Manchu contacts with Yuan in front of the two eunuchs and then deliberately allowed the two eunuchs to flee back into Peking. Then, Huangtaiji deliberately retreated five Chinese league distance per the fabricated agreement with Yuan Chonghuan. Soon, news came that Yuan Chongyuan was imprisoned by the 'Jinyiwei' Imperial Eunuch Guards, and two Yuan Chongyuan generals, i.e., Zu Dashou and He Kegang, with 16000 Liao-dong crack troops, fled to exit the Shanhaihuan Pass for the hometown of Ningyuan. Yuan Chonghuan was ordered to be executed via 'slicing' or peeling off the flesh. Emperor Chongzhen, at the admonition of court minister Sun Chengzong, immediately sent a messenger to chasing Zu Dashou and He Kegang for pacification even though the two guys had pillaged their way back to the Shanhaiguan Pass.
Huangtaiji withdrew the Peking siege to make the Ming soliders drop their alert and then attacked Peking again after pillaging Gu'an and Liangxiang. When pressed by an eunuch gestapo, Ming General Mang Gui went outside of the city gate to have a fight with Huangtaiji's Manchu army. Huangtaiji sent some disguised soldiers into Mang Gui's camp and killed him in turmoil. Huangtaiji then withrew his army to the Tongzhou area. At Zunhua, Huangtaiji defeated a cannon column led by Liu Zhilun. Then, Huangtaiji sacked Luanzhou. In Jan of A.D. 1630, Za Dashou and Sun Chengzong were ordered to guard Sandunying [Zunhua of Hebei Prov] and Fenglun. Za Dashou dispatched troops to Leting, Changli, Huning, Shimen, Taidouying and Yanheying to prevent the Manchu from retreating back across the Great Wall. 300 cavalry scouts were sent looking for the Manchu Army's trace. After failing to take over Changli, Huangtaiji retreated to Manchuria via old path: Huangtaiji never ever challenged the fortified Shanhaiguan Pass, i.e., the No. 1 Pass of China. In Feb, Za Dashou was ordered to cross the Great Wall for Jianchang [Lingyuan of Liaoning Prov] where he set up an ambush at the crossroad bordering the Mongol tribe of Keerxin. On one day, Wu Xiang's scout team had a sudden encounter with the Manchu expedition force. Wu San'gui forcefully broke out of the city to charge at the Manchu forces and rescued his father at the wound to his nosebridge in the course of killing a Manchu general. (This is in sharp contrast with his abandoning his father by defecting to the Manchu at the Battle of Shanhaiguan in 1644.) Eunuch Gao Qiqian, i.e., the adopted father of Wu San'gui, wrote a recommendation letter to the emperor on behalf of Wu Sangui. Wu San'gui would soon become a Ming "you ji" [i.e., mobile fighter] general from the post of "zhong jun" under the leadership of Fu Zonglong.
Huangtaiji began to make similar cannons, called the 'Hong Yi Da Pao', i.e., Big Guns With Red Coat, with technology and knowhow obtained through the Shandong cannons factory that were shipped from across the Bohai sea. The Sino-Manchu warfare tilted the balance as a result of the defectors' surrendering the cannons. Sun Chengzong was recalled for the post of guarding the Shanhaiguan Pass, and Sun Chengzong began to recover the territories of Luanzhou, Qianan, Yongping and Zunhua. Qiu Hejia was conferred the post of "xun fu" for Liao-dong.
The Surrender of Zu Dashou to the Manchus
In 1631, Wu Xiang was upgraded to Jinzhou city's "zong bing" general under the command of Zu Dashou. In Aug of A.D. 1631, Huangtaiji lay a siege of the Dalinghe city where Zu Dashoun and about 30000 civilians and soldiers were in defense. A column was led by Prince A'qige to attack Jinzhou for sake of preventing the Shanhaiguan relief army from coming to the aid of Dalinghe. Qiu Hejia ordered that Wu Xiang and Song Wei, with 40000 troops, depart Ningyuan for Jinzhou. The two parties fought a battle at Songshan. The Ming armies returned to the city of Jinzhou. In mid-Sept, the Manchu attacked Jinzhou. On Sept 24th, Wu Xiang and Song Wei were ordered to give relief to Dalinghe. The two parties used cannons and musketeers during the Sept 27th battle in the area between the Xiaolinghe River and the Changshan Mountain. Huangtaiji ordered a two prong attack at the two Ming camps. When Wu Xiang intended to attack the Manchu camp with fire, the wind changed direction. The Ming armies were thoroughly defeated, and the remnants fled to the city of Jinzhou. Wu Xiang was demoted by the Ming court. At Dalinghe, Zu Dashou and He Kegang were defending the city. Zu Dashou's brother, Zu Dabi, who was renowned for his extraordinary strength, led a brave 120-men commando force on a night assault into the Manchu camp and almost killed Huangtaiji. The Manchus then bombarded the city with cannons. By winter, Zu Dashou surrendered to the Manchus, He Kegang was captured and killed, and Zu Dabi fled the city. Among those who surrendered with Zu Dashou would be Wu Sanfeng and Pei Guozhen, i.e., brother and brother-in-law of Wu San'gui. Zu Dashou proposed to take over Jinzhou for Huangtaiji. When Zu Dashou arrived in Jinzhou, both Qiu Hejia and Sun Chengzong had already been rebuked by the Ming court. Zu Dashou hence took over Jinzhou but asked Huangtaiji to defer attack till another time. Emperor Chongzhen again pardoned Zu Dashou even though Qiu Hejia ["xun fu"] reported the 'fake' surrender to the Ming court.
Mutiny of Kong Youde, Li Jiucheng, Geng Zhongming & Shang Kexi
During the winter, at Dengzhou of Shandong, Kong Youde killed "zong bing" Zhang Dake and drove off "xun hu" Sun Yuanhua. The mutiny occured as a result of Kong Youde & Li Jiucheng being dispatched by Sun Yuanhua to Manchuria for giving relief to the Dalinghe Siege. At Wuqiao of today's Hebei Prov, the two, with 800 cavalry, pillaged villagers for food and then decided on returning to Shandong Prov for rebelling against Sun Yuanhua Ming sub-governor for the Deng-Lai [Dengzhou-Laizhou] area. The rebels sacked Linyi, Lingxian, Shanghe, and Qingcheng, i.e., counties to the north and east of today's Ji'nan. In Jan 1632, Kong Youde sacked Dengzhou [coastal Penglai of Shandong] and declared himself "du yuanshuai", i.e., a govornor-marshal equivalent.
The Ming court sent troops of Baoding-Tianjin-Changping to Shandong, but failed to quell the rebellion. On June 9th, Emperor Chongzhen, at the advice of Liu Chongqing & Wang Wanxiang, ordered that eunuch Gao Qiqian relocate 10000 Liao-dong crack troops for Shandong. Za Dabi, Jin Guoqi, Wu Xiang & Wu San'gui entered the Shanhaiguan Pass. On Aug 19th, the Ming armies, with 40,000 troops, which were reinforced by Wu Xiang's Liao-dong troops, attacked Kong Youde at Shahe [Yexian], and on the 30th, pushed to Baima. After a defeat, Kong retreated to Dengzhou, the coastline. On Sept 1st, the Ming army surrounded Dengzhou. Through Nov, Kong Youde were repeatedly beat back by the Ming army. Rebel Li Jiucheng was killed in the course of breakout actions on Nov 21st & 27nd. Kong requested for relief with Huangtaiji. Huangtaiji ordered that Kong Youde and Geng Zhongming retreat over the sea to Manchuria via north gate of the city. On Dec 3rd, the Ming army defeated Kong's breakout action at the west gate after obtaining the information from a defector. On the night, Kong and about 10000 army and family members boarded over 100 ships for the other side of the Bay (Bohai Sea). Luo Xianglin pointed out that Ming China's "cannons manufacturing bureau" was dismantled by Kong Youde for Manchuria as a gift to Huangtaiji, an event that would significantly strengthen the Manchu firepower.
Kong Youde, upon arriving at Shenyang, proposed that the Manchus attack Lüshun of Liao-dong. Kong and Geng hence took over Lüshun, killed "zong bing" Huang Long, and pacified a deputy general called Shang Kexi. Kong Youde was conferred the post of "yuan shuai" [marshal], and Geng and Shang the posts of "zong bing" respectively. The three guys, together with Wu San Gui, would be the later "Three Feudatories".
In A.D. 1636, Huangtaiji changed their name to Manzhou (the Manchu) from Jurchen, with a weird combination of characters wherein the water-signed [Manchuria] "zhou" meant for a continent in the sea or an island in the river, and declared the dynasty name of 'Qing', namely, clearness. (Meanwhile, the whole northern China was in collapse as a result of marauding pillaging by Li Zicheng & Zhang Xianzhong rebels.) After the death of Huangtaiji, Emperor Shunzhi would be enthroned. Huangtaiji's brothers, Duo'ergun (Dorgon) and Duoduo, would be responsible for pushing on the war against Ming. the Manchus boasted of an army of 220,000 for the Eight Banners of the Manchu, Mongol and Han respectively. (After taking over China, they had raised an additional army of 660,000 for the Green Camp Battalions or Green Standard Battalions.)
In July 1638, Wu San'gui, at age 27, was promoted to "zong bing" [sub-prefecture military magistrate] general after Ming China had exhausted previous generations of fighters. (Wu San'gui received three promotions within 6 years, from "you ji" to "can jiang" to "fu jiang" to "zong bing".) Wu Sangui was in charge of the defence of Ningyuan where both Yuan Chonghuan and Sun Chengzong had dealt devastating defeats onto the Manchus.
Surrender of Hong Chengchou
In early 1639, Hong Chengchou, so-called "san bian [trilateral border] zong du [governor-general]" of Shenxi Province, was relocated to Manchuria, away from his dozen years of entanglements with peasant rebellion. Hong Chengchou instructed Wu Sangui in training soldiers and practicing weaponry.
On May 18th 1640, at Xinshan [Mt Xinshan, Jinxian county of Liaoning Prov], Ming army fought against 1500 the Manchu forces who stealthily circumvented Jinzhou to cover the defection of about 30 families of Mongol Duo-luo-te tribe. On June 15th, Huangtaiji sent 10000 reinforcements to Prince Jierhalang and Duoduo from Shenyang as a replenishment of the loss in previous skirmish. Since March, Prince Jierhalang and Duoduo began to attack surrounding forts of Jinzhou. With Hong Chengchou's instruction of initiating attacks and defending cities at the same time, Wu Sangui launched an attack at the Manchu Embedded Blue Banner on July 8th. Having called over Ma Ke from Shanhaiguan Pass, Hong Chengchou then convened a meeting with four garrison commanders, i.e., Wu Sangui, Zuo Guangxian, Cao Bianjiao and Liu Zhaoji for a new round of attack with 40000 Ming army. On 11th, Ming army fought against the Manchu. Zu Dale from Jinzhou came over as well. the Manchu retreated to Yizhou. Among three engagements, Ming armies gained upper hand over the Manchu twice at Songshan [Mt Pine] & Xinshan [Mt Apricot].
Beginning from 1641, the Manchu cavalry apprached three sides of Jinzhou. On following two days after Spring Festival day, Wu Sangui volunteered to load 15000 units of grain for delivery to Jinzhou-Songshan-Xinshan. On 6th day of lunar new year, Wu Sangui departed Ningyuan, and on the night of following day, successfully transported the grain over to Jinzhou. On 9th day, 20000 the Manchu cavalry tried to chase the empty carts. In March, the Manchu dug up trenches to surround Jinzhou city and then laid eyes on Songshan. In May, Hong Chengchou was ordered to go to Ningyuan from Shanhaiguan. By Dec, Ming court sent over reinforcements consisting of troops from Datong [Wang Pu], Xuanfu [Yang Guozhu], Miyun [Tang Tong] and Shanhaiguan [Ma Ke]. With eight "zhen" [garrison] of troops, about 130000, Hong Chengchou departed for relief to Jinzhou. Wu Sangui, counted among one of three dare-to-fight "zong bing" generals, personally headed 20000 Liao-dong troops. By late April, Ming armies arrived at the area between Songshan and Xinshan. the Manchu troops stationed on Mt Rufengshan, between Songshan and Jinzhou, and the Manchu cavalry scattered to the east and west. On April 25th, Ming armies attacked the Manchu uphill against Mt Rufengshan. Zu Dashou exited south gate of Jinzhou to attack the Manchu as well. Wu Sangui defeated the Manchu cavalry on west side, and Ming cannons battalion defeated the Manchu cavalry on east side. the Manchu presented 30 "red coated cannons" for bombarding Ming troops. Ming cannons battalion blasted the opposite positions reciprocally. 60000 Ming troops fought against 10000 the Manchu on the mountain and 20000 cavalry on two sides through the evening.
On July 26th of 1641, Hong Chengchou, under the pressure of Ming court, decided on a new expedition to lift the Manchu siege of Jinzhou. On 29th, Ming troops arrived at Songshan. On Aug 2nd, Ming armies initiated major attacks. Yang Guozhu sacrificed his life. On the Manchu side, on July 19th, Huangtaiji [Qing Taizong] personally led relief to Qijiabao of Songshan after 6 day and night ride. Again, the Manchu troops dug three circles of trenches, this time to surround Songshan within one day. On 19th, Hong Chengchou decided on an outbreak for limited grain supply in Songshan. (Ming army had three days' worth of grain for the campaign.) On 20th, Ming troops failed to breach the trench. The next day, Ming troops failed again. On the night of 21st, Hong Chengchou ordered a new outbreak the next day. However, generals, such as Wang Pu, pulled ahead of the outbreak overnight in the hope of being the first to flee. Wu Sangui adopted the advice of a Mongol in fleeing to Xinshan via major roadpath which was less guarded by the Manchu troops. Ming troops fell victims to trenches, and a considerable portion of Ming army were drowned by sea. Cao Bianjiao & Wang Tingchen returned to Songshan to be with Hong Chengchou. Zhang Ruoling, a Ming court supervisor, fled to Xiaolinghe where he rode on a boat to Ningyuan. The rest of generals fled to Xingshan. On Aug 24th, the Manchu continued to lay siege of Xinshan and defeated a band of Ming troops who tried to flee the city. On 26th, Wu Sangui and Wang Pu exited Xinshan. The two fought the Manchu along the way to Ningyuan. Remnants at Xinshan fled in separate directions. Ming army lost 53783 soldiers. This is the so-called Battle of Songshan [Mt Songshan, Jinxian county of Liaoning Prov].
Wu Sangui and Wang Pu fled the battle scene. Seeing the debacle of Songshan-Xinshan-Tashan, Zu Dashou, after one year of encirclement, surrendered to the Manchu with the city of Jinzhou later on March 8th of 1642. Zu Dashou family sent in a treasure mountain of precious stones to Huangtaiji as a show of gratitude and submission. (Korean prince, per Li Zhiting, had commented that Za Dashou family was richer than Korean king.)
Wu Sangui's Continuous Defence of Ningyuan
After the Manchu sacked Jinzhou, Hong Chengchou was caught alive after failing to commit suicide. Cao Bianjiao & Wang Tingchen were killed by the Manchu. Huangtaiji was said to have obtained the help of his concubine in persuading Hong Chengchou into a surrender. Hong Chengchou took the advice of Fan Wencheng in writing to Ming emperor an ambiguous letter for sake of protecting his family members since Emperor Chongzhen thought that Hong Chengchou might already had died for the country. On the side of Ming court, Emperor Chongzhen had to execute Wang Pu as a scapegoat but retained Wu Sangui for garrison general at Ningyuan. By early 1642, i.e., the 15th year of emperor's reign, Wu Sangui had trained 10,000 soldiers at Ningyuan and commanded a total force of 25,000 outside of Shanhaiguan Pass. In March, Wu Sangui & Bai Guangen made a tentative move against the Manchu near Tashan. Four days later, on March 8th, Zu Dashou surrendered Jinzhou to the Manchu and promised to persuade Wu Sangui into surrendering Ningyuan. Ningyuan soldiers refused to accept Zu Dashou's emissaries. Qing Taizong, against the advice of several ethnic-Han officials in attacking Ningyuan, would seek for peaceful solution to Ningyuan. By April, Qing Taizong, at the advice of Zhang Cunren, wrote to Wu Sangui for pacification. Friends, colleagues, relatives and family members continued to write to Wu Sangui for suurender pursuasion. Wu Sangui kept silence. On April 12th, Fan Zhiwuan was conferred the post of governor for Ningyuan-Jinzhou area. By Oct, Qin Taizong [Huangtaiji] ordered that 7th brother A-ba-tai invade China. A-ba-tai again circumvented around the Great Wall to intrude into Yanzhou of Shandong Peninsula in the autumn. Zu Dashou was ordered to mount both peace and war campaigns against Wu Sangui. Zu Dashou sent over a personal knife as an 'evidence' of the relationship. In Nov, Wu Sangui went out of Ningyuan to fight a war against the Manchu cavalry, and lost 72 horses.
In Jan 1643, Zu Dashou proposed to attack satellite cities of Ningyuan. On Jan 19th [lunar calendar], Wu Sangui suddenly replied to Zu Dashou by dispatching a Mongol horseman. Scholar Li Zhiting pointed out that Wu Sangui might have some wavering by this time, but Ming generals still possessed the kind of patriotism as exhibited by Za Dashou's persistence in defending Dalinghe & Jinzhou under strenuous conditions of killing horses and soldiers for food.
In the spring, Wu Sangui was ordered to come into the pass for fighting A-ba-tai expedition force. Ma Ke of the Shanhaiguan Pass and Liu Zeqing of Shandong prov, as two other "zong bing", also participated in this campaign. At Huairou county, Ming forces fought against the Manchu. the Manchu retreated towards Lengkou Pass. On May 12th, Emperor Chongzhen decreed a visit to the generals should they come closer to the capital. On 15th, emperor received Wu Sangui, Ma Ke & Liu Zeqing at Wuyingdian Palace, and offered an imperial sword to Wu Sangui. Before leaving Peking, Wu Sangui, at an invitation, visited Tian Hongyu whose adopted daughter was an imperial concubine. Wu Sangui sought for a singer, i.e., beauty Chen Yuanyuan, as his concubine. (Chen Yuanyuan was a singer who was grabbed at Suzhou by Tian Hongyu while leading a 1000 person trip to the south.) After leaving 1000 taels of silver with Tian Hongyu, Wu Sangui left Manchuria with a promise that he would fetch the beauty later.
By autumn, in August, Manchu emperor Qin Taizong [Huangtaiji] passed way. Manchu Qing Emperor Shunzhi, the 9th son at age 6, was selected as the new emperor as a result of compromise of confrontation between Duo-e-gun, other the Manchu princes [like Ji-e-ha-lang] and the dowager empresses. Unlike the predecessor, Duo-e-gun, as regent, immediately dispatched troops against the satallite Chinese forts like Zhonghou, Qiandun and Zhongqian, beginning from Sept 11th, 1643. Ming Emperor Chongzhen allocated money, manpower and grains to the defence of Ningyuan and three satellite cities. Even when Li Zicheng's rebels approached Peking, Emperor Chongzhen was reluctant to relocate Wu Sangui's army away from Manchuria but merely called in Bai Guangen's troops. Between Shanhaiguan and Ningyuan, only three tiny sataellite forts were left. On Sept 25th, Zhonghou was sacked; on Oct 1st, Qiandun-wei was sacked; and Zhongqian was abandoned to the Manchu. 15000 Ming soldiers were lost. Before the loss of Zhonghou, Wu Xiang, i.e. Wu Sagui's father, left for Peking. Ningyuan, first besieged by Nu-e-ha-chi in A.D. 1626 and then attacked by Huang-tai-ji in summer of A.D. 1627, became an island.
The Battle of Mountain & Sea Pass
Shanhaiguan, i.e., the Mountain & Sea Pass, was first built by Duke Weiguo-gong Xu Da in 1381 to take control over the so-called Hexi [west of Liao-he River] Corridor. From Shanhaiguan to Jinzhou, about 200 kilometer long strip linked Manchuria to northern China. In between would be another important Ming China garrison called Ningyuan. Since 1395, Emperor Hongwu had ordered military farming in the Liao-dong [east of Liao-he River] area. Gradually, officers seized the lands cultivalted by soldiers to become hegemony landowners and utilized the garrison troops as slave labor. Scholar Li Zhiting pointed out that various border generals, in Liaodong [east of the Liao River], had seized at least one third of military farms by the early Wanli Era, which would be equivalent to 8390 Chinese acres and 199840 units of grains. By the end of the Wanli era, in Liaoxi [west of the Liao River], the embezzelment led to merely 170,000 units of grains versus 700k in early Ming time period of the Hongwu-Yongxi era. In this place would rise the five-generation Zu Dashou family. Wu Sangui's father, i.e., Wu Xiang, married a sister of Zu Dashou, paving the way for the ascension of Wu Sangui in Ming China's military apparatus. In 1644, prior to the fall of Peking to Li Zicheng's rebels, Wu Xiang disclosed to Emperor Chongzhen that the capital could be secured by relocating the Wu family's 3000 landlord-fighters who had riches of hundred acres of land respectively. (Later in 1648, prior to the western expedition, Wu Sangui obtained the Manchu imperial permission to leave behind a brother, a general and over one hundred soldiers for taking care of 10 farms in Manchuria.)
Wu Sangui, a Ming general at Ningyuan, was on his way to Peking to rescue the Ming emperor, but he stopped at the Shanhaiguan Pass when he heard of the fall of the capital. (Historians pointed out that Wu Sangui deliberately procrastinated from Ningyuan to Shanhaiguan.) Li Zicheng sent a Ming defector general (Tang Tong) to Wu Sangui. Tang Tong brought the letter from Wu Xiang together with 50,000 "liang" (tael) silver. Wu Sangui agreed to surrender to Li Zicheng and handed over the pass to Li Zicheng's forerunner general. Wu Sangui then left for Peking; on his way to a place called Luanzhou, Wu Sangui met his housekeeper who informed him that concubine Chen Yuanyuan was grabbed by the rebel leader Liu Zongmin. Wu Sangui then returned to Shanhaiguan and planned to surrender to Duo-er-gun [Dorgon] who had already led about 150,000-200,000 cavalry towards the South when the news came of Ming Army's abandonment of all forts in the aftermath of recall of the Ming forces to the defense of Peking. (However, Duo-er-gun did not know that Peking already fell, and did not fully trust in the rebels' sacking Peking after Wu Sangui's letter mentioned it. The Manchu treated Wu Sangui's emissaries with suspicion till Wu Sangui himself broke through Li Zicheng's siege of Shanhaiguan Pass for a personal meeting with the Manchu regent. Historian Li Zhiting pointed out that Wu Sangui, in his first letter to Duoergun, had asked for the Manchu help in attacking rebels by circumventing the Great Wall, not through the Shanhaiguan Pass; however, Duoergun changed direction for Shanhaiguan on the road, which proved to be a right decision to meet Li Zicheng rebels head-on.)
When they came into China in A.D. 1644, the Manchus were said to have brought in majority of the total Manchu army which numbered no more than 150k. Scholar Li Zhiting cited some Korean documents in pointing out that Duoergun's order had instructions that all Korean males from age 10 [?] to 70 must report to duty so that able men could serve in China's battlefields. The major armies fighting peasant rebels, led by Wu Sangui, however, were still of Chinese nature. At the Battle of Shi-he [stone river], next to the Mountain & Sea Pass, Li Zicheng's army of about 200000-300000 fought against Wu Sangui's army of 50000 that consisted of gentry-organized forces and the Ningyuan garrison troops. Li Zicheng's troops had at one time climbed over the wall of the Shanhaiguan Pass. Suddenly, the Manchu cavalry descended upon the Li Zicheng camp under the cover of a sand storms. Li Zicheng lost 10000-20000 [? to be double checked again] troops and 15 generals at the battle. Three years later, corpses were not not fully buried yet on the spot.
Dorgon, taking advice of two Confucian counsellors (defector ex-Ming general and scholar), would propose that Wu Sangui and Li Zicheng fight the battle first. While Wu & Li were entangled in a bitter fight, Dorgon led his cavalry on a charge against Li Zicheng all of a sudden. Li Zicheng retreated to Beijing and decapitated the father of Wu Shangui en route of retreat, and slaughtered Wu Sangui's family prior to exiting Peking.
After the Manchus were invited by Wu Sangui the gatekeeper for Shanhaiguan Pass, the Manchus used the slogan of 'Restoring Ming Dynasty' to call for cooperation among Ming Chinese remnant armies in the wars against the peasant rebels. Li Zhiting concluded that Wu Sangui had an agreement with Duoerhun in ceding the land to the south of the Yellow River to the Manchu. However, Duoergun would prohibit Wu Sangui from entering Peking, ordered Wu Sangui on a continuous chase after Li Zicheng instead, and break the promise of dividing China by the Yellow River. Duo'ergun would relocate the Manchu Emperor Shunzi to Peking.
After losing the battle, Li fled to the west. Wu Sangui pursued Li Zicheng to Xi'an. After a defeat in Tongguan Pass, Li fled southward to Jiugongshan Mountain, Hubei Province where Li was killed by local Ming landlord bands. (Since Li's body was not authenticated by the Manchu and Wu Sangui armies till months later, there was a rumor that Li had faked a death and that Li went to the mountains as a monk.) the Manchu-Ming armies went on to Sichuan to kill rebel Zhang Zicheng. After defeating Li Zicheng, the Manchu re-oriented armies to attack Southern Ming Court and slaughtered the city of Yangzhou on the north bank of the Yantze River. Southern Ming General Shi Kefa died during this battle. Then, crossing Yantze River, the Manchus slaughtered two more cities, Jiading and Jiangyin, both of which had rebelled against the Manchu when the queue order was re-issued. Throughout the campaigns, turn-coat Ming armies were mobilized for fighting Chinese. The notorious slaughering of Jiading City was conducted by the Manchu generals of ethnic Chinese background.
Entering China Proper
Having ascribed the division point of 1839-1842 Opium War to communist school of thoughts, Hu Qiuyuan concluded that it was Ming China's trinity of i) "eight-part essay" [i.e., stereotyped essay"], ii) sea ban and iii) "eunuch politics" that had pushed China into the down-sloping at a time when Portuguese still acknowledged China's wealth as something Europe never could match. (Scholar Li Zhiting pointed out that eunuchs participated in politics since Yongle era, entered the army as "jian jun" [monitoring emissary] in Tianqi Era, and continued to play its role even though Emperor Chongzhen eradicated Wei Zhongxian eunuch gestapo gang.) Hu Qiuyuan also blamed Ming Dynasty's Zheng Heh seven voyages [1405-1433] for destroying ethnic-Chinese kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The arrival of Portuguese would further wipe out any remnants of such "colonialist" or "capitalist" buds that China ever possessed. Hu Qiuyuan claimed that European powers could have converged upon China much earlier than 1839-1842 Opium War should there be absent the British-French War and Napoleonic War. Further, Scholar Hu Qiuyuan believed that both Li Zicheng Rebellion and the Manchu Revolt were the products of Ming China's mutiny, not peasant uprising, nor minority uprising.
Zhang Xianzhong & Li Zicheng Rebellions
In northern China, Ming Dynasty was already devastated by peasant rebellions led by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. As to the origin of peasant rebellion, the first significant incident would be "garrison troops at Guyuan pillaging the prefecture vault for lack of military stipends". Luo Xianglin had pointed out that Kong Youde and Geng Zhongming had rolled up Ming China's cannons manufacturing plant as a gift for the Manchu. In deed, the Manchu fighting forces had absorbed enormous defectors. In this sense, both Tang China and Ming China had demised as a result of their own military mutiny, not peasant rebellions.
Historians concluded that Ming Dynasty ended in the hands of rebel Li Zicheng, not the Manchu invasion. the Manchu further gave last Ming emperor a posthumous title of Zhuangliedi as an elegy. However, Li Zicheng's banditry did not consist of the displaced Ming army at all. The background of Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch'eng, 1605-1645) and Zhang Xianzhong was similar: Li Zicheng was at one time serving Ming China as a "postal garrison soldier", while Zhang Xianzong was a soldier stationed at Yan-Sui-zhen garrison. "Ming Shi", edited by the Manchu throughout 268 years of ruling, had provided us with a possibly forged history about Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong banditry. Liu-sha-he still believed that Zhang Xianzhong slaughtered about dozen percent of Sichuan Prov population, with 70% other deaths related to epidemics, starvation and wars. In the following, we will briefly cover the two rebels.
Li Zicheng was born in Li-Jiqian castle of Huaiyuanbao in Mizhi county of Shenxi Prov (for which Li Zicheng later proclaimed himself a descendant of Tangut Xi-xia Dynasty Founder at the time of imperial enthronement). After serving as a shepherd for a rich person and a postal soldier in Yinchuan, Li Zicheng fled a death penalty for law violation. "Ming Shi" claimed that by the end of Tianqi Era [1621-1627], ennuch Wei Zhongxian dispatched Qian Yingjia as governor of Shenxi [western Shenxi Prov] and Zhu Tongmeng as governor of Yan-sui [northern Shenxi Prov], but both guys pacified banditry by taking in briberies and ransoms only. Li Zhiting mentioned a peasant uprising as to resistng government collection of grains in Chengcheng county of Shenxi in 1627. In 1st year of Emperor Chongzhen Era [1628-1644], famine erupted in western Shenxi Prov while military stipends were in shortage in northern Shenxi Prov. Garrison troops at Guyuan pillaged the prefecture vault. There ensued the Wang Jiayin banditry in Fugu, and Yichuan banditry (led by Wang Zuogua, Fei-shan-hu [flying-across-mountain tiger] & Da-hong-lang [big red wolf]). Gao Yingxiang, a horse thief, rose up in Ansai border post with a pal called Wang Daliang. Li Zicheng followed his uncle-in-law Gao Yingxiang in rebelling against Ming Dynasty in A.D. 1628. Zhang Xianzhong, who was spared death by his superior officers Chen Hongfan & Wang Wei, would stage a rebellion in A.D. 1630 by rallying 18 "sai" [border villages].
Ming court dispatched Hong Chengchou to quelling rebellion. Li Zicheng & Zhang Xianzhong gangs were occasionally destroyed and pacified, but managed to regroup again. By 1636, the whole northern China was in collapse as a result of banditry's mobile pillaging. (Meanwhile, Huangtaiji declared the dynasty of Qing in Manchuria, with an aim of conquering China.) After a defeat in Shenxi, Li re-organized his rebels in Henan Province. While in Henan Prov, Li Zicheng acquired two intellectuals, by the name of Niu Jinxing and Li Yan, and re-shaped his bandit approach. By 1644, he led an army of one million eastward. Li Zicheng sacked Xi'an and captured King Qin (Zhu Cunshu), attacked Taiyuan and killed King Jin (Zhu Qiushu). (At about this time, the Manchu, per Li Zhiting, dispatched secret emissary to Li Zicheng for a concerted fight against the Ming court, which Li Zicheng flatly declined.)
In Jan 1644, Li Zicheng declared the Era of Yongchang and the dynastic name of Da-shun in Xi'an. On Jan 8th, Li Zicheng's million troops departed Xi'an for the Yellow River. Two prongs were launched, with one route against Juyingguan Pass via Taiyuan-Ningwu-Datong-Xuanhua, and another route along Xingtai, Hejian, and Baoding via Henan Prov. Emperor Chongzhen adopted the advice of Wang Yongji in recalling retired Wu Xiang. However, Emperor Chongzhen was hesitant about relocating the capital to southern China. When Emperor Chongzhen asked about relocating Wu Sangui for capital defence, ministers tried to be ambivalent for avoiding blame as to abandonment of Ningyuan. Taiyuan of Shanxi Prov was lost to rebels on Feb 8th. However, Ming court still failed to achieve a consensus. Emperor produced Wang Yongji's petition for relocating Wu Sangui, but ministers still tried to avoid responsibility. After conquering Daizhou Prefecture (today's Daixian County, Shanxi), Li Zicheng went all the way to attack Ming capital of Peking in the east. He sacked Peking (Beijing) on April 25th of 1644 and caused the last Ming Emperor Sizong (Chongzhen or Ch'ung-chen) to hang himself inside of the Forbidden City in Beijing. (Some person pointed out that Ming China had been undergoing dozens of years of rat-related epidemic which might have taken half of the population in northern China at that time. Alternative account stated that in the city of Peking, Ming government's soldiers had died in batches from this epidemic.)
Li Zicheng entered the city without a fight. "Ming Shi" stated that Li Zicheng troops had caught imperial patrol officers and spies on their way of march, hence averting the possibility of detection with a march to the Peking city gate. Emperor Chongzhen, having sent two sons to the ministers' houses for hiding would, hang himself inside of the Forbidden City. Empress later committed suicide under the watch of Confucian-background rebel leader Li Yan. Li Zicheng caught the crown prince and the two other sons of Emperor Chongzhen. Details of Li Zicheng & Zhang Xianzhong rebellion would be covered in ming.htm section.
Wu Sangui Chasing After Li Zicheng


Infamous Queue-Related Slaughters
Liu Guokai mentioned that the anterior Jurchens under Jurchen Jin Emperor Taizong had failed to enforce the queue ruling to have Song Chinese cut their hair back in 12th century. However, the Manchu had successfully tricked turncoat Ming Chinese on the matter of haircutting. After defeating Ming armies at the Battle of Sa'erhu in 1619, Nurhachi had first issued order to have Han Chinese cut hair in the territories under the Manchu control. Liu Guokai stated that the queue order was opposed by Han Chinese in Zhen-jiang (Dantong of Liaoning Prov) area, next to Yalu River mouth. After Han Chinese killed local the Manchu officials, the Manchu dispatched army against Zhen-jiang people, and innumerable people jumped into Yalu River to commit suicide when the Manchu army chased them. Liu Guokai mentioned that lots of the Han Chinese who fled to Ming territories with queues were executed by Ming border armies as enemy headcount.
By April 22nd of 1644, the Manchu Regent Duo'ergun and Turncoat General Wu Sangui defeated Li Zicheng at the Battle of Shanhaiguan Pass. (Duo'ergun, for sake of winning the heart of Han Chinese, had executed three the Manchu soldiers who cooked a dog robbed from a Han Chinese household. This is in sharp contrast with the lootings and killings the Manchu had conducted prior to the Shanhaiguan Battle.) By May 2nd (lunar calendar), the Manchu entered Peking city. Duo'ergun issued the queue order the next day in lieu of previous broadcast stating that the Manchu was for restoring Ming Dynasty throne. the Manchu counsellor Fan Wencheng petitioned with Duo'ergun for a hold on the queue policy. Duo'ergun agreed to it, and then ordered a three-day mourning for last Ming Emperor Chongzhen. Thereafter, queue order began to be implemented, causing numerous Ming remnants flee Peking city.
Since Li Zicheng re-established himself at Tongguan of Shaanxi Prov and southern Ming royal house established Southern Ming court, Duo'ergun revoked the queue order on May 24th [lc]. In addition to Southern Ming court and Li Zicheng's "da shun jun" [Great Army of 'Shun' where shun meant for smoothness], Zhang Xianzhong's "da xi jun" [Great Army of the West] still possessed quite some number of soldiers in Sichuan Prov.
At the time Li Zicheng sacked Peking, Zhang Xianzhong had marched towards Sichuan Prov of southwestern China. "Ming Shi" (i.e., History of Ming Dynasty), edited by the Manchu Qing historian, claimed that Zhang Xianzhong slaughtered 3/4th of Sichuan's population. (Sichuan was later filled up by migrants from Guangdong and Hunan provinces.) "Ming Shi" carried pages of writings about the atrocities committed by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong: Both rebels had a long list of massacres, slaughters and butchering, like cutting off women's feet and piled them up onto a hill or piercing pregnant women's wombs etc. In this perspective, the defeats of both Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong by the Manchu forces would be considered a blessing for Chinese. Some scholars pointed out that "Ming Shi" could have forged the real history about Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. Some had pointed out that Zhang Xianzhong's remnant armies had fought against the Manchu rule well into the late 1650s and early 1660s, something extraordinary should we negate the Manchu Qing historian's claim to interpret Zhang Xianzhong's resistance as having garnered the support of Sichuan people. (Bao Jie of iastate.edu had cited a bbs writing by nanxiang-zi stating that "the Manchu Qing records stated that Zhang Xianzhong was killed in 1646, and altogether over 130 'ying' or battalions of Zhang Xianzhong armies were defeated. the Manchu Qing records also contained such descriptions as the Manchu army 'slaughtering city by city, either killing all males or killing both males and females, because bandits mixed up with civilians and because jade and stone could not be distinguished from each other'.)
By Oct [lc], the Manchu renewed attacks at Li Zicheng, with Wu Sangui acting as herald general still. By Jan 1645 [lc], King Yu-wang Duo-duo southern route and King Ying-wang A'jige northern route defeated Li Zicheng at Tongguan and converged towards Xi'an city. Li Zicheng fled towards Henan-Hubei provinces and stationed at Wuchang city shortly. By Feb, A'jige pursued Li Zicheng in the south, and Duo-duo relocated to fight Southern Ming court in the southeast. By May 1645 [lc], Li Zicheng was killed by Ming local forces at Jiugongshan Mountain of Hubei Prov.
10-day slaughter of Yangzhou City
Duo-duo only fought with Southern Ming General Huang Degong and killed him, while the other Southern Ming armies surrendered mostly. The reason that southern Ming court fell was due to its internal strife. Ruan Dacheng had recalled most troops north of the Yangtze for quelling the rebellion of General Zuo Liangyue. [KMT General Bai Chongxi had invoked the story of Ruan Dacheng and Zuo Liangyue in disuading Li Zongren from following Zhang Fakui's advice in a coup against Chiang Kai-shek in Canton in 1949. KMT generals cited the vagrant life-styles of White Russians fleeing to China at the end of 1917 Russian Revolution as a history mirror of people who lost their country.]
By mid-April, the Manchu sacked the city of Yangzhou with the help of a Ming traitor who opened the city gate. General Shi Kefa sacrificed his life. the Manchu ordered a 10-day slaughter of Yangzhou city as a demonstration of terror. By early May, Southern Ming court at Nanking surrendered without putting up a fight.
Liu Guokai mentioned that Ming Chinese at the Yangtze Delta, including Jiangyin, Nanking, Jiading and Suzhou cities, had originally mobilized "welcome parties" for the Manchu forces in the expectation that the Manchu rulers would restore order and cut taxes. By May [lc], Duo'ergun proposed the queue order again, thinking that Southern Ming had been pacified. In early June [lc], Duo'ergun re-issued the queue order, stating that whoever opposed hair cutting would be punished by martial laws and whoever disobeyed would be executed as bandits and rebels. At Jiangyin, a turncoat Chinese by the name of Fang Heng was assigned the post of magistrate by the Manchu court.
By mid-June [lc], Han Chinese south of the Yangtze River, hearing of the queue order, began to oppose the Manchu rule. Among the most extraordinary struggles will be the people at Jiangyin of today's Jiangsu Prov.
Slaughtering Of Jiangyin City
On June 26th, populace at Jiangyin arrested and executed Fang Heng and propogated a slogan of "retaining hair rather than head". Peasants numbering 100,000 converged onto Jiangyin, and rich Anhui Prov merchant Cheng Bi donated 175,000 taels of silver for the uprising. An ex-Ming official by the name of Chen Mingyu was supported as a leader. Jiangyin people beat off a Manchu attack from Changzhou. When the Manchu army attacked Jiangyin again, Chen Mingyu, on July 9th, recommended Yan Yingyuan (i.e., an ex-Ming"dian shi" or inspector) for leading the defence. Yan Yingyuan wrote a poem stating that "Carrying Hair For Eighty Days As A Show Of Fidelity, Populace Numerbing 100,000 Are Now Willing To Die For Confucian Righteousness With One Heart". the Manchu army under Regent Duo'e'gun and King Duo-duo, numbering 240,000, laid siege of the city and mounted countless attacks, with a loss of three the Manchu royal kings, 18 generals and 75,000 soldiers. Yan Yingyuan replied to the Manchu surrender invitation with such words as "no surrendering inspector no matter how many Ming generals had surrendered". On Aug 21st 1645, the Manchu army, with heavy calibre connons from Nanking, successfully bombarded the city gate. Yan Yingyuan fought the Manchu lane by lane. Yan, having failed to commit suicide after being wounded, was killed by the Manchu soldiers. Chen Mingyu also died in street fightings, and his whole family committed suicide. Street fightings continued through to the next day when the Manchu ordered a massacre of the city. The whole city fought the Manchu to the last person by defending it for 81 days. By Aug 23rd, 172,000 Jiangyin people had died, and only 53 persons had survived by hiding on the top storey of a pagoda.
Three Rounds of Slaughter at Jiading
On June 12th 1645 [lc], the queue order reached Jiading town. Tens of thousands of people converged on June 14th for opposing the queue order. Gentry Hou Tongzeng & Huang Chunyao were made leaders. Jiading people defeated several attacks led by turncoat the Manchu general by the name of Li Chengdong. By July 3rd [lc], the Manchu soldiers attacked city again with cannons support. the Manchu first breached the east gate. When Hou Tongzeng's two sons asked about what to do next, Hou Tongzeng stated "no need for panic... nothing other than just death", and later the whole family committed suicide by jumping into the river. First round of slaughter by the Manchu army would cause 20,000 deaths. Li Chengdong was recorded to have used 300 ships in shipping lootings to Taicang of Jiangsu Prov.
Remnant resistance fighters continued to attack the Manchu army outside of the city. On July 20th, rebels defeated the Manchu soldiers at nearby Gerongzhen Town. By 26th, the Manchu sent over relief and slaughtered the town of Gerongzhen.
After Li Chengdong exited Jiading, resistance fighters retook Jiading. On July 27th, the Manchu soldiers invaded Jiading again and held a second round of massacre. In August, a Southern Ming official, by the name of Wu Zhifan organized a counter-attack at the Manchu army at Jiading. Manch soldiers conducted a third round of massacre of Jiading as a revenge.
the Manchu slaughters were not restricted to the above three infamous incidents. Scholars had pointed out that in early days the Manchu founder Nu-e-ha-chi and Huangtaiji slaughtered Ming Chinese in Manchuria and Peking area; King Zhengqinwang Ji-e-ha-lang slaughtered Xiangtan of Hunan Prov and Datong of Shanxi Prov; and the Manchu slaughtered the people of Canton of Guangdong Prov as well.
Solidifying Rule Over China
Chinese history had two the Manchu emperors entitled 'zu', i.e., founder. That would be Emperor Shunzi (Qin Shizu), and Emperor Kangxi (Qin Shengzu). This was due to the fact that the Southern Ming court did not officially fall till 1662. As we had exhibited above, the Manchu got into antagonism with Han Chinese only as a result of enforcing the 'queue order', something designed to massacre both the Han Chinese bodies and their souls, in the physical as well as spiritual sense.
Ethnic contentions between the Manchu and Han Chinese were intense. During the 268 years of the Manchu rule, numerous Chinese rebellions had ocurred because of the strict rule of haircutting. the Manchus had a special hair style: the infamous "queue". They cut hair off the front skull of their head and made the remaining hair into a long pigtail. The pigtail story might be related to the early Tobas of the 4th-6th century. The Tobas were called "suo lu", namely, pigtail styled robbers. (A better English wording for 'lu' would be enemies or savages.) The Chinese had no choice, either hair or head to be cut.
the Manchu also adopted predatory methods of land deprivation. They set up caste system in the attempt of avoiding the possibility of being assimilated into the Chinese. the Manchu Emperor Shunzhi had a story about marrying a woman called 'Dong Guifei'. After the death of this concubine, Emperor Shunzhi went to Wutaishan Mountain as a monk per legend. Dong Guifei could be related to some the Manchu who had inter-marriage with Chinese from Han Banner. Historians believed that Dong was a Manchu, but the populace belief was that she was a Han. Recently, there was a claim that the mother of Emperor Shunzhi was from Mongolian Banner. Few examples of the Manchu-Han intermarriages would be ex-Ming General Wu Sangui who had his son married to the Manchu royal family. This shows that early the Manchus did not have a strict prohibition that the Manchus could not have inter-marriage with ethnic Han.
Today, the Manchus had lost their ethnic identities. If anyone called himself or herself a Manchu, it would be for sake of child birth quota or college entrance quota. the Manchus may have lost their identies because they lacked a religion. The Hui Muslims could claim to be a Hui because they believed in Islam no matter how Chinese they look. the Manchus have nothing to cling to as a differentiation from the Chinese. the Manchu legacy would be the cusine in some restaurants, with names such as the Manchu Court Menu. Another legacy would be the so-called Banner Clothes, 'Qi Bao', that women would wear for marriages.
Continuing Resistance In The South
After the capsizing of King Fu-wang [Zhu Yousong] in Nanking of Jiangsu Prov and King Tang-wang [Zhu Weijian], in Guangdong Prov, Su Guansheng [Ming "grand scholar" from Dongguan] and Liang Chaozhong [from Fanyu (Canton)] supported the brother of King Tang-wang, i.e., Zhu Yuyue as the new ruler who declared the Era of Shaowu in A.D. 1646. Two months later, Su Guansheng, Liang Chaozhong, Huo Ziheng and Emperor Shaowu all sacrificed their lives after the city was sacked by the Manchu army. Up to today, to the niorth of Canton could be found remnants of mass grave site for Emperor Shaowu.
Qu Shisi, Luu Daqi, Ding Kuichu & Li Yongmao went to Guangxi Prov from Zhaoqing of Guangdong in Oct 1646 for fetching 24-year-old Zhu Youlang as the new emperor. After Ming Emperor Yongl was enthroned in Zhaoqing of Guangdong in Oct 1646, Confucian intellectuals in Guangdong Prov wholeheartedly rose up in support of the new Ming court. Among Ming loyalists would be Chen Zizhuang from Nanhai county, Chen Bangyan from Shunde, Zhang Jiayue from Dongguan, Huang Gongfu from Xinhui, Wang Xing from Enping, and Lai Qixiao from Chaozhou. Zhang Jiayue, together with over thousand clan members and hundreds of "xiu cai" intellectuals, all sacrificed their lives at the uprising. Moved by the brave act of Zhang Yueqiao, i.e., a concubine of Chen Zizhuang, the Manchu General Li Chengdong declared that the whole Guangdong Prov switch loyalty to Ming Emperor Yongli.
After the Battle of Canton in A.D. 1650, the Manchu army ordered a slaughter of the whole city. Historian Jian Youwen estimated that 700,000 Cantonese residents were killed, with nine out of ten households emptied. More atrocities committed against Guangdong Prov people would be: i) the Manchu order that civilians have to dwell outside of Canton city after the feudatory of Shang Kexi & Shang Zhixin were revoked during the Manchu Emperor Kangxi's reign; and ii) the Manchu order that coastal people must vacate the beach beyond five kilometers, with five such counties of Canton affected.
Continuing Resistance In The Southwest
Back in Nov 1645, Duoergun dispatched Heh Luohui & Li Guohan to Sichuan Prov for attacking Zhang Xianzhong. In Jan 1646, the Manchu King Hao-ge was sent to Sichuan for quelling the rebellion. By Nov 1646, Sichuan was quelled with the sacking of Chengdu city and killing of Zhang Xianzhong. Zhang Xianzhong remnants, i.e., mainly four adopted sons Sun Kewang, Li Dingguo, Liu Wenxiu & Ai Nengqi, fled to Yunnan-Guizhou provinces. (Wang Zhonghan claimed that Li Dingguo's "da [grand] xi [west] jun [army]" took over Yunnan Prov in Sept 1646 [solar cal?], and developed economy, pacified minority peoples, recruited soldiers among Yi-zu, Miao-zu, Yao-zu, Dong-zu, Gelao-zu & Dai-zu minorities, organized 50-elephant column on basis of Dai-zu [Thai] tradition, and controlled 16 of 18 prefectures of Yunnan Prov.)
Hao-ge went back to Peking after leaving Li Guoying as "zong bing" [chief of military column]. Two years later, Sichuan Prov was in turmoils again when Ming royalists and Zhang Xianzhong remnants staged a rebellion. Duoergun accused Hao-ge of dereliction in Sichuan and put Hao-ge under house arrest in March 1648. With his thousand soldiers cut in half already, Li Guoying was hesitant in accepting the governor post from the Manchu court in April 1648.
Meanwhile, Jiang Xiang rose up against the Manchu in Datong of Shanxi Prov. Duo-er-gun exerted four years, from 1648 to 1651, to quelling rebellion in Shanxi-Shenxi provinces. On Sept 8th 1651, Wu Sangui & Li Guohan, who stationed in Nanzheng area of Hanzhong, were dispatched to Sichuan Prov for quelling the rebellion.
Southern Ming Emperor Yongli [Zhu Youlang] was the grandson of Ming Emperor Shenzong and 4th son of King Guiwang Zhu Changying. After Zhang Xianzong sacked Hengzhou in 1643, Zhu Youlang fled to Guangxi Prov. After Southern Ming Regime lost Emperor Hongguang & Emperor Rongwu consecutively, loyalists [such as Qu Shisi, Luu Daqi, Ding Kuichu & Li Yongmao] went to Guangxi Prov from Zhaoqing of Guangdong in Oct 1646 for fetching 24-year-old Zhu Youlang as the new Emperor Yongli. Emperor Yongli gained control over Sichuan Prov by conferring marquis and baron titles onto numerous officials and generals. As a result of disturbances by another Ming royal member [Zhu Rongfan], factions of Ming regime, like Yuan Tao [Zhang Xianzhong remnant], Li Zhanchun, Yang Zhan, Li Qiande, Wang Xiang & Wu Dading etc, fought against each other in Sichuan. Emperor Yongli dispatched Chu Yinxi & Luu Daqi to quelling Zhu Rongfan as well as frequently sent emissaries to mediating between factions.
In Sept of 1650, Zhang Xianzhong remnants, led by Sun Kewang, entered Guizhou Prov from Yunnan. After learning of the death of Yang Zhan [i.e., Ming baron Jia-ding who had opposed rebel Zhang Xianzhong earlier], Sun Kewang staged a comeback by taking advantage of Sichuan turmoils to campaign against Yuan Tao, Li Qiande & Wu Dading in the name of Southern Ming Emperor Yongli. Sun Kewang's Liu Wenxiu & Wang Ziqi column sacked Zunyi city and forced Wang Xiang into suicide on the bank of Wu-jiang River, while Lu Mingchen column crossed Jinshajiang River and defeated Yuan Tao, Li Qiande & Wu Dading at Jia-ding [Leshan] in coordination with Liu Wenxiu & Wang Ziqi column. Li Qiande and his whole family jumped into river to commit suicide. Lu Mingchen column then attacked Fuzhou and drove Li Zhanchun into defection to the Manchu camp. Yu Dahai fled Zhongzhou for Hunan Prov's the Manchu camp as a defection. Altogether 800 ships, 4000 soldiers and 13000 people sought asylum with the Manchu forces in Hunan Prov. After leaving Bai Wenxian & Liu Zhenguo in charge of Jia-ding [Leshan] & Yazhou, Liu Wenxiu returned to Yunnan Prov.
Wu Sangui would be responsible for fighting the new Ming Emperor Yongli who received support from Sun Kewang, Liu Wenxiu & Li Dingguo, namely, the generals previously serving under rebel Zhang Xianzhong. In Feb of 1652, Wu Sangui & Li Guohan entered Sichuan Prov via east and west routes. After climbing Dabashan Mountain, Wu Sangui sacked Baoningfu prefecture. Then, Wu Sangui sacked Jia-ding [Leshan] and killed "zong bing" Long Mingyang. Bai Wenxian & Liu Zhenguo retreated to Xu-zhou [Yibin] city.
While Wu Sangui was campaigning in Sichuan Prov, King Dingnan-wang Kong Youde attacked Guangxi Prov, and King Pingnan-wang Shang Kexi & King Jingnan-wang Geng Zhongming attacked Guangdong Prov. Sun Kewang requested Ming Emperor Yongli for a relocation to Anrong of Guizhou Prov. Emperor Yongli already conferred King Qin-wang onto Sun Kewang, King Anxi-wang onto Li Dingguo, King Gongchang-wang onto Bai Wenxian, & King Hunan-wang onto Liu Wenxiu. Sun Kewang ordered that Li Guoding & Feng Shangli attack the Manchu in Hunan, 80000 force attack Kong Youde in Guilin of Guangxi Prov, and Liu Wenxiu & Wa Fuchen attack Wu Sangui in Sichuan Prov.
In Jan of 1659 [solar cal?], Li Dingguo suffered a setback at the Battle of Mopanshan in Tengchong. Ming Emperor Yongli fled towards Burma. Li Dingguo would be responsible for continuing to fight the Manchu, even after Ming Emperor Yongli-di was gone to Burma. Li Dingguo collected remnants, relocated to Mengding from Nandian, and continued to resist the Manchu by rallying people among the Dai-zu [Thai] minority. Na-song, a Thai-ethnic magistrate for Yuanjiang prefecture, was Li Dingguo's strongest ally. At one time, Na-song obtained the defection of Xu Mingchen & Gao Yingfeng [ex-Ming generals who surrendered to the Manchu] in fighting against the Manchu. Wu Sangui laid a siege of Yuanjiang city for five months. Na-song and his whole family committed suicide.
Sichuan people had held on to Yucheng [i.e., Chongqing] city till 1659. Yucheng city was slaughtered after it was sacked by the Manchu Qing armies."
By A.D. 1661, the Manchu had subjugated most of Yunnan Prov. Minority peoples in southern Yunnan, Menglian & Yuanjiang areas, including Thai-ethnic, continued to support Li Dingguo. Minority chieftans, by the name of Long Jizhao & Long Jizuo, resisted the Manchu for 70 days. Ming Emperor Yongli, who fled to Burma earlier, refused to return to China though Li Dingguo repeatedly requested so. Emperor Yongli was later handed over to Wu Sangui for execution by Burmese king. In A.D. 1662, Li Dingguo went to Mengla, and dispatched messengers to Che-li and Xian-luo [Thailand] for relief army. Thai king's emissary came to see Li Dingguo with support. Hearing of the death of Emperor Yongli, Li Dingguo was saddened to death in June of 1662 [solar cal?]. Remnants continued major resistance throughout 1663-1664: in 1663, Zhang Qi of Kunming, Zhang Tai and Mei Ah-si of Dali, Yi Shu of Tengyue, Zhang Faxiang of Wuding & Lu Jiazhu of Anning rose up in Huicheng area against the Manchu. In 1664, Minority kings Yang-zu & King Yao-zu, and Li Shifan of Mengzi assembled 110000 people against the Manchu in Lin'an & Mengzi of eastern Yunnan Prov. Na-lie, i.e., Na-song's son, mounted a counter-attack at Yuanjiang city. After quelling southwestern China, Wu Sangui and another two Chinese-ethnic generals would control southwestern China and southern China as the so-called Three Vassals [i.e., Three Feudatories] for dozens of years.
In southern Chinese coast, General Zheng Chenggong rebelled against his father who had surrendered to the Manchus. Zheng Chenggong launched a war to recover Taiwan from the Dutch in February 1662, using Dongshan Islands of Fujian Province as a launching pad. The Zheng family would rule Taiwan till A.D. 1683. Shi Lang, an ex-general under Zheng's son, would defect to the Manchus. Shi Lang would be responsible for taking over Amoy and Quemoy in A.D. 1680 and subsequently lead the Manchus' landing onto Taiwan. Both Zheng Chenggong and Shi Lang had landed in Taiwan during the high tides.
the Manchu edited and forged the history of the former dynasty, i.e., "Ming Shi" (i.e., History of Ming Dynasty). One good example would be the claim that Zhang Xianzhong, who was killed by the Manchu army back in 1646, had made a stone monument entitled "seven killings". The number of 'seven', coinciding with the Manchu founder's so-called "Seven Hatreds For Ming Dynasty", just rings a bell in my ear as some cooking by the Manchu historians to cover up their slaughter of Sichuan Prov Chinese as well as to legalize the Manchu's rule over China. To be noted would be the dramatic population drop during the Ming-Qing dynastic transition: In A.D. 1620, i.e., 1st year of Ming Emperor Guangzong's Taichang Era, China boasted of a population of 51.66 million people, but in A.D. 1651, i.e., 8th year of Qing Emperor Shizu's Shunzhi Era, China only had 10.63 million people. The conclusion is that China's brave men had all fallen martyrdom in the resistance to the Manchu invasion, something we should take pride in. (Other than brave Chinese men, Confucianism had always brought about courageous Chinese women who never hesitated to take their own lives in face of assaults by the aggressors. Volumes of chronicles on Chinese dynasties have a section entitled the 'biographies of courageous women'. There were stringent requirements that counties should only record the names of women who committed suicides before being raped or assaulted. Ironically, the Manchu emperor had decreed that those women who committed suicides after being raped or assaulted could still be eligible for their names being listed in the 'biographies of courageous women'.)
the Manchu Trickery & Cunningness In Ruling
Scholar Luo Xianglin, in"History of Chinese Nationalities" (Chinese Culture Publishing Enterprise Co, Taipei, Taiwan, May 1953 edition), stated that the Manchu court ruled Chinese, Mongols, Uygurs and Tibetans in four sharply different ways for sake of maintaining the absolute control.
As to the Mongols, the Manchu rule was to forbid the Mongols from reading of, writing in and learning the Chinese language and to strengthen the lamaism preaching among the Mongols. Luo Xianglin listed multiple the Manchu decrees to prove his points, including the Manchu Qing Emperor Daoguang's A.D. 1836 order that Mongols could only use the Manchu and Mongol languages. Three years later, Qing Emperor Daoguang further ordered that Mongols should not hire Chinese language teachers over to Mongolia. Emperor Xianfeng, in A.D. 1853, rebuked Mongol nobles for using Chinese characters as family names and adopting Chinese language in legal paperwork. Emperor Guangxu, in A.D. 1876, decreed that those Mongols who used Chinese langauge in documents should be punished. Luo Xianglin pointed out that the Manchu intended to make Mongols less intelligent so that they could be easily employed for utilizing their "physical strength" as running dogs in wars.
As to Tibetans, the Manchu court adopted the policy of "respecting Tibetan religion but supressing its administration". Luo Xianglin pointed out that the Manchu decreed that every Tibetan household must dispatch one son to monastery for studying the buddhism, hence making Tibetan population unable to multiply. Further, the Manchu dispatched "imperial minister" to Tibet for monitoring Dalai Lama and Pancho Lama, and intentionally mixed up religion and politics so that Tibetans could not conduct any reform on administration. Intermarriage between Tibetans and Chinese were forbidden by the Manchu.
As to Uygurs, the Manchu adopted the policy of disparaging on Islam and sowing dissension among Muslims and non-Muslims. By creating turmoils and rebellions, the Manchu easily sent in troops for massacring the Uygurs.
As for the Han Chinese, the Manchu, in the words of Scholar Luo Xianglin, intentionally suppressed "dao qi" [i.e., Confucian righetousness, neo-Confucian rationalistic philosophy about inner saint & outer king, and applications to natural sciences] and deliberately developed "wen ci" [literature and flamboyant phrases]. the Manchu reversed the tradition of the astronomy, calendar and firearms introduced by the Muslims during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty as well as the applied sciences introduced by the Jesuits of Ming Dynasty. AT first, the Manchu attempted to utilize Catholics in beating off Muslim calendar with European calendar, and then utilized Confucian ethics or moral principles for countering the "applied sciences" that came with Catholics. To further suppress the Chinese intellectuals, the Manchu emperors, like Qianlong, resorted to "literary inquisition" [i.e., "wen zi yu" (imprisonment due to writings)] for controlling the minds and thoughts of Chinese. the Manchu forbade the assembly of scholars or intellectuals into societies and moreover advocated "eight-part essay" [i.e., stereotyped essay"] as the format for imperial civil service exams.
Qing Emperor Shunzhi (Qing Shizu, Aixinjueluo Fu-lin, r. 1644-1661)

Qing Emperor Kangxi (Qing Shengzu, Aixinjueluo Xuan-ye, r. 1662-1722)

1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk & Pereira Thomas
At the suggestion of Nan-huai-ren (Ferdinandus Verbiest), Portuguese missionary Pereira Thomas and French missionary [Zhang Cheng], both guys who knew nothing about Russian language, were invited in May 1688 as interpreters for negotiating the "Lingua Latina" version of the Treaty of Nerchinsk on the part of the Manchu China panel led by Suo-e-tu. This first trip aborted due to Dzungarian rebellion that was instigated by the Russians. In Aug 1689, the Manchu China dispatched a new panel to Nerchinsk. Prior to the trip, Russians already colluded with Thomas Pereira who intended to open up China for both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Western Vatican by taking advantage of the entangles between Russia and the Manchu China.
Recovering Taiwan

Qing Emperor Yongzheng (Qing Shizong, Aixinjueluo Yin-zhen, r. 1723-1735)

Qing Emperor Qianlong (Qing Gaozong, Aixinjueluo Hong-li, r. 1736-1795)

Qing Emperor Jiaqing (Qing Renzong, Aixinjueluo Yong-yan, r. 1796-1820)


Map linked from http://www.friesian.com


Founding Of 'Da Jin' (Grand Gold Dynasty)
Eight Banner System
Twenty Five Years Of War Against China
Battle Of Mountain & Sea Pass
Entering China Proper
Infamous Queue-Related Slaughters
Solidifying Rule Over China
Qing Emperor Shunzhi (Qing Shizu, Aixinjueluo Fu-lin, r. 1644-1661):
Qing Emperor Kangxi (Qing Shengzu, Aixinjueluo Xuan-ye, r. 1662-1722):
1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk
Recovering Taiwan:
Qing Emperor Yongzheng (Qing Shizong, Aixinjueluo Yin-zhen, r. 1723-1735):
Qing Emperor Qianlong (Qing Gaozong, Aixinjueluo Hong-li, r. 1736-1795):
Qing Emperor Jiaqing (Qing Renzong, Aixinjueluo Yong-yan, r. 1796-1820):
The Opium War (1839-1842)
"Wangxia Treaty" [US] & Whampoa Treaty [France]
Second Opium Wars (1856–60) & Arson of Summer Palace
Taiping (Grand Peace) Heavenly Kingdom Rebellion
Foreign Enterprises Movement (Self-Strengthening)
the Manchu Military System: Brave-Camp Army & New Army
Russian Encroachments [1847-1900]
1876 Anglo-Chinese Yantai Treaty
1884-1885 Franco-Chinese War
Imperialist Encroachments On Korea
1894 Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War Over Manchuria
Rise of Yuan Shi-kai
Start Of Water-Melon Partitioning
Hundred Day Reformation
The Boxers & Invasion of Eight Allied Nations
Rise of Yuan Shi-kai (Continued)
Assasinations & Uprisings
'Retaining Railroad' Movement
Wuchang Uprising & Xin Hai Revolution
[ this page: the Manchu.htm ] [ next page: qing.htm ]

Written by Ah Xiang

Copyright 1998-2012:
This website expresses the personal opinions of the webmaster (webmaster@republicanchina.org, webmaster@imperialchina.org, webmaster@uglychinese.org). In addition to the webmaster's comments, extensive citations and quotes of ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing the Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without the prior written permission, on the pre-condition that an acknowledgement or a reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],