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THE TURKS & UYGURS - PART II
The Chinese Chronicles on the Barbarians after the Huns
After Tuoba Wei Dynasty, the Chinese chronicles did not mention the Huns any more. The Ruruans and the Turks came into play. Whereas the Huns called their kings by "chanyu" (often wrongly spelled and pronounced as 'shanyu'), the Ruruans used the title of "khan", instead. Historians think that it was the Ruruan people who first used the title "khan". The Turks, who chased the Ruruan khan all the way to the Western Tuoba Wei Dynasty's territory, also used the title "khan" for their kings. In this sense, Mulan the heroine, who was recently depicted by Disney in a cartoon, would be more likely either a Ruruan or a Turk in connection with the times when the story was first written, namely, the late time period of Tuoba's Wei Dynasty. Emerging in this time period would be another group of people called the Tiele Tribes. The Turks reared the Tiele people on behalf of the Ruruans. It was recorded that the Turks absorbed about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes which included the so-called 'Nine Names'. The Chinese records pointed to several wars between Khan Mochuo's Orchon Turks [i.e., the Eastern Turks] and the Nine [Tiele] Family Name People. (Do note [i] that the so-called 'Nine Names [i.e., clans or subtribes]' of the Tiele Tribes could be totally different from the 'Nine-Name Hu' merchant-marauders who were embedded with the Uygurs, i.e., one clan or subtribe among the original fifteen clans or subtribes of the Tiele Tribal Group; and [ii] that that the Western Turks possessed another alias, i.e., the Ten [Turkic] Family Names.) (AD 386-534)
By the time of the Sui (AD 581-618) and Tang (AD 618-907)dynasties, several groups of the barbarians remained on the borders with China, i.e., the Khitans, Xi & Shiwei to the northeast, the Turks & Tiele Tribes to the north and northwest, the Tuyuhun people to the west, and the Nan-Zhao people to the southwest. The Xianbei, Wuhuan, Tuoba and Ruruan barbarians had either dissappeared or been absorbed into the melting pots at that time. The Khitans were said to be descendants of the early Tanshikui Xianbei alliance and Xi the descendants of the Wuhuan people. (Alternatively speaking, it was the Yuwen-shi Xianbei who were the ancestors of both the Khitans and the [Kuzhen-]Xi people.) In the west, the Qiangic-Xianbei people (who had absorbed the Di barbarians) was still in existence in today's Gansu-Qinghai-Tibet areas, were to assert themselves to found the later Xixia Dynasty (AD 1032-1227).
The Sha'to (Shatuo) Turks, i.e., one of the Western Turk varieties, would become vassals for Tang Dynasty and later set up 3 successive dynasties of Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jinn 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950. The Sha'to dynasties, however, were later very much controlled by the Khitans. The Khitans received a secession of 16 'zhou' (a unit larger than prefecture but smaller than province) from Posterior Jinn (AD 936-946) led by a Posterior Tang general called Shi Jingtang, also a Shatuo (Sha'to). The Khitans, who were newly defeated by the Turks, would emerge as first the Liao Dynasty (AD 916-1125) by the end of the Tang Dynasty, and then the Western Liao dynasty after Jurchens were to defeat them.
Tang Dynasty chronicler, Du You, wrote sixteen books on the historical "border barbarians" as of the Tang dynasty's times. He classified the western Rong barbarians into five books: 1) ??; 2) Tuyuhun, Tibetans, Dangqiang (later Tanguts) etc; 3) Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Chouci (Guqa) etc; 4) Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Anxi (Iran), Daxia (Bactria); 5) Persia, Daqin (Rome). As to the northern barbarians, he classified them into 1) Huns Book One; 2) Huns Book Two, Southern Huns; 3) Wuhuan, Xianbei, Tuoba Tribe, Murong Tribe, Yuwen Tribe etc; 4) Turks Book One; 5) Turks Book Two; 6) Turks Book Three, Xueyantuo Tribe etc; 7) Huihe (Uygur) Tribe etc. Note that the names of Tuoba, Murong and Yuwen were just tribal names among the Xianbei barbarians, while the Wuhuan and Xianbei barbarians obtained their names from the Xianbei/Wuhuan Mountains where their ancestors, the eastern Dong-hu barbarians, had fled after being defeated by the Hsiongnu (Hun) [Hu] nomads.
The origin of the Turks notwithstanding, the Uygur's relationship with the Turks was worthy of an explanation here. The word Uygur, known as Huihe, was mentioned in Tang Dynasty's chronicles as being only one of the fifteen Tiele tribes, ranking in the second place among the eleven tribes which helped Tang in conquering the Eastern Turkic Khanate. Reading through the Tang records, one important conclusion could be reached about the Huihe [Uygurs], that is, the Huihe [Uygurs] were a long time ally of the Tang Chinese in their campaigns against both the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks, at least for over 200 years till A.D. 840 when the Tang Chinese incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing them in Mongolia.
The Turks vs the Tiele Tribes, & Oguz vs Ogur
The most confusing part of the Chinese chronicles would be description of the Turks versus the Tiele Tribes. Certainly, there were other issues under dispute, such as the place of origin for the Turks and the Huns. The Chinese records claimed that the ancestors of the Turks originally dwelled to the rightside [northside] of Xi-hai, i.e., the West Sea. After a matter of a few hundreds of years, it is no surprise to see the effect of melting pots where the Turks and the Tiele (Tara or Tole) had mixed up with each other. This webmaster mentioned earlier that the Turks, i.e., the iron slaves of the Ruruans, had become a strong power after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes - which included the later so-called 'Nine Family Names', where the number "nine" could also mean numerous as denoted by the Nine Yi People or the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi etc. The nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi, categorically taken to be the input [emigrants] into the [Central Asia] Jie-hu barbarians at the time of the Sixteen Nations, using the logic of Chinese historical chroniclers, would continue their "merchant" or "merchant-marauding" activities in today's Outer Mongolia and China, possibly playing the role of Zoroastrian priests among the Turkic ruling nobles and influencing the Turkic burial customs with Zoroastrian rituals. Further, after the demise of the Turks in the hands of the Tang Dynasty, the nine Zhaowu clans, specifically known as "jiu [nine] xing [surname] Hu [barbarians]", worked with the successor Huihe [Urgurs], often travelled to China in the same embassy as the Huihe people. (There was in MO-ZI a much earlier record of the fire burial customs among the Yiqu-rong barbarians - a group of people who lived to the north of the Qin people.)
Reconciling all theories about the Turkic origin, Historian Luu Simian, who zeroed in on the west sea as the original habitat for the Turks, cited Mongol Yuan Dynasty's writing to state that the westernmost 'Turkic' tribe, Ke-sa [Gesa] Tribe from the Tiele Tribes, dwelled to the right side of the West Sea, albeit talking about a branch of the Western Turks spanning the time frame by hundreds of years, not the very original Turks. Not looking at the map, Lv Simian forgot that the xi-hai or west sea concept was something that Wang Mang, who usurped the Han dynasty, had devised on basis of his interpretation of the four seas in SHAN HAI JING, while the ancient China of the 1st millennium B.C. had only the concept of 'da-ze' or the Black Water Lake as contained in MU-TIAN-ZI. Luu Simian did cite the Western and Eastern Turks' common practice of paying pilgrimage to the wolf cave in the Altai Mountain, to the northwest of today's Urumqi, as evidence that the early Turks fled there and then worked as iron miners for the Ruruans. While equating the Ke-sa [Gesa] to the Khazer 'Turks' and equating the Turks to the Ashina surname, Luu Simian had mixed up the nameplace of the west sea as he knew clearly that the west sea where the Kahzer Turks dwelled would have to be in Central Asia, like near the Caspian Sea, not the west sea in the vincinity of today's Urumqi. Lv Simian further pointed out that the "Nine Names" must have more affinity with the Ashina Turks than to the Huihe [Urghur] Tribe. Here, Lv Simian had failed to make distinction between the 'nine' or 'eleven' or 'fifteen' Tiele clans or subtribes from the later nine-surname Hu barbarians who embedded themselves with the Uygurs as merchants, not nomadic herdsmen or fighters. The "Nine Names" should be what the same-logic Chinese chroniclers believed to be descendants of the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi [assuming that the nine Zhaowu clans launched their separate ethnic statelets in Central Asia and then carried on the tradition of the 'homecoming' trips to China from Central Asia], not the Nine Tiele Tribes which included Pogu, Bayegu, Sijie, Qibi, and Hun-shi etc.
Now, where could the ten Turkic names, i.e., "Ten Names", come from? As detailed in this webmaster's writing on the Turks_Uygurs.html section, historian Li Yanshou recorded a legend to the effect that the Turks' ancestor, i.e., A'pangbu, possessed 70 brothers, with one of them born with a wolf; that brother Nishidu revived the tribe after it was conquered by the neighbors; that Nishidu had four sons, with one son leading the Qigu (Jiegu, i.e., Xiajiasi or the Kirghiz) statelet, and the elder son living on Mount Ba-si-chu-zhe-shi-shan; and that the elder son was made into a chieftan, and he then bore ten sons, with the youngest named Ashina. This legend also fed into the ten-name Turk entities, with the ten-name structure intact in Central Asia [while in the east, the Turks were known only as the elite Ashina ruling clique above the numerous Tiele tribes and clans]. The Turks inevitably split into two groups in the east and west as had happened with their Hunnic predecessors. The Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. In A.D. 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina Duozhi, together with the Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Protector General (Marshal Presidio) Office. The Western Turks, in the west [Central Asia], then possessed the alias of the Ten Family Names, as evidenced by the Tibetan's attempt at dividing the "Ten Name Turks" into two halves with the Tang Chinese.
In the east, the Ashina Turks had appeared to be in antagonism against both the "Nine Names" and the Huihe [i.e., one cluster of the Tiele Tribe]. This part of the Chinese chronicles had left ambiguity. When equating the "Nine Names" and the Huihe, it could mean that the Huihe had excelled among the Tiele tribes to become a distinct entity. There appeared to exist the "Nine Huihe Clan Names", the "Nine Tiele Tribe Names", and the "Nine Zhaowu Clan Names", in the opinion of this webmaster - when attempting to diffuse the ambiguity among the players here. The "Nine Tiele Names" should not be confused with the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi background or 'descent' from Central Asia. The "Nine Tiele Names", according to TANG SHU, would include Yaoluoge (i.e., Huihe's leading clan), Huduoge, Jueluowu, Gexiqi, Awujue, Gesa (Gasa, Ke-sa, or the Khazers), Yaowuge and Xiyewu etc. Here Ke-sa, should it be the same as the Khazer Turks of the later times, not a soundex, could only mean that the relationship of the Turks and the Tiele Tribes had become interchangeable So, as the time progressed, the Huihe, which was called by the Turks as "Toquz-oghuz", possessed the nine clans of Yaoluoge, Huduoge, Huluowu, Mogexiqi, Awudi, Gasa (Gesa, Ke-sa), Huwasu, Yaowuge, and Xiyawu. Now, the "Nine Huihe Clan Names" contained part of the original "Nine [or eleven or fifteen] Tiele Tribe Names". At the time of rebellion against the Turks, the Huihe was alternatively said to be comprised of four of the dozen or so Tiele tribes, including Pogu, Tongluo, Bayegu and Weiqi. This four-entity name appeared to be a larger alliance versus a single entity.
The Eastern Turkic Khanate was broken by Tang Dynasty in A.D. 630 as a result of its internal strife as well as the Tiele rebellion. Khan Mochuo's Orchon [Eastern] Turks had fought the Nine Family Name People of the Tiele Tribes frequently. Khan Mochuo died in the hands of the Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes when his rear column was ambushed. On basis of the Chinese records, this webmaster concluded that that the Ashina Turks were acting more as a noble or royal line which played the role of a political entity unifying the various Turkic-speaking tribes.
http://sophistikatedkids.com/turkic/13%20Oguz%20and%20Ogur/OguzesEn.htm had a good exploration into the issues of OGUZ & OGUR, and it claimed:
1) that Uch-Oguzes would be "3 Oguz" or Karluks;
2) that the word Turk was a "political name";
3) that "in the documents of the period of rule Tang (after 618, annual chronicles Tang-Sy and Kiu Tand Shu with four different translations), the Nine Tribes, called in the inscriptions 'Nine Oguzes', sometimes 'Nine Türkic Tribes (Kok-Türks)' are mentioned as 'Türks of Nine Tribes (Kok -Türks)', and sometimes as 'Nine Toles Tribes', Nine Toles Oguzes means the same, as Nine Kok-Türk Oguzes. The roots of Kok-Türks are The Oguz tribes";
4) that "in 630, in the area of the rivers Tolga and Selenga, Oguzes jointed into a union, creating a Nine-Oguzes Khanate. Oguzes, defeated by Ilterish in 682 (in the war on the Cow lake) were in this status. Later, at tomb of Ilterish-Khagan, was installed the monument (balbal) to Baz - Khagan, the ruler of the Oguz state, who died in this battle ... 682 Concerned with Kutlug progress, Oguzes, living on coast of Selenga, made an attempt of cooperation with Chinese and Kitans ... 682 The attack, initiated on the advice of Tonyukuk, on a coast of the Cow lake, was successful and has removed the Oguz threat ... In 6-9 centuries Oguzes lived in the area of the river Selenga ... 691 In the beginning of the Uigur Khanaate the Uigur leader, Moen-Chur, still being a 'Tegin', was in the head of the Oguzes. A bit later the Oguzes rose against the Uigur Khanaate. This time they were a part of the Eight Oguzes. In Burgu and on the bank of Selenga Moen-Chur subjugated Oguzes, who joined with Otuz-Tatars, 'Thirty Tatars'. Oguzes, crossing Selenga, retreated. After that there is no sufficient information on the destiny of Oguzes in their native land. Certainly they resettled to the west in mass ... 716 Revolt of Nine Oguzes and death of Qapagan Khagan";
5) that "in 775 the Oguzes came to the vicinity of Maverannahr, according to Ibnul-Esir who dated this event to the times of the Caliph el-Mekhdi (775-785)... The members of the Oguz tribal union relocated in great numbers from the Orkhon area to the vicinity of Talas, and then to Syr Darya. The Oguz dialect separated from the Eastern Türkic dialect ... before the 9-th century, and by the 11-th century the Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic language in the lexicon and pronunciation".
The relationship between the Turks and the Tiele Tribes would be essential to untangling the riddles about the Turks. The confusion appeared to be to the east, only.
A good approach to untangling the riddle here would be to analyze the political structures of the Turks versus the Tiele Tribes. This webmaster will take the title of 'sijin' (tegin?), equivalent to governor, as a good entry. "The New History Of Tang Dynasty" said the Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. The Khitan chieftan was conferred the title of 'Sijin' by the Turks. Similarly, major clans of the Tiele Tribes all enjoyed the title of 'sijin'. In this way, Turks treated the Tiele Tribes the same way as they did to the Khitans. The relationship of a vassalage is clear: The Tiele Tribes, like the Khitans, were the vassals of the Turks, not the equals.
The Nine Tiele Tribes (i.e., Toquz Oguz)
The Tiele people, also known as Dili, Dingling, Gaoche and Chile [Tiele], were said to have origin in the ancient Chi-di and Bai-di people who once lived in today's Shanxi Province and intermarriged with the same Ji-surnamed Jinn Principality nobles. To better understand the relationship among the Tiele Tribes (including the Huihe clan), the Ruruan (Rouran or Juan-juan) and the Turks, there is a need to go back to Dingling at least. During the Sixteen Nations time period, the Dingling tribe was sandwiched among the main competing forces in North China, and had to submit to the Xianbei before separating from the latter. While the Jinn Chinese called them by Dingling, the Tuoba Wei called them by Gaoche. History said that the Tiele Tribes derived from the Gaoche people, while the Gaoche people were said to be the Huns' nephew.
Among the Hunnic descendents, there were the commonly acknowledged nephew Gao-che people (including the Yuanhe clan). In A.D. 546, the Turks under Tumen (?-552) first subjugated the Tiele tribes to the north of the Tianshan Mountain. Six years later, A.D. 552, Tumen defeated the Ruruans, causing Ruruan Khan to commit suicide and the Ruruan Khan's son to flee to the Northern Qi Dynasty's territory for asylum. The Turks hence destroyed the Ruruan (Rouran or Juan-juan) - successor rulers of the steppe after the Huns, to become the new master of the steppe. At the time of Sui Dynasty, in A.D. 582, the Turks split into the Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate. In the first year of the Rensou Era, A.D. 601, the Sui Dynasty army assisted Turkic Khan Qiren in fighting the Turkic rivals. While Sui Dynasty was attacking the Turks, the Tiele Tribes joined in and defeated the Turks in the northwest. The Sui armies, joined by Turkic Qimin Khan, quelled the rivalry Turks. Eastern Turkic Khan Qiren hence solidified control with the Sui Chinese' assistance. To the west, by A.D. 605, the western Turks were in constant fights with the Tiele Tribes. Sui Dynasty sent a minister called Fei Ju to persuade Western Turkic Khan Chuluo to seek vassalage with Sui. During the time of A.D. 605-611, the Qibi and Xueyantuo clans were among the strongest of the Tiele Tribes, which were said to have the similar language and customs as the Turks. At this time, the Nine Tiele Tribes came into existence, including Pogu, Bayegu, Sijie, Qibi, and Hun-shi etc, who were mainly active in the Orkhon river basins.
The Turks, after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes, had certainly become a unifying force among the Turkic speaking tribes [as their language was similar]. The Tiele Tribes frequently rebelled against the Turks. The Turks had at one time invited the chieftans of the Xueyantuo clan and killed them all. Later, the Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes had certainly been responsible for killing Khan Mochuo of the Orchon Turks, i.e., the Eastern Turks. (The Chinese records did not mention the word 'blue Turk'. Blue meant for the direction of the east; however, one saying would be to claim that 'blue' came from the word 'Gok' which meant for the blue skies as exemplified by the Turkic word 'tengri' or the Chinese word 'tian'.)
By the time of Tang Dynasty, the Tiele Tribes expanded to eleven, thirteen and fifteen names [Xueyantuo, Huihe, Qibi, Doubo (Tuwa, Tuva), Guligan, Duolangan, Duolange, Pugu, Bayegu, Tongluo, Hun(bu), Sijie, Huxue, Xijie, Ahdie, and Baixi], including Geluolu (the Karlaks) and Bajimi around the Tianshan and Altaic mountains. There was no Ke-sa or Khazer soundex here yet. The Huihe was said to be located at the Selenga basin; Pogu in the Upper Tula [Tuul] River; Tongluo in the lower Tuul River; Bayegu to the east of Pogu; Sijie between Pogu and Tongluo; Qibi in the upper Tuul River; Hunn in the Gaolan area; Bajimi north of the Tianshan; the Geluolu west of the Altaic Mountain. Huihe, which was called by the Turks as "Toquz-oghuz", possessed the nine clans of Yaoluoge, Huduoge, Huluowu, Mogexiqi, Awudi, Gasa (Gesa, Ke-sa), Huwasu, Yaowuge, and Xiyawu. Here, Huihe, should they have developed into nine clans, could not be so at the beginning when it was part of the Tiele alliance of eleven, thirteen and fifteen names; and, the soundex Gasa (Gesa, Ke-sa), having utterly no reference to the later Khazer Turks of Central Asia, was merely a Huihe subclan. The Huihe tribe, after defeating the Bajimi and Geluolu (Karlaks), claimed to possess eleven clans on top of the original nine clans. Xueyantuo, consisting of the Xue and Yantuo clans, was headed by Yishibo, i.e., Tiele Khan Yexi. From the Tula [Tuul] River, Xueyantuo relocated southward to Mt. Yanmo-shan, a range of the Altaic Mountain, where they were attacked by Western Turkic Khan Shegui (reign 611-618?). Taking advantage of the Turkic turmoil under Khan Yehu (618-628), Xueyantuo escaped back to the north, to be subject to Eastern Turkic Khan Xieli (reign 620-630).
After Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned in A.D. 627, he started to reverse the policy of appeasing the Turks. This year, the Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 628. The next year, Xueyantuo, under chieftan Yi'nan, proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang which conferred the title of Khan Zhenzhubiqie onto Yi'nan. In the fourth year, A.D. 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli. The Tang army captured Khan Xieli. Khan Zhenzhubiqie (reign 628-645), together with Huihe chieftan Pusa (reign approx. 627-646) and the Tiele tribes, destroyed the Eastern Turkic Khanate. To the north, Huihe claimed to be "xielifa [jielifa]", namely, chiftan, as a subject of the Xueyantuo Khanate - which was of the Tiele nature, not Turkic. In A.D. 632, over one thousand households of the Qibi tribe, under Qibi Heli, relocated to Shanzhou from Yanqi, settled in the Ganzhou and Liangzhou prefectures, and later served under Tang Dynasty. The Qibi clan produced numerous mercenary army generals for the Tang dynasty.
As detailed below in the section on "The Eastern Khnanate, the Koreans & the Khitans", Xueyantuo rebelled against Tang as a result of Tang Emperor Taizong's attempt to release the Turks back to the northern territories. Ah'shina Simo, a Turk, was offered the mandate to control south of the desert while Xueyantuo was to control north of the desert. Simo later accompanied Emperor Taizong on the campaign against the Korean peninsula. In June of A.D. 646, Emperor Taizong, on the pretext that Xueyantuo harassed Tang China by taking advantage of the Korean campaign, organized a joint army consisting of the Eastern Turks and the Tiele Tribes, and ordered an attack against Xueyantuo. The Huihe clan played a decisive role in exterminating the Xueyantuo khanate. After that, Emperor Taizong re-zoned the northern territories into six 'fu' (prefecture or province) and seven 'zhou' (prefecture). In A.D. 647, Huihe chieftan Tumidu, who was appointed the post of "dudu" (governor) for the Hanhai [desert sea] prefecture, proclaimed himself khan at the Tuul River. In A.D. 659, Huihe further assisted Tang in destroying the Western Turkic Khanate.
The Huihe (Uygur) tribes had rebelled with the Eastern Turks against Tang, but also fought against the Turks. In A.D. 661-663, the Huihe [Uygurs] and other Turkic tribes rebelled against Tang, but was quelled by General Qibi Heli (with background of the Qibi clan of the Nine Tiele tribes) and General Xue Rengui. Xue did a barbaric thing by burying tens of thousands of the Huihe [Uygurs] in a valley though the Huihe had surrendered earlier. (General Xue was a Tang general famous for "Three Arrow Shots Quelling the Tianshan Mountains" and the "Eastern Expeditions Against Korea".) General Xue would later die in the Daizhou prefecture, while on his way to quelling the rebellion of the Eastern Turks who were earlier quelled by Tang Dynasty commissioner Pei Xingjian in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681.
After the demise of the Eastern Turks and the Xueyantuo Khanate, the Nine Tiele Tribe no longer carried the essence as the name manifested itself. Though, after the revival of the Eastern Turks, clans from the former Nine Tiele Tribes, such as Bayegu, would play an important role in checking on the Eastern Turks. The Bayegu clan killed Turkic Khan Mochuo (reign 691-716) in A.D. 716, followed by the killing of Turkic Khan Sumishi by the Bajimi clan in A.D. 744. A Turkic successor, i.e., brother Ashina Gulongfu-baimei-teqin, came under attacks by Wang Zhongsi, i.e., Tang Dynasty satrap "jiedushi" for Shuofang. In January of A.D. 745, Huihe chieftan (silifa) Gulipailuo (Huihe Khan Huairen) attacked and killed Turkic Khan Baimei. In 747, Huihe and Geluolu (Karlaks) defeated Bajimi. Huihe chieftan(silifa) Gulipailuo received the conferral as Huihe Khan Guduolupiqie-Huairen.
The Posterior Turkic Khanate
The Eastern Turks re-established the Eastern Khanate in A.D. 682/683. In A.D. 682/83, the Turks revolted against the Chinese and re-established the Turkic Khanate in today's Mongolia, but were defeated by Tang commissioner Pei Xingjian. The rebellion first started in A.D. 679 when two subordinates under Ashide Wenfu (wen1 fu5 feng4 zhi) rebelled and made Nishufu a khan. Twenty four Turkic prefectures answered the rebellion. Emperor Gaozong sent Xiao Siye and Li Jingjia against the rebels. After a defeat, Emperor Gaozong sent Feng Xingjian, "xingjun da zongguan" for the Dingxiang-dao Curcuit, who commanded Li Siwen and Zhou Daowu, and over 30,000 troops, against Ashide Wenfu. Turkic Khan Nishufu was killed by subordinates. Rebel Fengzhi was caught. In 682, the Turks retrieved Ashina Funian, a son of Khan Xieli (Jili)'s brother, from the Xiazhou prefecture [along the western Yellow River bend], and when crossing the Yellow River, the Turks around answered the rebellion. Pei Xingjian was called upon by the Tang court to quell the rebellion. Ashina Funian surrendered to the Tang army and was executed at the Dong-shi market of capital Chang'an. In A.D. 683, i.e., the 2nd year of Emperor Gaozong's Yongchun Era, Ashina Guduolu, who descended from a branch of Khan Xieli (Jieli), rebelled. Guduolu's father, working in the Yunzhong "dudu" office, had the hereditary "tudunchuo" title. Ashina Guduolu, having raided into the Nine Tiele Tribes, assembled the cattle and people, and declared himself a khan. Brother Mochuo was made into "she", and Duojifu "yehu". When Guduolu attacked "he-nan", i.e., south of the north Yellow River bend, Aside Yuanzhen led the six prefecture of Turks to joining the rebellion.
The Turks attacked Weizhou and killed "dudu" Cui Zhibian. In 684, the Turks further attacked Shuozhou, killed officials and abducted the people. In A.D. 686, Guduolu attacked Shuozhou and Daizhou etc. The next year, the Turks attacked Changping, which was defended by Heichi Changzhi, a Tang general of Korean background. In August of 687, the Turks attacked Shuozhou. Heichi Changzhi, as "da zongguan" for the Yanran-dao Circuit, defeated the Turks at Huanghuadui, and chased the Turks to the north of the desert. In 694, Mochuo, who deposed Guduolu's son to be khan, attacked Shouzhou. Empress Wu Zetian sent Xue Huaiyi, a monk of the Baima-shi Monastery, and 18 generals against the Turks. Mochuo then sent an emissary to seeking for truce. The next year, Empress Wu conferred the title of Qianshan [trasforming to kindness] Khan onto Mochuo. In 696, when the Khitans under Li Jingzhong and Sun Wanrong rebelled to sack Yingzhou, Khan Mochuo petitioned with Empress Wu to have the pacified Turks at "he-xi" (west of the Yellow River) be assigned to him for campaigning against the Khitans. For the success in defeating the Khitans, Empress Wu conferred the title of "Baoguo [requital to the country] Khan" onto Mochuo as well as the titles of "xiedielishi da chanyu" and "te-jing". The Eastern Turks obtained in A.D. 697 from Empress Wu Zetian the old Turkic territories of six Tang prefectures: Pingzhou, Shenzhou, Lingzhou, Xiazhou, Suozhou and Dai (Daizhou) The eastern Turks (namely, the Orkhon Turks) then allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang.
The Eastern Turks, who revived in A.D. 682, defeated the Turgesh to the west around A.D. 711 in addition to conquering the Nine Tiele Tribes to the north. Under the pressure of the Posterior Turkic Khanate, the Geluolu (Karlaks) in A.D. 715 relocated to the west of the Altaic Mountain, i.e., the former homeland, from north of the desert. The Bayegu clan killed Turkic Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o) in A.D. 716. The Eastern Turks, with a khan selected by Tul Tegin, hence came to terms with the Chinese, as recorded in two stone monuments presided by the Chinese delegations. In A.D. 727, Huihe, Qibi, Sijie and Hunn etc crossed the Grand Desert to dwell in the Hanzhou and Liangzhou territories on the Western Corridor. In 742, Huihe, Geluolu (Karlaks) and Bajimi etc formed an alliance. The Bajimi clan killed Turkic Khan Sumishi in A.D. 744. The Huihe Khanate (744-840) was launched in A.D. 744 along the Orkhon River. By A.D. 745, the Eastern Turk Khanate came to the final demise.
The "Jiu [Nine] Xing [Surname] Hu [Barbarians]" of the Yuezhi Zhaowu Origin
On basis of the Chinese records, after the demise of the Ashina Turks in the east, the Chinese court frequently received the delegations composed of i) the Huihe and ii) the "Nine Names". Tang Shu claimed that prime minister Dunmuohegan, after failing to persuade Huihe Khan Mouyu into invading Tang China, killed the Huihe Khan, the khan's family and the families of the "Nine Names". Hence, the delegation of the Huihe and the "Nine Names" stayed on in Tang China's capital.
What was the nature of the "Nine Names" here? Here, this webmaster had reason to believe that the Nine Names meant for the "jiu [nine] xing [surname] Hu [barbarians]" of the Yuezhi Zhaowu Origin, not the Nine Tiele Tribes from the 7th century.
Should we pursue the restrictive definition of the Turks above, then we could tell that among the Turkic-speaking tribes, the Tiele Tribes had a majority over the royal line of the Ashina Turks and their immediate tribesmen. The Chinese records stated that around A.D. 740s, the Eastern Khnanate Turks, aka the Orkhon Turks, were defeated by the Huihe [Uygurs] and the Karlaks. After this defeat, the Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. But the remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties time period, and the The Turks must have lost their distinct identity by then. Conclusion was that the Turks had mixed up with the Tiele Tribes in the east but retained the "Ten Family Names" structure in Central Asia till the Tibetan invasion.
In the records after that, we could see the Central Asian [Sodgian] merchants beginning to embed themselves with the Huihe (Urguys), instead. A recorded incident would be Zhang Guangsheng's uncovering the human smuggling operation of the Sogdian merchants in 740 A.D. The 'nine-name' Sogdians, travelling with Huihe Tudongmeilu's embassy or trade mission, hid some Chinese women in the caravan when returning home through the Zhenwu Garrison. Xin Tang Shu claimed that as many as 1000 nine-name Sogdians merchants were staying at the Tang capital by disguising themselves as the Huihe (Uygurs).
The Turks/Uygurs vs the Sui & Tang Chinese
By the time Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618) destroyed Northern Zhou (AD 557-581), Turks, at the request of the 4-marriage-queen (previously princess of Northern Zhou), sought revenge by attacking Sui. Northern Zhou was a puppet of the Turks and inter-marriage between Turks and Northern Zhou was the way of maintaining peace between the two. Sui Emperor Yang Jian (Yang Chien) (Yang Jian), grandfather-in-law of Northern Zhou emperor, usurped the power by dethroning the young emperor.
The Split Of Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate : Yang Jian (Yang Chien) played the strategy of sowing dissension among the Turks, the son and the nephew of ex-Turkic khan. In A.D. 582, the Turkic Khaganate split into Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate. The son of ex-Turkic khan would set up the Western Turkic Khanate, while the nephew's Eastern Khanate gave up the plan of revenge on Sui and sought peace with Sui. Nomadic ways of succession, usually younger brother taking over the khanate from the elder brother, and occasional requittal by the younger brother in giving the khanate back to the son of his elder brother, had constantly caused internal strife in their history. This is in addition to the nomadic way of younger brother taking over all wife and concubines of the father or elder brother at the time of succession. After defeating the Turks via the above-mentioned 'dissension strategy', Sui pacified by promising continuous "intermarriage" with the eastern Turks.
There was an attack on Sui capital Chang'an in A.D. 601 by Western Turkic Khan Tardu, according to Turkic accounts, before Emperor Yangdi succeeded Emperor Wendi in A.D. 604. Records show Tardu was one of at least three or four rivaling Turkic khans of the time and his attack on Sui aborted before any impact was felt, and he would die of internal fights within the next few years.
The Turks had internal fights again and their khanate again collapsed in A.D. 603. The eastern khan, Shabolüe, adopted the same custom by giving his khanate to his younger brother (Muohe). Muohe's son, Ruangan, was forced into refuge inside of Sui by the son of the ex-khan Shabolüe. Ruangan, given the title "Qimin Khan" by Sui's emperor, married with Princess Anyi and, after the death of Princess Anyi, he married with Princess Yicheng (who would also remarry 3 more times with successor Turk khans later). Qimin Khan returned to Eastern Khanate after the death of his cousin. At one time, Sui Emperor Yangdi travelled northward to the tent of Qimin Khan where he encountered the emissary from Koguryo (one of Korea's three kingdoms) and relayed the message of imperial bestowals should Koguryo pay tributes to Sui. (It was said the Korean emissary was in Turk territory seeking an alliance against Sui China, but unexpectedly having an encounter with Sui emperor.) Emperor Yangdi also sent an emissary to the Western Turk Khanate to relay a similar message and obtained the aid of the western khan in attacking the Tuyuhun who were unhappy about Sui's replacing the Tuyuhun wife of the Eastern Turk Khan with a Sui princess. Sui Dynasty set up 4 new prefectures in the territories in and around the eastern khanate, namely, Xihai (west sea or Qinhaihu Lake), Heyuan (origin of Yellow River), Shanshan (Loulan) and Qiemuo.
TANG DYNASTY: When Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) founder Li Yuan rebelled against Sui, he, in exchange for two thousand horses and five hundred Turk cavalry, would collude with the Turks by promising the Turks all the gold and women in the Sui capital. (Hundred years later, Tang emperor would request again for aid from the Uygur Turks in quelling internal rebellion, i.e., An-Shi Rebellion).
While Sui's founder Yang Jian (Yang Chien) (Jian) was said to be the descendant of a Han Dynasty official called Yang Zheng, Tang's founder Li Yuan was said to be the 7th granson of the emperor of Western Liang (AD 400-421), one of the few Chinese nations among the nomadic "Sixteen Nations" preceding the North-South Dynasties (AD 386-589). Both were said to be semi-Tuoba because they married Tuoba's Dugu women. They were relatives. Li Yuan's wife was the sister of Sui Dynasty's Empress Dugu. Li was conferred the title of Duke Tang, and the name 'Tang' would become his dynastic name. (The double character name Dugu means 'lonely' and 'orphaned', literally, and was a Tuoba tribal name, just like Murong and Yuwen. This kind of double character name would become a kind of fashion with Japanese surnames.)
When Tang Dynasty's founder, Li Yuan, rebelled against Sui Dynasty, he would sent his minister (Liu Wenjing) to the Eastern Turks (ruled by Khan Shibi) for borrowing 2000 horses and 500 cavalry. Li Yuan, not proclaiming himself emperor at the beginning, used Yang You (the grandson of Sui emperor) as a puppet. There were a dozen rebel leaders as a result of the dethronement of Sui Dynasty. At this time, Khan Shibi subjugated Tuyuhun in Gansu-Qinghai, Gaochang near Turpan, Khitans and Shiwei in northwestern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. Many Sui Chinese fled to the Turks for seeking asylum. Khan Shibi assisted Li Yuan's rivals, such as Liu Wuzhou & Liang Shidu, in fighting for gaining supremacy in China. After the death of Khan Shibi, his brother, Chuluo Khan (same name as Chuluo Khan during Sui Dynasty time period), would be enthroned. Chuluo Khan assisted another Tang rival, Wang Shichong. Later, Dou Jiande was asked to send ex-empress of Sui to the Turks by Princess Yicheng who was already remarried three times to Turkic khans at the time. Chuluo Khan retrieved ex-Sui Empress Xiaohou and ex-Sui royal family from a Tang rival called Dou Jiande. Dou previously seized Sui Empress Xiaohou from Sui general Yuwen Huaji. (Yuwen Huaji, during the coup, killed Sui Emperor Yangdi in Yangzhou on the Yangtse River). Chuluo Khan erected a Sui royal member as the new Sui King. Chuluo Khan was determined to fight Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty, saying that he wanted to return favor to Sui descendants for Sui Dynasty's helping his ancestors in the restoration of the khan regency. Later, Chuluo Khan died and his brother, Khan Xieli, would be enthroned. A Chinese called called Zhao Deyan was hired as a counsellor by Khan Xieli.
The Eastern Khnanate, the Koreans & the Khitans :
Tang's emperor Taizong, son of Li Yuan, would quell all rivals including Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong et al. One rival at the border was aided by the eastern Turks; hence, Tang sought wars with the Turks in lieu of the old alliance with them. Khan Xieli was disuaded from an alliance with another Tang rival called Xue Ju. Khan Xieli would erect his cousin, i.e., Shibi Khan's son, as Khan Tuli (with the same name as Tuli during the Sui Dynasty time period). Tuli was sent to the east, and Tuli would take charge of the ancient tribes of the Khitans and the Mojie (ancestors of Jurchens) people. Khan Xieli would take over Princess Yicheng as his wife. Khan Tuli was married with Princess Huan'nan of Sui Dynasty. Princess Yicheng's brother (Yang Sanjing) and Wang Shichong's emissary would somehow persuade Khan Xieli into challenging Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty. In A.D. 621, Khan Xieli invaded the Yanmenguan Pass and the Dai Prefecture. For several years, Tang and the Turks fought numerous battles across the northern border areas. By the 7th year of Tang Emperor Gaozu, in A.D. 626, King Qin of Tang Dynasty (i.e., Li Shimin, later Tang Emperor Taizong) would sow a dissension among Xieli Khan and Tuli Khan. Unable to call upon Tuli to fight Tang further, Xieli Khan sent Tuli Khan and Simo to the Tang court for sake of a peace treaty with Tang. Tuli Khan and King Qin promised to be brothers, while Tang Emperor Gaozu said to Simo that he felt he had seen Khan Xieli in meeting with Simo. In the following two years, Tang was busy building ships around the North Bend of the Yellow River for defence against the Turks, while the Turks broke the peace and kept attacking Tang.
In A.D. 627, Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned after killing two brothers and forcing Emperor Gaozu into abdication. This is called the 'Xuanwumen [turtle-snake gate] Coup' in the Tang history. Just twenty days after Taizong got enthroned, Eastern Turkic Khan Xieli attacked Tang, with the Turks reaching the Wei River, just a dozen miles away from the Tang capital. Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) sought peace with the eastern Turks.
In the same year, A.D. 627, the Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, etc, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 628. The next year, the Xueyantuo tribe proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang Dynasty. Other Tiele Tribes, like Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu, also paid pilgrimage to the Tang court. After Eastern Khanate experienced a famine, internal revolts broke out. Khan Xieli (grandson of Qimin Khan) was dissatisfied with Tuli's performance in quelling the rebellion, and had a quarrel with Tuli. Khan Xieli arrested Tuli and did not release Tuli for a long time. After being set free, Tuli surrendered to Tang.
Taizong said that his father (Emperor Gaozu) had sought help and vasslage with the Turks because Tang was weak earlier after emerging from a rebellion against Sui Dynasty. In the fourth year of Taizong' reign, A.D. 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli with six columns of armies, and captured Khan Xieli by taking advantage of the Turkic internal strife. General Li Jing led 3000 cavalry into the Turk camp and defeated Khan Xieli's army via a surprise attack strategy, and then led 10,000 soldiers all the way to Yinshan Mountains (located in today's Inner Mongolia) in pursuit of Khan Xieli. A Turkic chieftan called Kang-sumi surrendered with Sui Empress Xiaohou and the Sui descendant (Yang Zhengdao). General Li Jing retrieved ex-empress of Sui and gave her to emperor Taizong who later took in as his mistress, and General Li Jing killed princess Yicheng for her 4-time-marriage without knowing 'shame'. Khan Xieli, after being defeated again, sought peace with Tang. Li Jing, thinking that the Turks might not be on alert while a Tang emissary was in their camp, attacked Khan Xieli again. Xieli alone fled to another chieftan called Shabolue-she, but he was arrested and surrendered to the Tang army by his own cousin.Hence, the Chinese occupied Mongolia (Eastern Turkic Khanate).
The remnant eastern Turks either fled to Western Khanate or northward to the Tiele Tribe of Xueyantuo (Mandarin spelling, Turkic name unknown). Emperor Taizong, rebutting the advice of his minister Wei Zheng (who cited the Hunnic ravaging of China during the late Jinn Dynasty as a result of their dwelling to the south of the Yellow River, Hatao area), relocated over 100,000 eastern Turks to the border areas, all the way from Shaanxi-Shanxi to today's Beijing city. Taizong did accept the advice of Yan Shigu, Du Chuke and Li Baiyao in having the Turks settle down to the north of the Yellow River. Taizong set up four more prefectures, Shunzhou, Youzhou, Huazhou Changzhou along the Great Wall, and made Khan Tuli governor-general in charge of Shunzhou Prefecture. Tuli Khan was conferred the title of King of Beiping-jun. Tuli died at the age of 29, and his son, Heluohu, succeeded with the same title.
Taizong subdivided the Eastern Khanate into altogether 10 "zhou" (an administartive unit larger than prefectures). He also allowed Khan Xieli and his officials to live in Chang'an the Tang capital, and altogether close to 10,000 Turk families moved in. A Turkic chieftan called Sijie-sijin surrendered to Tang with 40,000 people. (Sijin, a title having origin in Xianbei and Ruruan eras, was a Turkic title equivalent to governorship. Among ten Turkic families, for example, Nushibi khan possesseed five sijin. Turks also conferred the sijin post onto the Tiele Tribes and the Khitans.) One brother of Khan Xieli, who first fled to Tuyuhun, came to submit to Tang, too. The Turkic chieftan at Yiwu surrendered his 7 cities to Tang, and Tang made it into Western Yizhou Prefecture. Shabolue-she, with 50,000 people, was conferred the title of King Huaide (harboring gratitude). Shabolue-she relocated to north of Ningzhou Prefecture by vacating the land south of the desert.
Tang Emperor further exchanged money and silk for 80,000 Sui Chinese who fled to Turkic chieftans for asylum during China's civil war turmoil time period. Tang allowed those Chinese to come back to China as civilians.
Khan Xieli, unhappy while living in Chang'an, declined Taizong's offer to have him relocate to another place where he could go for hunting, and Khan Xieli died in A.D. 634. Taizong gave him the title of King Guiyi posthumously. One of Khan Xieli's ministers committed suicide when Xieli died. One more Turkic minister, Sunishi (Khan Qimin's brother), also committed suicide. Xieli's son was commented to be a filial son by Emperor Taizong for his refusal to eat bestowed meat because his birth mother did not get the allocation.
The Huihe (Uygurs) ranked second to Xueyantuo tribe among the eleven tribes who had helped Tang in defeating Eastern Turkic Khanate in A.D. 630-640. The Tiele tribes proposed that Tang Emperor Taizong be the khan in Sept of A.D. 646. Under the sponsorship of the Uygurs, the tribal leaders devised a name called "Tian Ke-han" (Heavenly Khan) for Emperor Taizong. In Jan of A.D. 647, the Tiele territories were made into prefectures and counties. In June, money was paid out to buy back Chinese stranded in the Tiele territories. During the attacks on the Xueyantuo in A.D. 646, Emperor Taizong won over the support of eleven Tiele tribes including the Uygurs (Huihe), Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu.
Tang's General Li Jing (a military strategist who once fled with a mistress of Sui prime minister while being invited as a guest at the home of Sui prime minister) was later sent on another expedition to Qinhai-Gansu and Tarim Basin to quell rebellion of the Tuyuhun, a group of Qiangic people mixed with the Xianbei nomads. Tang married princess over to Tuyuhun king to pacify them. With the help of the Uygurs and other Tiele Tribes, Tang Chinese subdued the Tarim Basin in 630-40. During this time, A.D. 629-645, famous Tang Monk Xuan-zang [i.e., Chen Hui] travelled to India and returned to Chang'an in 16 years, passing dozens of countries and nomadic tribal states in between, which include the so-called Gaochang State (near east of today's Turpan) where he was received by king Qu Wentai. Xuan-zang's travellogue had good descriptions of the White Huns. Xuan-zang mentioned an interesting thing about 300 Chinese households [captives of the Turks] dwelling in a small town to the south of Talas.
In year A.D. 640, Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, learning of Tuyuhun's intermarriage with Tang, initiated a war against Tang and requested intermarriage with Tang princess. Tibetan Prime Minister Ludongzan was sent to Chang'an and passed imperial inquiries and tests. Princess Wencheng arrived in Tibet one year later.
King of Gaochang State, Qu Wentai, colluded with Western Turkic Khanate in subjugating small tribal states in today's Xinjjiang (New Dominion) area and rebelled against Tang. In A.D. 639, with the help of Xueyantuo or Sheyanto tribe (one component of the Tiele Tribes), Tang army of 100,000 travelled 7,000 li distance to fight Gaochang State, scaring Qu Wentai to death. Qu Wentai's son surrenderred after learning that the relief army of Western Khanate Turks had fled home half way. Emperor Taizong renamed Gaochang to Xizhou, and made it the locality for the governor-general office in charge of Yutian, Suiye, Shule and Chouci. (Later, Xizhou or Anxi Protector_General or Marshal Presidio Office was relocated to Chouci in A.D. 659.) In A.D. 702, Tang would set up Beiting 'Protector_General (Marshal Presidio)' office in Tingwai or Tingzhou (present-day Jimsar), a place located to the east of Suiye (Tokmok), to the south of Xizhou (Turpan), and to the west of Yizhou (Hami).
By A.D. 648, Tang subdued the remnants of eastern Turks north of the Gobi. Meantime, Tang defeated the Khitans in Manchuria, and controlled central and eastern Mongolia, thus stretching 9,510 li east to west and 10,918 li south to north in its territories. The Xueyantuo tribe, differentiated in Chinese chronicle as a separate tribe from the Uygur tribe, was in charge of north Mongolia. Non-Chinese historical accounts, including US Library of Congress website, however, stated that the Uygur vassal controlled west and north Mongolia, from Lake Alltaid to Lake Balkash. The Uygurs would gain control of north Mongolia at a later time.
Tuli Khan's son, Heluohu, was targeted by his Turkic tribesmen for abduction back to the Turkic land. They fled to north of China and disturbed the border areas. Taizong defeated the rebellion and exiled Heluohu to southern China. Emperor Taizong decided to send Simo (the cousin? of ex-khan Xieli) back to the land of Eastern Khanate as a ruler, thus making Simo into a rival of the Tiele Tribe (Xueyantuo). Xueyantuo tribe, an ex-ally, now rebelled against Tang for Tang's dispatchment of Simo. Simo was commented to have looked like a 'Hu' versus the Turkic Ah'shina family. Hence, he was previously not employed for high posts. He once served as a khan north of the desert when Khan Qimin fled to Sui Dynasty. When Qimin returned, Simo relinquished the khan title. Simo was frequently sent to Tang as a peace emissary. Simo was caught together with Khan Xieli. Simo was conferred the title of King Hedejun and governor-general of Huazhou Prefecture.
Hearing that Simo led the Turks (100 thousand people, 40 thousand army and 90 thousand horses) in crossing the Yellow River in A.D. 641, the Xueyantuo Tribe tried to fight the Turks. Xueyantuo wrote to Tang saying that the Turks did not know to keep promise and peace. Tang said to Xueyantuo that Turks would control south of the desert while Xueyantuo was to control north of the desert. Three years later, Simo, unable to harness his people, returned to Tang court, later followed Taizong in the Korean campaign (on which occasion Taizong sucked the blood from the arrow wound that Simo suffered), and later died in the Tang capital. Simo's Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king), son of the late Sunishi, would have tears everytime Tang emissary arrived at north of the desert, and he would be allowed to return to Tang court. Some of Simo's people relocated south of the Yellow River and settled in Shengzhou and Xiazhou Prefectures.
Replacing Simo would be the Turkic Khan called Chebi. Chebi at first fled to the Xueyantuo Tiele Tribe, where he was liked by the tribesmen. When being threatened by Xueyantuo, he escaped from Xueyantuo. Xueyantuo chased him all the way westward. Chebi would soom amass 30 thousand people and he would assert control over the Karlaks in the west and Qigu (Jiegu) in the north. Chebi, claiming to be Khan Yizhu-chebi, sent son Shaboluo-teqin to the Tang court. The Chebi Turks often harassed the Xueyantuo tribe thereafter. In the 23rd year of the Zhenguan Era, Emperor Taizong incited the Huihe and Pugu tribes to attack Chebi. In the first year of the Yongwei Era, Emperor Gaozong ordered another attack against Chebi. Chebi was captured and brought to Chang'an to be under house arrest, while the remnant Turks were settled at Mt. Yuedujun-shan. With Chebi defeated, the Turkic land was made into two "duhu-fu" offices of Chanyu and Hanhai, with the former commanding three "dudu" and 14 prefectures and the latter seven "dudu" (governors) and eight prefectures.
I haven't verified the unit "li" as used in Tang Dynasty. http://www.os.xaxon.ne.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/esss.html stated that 'San-kuo-shih or Three Country Record does not use the distance unit of"li" to be 435 meters as used during the Chin or Han dynasty Period. but rather it uses the unit adopted by the Wei and Western Chin dynasties, which is that one "li" is approxinately 77 meters.'
In late 630-40s, Tang intervened in the civil wars of Korea. Back in the autumn of A.D. 633, Silla sent an emissary in request of Chinese help in attacking Koguryo which was allied with Paekche. Tang China, with the lesson of Sui Dynasty's two time failures against Koguryo, had conferred the title of King Liaodong-jun-wang onto Koguryo King Gao Jianwu. Paekche King Fuyu Zhang was conferred King Daifang-jun, and Silla King Zhenping the title of King Lelang. After the death of Zhenping, a daughter by the name of Shande was enthroned. In Koguryo, minister Quan Gaisuwen personally killed King Gao Jianwu inside the palace, slaughtered the ministers who had schemed with the king in subduing him, and then selected Gao Zang [the son of Gao Jianwu's brother] as the new king. After that, Gaisuwen allied with Paekche to attach Silla. Gaisuwen declined Chinese emissary who was sent to Koguryo to disuade the war. At Luoyang, in Feb of A.D. 645, Tang Emperor Taizong ordered a campaign against Liaodong [east of Liao River] by ordered Zhang Jian of Yingzhou Prefecture to mobilize the army of Youzhou & Yingzhou as well as the nomadic tribes like Khitans, Xi & Mohe. In Hongzhou, Raozhou & Jiangzhou, 400 ships were being built. Hearing of China's war preparations, Koguryo sent over precious platinum; however, Taizong ordered the arrest of the Koguryo emissary. Before Taizong's departing with crown prince, Xueyantuo emissary came to China. Taizong relayed a message, stating that should Xueyantuo Khan Zhenzhu intend to attack China, he was at will to do so by taking advantage of the Chinese campaign against Korean peninsula. Zhang Liang & Li Shiji were ordered on a campaign against Koguryo via sea and land. The first campaign ended when the winter came. A few months later, in the summer of A.D. 646, Koguryo King Gao Zang & Quan Gaisuwen dispatched emissary for pardon, and surrendered two beauties.
Emperor Taizong put aside the Korea matter when Xueyantuo Tribe repeatedly raided Chinese border. The elder son of the khan of Xueyantuo, i.e., Bazhuo, took advantage of emperor Taizong's first Korean expedition in attacking Tang south of the Yellow River. After the death of Khan Zhenzhu, elder son chased to kill younger brother Yemang when Yemang was on the road of fleeing back to the eastern territory after the funeral. Bazhuo, claiming to be Khan Xieli-juli-xiasha-duomi, was defeated by Tang Dynasty's nomadic general Zhishisili in Dec of A.D. 645. In Jan of A.D. 646, Qiao Wang of Xiao-zhou defeated Xueyantuo. After the defeat, Bazhuo turned around to attack Xiazhou on the western bend of the Yellow River. In June of A.D. 646, Taizong dispatched King Jiangxia-wang and Zhishisili against Bazhuo. Bazhuo fled after a defeat. At this moment, tribes of the Huihe (Uygur), who were appointed to the Hanhai prefecture, came to the aid of Tang and attacked Xueyantuo tribe together with Tang army consisting of several columns of various nomads from Liang and Dai prefectures. Allied armies included those under King Jiangxia-wang, Ashina She'er, Zhishisili, Qibi Heli, Xue Wanche, and Zhang Jian. The Uygurs helped Tang army in successfully quelling the rebellion of Xueyantuo. Tribes of the Uygur killed the khan of Xueyantuo tribe and hence controlled north Mongolia where Xueyantuo once held. 70,000 households of Xueyantuo tribe fled to the west, and supported Duomozhi [son of Zhenzhu's brother] as the new khan. Huihe chieftan Tumidu, however, refused to allow Tang China's emissary Cui Dunli to pacify Duomozhi. Li Shiji followed through with an expedition against Duomozhi, arrested Duomozhi for delivery to Tang court, and pacified 30,000 Xueyantuo tribesmen. Taizong personally went to Lingzhou, on the west bend of the Yellow River, and issued pacification order to the remnants of 15 Tiele tribes. To the north of the Desert, Xue Wanche & King Jiangxia-wang Dao Zong chased Xueyantuo remnants for 200 li distance, and then called upon Huihe tribe to seek vassalage with Tang court. At Jingyang, 11 Tiele tribal chieftans came to pay respect. Emperor Taizong re-zoned the northern territories into six fu (prefecture or province) and seven zhou (prefecture).
After the north was settled, in A.D. 639 Tang Emperor Taizong attacked the Chouci State in the west, which wavered in its loyalty between Tang Dynasty and the Western Khanate. In A.D. 641-648, Tang defeated Western Khante and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains. However, in the north, there arose, after the defeat of the Xueyantuo, a remnant eastern Turkic khan. In A.D. 649, Emperor Taizong, again with help from Uygurs, campaigned against the north. In the same year, Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) died. Altogether images of 14 khans had been inscribed on the stones and stood beside Taizong's tomb after one khan's request to be funerary object buried alive was rejected by succeeding emperor, Gaozong. After Taizong's death, General Gao Kan, under Emperor Gaozong, would soon capture the last remnant eastern khan and the Eastern Khanate was put to rest for the time being.
The Eastern and Western Turks rebelled against Tang several times thereafter. For almost a hundred years, the Huihe [Uygurs] would assert control over north Mongolia in competition with the remaining Turks who re-established the Eastern Khanate in A.D. 682/683 in Mongolia. Tang's civil minister Pei Xingjian was responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681 via strategies like 'hiding soldiers inside the grain carts' and 'offering 10,000 liang (a unit of weight similar to ounce) gold for the head of the khan'. Pei Xingjian, earlier, escorted the Persian Prince on his way to Persia and captured the western Turkic khan who sought suzerainty from the Tibetans. The Persian Prince, however, was afraid of going further to Persia. He stayed around Suiye, failed to organize any army, and then returned to Chang'an where he spent the rest of his life. The remnant Western Turks, under the Tibetan suzerainty, set up the Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin in A.D. 691, to be defeated in A.D. 692 by Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture who re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan).
The eastern Turks allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang. The Khitans were given the royal family name of Li by Emperor Taizong in early times and once followed Emperor Taizong in his Korean campaigns. The Khitans first rebelled against Tang in A.D. 656-661 and again in A.D. 696. The eastern Turks (namely, Orkhon Turks) allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang. Certainly, the Turks and the Khitans were adversaries as well. The Orchon Turks, under Khan Mochuo, attacked the Khitans as well. Tang mobilized an army of hundreds of thousands and defeated the Khitans. Hence, the Khitans fled to the Turks for protection. The Eastern Turks obtained in A.D. 697 from Empress Wu Zetian the old Turkic territories of six Tang prefectures, Pingzhou, Shenzhou, Lingzhou, Xiazhou, Suozhou and Dai (Daizhou), and moreover, sought for his daughter the marriage with the Chinese royal family. Empress Wu, who initially refused to yield the pacified Turks to Mochuo, took Yao Ji's advice to appease the Turks by yielding the six prefectures as well as approving the intermarriage request. The pacified Turks in the six Tang prefectures were transferred to Mochuo via expulsion, which further beefed up the Turks' strength. Over 40,000 "shi" (bushel) of seeds plus over 3000 sets of agricultural tools were given to the Turks as well. When Empress Wu Zetian sent her family's prince, Wu Yanxiu, to the Turks, Khan Mochuo got angry after learning that his duaghter was not to marry the Tang royal family of Li. Khan Mochuo held Prince Wu as a hostage and campaigned against Wu Zetian on behalf of Tang's emperors (two Li emperors, both Wu's sons, who were deprived of rights and placed in palace arrest). Khan Mochuo, claiming to be Weiwei Khan, attacked Tang's Jingnan-jun, Pingdi-jun and Qingyi-jun armies, attacked Guizhou and Tanzhou. Empress Wu Zetian dispatched Wu Zhonggui1, Shazha Zhongyi, and Zhang Rendan, about 300,000 troops, against the Turks. Mochuo then attacked Weizhou and Dingzhou, and massacred people indiscriminately. Mochuo killed 80-90 thousand people in two prefectures of Dingzhou and Zhaozhou and retreated. Shazha Zhongyi and Li Duozuo (a former Malgal chieftan) dared not to counterattack the Turks, while Di Renjie failed to catch up with the Turks. The next year, Mochuo declared himself Tuoxi (exploring the west) Khan. In the following years, Mochuo attacked the west, and looted over ten thousand horses in "Long-you" (today's Gansu).
In A.D. 700, two Tang nomadic generals defeated the Khitans again. The Turks and the Tang Chinese had seesaw warfare, till dethroned Emperor Zhongzong got restored in A.D. 705. In 703, Mochuo sent an emissary to request for his daughter to be married with a Tang prince. Wu Zetian ordered Wu Chongjun and Wu Chongming to meet the Turk emissary. Mochuo responded with a tribute of over 1000 horses and native products. After Li Duozuo assisted the Tang court ministers in overthrowing Wu Zetian's rule and restoring Emperor Zhongzong, Mochuo sent the Turks to attacking Mingsha-xian County of Lingzhou. The Tang Lingwu-jun army under Shazha Zhongyi was defeated. The Turks attacked Yuanzhou and Huizhou, lotting over ten thousand horses.
In A.D. 712, the Khitans submitted to Tang and was conferred the title of King of the Songmuo [pine desert] Prefecture. Heads of the eight Khitan tribes were conferred the general's posts as well. A Tang royal family princess, Princess Yongle, was sent to the Khitan khan as wife.
Emperor Xuanzong, in A.D. 714, defeated the Eastern Turkic Khan Mochuo and won over the defection of Mochuo's brother-in-law. However, the glorious days under Emperor Taizong were gone.
The Orhkon Turks: History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Huihe [Uygurs] and the Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks (i.e., the Eastern Turks) under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, the Tang Chinese also allied with the Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, the land between the Arabs and the Chinese, from A.D. 716 to A.D. 733. In 716, Turkic Khan Mochuo, i.e., brother to founder Guduolu, was killed.
After Khan Mochuo was killed by the Turkic tribesmen, the Orkhon Turks came to term with the Chinese. The Turk successors were said to have erected two granite monuments cursing the Chinese for the treachery and their tribesmen for betrayal. The two monuments were seen today in Hang-gai province and Shuo-chai-da-mu of Outer Mongolia today.
Queteqin (Tul Tegin) conducted a coup to make brother Mojilian a khan. Mojilian wanted to yield the throne to Queteqin, for which he was made into the leftside virtuous king while Mojilian assumed the khan as Pijia Khan. In A.D. 731, when Queteqin (Tul Tegin) died, Tang Emperor Xuanzong sent Zhang Quyi and Lv Xianglai to the Turks for condolence. A stone minument for Queteqin (Tul Tegin) was erected, with the winged bird figures, a Zoroastrian burial symbol, inscribed. Tang Emperor Xuanzong sent over the handwritten elegy.
When Khan Pijia was poisoned by minister Meiluduo, the Tang court sent another delegation to condoling the khan's death. Khan Pijia, before his death, ordered to exterminate the Meiluduo's family and decreed to make his son Khan Yiran. (Meiluduo, in an earlier trip to the Tang court, was said to have divulged the secret Turkic-Tibetan alliance treaty.) In A.D. 735, the Pijia Stone Monument was erected. Tang minister Li Rong wrote the Chinese version of the script for the monument.
In A.D. 745, the Orkhon Khanate would end in the hands of the Huihe [Uygurs, who believed in the Moni religion, i.e., that of the Buddha of Light] and the Karluks. Though defeated, the Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. The remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties.
The Turgesh rebelled against the Chinese in A.D. 739 and were defeated. In A.D. 741, General Kao Hsien-chih (Gao Xianzhi) led the Chinese troops into Turkistan. Gao Xianzhi, also spelled Kao-hsien-chih or Ko Son-ji in Korean, was a son of Korguryo General Ko Sagye who was captured by the Tang army and then served the Tang Dynasty.) In A.D. 744/45, the Huihe [Uygurs] defeated the Turks in today's Mongolia and established the first Huihe (Uygur) Empire, with the city of Karabalgasun on the banks of the Orkhun River as its capital. In A.D. 747, General Kao defeated the Tibetans near the Gilgit Pass in the Hindu Kush mountains and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs to the upper valley of the Amu-darya. (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm has a good article about Gao's expedition at Gilgit Pass, entitled "A CHINESE EXPEDITION ACROSS THE PAMIRS AND HINDUKUSH, A.D.747.", BY SIR AUREL STEIN, K.C.I.E. It compared Gao'a accomplishment to Hannibal's expedition across the Alps with the North Africa elephants.)
In A.D. 747-749, General Kao defeated the Karluks who had replaced the Turgesh Turks as a power in the area. In A.D. 748, the Chinese invaded the Ferghana Valley where today's Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan converge. (Turkmenistan is to the west of the Ferghana Valley). In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Shi-guo (Tashkent) Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, the Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Chouci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by the Central Asia locals to counter the Arab invasion. However, the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
Among the prisoners of war, quite a few Chinese possessed some special skills, such as weaving expert Le Yu. They were relocated to the Arab Peninsula where they relayed the paper technology. One young man, by the name of Du Huan, had later visited North Africa; later returned to Tang China; and wrote a book called Jing Xing Ji, i.e., The Records Of Passing Through. Du Huan's uncle, Historian Du You, included a section of the travelogue in the encyclopedia 'Tong Dian'. http://cy.revues.org/document33.html has a description of the activities by Du Huan in the Arab Peninsula and Africa.
The Karlaks in the 740s to the 750s (and in A.D. 766), defeated the Turgesh. The Karlaks, who were adversaries to the Huihe, moved south to the Qihe (seven rivers) area and today's Dzungaria. In south Siberia, the Jiegu (i.e., the Kirghiz) became the adversary of the Huihe, allying with the Karlaks and the Tibetans against the Huihe. The Tibetans took the route of the Karlaks and the Jiegu for trade in lieu of passing through the Huihe territory.
The Khitans would continue its developments in power, and by the middle of the A.D. 750s, they defeated the Tang army led by An Lushan. An Lushan earlier had led an army of hundreds of thousands and tried to quell the Khitan rebellion with a Xi nomadic guide. An Lushan lost over 100,000 troops at Tianmenling (heavenly gate ridge) in the battle against the Khitans. An Lushan's rebellion (An-Shi rebellion) broke out in Oct, A.D. 755. This will bring about Tang's decline. The Khitans later submitted to the Huihe [Uygurs]. It would be in A.D. 842 that the Khitans came to submit to Tang again after the Huihe [Uygurs] were destroyed by the Kirghiz. Governor-general of Youzhou, Zhang Zhongwu, would replace the Khitan's Uygur seal with a Tang seal. In the A.D. 860s, the Khitans came to pay pilgrimage to the Chinese emperor. With the demise of Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Khitans began to conquer the Xi and Shiwei statelets. They began to raid into northern China again. Governor-general Liu Ren'gong counter-attacked them. Later, Liu Shouguang defeated them again, and peace ensued for 10 years.
Western Khnanate, Persians, Indians & Tibetans :
The khan of Western Khnanate, Ashina Daman (Nijue-chuluo Khan, ?-619), who was son of Nili Khan, had once followed Sui Emperor Yangdi's call in the Korean campaign. Taking advantage of Khan Datou's escape to Tuyuhun for asylum in A.D. 603, Nijue-chuoluo Khan took over the land of the Western Turkic Khanate. Shegui, a grandson of Khan Datou, counterattacked Nijue-chuluo Khan. Taking advantage of Sui Emperor Yangdi's detaining Nijue-chuluo Khan in A.D. 611, Shegui Khan took control of the Western Turkic Khanate, with the capital set at Sanmishan, to the north of Qiuci. (Nijue-chuluo Khan [Ashina Daman], who followed Yuwen Huaji to today's Hebei after the latter killed Sui Emperor Yangdi in Yangzhou in a coup, escaped to see Tang's first emperor Gaozu, i.e., Li Yuan, but he was killed by his Turkic rivals in A.D. 619 for his obedience to the Tang emperor when he was handed over to the Eastern Turkic Khanate.)
After the death of Khan Shegui (Shekui), Tongyehu (Tong Yabgu) took over the Western Turkic Khanate's rein. In the west, Khan Tongyehu (Tong Yabgu Qaghan) moved the capital to Qianquan (thousand springs), north of today's Tashkent. At about A.D. 618, Khan Shegui (Shekuei) died, with brother enthroned as Tongyehu Khan (reign 618-628), namely, Tong Yabghu Qaghan. Yongyehu Khan was described to have led an army of men with slanting and lidless eyes in sacking and destroying Derbent in today's Azerbaijan in A.D. 627. After the attack on Derbent in cooperation with the Khazers, the Western Turks and Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire joined forces to attack Tfilis in today's Georgia, dealing a defeat onto the Persian Sassanid Empire (224-651). In 627, the Khazars invaded Transcaucasia. Heraclius of the Byzantium Empire subsequently defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Khosrau II was assassinated in early 628. In 628, Tongyehu Khan was assassinated by uncle Moheduo (son of Datou Khan), which led to the turmoil and colalpse of the khanate.
Moheduo's rule was challenged by the Karlaks. The Nu-shi-bi tribe pushed Ashina Nishu-mohe-she as khan, while Nishu recomemnded Xili-teqin as Si-yehu Khan. Si-yehu Khan (i.e., Khan Yipiboluosi-yehu) and Moheduo fought for years till the former killed the latter in the Altaic Mountains in A.D. 630. Si-yehu then suspected Nishu of disloyalty, forcing the latter into fleeing to Yanqi. (Nishu was speculated by historian Xue Zongzheng to be the same person as Ashina Mishe who received the first Western Turkic Khan conferral from Tang emissary Liu Shan to be Khan Tun'aloubaxilibi-duolu but died of cold-related illness in 634. Mishe, who received the conferral from Liu Shan in A.D. 632 as Xilibi-duolu Khan, was sid to have led the Chuyue and Chumi tribes to the Tang court as a result of rivalry from Ashina Buzhen. Ashina Mishe was said to have followed Emperor Taizong in the Korean Campaign, for which he was conferred the title of Count Pyongyang-xian[county]-bo. Ashina Mishe, who did not die as Nishu did, played a role in Tang Dynasty's sweep through Central Asia in A.D. 657.)
In 632, the Western Turks expelled Si-yehu to the Kang-ju territory and retrieved Nishu as Duolu Khan. The next year, Sishu, who had sworn to be brothers with Tang Emperor Taizong in early years, petitioned to be subject to Tang. In 634, Nishu passed away. Brother Ashina Tong'e enthroned as Khan Shaboluo-dielishi. After several rounds of internal killings, the western Turks invited a royal family member of the Eastern Khanate to be their new khan. After fleeing west in the aftermath of the demise of the Eastern Turkic Khanate, Yuegu-she, son of Eastern Turkic Khan Shibi, in 638 declared to be Khan Yipiduolu, and fought against Khan Shaboluo-dielishi [not xilishi]. Dielishi divided the Western Turks into ten tribes, with one arrow each. The Western Khanate was divided into two parts, with the northern court controlled by Khan Shaboluo-dielishi, and the sourthern court of Western Khanate controlled by Khan Yipiduolu, with the Ili River as boundary. The southern court controlled the five Nushibi tribes while the northern court controlled the five Duolu tribes, namely, the ten Turkic tribes in the west.
In 639, Khan Yipiduolu attacked east against Khan Shaboluo-dielishi, expelling the latter to the Fergana area. Nephew Bobu-teqin was made into Yipi-shaboluo-yehu Khan who was ultimately killed by Khan Yipiduolu (?-653). Khan Yipiduolu hence controlled the Turks as well as the Tiele Tribes including Bajimi and Jiegu (Xiajiasi, or the Kirghiz). In 642, Khan Yipiduolu attacked Yizhou (Hami) but got repelled by Tang General Guo Xiaoge. The Chu-mi tribe surrendered to the Tang Chinese. The Western Turks went into turmoil as a result of the khan's mistreatment of his followers. At the request of the Turks, Tang Emperor Taizong decreed to make a nephew of Ashina Sihu the new khan, i.e., Yipi-shegui Khan. Khan Yipiduolu fled to Tuhuoluo, and died there in 653, while his son was made into KZhenzhu-yehu. Yipi-shegui Khan in A.D. 646 refused to yield five statelets around the Pamirs as gift in exchange for intermarriage with the Tang princess. In 648, the Tang court sent Ashina Duerping to defeating Yipi-shegui Khan. Tang sent Ashina Helu as Nifu-shaboluo-yehu to pacifying the Western Turks. In 649, after Emperor Taizong died, Ashina Helu rebelled to attack Tingzhou. In A.D. 651, Ashina Helu defeated Yipi-shegui Khan and declared himself Khan Shaboluo.
Previously, we had said that with the help of the Huihe [Uygurs], Tang Emperor Taizong quelled the rebellion of the Xueyantuo [Tiele] tribe in northern Mongolia and attacked the Qiuci [Chouci, i.e., today's Kuche or Kuqa] State in the west which wavered in its loyalty between Tang and the Western Khanate. During the period of A.D. 641-648, Tang defeated the Western Khanate and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains. The Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 A.D. Thereafter, the Tibetans would compete with the Tang Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would exist large Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk).
In the Western Khanate, the usurper proclaimed himself Khan Shaboluo and attacked the Tang border post of Tingzhou prefecture. Emperor Gaozong sent an army of 30 thousand led by nomadic general He Li (who was cut off an ear previously by an eastern khan for refusing to surrender to the Eastern Khanate) and called upon a Huihe (Uygur) army of 50 thousand in campaigning against the Western Khanate. This first campaign ended prematurely when the palace struggles between Empress Wu Zetian and two other empressess erupted. Though Tang Emperor Gaozong took the rein from A.D. 649 to 683, Gaozong's wife, i.e., Empress Wu Zetian, had assumed the actual power over Emperor Gaozong much earlier than A.D. 690 when she proclaimed herself 'emperor' (empress) of Wu Zhou Dynasty which lasted till A.D. 705. Wu Zetian later killed two of her 4 sons for solidifying control over the Tang court and by A.D. 690, she killed dozens of royal family members of Li and ministers and generals, including Paekche (Korean) General Heichichang-zi.
Years later, Yehu the son of ex-khan of the Western Khanate invited the Tang army to jointly attack the usurper khan Shaboluo. Tang sent governor-general Yuan Lichen of Fengzhou prefecture to the city of Suiye to help make Yehu into a khan. Tang General Su Dingfang, who would later in A.D. 662-666 cross the sea from Mount Chengshan to campaign in Korea and aid Shilla in defeating both Paekche/Koguryo & Japanese (whose 100 warships were burnt by General Liu Rengui during the campaign), led the Huihe [Uygurs] in attacking the usurper khan of the Western Khanate from the north. In A.D. 657, General Su, who attacked from the northern route, released two Western Khanate generals, Ashina Mishe and Ashina Buzhen, in an attempt to encircle the western khan from the southern route. One of the two Western Khanate generals killed Khan Yehu and became the new khan of the Western Khanate, and the other general was made into a khan by Tang Dynasty, too, maybe in an attempt to have the two new khans check on each other. Around A.D. 657, the Western Turks were thoroughly defeated. Altogether 10 family names of the western Turks, i.e., the On Okh (Onoq, Ten Arrows), surrendered to Tang. Tang set up two extra "Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Offices" of Kunling and Mengchi in the territories of Western Khanate. In the Marshal-Presidio Mengchi, Ashina Buzhen was conferred the post as "duhu" (protector) and Khan Jiwangjue (succeeding the past limitless) to be in charge of the five Nushibi tribes. (Ashina Buzhen was the fifth generation grandson of Shidianmi, and a cousin of Ashina Mishe. Previously in A.D. 632, Buzhen killed over 20 brothers and cousins of Ashina Mishe who was conferred by Emperor Taizong to be Xilibiduo Khan. Ashina Mishe in A.D. 639 led the Chuyue and Chumi tribes to the Tang court.)
By A.D. 659, Tang Chinese forces subjugated Transoxiana (i.e., Western Turkic Khanate). Marshal-Presidio Kunling office would be in charge of about 9 kingdoms situated in and around Samarkand, Tashkent and Merv and 16 others in Kashmir, Afghanistan and Iran. The Tang Chinese would retain the control of the Oxus valley till the Arabs came along in A.D. 751, with interruptions of the Turkic rebellion in between.
In the old territories of Qiuci State, Emperor Gaozong released the son of ex-khan of Qiuci from the Tang capital. Emperor Gaozong relocated the Anxi Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Office to the Qiuci Statelet from the Gaochang Statelet, making the Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Office in charge of Qiuci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan), and 16 other tribal states, altogether 80 fu and zhou [i.e., prefectures and magistrate offices].
The two new khans of the Western Khanate would fight each other soon. Khan Buzhen slandered Khan Mishe by telling Marshal-Governor Su Haizhen that Khan Mishe would rebel against Tang Dynasty. Su Haizhen, fearing that his marshal-governor office did not have enough soldiers, decided to take the initiative first. Su Haizhen cheated Khan Mishe into a party and killed him in A.D. 662. Khan Mishe's people fled southwestward to Tibet. Soon Khan Buzhen died in A.D. 667, and the 10 families of the Western Khanate all went to Tibet to seek the suzerainty under the Tibetans. For about twenty years, the ten Tuekic names lacked a leader till Ashina Huseluo (son of Ashina Buzhen) was conferred by Empress Wu Zetian the title of Jiwangjue Khan in A.D. 685, to be in charge of five Nushibi tribes. The Tibetans were invited by the Turks in fighting the Tang Chinese.
Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, who obtained Princess Wencheng from Emperor Taizong, died in A.D. 650. At the time of Songtsen Gampo, i.e., A.D. 647, the Tibetans had once helped Tang emissary [Wang Xuance] in attacking middle India (one of five Indian kingdoms of the time) when the Tang emissary was assaulted by the new Indian king. Alternative records stated that it was 7000 Nepalese cavalry, not the Tibetan cavalry, that Wang Xuance had borrowed from Nepalese King A-mu-xiu-wa-e in the name of Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo. The story goes like this: Wang Xuance, who was first dispatched to India in A.D. 643 for escorting Indian emissary home, would visit King Xi-la-di-ti-ya of middle India [Zhong-tian-zu, i.e., Ma-ka-da] in A.D. 647. Upon arrival, Wang Xuance was attacked and arrested by the new usurper Indian king A-e-qiu-na. Wang Xuance, after fleeing from prison, went straight northward, crossed the Ganges River, climbed Mt Himalaya, and paid a visit to Nepalese king. With 7000 Nepalese cavalry, Wang Xuance returned to the Ganges River area and defeated King A-e-qiu-na's elephant column, and brought the captive to Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 648. In A.D. 658, Wang Xuance made a 3rd visit to India and wrote extensively on the Indian geography and buddhism.
Tibetan Zanpu's young grandson would be the new Tibetan king. However, Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan and his four sons had the actual power over Tibet. Ludongzan, together with 10 families of Western Khanate, would first attack Tangut, i.e., Tibet's number one rival. Tang Emperor Gaozong was asked to intervene by the Tanguts. Emperor Gaozong rejected two Tibetan requests: 1) the land of Chisui (i.e., red water), and 2) Tibetan intermarriage with the Tanguts. Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan hence obtained the aid of the Yutian (Hotan) people and took over 18 prefectures in western territories, including the Qiuci Statelet. General Xue Rengui, in A.D. 670, was ordered to quell the Tibetan rebellion, but he was defeated by Ludongzan's 400 thousand troops due to the fact that his logistics general lost all equipment and supplies to the Tibetans. General Xue negotiated a peace treaty in which Tang would promise not to enter the Tangut territory. When Xue Ren'gui returned to the capital, he was demoted into a civilian and would not be recalled till the Eastern Turks rebelled in the north in A.D. 680-681. Hence, Tibet entered Tangut territory and relocated all Tanguts to the Lingzhou prefecture which was already taken over by the Tibetans. In A.D. 678, Tang Emperor Kaozong campaigned against Tibet again, but Tang was defeated by the Tibetans.
A.D. 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina (Ah'shina Duozhi), together with the Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Marshal Presidio. Emperor Gaozong ordered the release of Persian Prince Peroz III in the attempt of having the Persians impede the Western Turks in the west. In early times, the Persian King, Yazdegerd III (grandson of Khosrau II), died in the hands of rebels in A.D. 651 after the Arabs defeated the Sassani Persians in 636 and sacked the capital city of Ctesiphon [since the days of the Arsacid Parthians] in 637. At the time the Arabs attacked the Persians, the new Persian King, Peroz (Beirusi), sought the help of the Tang Chinese by sending his son Niniesi (Narseih) to the Tang capital for requesting aid. Peroz himself came to the Tang court during 670-674. Tang had made the city of Jiling as the marshal-governor office and designated Persian King Peroz (Beirusi) as the "Persian Marshal". In A.D. 678, Tang civil [personnel] minister "libu shilang" Pei Xingjian was ordered to accompany the Persian prince back to Persia. When Pei passed the land of the Western Turks, he led a column of tribal leaders from Anxi Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) nomads, and captured the Turkic Khan Duozhi via a surprise strategy: Pei Xingjian earlier broadcasted that he would go west after the season and the Turkic khan took Fei's words for granted and hence did not make preparations for defence. Pei asked the Persian Prince to continue the trip back to his country, and he re-constructed the city of Suiye (Suyab), and delegated the power of Anxi Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) to his general Wang Fangyi. Later, Pei Xingjian would be responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681 via similar strategies, like hiding soldiers inside the grain carts and offering 10,000 liang(ounce?) gold for the head of the khan. In A.D. 682, the Western Turks rebelled again, and Fei was ordered to go west, but he died on the road at the age of 64. His general Wang Fangyi would succeed in quelling the Western Turks thereafter.
The Persian Prince never reached his homeland. After some futile attempts to rally his people, he returned to the Tang capital in A.D. 708 and spent his rest of the life in China. (There was a dispute as to whether it was Peroz or his son Narseih who was escorted to the west for rallying anti-Arab forces.)
In A.D. 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture defeated the Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan). In A.D. 696, the Tibetans sought peace with Tang, requesting: i) that Tang revoke the administrations in the four cities, and ii) that Tibet & Tang divide the 10 Western Turkic families into two halves. But Tang rejected the request. Shortly therefafter, the Tibetan king killed the sons of his previous prime minister, with only one surviving son of Ludongzan fleeing to Tang with 7000 tents of the Tangut people. Tang had quite some good news around that time.
The Khitans in the east were also quelled by two Khitan generals who had surrendered to Tang earlier. However, in A.D. 712, the Khitans colluded with the Eastern Turks again in attacking Tang. As to Tibet, it had an internal revolt in the south of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Tibetan king sought peace with Tang again. When Emperor Zhongzong was restored in A.D. 705, he had promised to have princess Jincheng (daughter of a Tang duke-king) marry with the son of the Tibetan king. After the Tibetan king died, his seven year old son got enthroned. In A.D. 710, Emperor Ruizong sent Prince Jincheng to Tibet to marry the new Tibetan king who just grew up, together with a patch of land called Qiuqu (nine winding) in Hexi (west of the Yellow River) as a gift. In A.D. 714, the Tibetans invaded Lanwei (today's Lanzhou & Wei River) areas, using the Qiuqu land as a bridge. Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneaked into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had caused Tibetan internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. The Tibetans, however, continued to encroach upon the Tang capital from the territories of the Tanguts and Qiuqu.
The Turgesh (Tu-qi-shi), which had the origin in the Tiele Tribes, was part of the five "Duolu" tribes that were subject to the Western Khanate. After the defeat of the Western Turks in the hands of Tang Dynasty, the Turgesh came to rule the land of the Western Turks. Wu-zhi-le (? - 706), who was the Turgesh chieftan, a subordinate to Ashina Huseluo (son of Ashina Buzhen) who surrendered to Tang in A.D. 690 under the pincer-attacks of the Tibetans and the Posterio Eastern Turkic Khanate, took over Ashina Huseluo's land after the latter stayed on in the Tang capital in A.D. 703 in lieu of returning to the Suiye [Suyab] (Tokmok) area to continue the ruling of five Western Turkic tribes. In A.D. 706, Wu-zhi-le (Ushyly Kaghan) was conferred the title of King Huaidejun-wang. The Turgesh weakened in 736 when internal conflicts raged on, in 744 when defeated by the Tang army, and in 766 when the Karlaks ascended to power.
SIR Aurel Stein's article (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm) mentioned the precarious situations Chinese faced at that time, i.e., the allied attacks by the Arabs and Tibetans. Arabs, in A.D. 670, had conquered Tokharistan, the important territory on the middle Oxus of present Afghan. Between A.D. 705 and 715, Arab general Qotaiba had taken over Sogdiana, the land between Oxus and Yaxartes. In A.D. 741, Tibetans advanced to the Oxus valley and joined hands with the Arabs. The Tibetans utilized the line leading down the Indus from Ladak through Baltistan (the Great P'o-lu of the Chinese Annals) to the Hindukush territories of Gilgit and Yasin (both comprised the Little P'o-lu of the Chinese records). SIR Aurel Stein stated that "Great P'o-lu, i.e., Baltistan, had already become subject to them (Tibetans) before A.D. 722. About that time they attacked ... Little P'o-lu, declaring, as the T'ang Annals tell us, to Mo-chin-mang its king: 'It is not your kingdom which we covet, but we wish to use your route in order to attack the Four Garrisons (i.e., the Chinese in the Tarim basin).' In A.D. 722 timely military aid rendered by the Chinese enabled this king to defeat the Tibetan design. But after three changes of reign the Tibetans won over his successor Su-shih-li-chih, and inducing him to marry a Tibetan princess secured a footing in 'Little P'o-lu'... Thereupon, in the words of the T'ang shu, more than twenty kingdoms to the north-west became all subject to the Tibetans... These events occurred shortly after A.D. 741."
Tang Emperor Xuanzong (Hsuan-tsang), in A.D. 747, ordered that the Deputy Protector Kao Hsien-chih command the military forces in the Tarim basin. "With a force of 10,000 cavalry and infantry, Kao Hsien-chih started in the spring of A.D. 747 from Anxi (An-hsi), then the headquarters of the Chinese administration in the Tarim basin and corresponding to the present town and oasis of Kucha. In thirty-five days he reached Su-le, or Kashgar, through Ak-su and by the great caravan road leading along the foot of the T'ien-shan. Twenty days more brought his force to the military post of the Congling (T'sung-ling) Mountains, i.e., the Pamirs, established in the position of the present Tashkurghan in Sarikol. Thence by a march of twenty days the valley of Po-mi or the Pamirs, was gained, and after another twenty days Kao Hsien-chih arrived in the kingdom of the five Shih-ni, i.e., the present Shighnan on the Oxus."
In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Shi-guo (Tashkent) Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, the Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Qiuci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by the locals to counter the Arab invasion. But the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
Nationalist Uygurs, at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html, stated that "In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Huihe [Uygurs], the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia." This is erroneous statement in saying the Huihe [Uygurs] were the same Turks as those, 10 families of Western Khanate, who sought refuge and suzerainty with the Tibetans. The Huihe [Uygurs] had always been a distinguished tribal name in Tang's records, and they had initially helped Tang in quelling the Xueyantuo Tribe rebellion in the north and hence relocated to north Mongolia where they eventually established their own kingdom in ADD 744 after defeating the Turks. In the west, the Huihe [Uygurs] did send troops in tens of thousands during Tang's campaign against the Western Turkic Khanate and small tribal states like Chouci. The Uygur role was apparently that of a Tang accomplice.
Later, Tang General An Lu Shan's rebellion broke out in 755 A.D. and the Huihe [Uygurs] were invited by Su-tsung (Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the Tang Chinese. "In this event, the Uygur forces played a key(?) role in the recapture of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Huihe [Uygurs] did not hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute annually to the Huihe [Uygurs] and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in marriage. She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D." We will touch on this episode in the section An Shi Rebellion shortly.
The Turks, Huihe [Uygurs], Arabs & Chinese
AD 632 saw the death of Muhammad and beginning of the expansion of the Arab Muslim Empire. In 642, the Sassanian Shah Yazdigird was defeated by the Arabs at the Battle of Nahavand and the Sassanian Empire collapsed under the pressure of the Arab raids in 642-51. c. 650, the Khazars of the Khazar Khanate defeated the Alans and Bulgars, resulting in their domination of the Caucasus and the Volga region.
In 652, the Arabs first captured Khurasan. In 659, the Tang Chinese forces, under Tang General Su Dingfang, penetrated into Transoxiana (the Western Turkic Khanate). For one century, Tang controlled the Oxus Valley, till in 751 when the Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River. Tang would continuously fight both the Turks (who sought suzerainty with the Tibetans after the Western Khanate was destroyed by Tang) and the Tibetans (who in A.D. 670 had taken over the Tangut territory after defeating Tang).
In 667, the Arabs defeated Peroz, the last Sassanian shah, and first crossed the Oxus River (Amu Darya). In 673/74-704, the Arabs raided across the Oxus in an attempt to capture Bukhara and Soghd. In A.D. 682/83, the Turks revolted against the Chinese and re-established the Turkic Khanate in today's Mongolia, but were defeated by Tang General Pei Xingjian. In A.D. 689, the Arab occupied Termez. In A.D. 691, the Turks, under the Tibetan suzerainty, re-established the Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin, but in A.D. 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of the Xizhou prefecture defeated the Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci (Qiuci), Yutian, Shule and Suiye.
In A.D. 705, the Arabs, under Qutayba ibn Muslim, launched a war against Transoxiana from Merv. In A.D. 709, the Arabs captured Bukhara and Samarkand. In A.D. 711, the Arabs captured Khiva and in A.D. 712 subdued Khwarezm and recaptured Samarkand. In A.D. 713, the Arabs sacked Kashgar.
The Western Turkic Khanate was dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. It would be the Tibetans who competed with the Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would exist the Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk) which were subordinate to Khan Mochuo as members of so-called ten clan name tribal groups.
In A.D. 714, the Chinese, under Tang Emperor Xuanzong's reign, defeated the Turks at Beiting [i.e., the Lake Issuk-kul area]. Back in 713, Governor-general Sun Quan of the Youzhou Prefecture attempted to recover Yingzhou from the Xi-Khitans by leading a 20,000 army together with Li Kailuo & Zhou Yiti. At Lengjing, chieftain Li Dapu of the Xi-Khitan ambushed the Chinese. Only Li Kailuo escaped. Li Dapu surrendered Sun Quan & Zhou Yiti to Khan Mochuo for execution in a show of the alliance against China. The two parties hence allied to harass the Chinese border. The Tang court sent emissary to the Turks for peace. Mochuo dispatched son Yangwozhi to the Tang court for marriage with the Chinese princess. Emperor Xuanzong promised to marry over Princess Nanhe-xian the daughter of King Shu-wang. In spring of A.D. 714, Mochuo dispatched son Tong'e-tele and brother-in-law Huoba-xielifa-shishibi on an attack at the Bei-ting Governor-general Office in retaliation for Emperor Xuanzong's delay in releasing the princess. Protector General Guo Qianguan ambushed the Turks outside of the citywall, pierced dead Tong'e, killed over half the Turk force, and chased Huoba. Huofa, being rebuked by Khan Mochuo, fled to seek asylum with the Chinese together with wife and sons, and received the conferral of King Yanshan-jun-wang.
In A.D. 714, during the fights with the Tibetans (with whom the Turks sought protection and suzerainty), Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneak into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had led Tibetans into internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. For the Turks, they were by that time in a precarious situation as they had to fight on two fronts, the Arabs to the south and the Chinese to the east.
In A.D. 715 saw the end of the Arab conquest of Transoxiana as a result of the death of Qutaiba. The Eastern Turkic Khanate continued its expansion under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o or Motcho) by subjugating tribes such as the Kirghiz and the Karlak before his death in A.D. 716. The Eastern Turkic Khanate would fall in A.D. 744 following the rebellion of the Basmil, Karlak and Huihe (Uygur) tribes. In A.D. 728, the Arabs attempted to forcibly convert Transoxiana to Islam, resulting in a general revolt.
In A.D. 740, Gulipeiluo, i.e., Huihe Khan Huairen, declared himself Khan Guduolu-bijiaque (reign 744-747). (Gulipeiluo's father was exiled to southern China by Tang Emperor Xuanzong in A.D. 727.) In A.D. 744/45, the Huihe [Uygurs] defeated the Orkhon Turks in today's Mongolia and established the Huihe (Uygur) Empire. The Huihe [Uygurs], who were considered a vassal of Tang, would now controll the north and west of today's Mongolia, from Lake Balkash to Lake Baykal, till A.D. 840, almost a whole century. History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Huihe [Uygurs] and Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, the Tang Chinese also allied with the Western Turks called the Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, between the Arabs and the Chinese, from A.D. 716 to A.D. 733. Chinese history said that the Orkhon Turks still sent emissaries to China in the time periods of late Tang Dynasty and during the Five Dynasties. They were not heard from again after the Five Dynasties. In A.D. 747, Gulipeiluo's successor Khan Gele (Gelei), also known as Huihe Khan Yingwu (Yaoluoge Moyanchuo, reign 747-759), moved the Huihe capital to the Orkhon Mountain valley, where he employed the Tang Chinese and Sogdian artizans in building the moat-encircled stone city "chanyu-cheng" at the foothill of Mt. Dujingshan. Later, the Huihe built the Fugui-cheng (wealthy and noble) city at the bank of the Selenge River. Huihe Khan Gele dispatched son and a Huihe army to the aid of Tang Dynasty when the An-Shi Rebellion broke out. In 759, the Huihe defeated the people at the Sayan-ling mountain range, namely, the Kirghiz in today's Tuva area. Son Mouyu Khan, for the contribution to defeating Shi Chaoyi in 762 in cooperation with Pogu Huai'en, received the Tang conferral as Khan Yingyijiangong.
The Turgesh Turks rebelled against the Chinese in A.D. 739 and were defeated. In A.D. 741, General Kao Hsien-chih led the troops into Turkistan, and in A.D. 747, General Kao defeated the Tibetans near Gilgit in the Hindu Kush mountains and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs to the upper valley of the Amu-darya.
In A.D. 747-749, General Kao also defeated the Karluks who had replaced the Turgesh Turks as a power in the area. In A.D. 748, the Chinese invaded the Ferghana Valley where Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan converge. (Turkmenistan is to the west of the Ferghana Valley).
In A.D. 749/50, the Abbasids seized the Caliphate from the Umayyads and subsequently transfered the capital city to Baghdad. In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, the Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (a Korean), were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. The Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River in the high Pamirs. Du You, in Tong Dian pointed out that Gao Xianzhi, in the campaign against the Shi-guo (Tashkent) statelet, lost 70,000 troops, and likened the loss to Ge Shuhan's loss of 20,000 garrison troops on an island in Qinghai, Yang Guozhong's loss of over 100,000 troops in campaign against Nanzhao, and An Lushan's loss of over 100,000 troops at Tianmenling in the battle against the Khitans. It was said that the Chinese paper technology was relayed to the West via the prisoners of war. From then on, the Karluks controlled Western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia. The Arabs halted their push after a defeat in the hands of the Khazars in Azerbaijan.
The An-Shi Rebellion & the Huihe [Uygurs]
Tang [barbarian] general An Lushan's rebellion (i.e., the An-Shi rebellion) broke out in Oct, A.D. 755. An Lushan defeated a Tang general by the name of Ge-shu-han. The two held an interesting dialogue to the effect that An Lushan claimed that they should cooperate since An was by the Turkic mother and Hu [Sogdian] father, while Geshu-han was by the Turkic father and Hu [Sogdian] mother. Emperor Xuanzong sneaked out of the capital without notifying his court. On the way of flight to today's Sichuan from Chang'an, Xuanzong's garrison troops killed prime minister Yang Guozhong. Emperor Xuanzong was forced by his garrison troops in ordering his empress Yang Gui-fei to commit suicide. The Yang brother and sisters were blamed for fostering rebel An Lushan. The Masses of people gathered around the royal column and pleaded with the emperor for staying put so as to organize the counter-rebellion forces. Xuanzong, in order to continue on his flight into Sichuan Province, orally decreed that his elder son, Suzong, stay behind to be the new emperor. Emperor Suzong led his people northward to today's Ningxia area where he reorganized his army and requested with the Huihe [Uygurs] for help. The Uygur khan sent his elder son and 5,000 cavalry to helping Suzong, culminating in recapturing both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Uygur nationalists claimed that their cavalry played the key role in capturing the two Tang capitals. The Chinese history recorded the patriotism of the Uygur (Huihe) prince. There were 3 days of banquet for receiving the Huihe cavalry. But the Huihe prince said that he should not indulge in the delicious foods while the country was still in upheavals. By "country", the Huihe prince was referring to Tang China.
Tang emperor Suzong had organized an army of over 100 thousand under the banners of two famous generals, Guo Ziyi & Li Guangbi. (Li was a semi-Khitan because his father was a Khitan; Li's mother was recorded to have grown beard around the mouth.) When the western capital of Chang'an was taken over, the Huihe [Uygurs] requested with Suzong's son for authorization to pillage the capital city in accordance with the agreement between Suzong and the Uygur khan that the Huihe [Uygurs] would be conferred women and gold in the capital. This would be a similar humiliating offer from Tang's founder-emperor Li Yuan when he obtained 2000 horses and 500 Turk cavalry to rebel against Sui. The Huihe [Uygurs] would be held back for the time being when Suzong's son rejected the request by saying that the people in the western capital of Luoyang would help the rebels should they hear about the Uygurs' pillaging in the eastern capital of Chang'an. After the fall of Luoyang, the Huihe [Uygurs] did their best in pillaging the capital. Luoyang would be pillaged two more times by the Huihe [Uygurs] during the 8-year long rebellion. Later, Emperor Suzong granted the Uygur Khan one of his daughters, Princess Ningguo, in marriage.
An Lushan had obtained the governor-general posts of today's Beijing, Taiyuan and Liaodong by bribing the notorious empress Yang. Thus, An was in control of the troops in almost whole northern China. Per Yao Runeng, a Tang Dynasty county captain at Huayin, An Lushan was of the origin of a mixed Hu in the Yingzhou area, with a nickname "Yahunshan". Yao claimed that An's mother was a Turk witch from the Ah-shi-de clan, i.e., the clan that had generations of marriage with the so-called distinguished Ah-shi-na clan, and that An Lushan was born after his mother prayed on Mt Yahunshan, i.e., the Turk god of war, which was speculated to be related to the Zoroastrian god. An's son, An Qingxu, later killed An Lushan and took over the title of emperor of Great Yan. An Qingxu, after a defeat, fled to seek protection with Shi Siming. An's general, Shi Siming, killed An Qingxu, in turn, and proclaimed himself the Yan emperor. Shi's son, Shi Chaoyi, killed his father Shi Siming in March of 761.
Shi Chaoyi ordered General Gao Juren and Zhang Tonglu to intrude into the Rihua-men [sun splendor] Gate to kill palace garrison commanders Liu Xiangchang and Wei Minghe. Gao Juren subsequently ordered to kill Zhang Tonglu by taking advantage of the turmoil in the Fanyang city, and issued a similar order to Ran Min of the Sixteen Nation time period, namely, an order to kill the Hu (i.e., high nosebridge and hairy) barbarians. Ashina-chengqing, a loyal general under Shi Siming, after failing to resist Gao Juren's army, fled eastward to the Luxian County and subsequently retreated to Luoyang. Shi Chaoyi then appointed Li Huaixian as 'jiedu-shi' for Fanyang for containing Gao Juren who received the appointment as 'zhi-bingma-shi' for the Yan-jing-du, namely, garrison commander for the Yan capital city. Li Huaixian, a former Hu barbarian from Liucheng (Liaoyang, Liaoning), loosened the guard of Gao Juren and killed him when Gao made a visit to his office.
By AD 763, Shi Chaoyi, after a defeat, fled to Guangyang (Fangshan, Beijing, Hebei), and committed suicide there. Li Huaixian surrendered to Tang Dynasty eunuch Luo Fengxian. Pugu-huai'en recommended to the Tang court to have Li Huaixian appointed as 'jiedu-shi' for the Youzhou and Lulong area. The eight year long rebellion was over. Later, when Pugu-huai'en rebelled against Tang, Li Huaixian severed himself from the Tang rule and declared independence for the three He-shuo garrisons of Yanji (Fanyang, Youzhou, or Lulong), Chengde and Weibo (Tianxiong), together with two other garrison commanders of Tian Chengsi of Weibo and Li Baochen of Chengde.
Li Huaishan was killed by subordinate Zhu Xicai in 768 A.D. In 781 A.D., when Tang Emperor Dezong refused to allow Li Weiyue, i.e., son of Li Baochen, to succeed the 'jiedu-shi' post, the three garrisons rebelled. Li Xilie, a Tang 'jiedu-shi' for Huai-xi (west of the Huai River), colluded with the rebels, hence forcing the emperor to issue a decree of self-blame and to acknowledge the quasi-independence of the three garrisons --which continued through the demise of the Tang dynasty in the hands of the Huang Chao and Zhu Wen gang.
Tang China's decline was a result of the An-Shi Rebellion. As a result of this rebellion, Tang China recalled all stationed armies and garrisons to the west of the Yellow River Bend. The recall of army forces being not enough, the Uygur mercenaries were also called upon to quell the 8-year-long rebellion. Since then, Tang China lost the western territories, including the pasture where the hundreds of thousands of the military horses were raised. Tang Emperor Suzong would call upon all the Chinese armies to the west of the Yellow River and to the right side of today's Gansu Province to come east to quell the rebellion. Hence, the Tibetans took advantage of the vacuum and moved in. Over one million Tang Chinese came under the rule of the Tibetans, including the prefectures of Ganzhou, Liangzhou, Guazhou and Sazhou on the Western Corridor. In the land to the west of the Yellow River and to the right side of Gansu Province, Tang China used to have 33 prefectures called 'zhou'. Tang China set up the Anxi Governor-General post here and it used to control 36 statelets in Western China. Xin Wu Dai Shi (i.e., The New History Of Five Dynasties) said Tang had raised altogether 300,000 horses in this area. Half a century later, when a Chinese emissary (under Tang Emperor Wenzong, reign A.D. 827-836) passed through the four Western Corridor prefectures, the emissary noted that those Chinese had changed a bit in accent but the clothing remained unchanged. The local Chinese, with tears, asked the emissary, 'Did the Emperor still remember the people stranded in the land occupied by the Tibetans?"
The Tibetans, by taking over the Western Corridor, also cut off the link between China proper and today's Chinese Turkistan, where the four Tang China's forts continued existence for the dozens of years to come, often receiving the nominal awards from the Tang emperors for fending off the sieges from the barbarians, without the actual benefit of the Tang army coming to their aid.
Later, at the times of Tang Emepror Dezong (reign A.D. 780-785), the Dangxiang nomads sought vassalage with Tang. They were relocated to Qingzhou and Xiazhou prefectures. At the times of Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong (reign AD 926-933), the frontier areas were famous for trading in horses. The horses from Dangxiang and Huihu (ancestor of the Uygurs) weighed heavy in the trades. Dangxiang and Huihu were especially delighted in trading with Posterior Tang because Emperor Mingzhong gave very favorable terms to them no matter the horses were fat or thin. Besides, the Dangxiang and Huihu merchants were given benefits as diplomatic emissaries, and they enjoyed free food/drinks and accomodations. This cost a lot of royal savings to Posterior Tang. Hence, Dangxiang and Huihu were ordered to trade at the frontiers, only. But the Dangxiang people continued to come deep into the Chinese territories, and moreover, the Dangxiang (Tangut) people pillaged China and robbed the Huihu of the horses. The Dangxiang continued the pillages well into the eras of Posterior Zhou Dynasty (AD 951-960).
Tang General Guo Ziyi would emerge to defend Tang against the encroachment from both the Tibetans and the Huihe [Uygurs]. The Tibetans, taking advantage of the An-Shi rebellion, had taken over areas in today's Gansu-Qinghai provinces, and they had once entered the western capital of Chang'an and forced emperor Daizong into fleeing. General Guo would send hundreds of soldiers into the capital and spread rumores that Guo's army was coming, thus scaring the Tibetans into retreat. One Tang general (a Uygur, called Pogu Huaieng, who had been responsible for going to the Uygur tribe in borrowing the Uygur cavalry of 5000 for fighting An Lushan and again borrowing 3000 cavalry for fighting Shi Siming) defected to the Tibetans. Pogu Huaieng sacked the city of Taiyuan. Altogether 100 thousand Tibetan-Uygur army came to attack the Tang capital again. General Guo succeeded in defeating them. Pogu Huai'eng was originally a loyal general who stood with Tang during the An-Shi rebellion, and he even sent his own daughter to the Uygur khan's son at the request of Emperor Suzong. He felt betrayed when he was refused entry into a border town by a Tang general while he was ordered by emperor to escort the Huihe [Uygurs] back to their tribe. In A.D. 765, Pogu Huai'eng led the Tibetan-Uygur joint army to attacking Tang again by cheating the Huihe [Uygurs] that the Tang emperor and general Guo Ziyi were both dead. On the way, Pogu Huaieng himself died due to illness. General Guo led 500 cavalry into the camp of the Huihe [Uygurs] and successfully persuaded the Huihe [Uygurs] in allying with Tang and attacking the Tibetans. Pogu Huai'eng's mother, who dissapproved of his son's betrayal of Tang, was later invited by the Tang emperor to live in the capital.
In A.D. 780, Huihe Khan Mouyu, who was credited with introducing the Moni religion to the Huihe, was killed by prime minister Mohedagan. Cousin Yaoluoge Dunmohedagan, who killed Khan Mouyu, advocated for a friendly relationship with Tang. In A.D. 788, the new Huihe khan renamed Huihe to Huigu. (? Huihe was renamed to Huihu in A.D. 809.) In 789, Huihe Khan Changshoutianqin died. In 790, Huihe Khan Zhongzhen was poisoned, with a brother usurping the throne. After killing of the usurper, son Ahchuo was supported as the new khan, i.e., Fengcheng Khan. The Huihe then colluded with the Tibetans against Tang. In 795, when Huihe Khan Fengcheng died without a son, prime minister Guduolu, who faked the Yaoluoge clan name but was from the Xiadie-shi clan, was made into a khan. The Tang court conferred him the title of Khan Huaixin. After Khan Huaixin, son [Xiadie] Tengli Khan enthroned. The Xiadie-shi throne was destroyed by the Xiajiasi [i.e., the Kirghiz] in A.D. 846. The remnant Huihe, who fled to the west, re-established some regime which ultimately was replaced by the Pogu-shi.
The Uygurs claimed that in A.D. 840, the Tang Chinese emperor surreptitiously incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing the Uyghurs in Mongolia. Hence, Tang got rid of the encroachment of the Uygur.
AD 874, rebellions erupted in China, and by A.D. 880, rebel leader Huang Chao entered Chang'an. Tang Dynasty was hence a puppet government, to be usurped in A.D. 907 by a ex-peasant rebel leader, Zhu Wen, who had earlier defected to Tang from the camp of Huang Chao. (Huang Chao was famous for marching from Shandong Province to Zhejiang Province, opening up a road through the mountains of Fujian Province to reach Guangdong Province, and then coming back to the central plains, an accomplishment not secondary to the communists' Long March of 1930s.)
Borrowing from http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html,
Today's Uygurs & Xinjiang Autonomous Region
Xinjiang was called "Xi Yu" or Western Regions in ancient times. The region is bounded by the Altay Mountains in the north, the Pamirs in the west, the Karakoram Mountains-Altun Mountains-Kunlun Mountains in the south. The Tianshan Mountains divide Xinjiang into northern and southern parts. Southern Xinjiang includes the Tarim Basin and the Taklamakan Desert, while northern Xinjiang has the Junggar Basin. The Turpan Basin lies at the eastern end of the Tianshan Mountains. This place boasted of numerous historical relics, including: The Jiaohe Ruins, Gaochang Ruins, Yangqi Mansion of "A Thousand Houses", Baicheng (Bay) Kizil Thousand Buddha Grottoes, Bozklik Grottoes in Turpan, Kumtula Grottoes in Kuqa and Astana Tombs in Turpan
Today's Uyghers, largely living in Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (so-called Eastern Turkestan), have the majority population. A good source on peoples in Xinjiang would be: Aitchen K. Wu. Aitchen K. Wu. Turkistan Tumult. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London, 1940. Chapter 17 THE FOURTEEN RACES OF SINKIANG. In Xinjiang, there exist dozens of ethnic minorities, including
written by Ah Xiang
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