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The Amerasia Case & Cover-up By the U.S. Government
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Lauchlin Currie / Biography
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Solomon Adler the Russian mole "Sachs" & Chi-com's henchman; Frank Coe; Ales
Mme Chiang Kai-shek's Role in the War (Video)
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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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TURKS & UYGURS - PART II


Turkic Language
Origin Of Turks & The Uygur Turks
Early Turkic History
Huihe, Huihu & Uygur
Turfan Mummies
Yüeh-chih, Hun, Xianbei, Tuoba, Ruruan, Ye-Tai, Turk
Western Turks
Chinese Chronicles As To Nomads
Turk versus Tiele (Tara or Tole)
Turks/Uygurs vs Sui & Tang Chinese
Eastern Khnanate
Western Khnanate
Turks, Uygurs, Arabs & Chinese
An-Shi Rebellion & Uygurs
Uygurs After A.D. 840
Kirghiz & Uygurs
Today's Uygurs & Xinjiang Autonomous Region
[ previous page: uygur.htm ]
 
[ this page: turk.htm ]
 

 
Chinese Chronicles on the Barbarians after the Huns
 
After Tuoba, Chinese chronicles did not mention the Huns any more. The Ruruans and the Turks came into play. Whereas the Huns called their kings "chanyu" (often wrongly spelled and pronounced as 'shanyu'), the Ruruans used the "khan", instead. Historians think that it was the Ruruan people who first used the title "khan". The Turks, who chased the Ruruan khan all the way to Western Tuoba Wei Dynasty, also used the title "khan" for their kings. In this sense, Mulan the heroine, who was recently depicted by Disney in a cartoon, would be more likely either a Ruruan or a Turk in connection with the times when the story was first written, namely, the late time period of Tuoba's Wei Dynasty. Emerging in this time period would be another group of people called the Tiele Tribes. The Turks reared the Tiele people on behalf of the Ruruans. It was recorded that the Turks absorbed about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes which included the later so-called 'Nine Names'. The Chinese records pointed to several wars between Khan Mochuo's Orchon Turks and the Nine [Tiele] Family Name People. (Do note that the Western Turks possessed another alias, i.e., the Ten [Turkic] Family Names.) (AD 386-534)
 
By the time of Sui
(AD 581-618) and Tang (AD 618-907), several groups of the barbarians remained on the borders with China, the Khitans, Xi & Shiwei in the northeast, the Turks & Tiele Tribes in the north and northwest, the Tuyuhun people in the west, and the Nan-Zhao people in the southwest. The Xianbei, Wuhuan, Tuoba and Ruruan barbarians had either dissappeared or been absorbed into the melting pots at that time. The Khitans were said to be descendants of early Tanshikui Xianbei alliance and Xi the descendants of Wuhuan people. (Alternatively speaking, it was Yuwen-shi Xianbei who were the ancestors of both the Khitans and the [Kuzhen-]Xi people.) In the west, the Qiangic-Xianbei peoples (who had absorbed the Di[1] barbarians) was still in existence in today's Gansu-Qinghai-Tibet areas, were to assert themselves in later Xixia Dynasty (AD 1032-1227).
 
The Sha'to (Shatuo) Turks would become vassals for Tang Dynasty and later set up 3 successive dynasties of Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jin 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950. The Sha'to dynasties, however, were very much controlled by the Khitans during this time period, and the Khitans received a secession of 16 zhou (a unit larger than prefecture but smaller than province) from Posterior Jin (AD 936-946) led by a Posterior Tang general called Shi Jingtang, also a Shatuo (Sha'to). The Khitans, newly defeated by the Turks, would emerge as first the Liao Dynasty
(AD 916-1125) by the end of the Tang Dynasty, and then Western Liao after Jurchens defeated them.

 
Tang Dynasty chronicler, Du You, wrote sixteen books on the historical "border barbarians" as of Tang's times. He classified the western Rong barbarians into five books: 1) ??; 2) Tuyuhun, Tibets, Dangqiang (later Tanguts) etc; 3) Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Chouci (Guqa) etc; 4) Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Anxi (Iran), Daxia (Bactria); 5) Persia, Daqin (Rome).  As to the northern barbarians, he classified them into  1) Huns Book One; 2) Huns Book Two, Southern Huns; 3) Wuhuan, Xianbei, Tuoba Tribe, Murong Tribe, Yuwen Tribe etc; 4) Turks Book One; 5) Turks Book Two; 6) Turks Book Three, Xueyantuo Tribe etc; 7) Huihe (Uygur) Tribe etc. The names of Tuoba, Murong and Yuwen are just tribal names among the Xianbei barbarians, while the Wuhuan and Xianbei barbarians obtained their names from the Xianbei/Wuhuan Mountains where their ancestors, the eastern Dong-hu barbarians, had fled after being defeated by the Hsiongnu (Hun) [Hu] nomads.
 
The origin of the Turks notwithstanding, the Uygur's relationship with the Turks is worthy of an explanation here. The word Uygur, known as Huihe, was mentioned in Tang Dynasty's chronicles as being only one of the fifteen Tiele tribes, ranking in the second place among the eleven tribes who helped Tang in conquering the Eastern Khanate. Reading through the Tang records, one important conclusion could be reached about the Huihe [Uygurs], that is, the Huihe [Uygurs] were a long time ally of the Tang Chinese in their campaigns against both the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks, at least for over 200 years till A.D. 840 when the Tang Chinese incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing the Uyghurs in Mongolia. 
 

The Turks vs the Tiele Tribes, & Oguz vs Ogur
 
The most confusing part of Chinese chronicles would be description of the Turks versus the Tiele Tribes. Certainly, there are other disputes, such as the place of origin for the Turks and the Huns. Chinese records claimed that ancestors of the Turks originally dwelled to the rightside [northside] of Xi-hai, i.e., West Sea. After a matter of few hundreds of years, it is no surprise to see the melting pot where the Turks and the Tiele (Tara or Tole) had mixed up with each other. We mentioned earlier that the Turks, iron slaves of the Ruruans, had become a strong power after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes (which included the later so-called 'Nine Family Names', where the number "nine" could also mean numerous as denoted by the Nine Yi People or the Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi etc. The nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi, who could be input into the Jie-hu barbarians at the time of the Sixteen Nations, would continue their "merchant" or "merchant-marauding" activities in today's Outer Mongolia and China, possibly playing the role of Zoroastrian priests among the Turkic ruling nobles and influencing the Turkic burial customs with Zoroastrian rituals. Further, after the demise of the Turks by the time of Tang Dynasty,, the nine Zhaowu clans, specifically known as "jiu [nine] xing [surname] Hu [barbarians]", worked with successor Huihe [Urgurs], often travelling to China in the same embassy as the Huihe people.)
 
Reconciling all accounts of Turkic origins, Historian Luu Simian cited Mongol Yuan Dynasty's writing to state that the westernmost 'Turkic' tribe, Ke-sa [Gesa] Tribe from the Tiele Tribes, dwelled to the right side of the West Sea. Luu Simian did cite Western and Eastern Turks' common practice of paying pilgrimage to the wolf cave in the Altai Mountain, to the northwest of today's Urumqi, as evidence that the early Turks fled there and then worked as iron miners. While equating the Ke-sa [Gesa] to the Khazer 'Turks' and equating the Turks to the Ashina surname, Luu Simian further pointed out that the "Nine Names" must have more affinity with the Ashina Turks than to the Huihe [Urghur] Tribe; though, the "Nine Names" should be the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi from Central Asia, not the Nine Tiele Tribes which included Pogu, Bayegu, Sijie, Qibi, and Hun[4]-shi etc. As detailed in Turks_Uygurs.html section, Li Yanshou recorded a legend to the effect that the Turks' ancestor A'pangbu possessed 70 brothers, with one of them born with a wolf; that brother Nishidu revived the tribe after it was conquered by neighbors; that Nishidu had four sons, with one son leading the Qigu (Jiegu, i.e., Xiajiasi or the Kirghiz) statelet, and the elder son living on Mount Ba-si-chu-zhe-shi-shan; and that the elder son was made into the chieftan, and he bore ten sons, with the youngest named Ashina.
 
The Turks inevitably split into two groups in the east and west as had happened with their Hunnic predecessors. The Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. In A.D. 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina Duozhi, together with the Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Protector General (Marshal Presidio) Office. Note that the Western Turks possessed another alias, i.e., the Ten Family Names. The Turks, in the west [Central Asia], appeared to be termed "Ten Names" still, as evidenced by the Tibetan's attempt to divide the "Ten Name Turks" into two halves with the Tang Chinese.
 
In the east, the Ashina Turks had appeared to be in antagonism against both the "Nine Names" and the Huihe [i.e., one cluster of the Tiele Tribe]. When equating the "Nine Names" and the Huihe, it could mean that the Huihe had excelled among the Tiele tribes to become a distinct entity. There appeared to exist "Nine Huihe Clan Names", "Nine Tiele Tribe Names", and "Nine Zhaowu Clan Names". The "Nine Tiele Names" should not be confused with the nine Zhaowu clans of the Yuezhi from Central Asia. The "Nine Tiele Names", according to Tang Shu, would include Yaoluoge (i.e., Huihe's leading clan), Huduoge, Jueluowu, Gexiqi, Awujue, Gesa (Gasa, Ke-sa, or the Khazers), Yaowuge and Xiyewu etc. As times progressed, the Huihe, which was called by the Turks as "Toquz-oghuz", possessed the nine clans of Yaoluoge, Huduoge, Huluowu, Mogexiqi, Awudi, Gasa {Gesa, Ke-sa), Huwasu, Yaowuge, and Xiyawu. So, the "Nine Huihe Clan Names" contained part of the original "Nine Tiele Tribe Names". At the time of rebellion against the Turks, the Huihe was alternatively said to be comprised of four of the dozen or so Tiele tribes, including Pogu, Tongluo, Bayegu and Weiqi. This four-entity name appeared to be a larger alliance versus a single entity. The Eastern Turkic Khanate was broken by Tang Dynasty in A.D. 630 as a result of its internal strife as well as the Tiele rebellions. Khan Mochuo's Orchon Turks had fought the Nine Family Name People of the Tiele Tribes frequently. Khan Mochuo died in the hands of the Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes when his rear column was ambushed. On basis of the Chinese records, we could tell that the Ashina Turks were acting more as a noble or royal line which played the role of a political entity unifying various Turkic-speaking tribes.
 
http://sophistikatedkids.com/turkic/13%20Oguz%20and%20Ogur/OguzesEn.htm had a good exploration into the issues of OGUZ & OGUR, and it claimed:
 
1) that Uch-Oguzes would be "3 Oguz" or Karluks;
 
2) that the word Turk was a "political name";
 
3) that "in the documents of the period of rule Tang (after 618, annual chronicles Tang-Sy and Kiu Tand Shu with four different translations), the Nine Tribes, called in the inscriptions 'Nine Oguzes', sometimes 'Nine Türkic Tribes (Kok-Türks)' are mentioned as 'Türks of Nine Tribes (Kok -Türks)', and sometimes as 'Nine Toles Tribes', Nine Toles Oguzes means the same, as Nine Kok-Türk Oguzes. The roots of Kok-Türks are The Oguz tribes";
 
4) that "in 630, in the area of the rivers Tolga and Selenga, Oguzes jointed into a union, creating a Nine-Oguzes Khanate. Oguzes, defeated by Ilterish in 682 (in the war on the Cow lake) were in this status. Later, at tomb of Ilterish-Khagan, was installed the monument (balbal) to Baz - Khagan, the ruler of the Oguz state, who died in this battle ... 682 Concerned with Kutlug progress, Oguzes, living on coast of Selenga, made an attempt of cooperation with Chinese and Kitans ... 682 The attack, initiated on the advice of Tonyukuk, on a coast of the Cow lake, was successful and has removed the Oguz threat ... In 6-9 centuries Oguzes lived in the area of the river Selenga ... 691 In the beginning of the Uigur Khanaate the Uigur leader, Moen-Chur, still being a 'Tegin', was in the head of the Oguzes. A bit later the Oguzes rose against the Uigur Khanaate. This time they were a part of the Eight Oguzes. In Burgu and on the bank of Selenga Moen-Chur subjugated Oguzes, who joined with Otuz-Tatars, 'Thirty Tatars'. Oguzes, crossing Selenga, retreated. After that there is no sufficient information on the destiny of Oguzes in their native land. Certainly they resettled to the west in mass ... 716 Revolt of Nine Oguzes and death of Qapagan Khagan";
 
5) that "in 775 the Oguzes came to the vicinity of Maverannahr, according to Ibnul-Esir who dated this event to the times of the Caliph el-Mekhdi (775-785)... The members of the Oguz tribal union relocated in great numbers from the Orkhon area to the vicinity of Talas, and then to Syr Darya. The Oguz dialect separated from the Eastern Türkic dialect ... before the 9-th century, and by the 11-th century the Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic language in the lexicon and pronunciation".
 
The relationship between the Turks and the Tiele Tribes would be essential to untangling the riddles about the Turks. The confusion appeared to be to the east, only.
 
The Nine Tiele Tribes (i.e., Toquz Oguz)
The Tiele people, also known as Dili, Dingling, Gaoche and Chile [Tiele], were said to have origin in the ancient Chi-di and Bai-di people who once lived in today's Shanxi Province and intermarriged with the same Ji-surnamed Jinn Principality nobles. To better understand the relationship among the Tiele Tribes (including the Huihe clan), the Ruruan (Rouran or Juan-juan) and the Turks, there is a need to go back to Dingling at least. During the Sixteen Nations time period, Dingling was sandwiched among the main competing forces in North China, and had to submit to the Xianbei before separating from the latter. While the Jinn Chinese called them by Dingling, the Tuoba Wei called them by Gaoche. History said that the Tiele Tribes derived from the Gaoche people.
 
Among the Hunnic descendents, there were the commonly acknowledged nephew Gao-che people (including the Yuanhe clan). In A.D. 546, the Turks under Tumen (?-552) first subjugated the Tiele tribes to the north of the Tianshan Mountain. Six years later, A.D. 552, Tumen defeated the Ruruans, causing Ruruan Khan to commit suicide and Ruruan Khan's son to flee to Northern Qi Dynasty. The Turks hence destroyed the Ruruan (Rouran or Juan-juan) - successor rulers of the steppe after the Huns, to become the new master of the steppe. At the time of Sui Dynasty, in A.D. 582, the Turks split into Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate. In the first year of Rensou Era, A.D. 601, the Sui Dynasty army assisted Turkic Khan Qiren in fighting the Turk rivals. While Sui Dynasty was attacking the Turks, the Tiele Tribes joined in and defeated the Turks in the northwest. The Sui armies, joined by Qimin Khan, would quell the rivalry Turks. Eastern Turkic Khan Qiren hence solidified control with the Sui Chinese assistance. To the west, by A.D. 605, the western Turks were in constant fights with the Tiele Tribes. Sui Dynasty sent a minister called Fei Ju to persuade Western Turkic Khan Chuluo to seek vassalage with Sui. During the time of A.D. 605-611, Qibi and Xueyantuo clans were among the strongest of the Tiele Tribes, who were said to have similar language and customs as the Turks. At this time, the Nine Tiele Tribes came into existence, including Pogu, Bayegu, Sijie, Qibi, and Hun[4]-shi etc, who were mainly active in the Orkhon river basins.
 
The Turks, after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes, had certainly become a unifying force among Turkic speaking tribes. The Tiele Tribes frequently rebelled against the Turks. The Turks had at one time invited major chieftans of the Xueyantuo clan and killed them all. The Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes had certainly been responsible for killing Khan Mochuo of the Orchon Turks, i.e., the Eastern Turks. (The Chinese records did not mention the word 'blue Turk'. Blue meant for the direction of the east; however, one saying would be to claim that 'blue' came from the word 'Gok' which meant for the blue skies as exemplified by the Turkic word 'tengri' or the Chinese word 'tian'.)
 
By the time of Tang Dynasty, the Tiele Tribes expanded to eleven, thirteen and fifteen names [Xueyantuo, Huihe, Qibi, Doubo (Tuwa, Tuva), Guligan, Duolangan, Duolange, Pugu, Bayegu, Tongluo, Hun(bu), Sijie, Huxue, Xijie, Ahdie, and Baixi], including Geluolu (the Karlaks) and Bajimi around the Tianshan and Altaic mountains. The Huihe was said to be located at the Selenga basin; Pogu in the Upper Tula [Tuul] River; Tongluo in the lower Tuul River; Bayegu to the east of Pogu; Sijie between Pogu and Tongluo; Qibi in the upper Tuul River; Hun in the Gaolan area; Bajimi north of the Tianshan; the Geluolu west of the Altaic Mountain. Huihe, which was called by the Turks as "Toquz-oghuz", possessed the nine clans of Yaoluoge, Huduoge, Huluowu, Mogexiqi, Awudi, Gasa {Gesa, Ke-sa), Huwasu, Yaowuge, and Xiyawu. The Huihe tribe, after defeating Bajimi and Geluolu (Karlaks), claimed to possess eleven clans on top of the original nine clans. Xueyantuo, consiting of Xue and Yantuo clans, was headed by Yishibo, i.e., Tiele Khan Yexi. From the Tula [Tuul] River, Xueyantuo relocated south to Yanmo-shan, a range of the Altaic Mountain, where they were attacked by Western Turkic Khan Shegui (reign 611-618?. Taking advantage of the Turkic turmoil under Khan Yehu (618-628), Xueyantuo escaped back to the north, to be subject to Eastern Turkic Khan Xieli (reign 620-630).
 
After Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned in A.D. 627, he started to reverse the policy of appeasing the Turks. This year, the Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 628. The next year, Xueyantuo, under chieftan Yi'nan, proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang which conferred the title of Khan Zhenzhubiqie onto Yi'nan. In the fourth year, A.D. 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli and captured Khan Xieli. Khan Zhenzhubiqie (reign 628-645), together with Huihe chieftan Pusa (reign approx. 627-646) and the Tiele tribes, destroyed the Eastern Turkic Khanate. To the north, Huihe claimed to be "xielifa [jielifa]", namely, chiftan, as a subject of the Xueyantuo Khanate. In A.D. 632, over one thousand households of the Qibi tribe, under Qibi Heli, relocated to Shanzhou from Yanqi, settled in Ganzhou and Liangzhou, and later served under Tang Dynasty.
 
As detailed below in the section on "The Eastern Khnanate, the Koreans & the Khitans", Xueyantuo rebelled against Tang as a result of Tang Emperor Taizong's attempt to release the Turks back to the northern territories. Ah'shina Simo was offered to control south of the desert while Xueyantuo was to control north of the desert. Simo later accompanied Taizong on the campaign against the Korean peninsula. In June of A.D. 646, Emperor Taizong, on the pretext that Xueyantuo harassed Tang China by taking advantage of the Korean campaign, organized a joint army consisting of the Eastern Turks and the Tiele Tribes, and ordered an attack against Xueyantuo. The Huihe clan played a decisive role in exterminating the Xueyantuo khanate. After that, Emperor Taizong re-zoned the northern territories into six fu (prefecture or province) and seven zhou (prefecture). In 647, Huihe chieftan Tumidu, who was appointed the post of "dudu" (governor) for Hanhai, proclaimed himself khan at the Tuul River. In A.D. 659, Huihe further assisted Tang in destroying the Western Turkic Khanate.
 
The Huihe (Uygur) tribes had rebelled with the Eastern Turks against Tang, but also fought against the Turks. In A.D. 661-663, the Huihe [Uygurs] and other Turkic tribes rebelled against Tang, but was quelled by General Qibi Heli (of background of the Qibi clan of the Nine Tiele tribes) and General Xue Rengui. Xue did a barbaric thing by burying tens of thousands of the Huihe [Uygurs] in a valley though the Huihe had surrendered earlier. (General Xue is another Tang general famous for "Three Arrows Quelling Tianshan Mountains" and "Eastern Expeditions Against Korea".) General Xue would later die in Daizhou prefecture, while on his way to quelling the rebellion of the Eastern Turks who were earlier quelled by Tang Dynasty's Pei Xingjian in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681.
 
After the demise of the Eastern Turks and the Xueyantuo Khanate, the Nine Tiele Tribe no longer carried the essence as the name manifested itself. Though, after the revival of the Eastern Turks, clans from the former Nine Tiele Tribes, such as Bayegu, would play an important role in checking on the Eastern Turks. The Bayegu clan killed Turkic Khan Mochuo (reign 691-716) in A.D. 716, followed by the killing of Turkic Khan Sumishi by the Bajimi clan in A.D. 744. Turkic successor, brother Ashina Gulongfu-baimei-teqin, came under attacks by Tang Dynasty satrap "jiedushi" for Shuofang, Wang Zhongsi. In January 745, Huihe chieftan (silifa) Gulipailuo (Huihe Khan Huairen) attacked and killed Turkic Khan Baimei. In 747, Huihe and Geluolu (Karlaks) defeated Bajimi. Huihe chieftan(silifa) Gulipailuo received the conferral as Huihe Khan Guduolupiqie-Huairen.
 
The Posterior Turkic Khanate
The Eastern Turks re-established the Eastern Khanate in A.D. 682/683. In A.D. 682/83, the Turks revolted against the Chinese and re-established the Turkic Khanate in Mongolia, but were defeated by Tang's Pei Xingjian. The rebellion first started in A.D. 679 when two subordinates under Ashide Wenfu, wen1 fu5? feng4 zhi, rebelled and made Nishufu a khan. Twenty four Turkic prefectures answered the rebellion. Emperor Gaozong sent Xiao Siye and Li Jingjia against the rebels. After a defeat, Gaozong sent Feng Xingjian, "xingjun da zongguan" for the Dingxiang-dao Curcuit, who commanded Li Siwen and Zhou Daowu, over 30,000 troops, against Wenfu. Turkic Khan Nishufu was killed by subordinates. Rebel Fengzhi was caught. In 682, the Turks retrieved Ashina Funian, a son of Khan Xieli (Jili)'s brother, from Xiazhou, and when crossing the Yellow River, the Turks around answered the rebellion. Pei Xingjian was called upon by the Tang court to quell the rebellion. Funian surrendered to the Tang army and was executed at the Dong-shi market of capital Chang'an. In A.D. 683, the 2nd year of Emperor Gaozong's Yongchun Era, Ashina Guduolu, who descended from a branch of Khan Xieli (Jieli), rebelled. Guduolu's father, working in the Yunzhong "dudu" office, had the inheritary "tudunchuo" title. Ashina Guduolu, having raided into the Nine Tiele Tribes, assembled cattle and people, and declared himself a khan. Brother Mochuo was made as "she", and Duojifu "yehu". When Guduolu attacked "he-nan", south of the Yellow River, Aside Yuanzhen led the six prefecture of Turks to joining the rebellion.
 
The Turks attacked Weizhou and killed "dudu" Cui Zhibian. In 684, the Turks further attacked Shuozhou, killed officials and abducted people. In A.D. 686, Guduolu attacked Shuozhou and Daizhou etc. The next year, the Turks attacked Changping, which was defended by Heichi Changzhi. In August of 687, the Turks attacked Shuozhou. Heichi Changzhi, as "da zongguan" for Yanran-dao, defeated the Turks at Huanghuadui, and chased the Turks to the north of the desert. In 694, Mochuo, who deposed Guduolu's son to be khan, attacked Shouzhou. Empress Wu Zetian sent Xue Huaiyi, a monk of the Baima-shi Monastery, and 18 generals against the Turks. Mochuo then sent an emissary to seek for truce. The next year, Empress Wu conferred the title of Qianshan [trasforming to kindness] Khan onto Mochuo. In 696, when the Khitans under Li Jingzhong and Sun Wanrong rebelled to sack Yingzhou, Mochuo petitioned with Empress Wu to have the pacified Turks at "he-xi" (west of the Yellow River) be assigned to him for campaigning against the Khitans. For the success in defeating the Khitans, Empress Wu conferred the title of "Baoguo [requital to the country] Khan" onto Mochuo as well as the titles of "xiedielishi da chanyu" and "te-jing". The Eastern Turks obtained in A.D. 697 from Empress Wu Zetian the old Turkic territories of six Tang prefectures, Pingzhou, Shenzhou, Lingzhou, Xiazhou, Suozhou and Dai (Daizhou) The eastern Turks (namely, the Orkhon Turks) allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang.
 
The Eastern Turks, who revived in A.D. 682, defeated the Turgesh to the west around A.D. 711 in addition to conquering the Nine Tiele Tribes to the north. Under the pressure of the Posterior Turkic Khanate, the Geluolu (Karlaks) in A.D. 715 relocated to the west of the Altaic Mountain, i.e., the former homeland, from north of the desert. The Bayegu clan killed Turkic Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o) in A.D. 716. The Eastern Turks, with a khan selected by Tul Tegin, hence came to terms with the Chinese, as recorded in two stone monuments presided by the Chinese delegations. In A.D. 727, Huihe, Qibi, Sijie and Hun etc crossed the Grand Desert to dwell in the Hanzhou and Liangzhou territories on the Western Corridor. In 742, Huihe, Geluolu (Karlaks) and Bajimi etc formed an alliance. The Bajimi clan killed Turkic Khan Sumishi in A.D. 744. The Huihe Khanate (744-840) was launched in A.D. 744 along the Orkhon River. By A.D. 745, the Eastern Turk Khanate came to the final demise.
 
The "Jiu [Nine] Xing [Surname] Hu [Barbarians]" of the Yuezhi Zhaowu Origin
On basis of the Chinese records, after the demise of the Ashina Turks in the east, the Chinese court frequently received the delegations composed of i) the Huihe and ii) the "Nine Names". Tang Shu claimed that prime minister Dunmuohegan, after failing to persuade Huihe Khan Mouyu into invading Tang China, killed the Huihe Khan, the khan's family and the families of the "Nine Names". Hence, the delegation of the Huihe and the "Nine Names" stayed on in Tang China's capital. Conclusion is that the Turks had mixed up with the Tiele Tribes in the east but retained the "Ten Family Names" structure in Central Asia till the Tibetan invasion. Here, the Nine Names meant for the "jiu [nine] xing [surname] Hu [barbarians]" of the Yuezhi Zhaowu Origin, not the Nine Tiele Tribes from the 7th century.
 
Should we pursue the restrictive definition of the Turks above, then we could tell that among the Turkic-speaking tribes, the Tiele Tribes had a majority over the royal line of the Ashina Turks and their immediate tribesmen. The Chinese records stated that around A.D. 740s, the Eastern Khnanate Turks, aka the Orkhon Turks, were defeated by the Huihe [Uygurs] and the Karlaks. After this defeat, the Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. But the remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties time period, and the The Turks must have lost their distinct identity by then. In the records after that, we could see the Central Asian [Sodgian] merchants beginning to embed themselves with the Huihe (Urguys), instead. A recorded incident would be Zhang Guangsheng's uncovering the human smuggling operation of the Sogdian merchants in 740 A.D. The nine-name Sogdians, travelling with Huihe Tudongmeilu's embassy or trade mission, hid some Chinese women in the caravan when returning home through Zhenwu Garrison. Xin Tang Shu claimed that as many as 1000 nine-name Sogdians merchants were staying at the Tang capital by disguising themselves as the Huihe (Uygurs).
 
A good approach to untangling the riddle here would be to analyze the political structures of the Turks versus the Tiele Tribes. I will take the title of 'sijin' (tegin?), equivalent to governor, as a good entry. "The New History Of Tang Dynasty" said Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. The Khitan chieftan was conferred the title of 'Sijin' by the Turks. Similarly, major clans of the Tiele Tribes all enjoyed the title of 'sijin'. In this way, Turks treated the Tiele Tribes the same way as they did to the Khitans. The relationship of a vassalage is clear: The Tiele Tribes, like the Khitans, were the vassals of the Turks, not the equals.
 

The Turks/Uygurs vs the Sui & Tang Chinese
 
By the time Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618) destroyed Northern Zhou (AD 557-581), Turks, at the request of the 4-marriage-queen (previously princess of Northern Zhou), sought revenge by attacking Sui. Northern Zhou was a puppet of the Turks and inter-marriage between Turks and Northern Zhou was the way of maintaining peace between the two. Sui Emperor Yang Jian (Yang Chien) (Yang Jian), grandfather-in-law of Northern Zhou emperor, usurped the power by dethroning the young emperor.
 
The Split Of Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate : Yang Jian (Yang Chien) played the strategy of sowing dissension among the Turks, the son and the nephew of ex-Turkic khan. In A.D. 582, the Turkic Khaganate split into Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate. The son of ex-Turkic khan would set up the Western Turkic Khanate, while the nephew's Eastern Khanate gave up the plan of revenge on Sui and sought peace with Sui. Nomadic ways of succession, usually younger brother taking over the khanate from the elder brother, and occasional requittal by the younger brother in giving the khanate back to the son of his elder brother, had constantly caused internal strife in their history. This is in addition to the nomadic way of younger brother taking over all wife and concubines of the father or elder brother at the time of succession. After defeating the Turks via the above-mentioned 'dissension strategy', Sui pacified by promising continuous "intermarriage" with the eastern Turks.

 
There was an attack on Sui capital Chang'an in A.D. 601 by Western Turkic Khan Tardu, according to Turkic accounts, before Emperor Yangdi succeeded Emperor Wendi in A.D. 604. Records show Tardu was one of at least three or four rivaling Turkic khans of the time and his attack on Sui aborted before any impact was felt, and he would die of internal fights within the next few years.
 
The Turks had internal fights again and their khanate again collapsed in A.D. 603. The eastern khan, Shabolüe, adopted the same custom by giving his khanate to his younger brother (Muohe). Muohe's son, Ruangan, was forced into refuge inside of Sui by the son of the ex-khan Shabolüe. Ruangan, given the title "Qimin Khan" by Sui's emperor, married with Princess Anyi and, after the death of Princess Anyi, he married with Princess Yicheng (who would also remarry 3 more times with successor Turk khans later). Qimin Khan returned to Eastern Khanate after the death of his cousin. At one time, Sui Emperor Yangdi travelled northward to the tent of Qimin Khan where he encountered the emissary from Koguryo (one of Korea's three kingdoms) and relayed the message of imperial bestowals should Koguryo pay tributes to Sui. 
(It was said the Korean emissary was in Turk territory seeking an alliance against Sui China, but unexpectedly having an encounter with Sui emperor.)  Emperor Yangdi also sent an emissary to the Western Turk Khanate to relay a similar message and obtained the aid of the western khan in attacking the Tuyuhun who were unhappy about Sui's replacing the Tuyuhun wife of the Eastern Turk Khan with a Sui princess. Sui Dynasty set up 4 new prefectures in the territories in and around the eastern khanate, namely,  Xihai (west sea or Qinhaihu Lake), Heyuan (origin of Yellow River), Shanshan (Loulan) and Qiemuo. 

 
TANG DYNASTY: When Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) founder Li Yuan rebelled against Sui, he, in exchange for two thousand horses and five hundred Turk cavalry, would collude with the Turks by promising the Turks all the gold and women in the Sui capital. (Hundred years later, Tang emperor would request again for aid from the Uygur Turks in quelling internal rebellion, i.e., An-Shi Rebellion).
 
While Sui's founder Yang Jian (Yang Chien) (Jian) was said to be the descendant of a Han Dynasty official called Yang Zheng, Tang's founder Li Yuan was said to be the 7th granson of the emperor of Western Liang
(AD 400-421), one of the few Chinese nations among the nomadic "Sixteen Nations" preceding the North-South Dynasties (AD 386-589). Both were said to be semi-Tuoba because they married Tuoba's Dugu women. They were relatives. Li Yuan's wife was the sister of Sui Dynasty's Empress Dugu.  Li was conferred the title of Duke Tang, and the name 'Tang' would become his dynastic name.   (The double character name Dugu means 'lonely' and 'orphaned', literally, and was a Tuoba tribal name, just like Murong and Yuwen.  This kind of double character name would become a kind of fashion with Japanese surnames.) 
 
When Tang Dynasty's founder, Li Yuan, rebelled against Sui Dynasty, he would sent his minister (Liu Wenjing) to the Eastern Turks (ruled by Khan Shibi) for borrowing 2000 horses and 500 cavalry. Li Yuan, not proclaiming himself emperor at the beginning, used Yang You (the grandson of Sui emperor) as a puppet. There were a dozen rebel leaders as a result of the dethronement of Sui Dynasty. At this time, Khan Shibi subjugated Tuyuhun in Gansu-Qinghai, Gaochang near Turpan, Khitans and Shiwei in northwestern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. Many Sui Chinese fled to the Turks for seeking asylum. Khan Shibi assisted Li Yuan's rivals, such as Liu Wuzhou & Liang Shidu, in fighting for gaining supremacy in China. After the death of Khan Shibi, his brother, Chuluo Khan (same name as Chuluo Khan during Sui Dynasty time period), would be enthroned. Chuluo Khan assisted another Tang rival, Wang Shichong. Later, Dou Jiande was asked to send ex-empress of Sui to the Turks by Princess Yicheng who was already remarried three times to Turkic khans at the time. Chuluo Khan retrieved ex-Sui Empress Xiaohou and ex-Sui royal family from a Tang rival called Dou Jiande. Dou previously seized Sui Empress Xiaohou from Sui general Yuwen Huaji. (Yuwen Huaji, during the coup, killed Sui Emperor Yangdi in Yangzhou on the Yangtse River). Chuluo Khan erected a Sui royal member as the new Sui King. Chuluo Khan was determined to fight Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty, saying that he wanted to return favor to Sui descendants for Sui Dynasty's helping his ancestors in the restoration of the khan regency. Later, Chuluo Khan died and his brother, Khan Xieli, would be enthroned. A Chinese called called Zhao Deyan was hired as a counsellor by Khan Xieli.
 
The Eastern Khnanate, the Koreans & the Khitans :
  Tang's emperor Taizong, son of Li Yuan, would quell all rivals including Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong et al. One rival at the border was aided by the eastern Turks; hence, Tang sought wars with the Turks in lieu of the old alliance with them. Khan Xieli was disuaded from an alliance with another Tang rival called Xue Ju. Khan Xieli would erect his cousin, i.e., Shibi Khan's son, as Khan Tuli (with the same name as Tuli during the Sui Dynasty time period). Tuli was sent to the east, and Tuli would take charge of the ancient tribes of the Khitans and the Mojie (ancestors of Jurchens) people. Khan Xieli would take over Princess Yicheng as his wife. Khan Tuli was married with Princess Huan'nan of Sui Dynasty. Princess Yicheng's brother (Yang Sanjing) and Wang Shichong's emissary would somehow persuade Khan Xieli into challenging Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty. In A.D. 621, Khan Xieli invaded the Yanmenguan Pass and the Dai Prefecture. For several years, Tang and the Turks fought numerous battles across the northern border areas. By the 7th year of Tang Emperor Gaozu, in A.D. 626, King Qin of Tang Dynasty (i.e., Li Shimin, later Tang Emperor Taizong) would sow a dissension among Xieli Khan and Tuli Khan. Unable to call upon Tuli to fight Tang further, Xieli Khan sent Tuli Khan and Simo to the Tang court for sake of a peace treaty with Tang. Tuli Khan and King Qin promised to be brothers, while Tang Emperor Gaozu said to Simo that he felt he had seen Khan Xieli in meeting with Simo. In the following two years, Tang was busy building ships around the North Bend of the Yellow River for defence against the Turks, while the Turks broke the peace and kept attacking Tang.
 
In A.D. 627, Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned after killing two brothers and forcing Emperor Gaozu into abdication. This is called the 'Xuanwumen [turtle-snake gate] Coup' in the Tang history. Just twenty days after Taizong got enthroned, Eastern Turkic Khan Xieli attacked Tang, with the Turks reaching the Wei River, just a dozen miles away from the Tang capital. Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) sought peace with the eastern Turks.
 
In the same year, A.D. 627, the Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, etc, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 628. The next year, the Xueyantuo tribe proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang Dynasty. Other Tiele Tribes, like Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu, also paid pilgrimage to the Tang court. After Eastern Khanate experienced a famine, internal revolts broke out.  Khan Xieli (grandson of Qimin Khan) was dissatisfied with Tuli's performance in quelling the rebellion, and had a quarrel with Tuli. Khan Xieli arrested Tuli and did not release Tuli for a long time. After being set free, Tuli surrendered to Tang.
 
Taizong said that his father (Emperor Gaozu) had sought help and vasslage with the Turks because Tang was weak earlier after emerging from a rebellion against Sui Dynasty. In the fourth year of Taizong' reign, A.D. 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli with six columns of armies, and captured Khan Xieli by taking advantage of the Turkic internal strife. General Li Jing led 3000 cavalry into the Turk camp and defeated Khan Xieli's army via a surprise attack strategy, and then led 10,000 soldiers all the way to Yinshan Mountains (located in today's Inner Mongolia) in pursuit of Khan Xieli. A Turkic chieftan called Kang-sumi surrendered with Sui Empress Xiaohou and the Sui descendant (Yang Zhengdao). General Li Jing retrieved ex-empress of Sui and gave her to emperor Taizong who later took in as his mistress, and General Li Jing killed princess Yicheng for her 4-time-marriage without knowing 'shame'. Khan Xieli, after being defeated again, sought peace with Tang. Li Jing, thinking that the Turks might not be on alert while a Tang emissary was in their camp, attacked Khan Xieli again. Xieli alone fled to another chieftan called Shabolue-she, but he was arrested and surrendered to the Tang army by his own cousin.Hence, the Chinese occupied Mongolia (Eastern Turkic Khanate).
 
The remnant eastern Turks either fled to Western Khanate or northward to the Tiele Tribe of Xueyantuo (Mandarin spelling, Turkic name unknown). Emperor Taizong, rebutting the advice of his minister Wei Zheng (who cited the Hunnic ravaging of China during the late Jinn Dynasty as a result of their dwelling to the south of the Yellow River, Hatao area), relocated over 100,000 eastern Turks to the border areas, all the way from Shaanxi-Shanxi to today's Beijing city. Taizong did accept the advice of Yan Shigu, Du Chuke and Li Baiyao in having the Turks settle down to the north of the Yellow River. Taizong set up four more prefectures, Shunzhou, Youzhou, Huazhou Changzhou along the Great Wall, and made Khan Tuli governor-general in charge of Shunzhou Prefecture. Tuli Khan was conferred the title of King of Beiping-jun. Tuli died at the age of 29, and his son, Heluohu, succeeded with the same title.
 
Taizong subdivided the Eastern Khanate into altogether 10 "zhou" (an administartive unit larger than prefectures). He also allowed Khan Xieli and his officials to live in Chang'an the Tang capital, and altogether close to 10,000 Turk families moved in. A Turkic chieftan called Sijie-sijin surrendered to Tang with 40,000 people. (Sijin, a title having origin in Xianbei and Ruruan eras, was a Turkic title equivalent to governorship. Among ten Turkic families, for example, Nushibi khan possesseed five sijin. Turks also conferred the sijin post onto the Tiele Tribes and the Khitans.) One brother of Khan Xieli, who first fled to Tuyuhun, came to submit to Tang, too. The Turkic chieftan at Yiwu surrendered his 7 cities to Tang, and Tang made it into Western Yizhou Prefecture. Shabolue-she, with 50,000 people, was conferred the title of King Huaide (harboring gratitude). Shabolue-she relocated to north of Ningzhou Prefecture by vacating the land south of the desert.
 
Tang Emperor further exchanged money and silk for 80,000 Sui Chinese who fled to Turkic chieftans for asylum during China's civil war turmoil time period. Tang allowed those Chinese to come back to China as civilians.
 
Khan Xieli, unhappy while living in Chang'an, declined Taizong's offer to have him relocate to another place where he could go for hunting, and Khan Xieli died in A.D. 634. Taizong gave him the title of King Guiyi posthumously. One of Khan Xieli's ministers committed suicide when Xieli died. One more Turkic minister, Sunishi (Khan Qimin's brother), also committed suicide. Xieli's son was commented to be a filial son by Emperor Taizong for his refusal to eat bestowed meat because his birth mother did not get the allocation.
 
The Huihe (Uygurs) ranked second to Xueyantuo tribe among the eleven tribes who had helped Tang in defeating Eastern Turkic Khanate in A.D. 630-640. The Tiele tribes proposed that Tang Emperor Taizong be the khan in Sept of A.D. 646. Under the sponsorship of the Uygurs, the tribal leaders devised a name called "Tian Ke-han" (Heavenly Khan) for Emperor Taizong. In Jan of A.D. 647, the Tiele territories were made into prefectures and counties. In June, money was paid out to buy back Chinese stranded in the Tiele territories. During the attacks on the Xueyantuo in A.D. 646, Emperor Taizong won over the support of eleven Tiele tribes including the Uygurs (Huihe), Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu.
 
Tang's General Li Jing (a military strategist who once fled with a mistress of Sui prime minister while being invited as a guest at the home of Sui prime minister) was later sent on another expedition to Qinhai-Gansu and Tarim Basin to quell rebellion of the Tuyuhun, a group of Qiangic people mixed with the Xianbei nomads. Tang married princess over to Tuyuhun king to pacify them. With the help of the Uygurs and other Tiele Tribes, Tang Chinese subdued the Tarim Basin in 630-40. During this time, A.D. 629-645, famous Tang Monk Xuan-zang [i.e., Chen Hui] travelled to India and returned to Chang'an in 16 years, passing dozens of countries and nomadic tribal states in between, which include the so-called Gaochang State (near east of today's Turpan) where he was received by king Qu Wentai. Xuan-zang's travellogue had good descriptions of the White Huns. Xuan-zang mentioned an interesting thing about 300 Chinese households [captives of the Turks] dwelling in a small town to the south of Talas.
 
In year A.D. 640, Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, learning of Tuyuhun's intermarriage with Tang, initiated a war against Tang and requested intermarriage with Tang princess. Tibetan Prime Minister Ludongzan was sent to Chang'an and passed imperial inquiries and tests. Princess Wencheng arrived in Tibet one year later. 

 
King of Gaochang State, Qu Wentai, colluded with Western Turkic Khanate in subjugating small tribal states in today's Xinjjiang (New Dominion) area and rebelled against Tang. In A.D. 639, with the help of Xueyantuo or Sheyanto tribe (one component of the Tiele Tribes), Tang army of 100,000 travelled 7,000 li distance to fight Gaochang State, scaring Qu Wentai to death. Qu Wentai's son surrenderred after learning that the relief army of Western Khanate Turks had fled home half way. Emperor Taizong renamed Gaochang to Xizhou, and made it the locality for the governor-general office in charge of Yutian, Suiye, Shule and Chouci. (Later, Xizhou or Anxi Protector_General or Marshal Presidio Office was relocated to Chouci in A.D. 659.) In A.D. 702, Tang would set up Beiting 'Protector_General (Marshal Presidio)' office in Tingwai or Tingzhou (present-day Jimsar), a place located to the east of Suiye (Tokmok), to the south of Xizhou (Turpan), and to the west of Yizhou (Hami).
 
By A.D. 648, Tang subdued the remnants of eastern Turks north of the Gobi. Meantime, Tang defeated the Khitans in Manchuria, and controlled central and eastern Mongolia, thus stretching 9,510 li east to west and 10,918 li south to north in its territories.  The Xueyantuo tribe, differentiated in Chinese chronicle as a separate tribe from the Uygur tribe, was in charge of north Mongolia. Non-Chinese historical accounts, including US Library of Congress website, however, stated that the Uygur vassal controlled west and north Mongolia, from Lake Alltaid to Lake Balkash. The Uygurs would gain control of north Mongolia at a later time.
 
Tuli Khan's son, Heluohu, was targeted by his Turkic tribesmen for abduction back to the Turkic land. They fled to north of China and disturbed the border areas. Taizong defeated the rebellion and exiled Heluohu to southern China. Emperor Taizong decided to send Simo (the cousin? of ex-khan Xieli) back to the land of Eastern Khanate as a ruler, thus making Simo into a rival of the Tiele Tribe (Xueyantuo). Xueyantuo tribe, an ex-ally, now rebelled against Tang for Tang's dispatchment of Simo.  Simo was commented to have looked like a 'Hu' versus the Turkic Ah'shina family. Hence, he was previously not employed for high posts. He once served as a khan north of the desert when Khan Qimin fled to Sui Dynasty. When Qimin returned, Simo relinquished the khan title. Simo was frequently sent to Tang as a peace emissary. Simo was caught together with Khan Xieli. Simo was conferred the title of King Hedejun and governor-general of Huazhou Prefecture.
 
Hearing that Simo led the Turks (100 thousand people, 40 thousand army and 90 thousand horses) in crossing the Yellow River in A.D. 641, the Xueyantuo Tribe tried to fight the Turks. Xueyantuo wrote to Tang saying that the Turks did not know to keep promise and peace. Tang said to Xueyantuo that Turks would control south of the desert while Xueyantuo was to control north of the desert. Three years later, Simo, unable to harness his people, returned to Tang court, later followed Taizong in the Korean campaign (on which occasion Taizong sucked the blood from the arrow wound that Simo suffered), and later died in the Tang capital. Simo's Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king), son of the late Sunishi, would have tears everytime Tang emissary arrived at north of the desert, and he would be allowed to return to Tang court. Some of Simo's people relocated south of the Yellow River and settled in Shengzhou and Xiazhou Prefectures.
 
Replacing Simo would be the Turkic Khan called Chebi. Chebi at first fled to the Xueyantuo Tiele Tribe, where he was liked by the tribesmen. When being threatened by Xueyantuo, he escaped from Xueyantuo. Xueyantuo chased him all the way westward. Chebi would soom amass 30 thousand people and he would assert control over the Karlaks in the west and Qigu (Jiegu) in the north. Chebi, claiming to be Khan Yizhu-chebi, sent son Shaboluo-teqin to the Tang court. The Chebi Turks often harassed the Xueyantuo tribe thereafter. In the 23rd year of the Zhenguan Era, Emperor Taizong incited the Huihe and Pugu tribes to attack Chebi. In the first year of the Yongwei Era, Emperor Gaozong ordered another attack against Chebi. Chebi was captured and brought to Chang'an to be under house arrest, while the remnant Turks were settled at Mt. Yuedujun-shan. With Chebi defeated, the Turkic land was made into two "duhu-fu" offices of Chanyu and Hanhai, with the former commanding three "dudu" and 14 prefectures and the latter seven "dudu" (governors) and eight prefectures.

 
I haven't verified the unit "li" as used in Tang Dynasty. http://www.os.xaxon.ne.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/esss.html stated that 'San-kuo-shih or Three Country Record does not use the distance unit of"li" to be 435 meters as used during the Chin or Han dynasty Period. but rather it uses the unit adopted by the Wei and Western Chin dynasties, which is that one "li" is approxinately 77 meters.'
 
In late 630-40s, Tang intervened in the civil wars of Korea. Back in the autumn of A.D. 633, Silla sent an emissary in request of Chinese help in attacking Koguryo which was allied with Paekche. Tang China, with the lesson of Sui Dynasty's two time failures against Koguryo, had conferred the title of King Liaodong-jun-wang onto Koguryo King Gao Jianwu. Paekche King Fuyu Zhang was conferred King Daifang-jun, and Silla King Zhenping the title of King Lelang. After the death of Zhenping, a daughter by the name of Shande was enthroned. In Koguryo, minister Quan Gaisuwen personally killed King Gao Jianwu inside the palace, slaughtered the ministers who had schemed with the king in subduing him, and then selected Gao Zang [the son of Gao Jianwu's brother] as the new king. After that, Gaisuwen allied with Paekche to attach Silla. Gaisuwen declined Chinese emissary who was sent to Koguryo to disuade the war. At Luoyang, in Feb of A.D. 645, Tang Emperor Taizong ordered a campaign against Liaodong [east of Liao River] by ordered Zhang Jian of Yingzhou Prefecture to mobilize the army of Youzhou & Yingzhou as well as the nomadic tribes like Khitans, Xi & Mohe. In Hongzhou, Raozhou & Jiangzhou, 400 ships were being built. Hearing of China's war preparations, Koguryo sent over precious platinum; however, Taizong ordered the arrest of the Koguryo emissary. Before Taizong's departing with crown prince, Xueyantuo emissary came to China. Taizong relayed a message, stating that should Xueyantuo Khan Zhenzhu intend to attack China, he was at will to do so by taking advantage of the Chinese campaign against Korean peninsula. Zhang Liang & Li Shiji were ordered on a campaign against Koguryo via sea and land. The first campaign ended when the winter came. A few months later, in the summer of A.D. 646, Koguryo King Gao Zang & Quan Gaisuwen dispatched emissary for pardon, and surrendered two beauties.
 
Emperor Taizong put aside the Korea matter when Xueyantuo Tribe repeatedly raided Chinese border. The elder son of the khan of Xueyantuo, i.e., Bazhuo, took advantage of emperor Taizong's first Korean expedition in attacking Tang south of the Yellow River. After the death of Khan Zhenzhu, elder son chased to kill younger brother Yemang when Yemang was on the road of fleeing back to the eastern territory after the funeral. Bazhuo, claiming to be Khan Xieli-juli-xiasha-duomi, was defeated by Tang Dynasty's nomadic general Zhishisili in Dec of A.D. 645. In Jan of A.D. 646, Qiao Wang of Xiao-zhou defeated Xueyantuo. After the defeat, Bazhuo turned around to attack Xiazhou on the western bend of the Yellow River. In June of A.D. 646, Taizong dispatched King Jiangxia-wang and Zhishisili against Bazhuo. Bazhuo fled after a defeat. At this moment, tribes of the Huihe (Uygur), who were appointed to the Hanhai prefecture, came to the aid of Tang and attacked Xueyantuo tribe together with Tang army consisting of several columns of various nomads from Liang and Dai prefectures. Allied armies included those under King Jiangxia-wang, Ashina She'er, Zhishisili, Qibi Heli, Xue Wanche, and Zhang Jian. The Uygurs helped Tang army in successfully quelling the rebellion of Xueyantuo. Tribes of the Uygur killed the khan of Xueyantuo tribe and hence controlled north Mongolia where Xueyantuo once held. 70,000 households of Xueyantuo tribe fled to the west, and supported Duomozhi [son of Zhenzhu's brother] as the new khan. Huihe chieftan Tumidu, however, refused to allow Tang China's emissary Cui Dunli to pacify Duomozhi. Li Shiji followed through with an expedition against Duomozhi, arrested Duomozhi for delivery to Tang court, and pacified 30,000 Xueyantuo tribesmen. Taizong personally went to Lingzhou, on the west bend of the Yellow River, and issued pacification order to the remnants of 15 Tiele tribes. To the north of the Desert, Xue Wanche & King Jiangxia-wang Dao Zong chased Xueyantuo remnants for 200 li distance, and then called upon Huihe tribe to seek vassalage with Tang court. At Jingyang, 11 Tiele tribal chieftans came to pay respect. Emperor Taizong re-zoned the northern territories into six fu (prefecture or province) and seven zhou (prefecture). 

 
After the north was settled, in A.D. 639 Tang Emperor Taizong attacked the Chouci State in the west, which wavered in its loyalty between Tang Dynasty and the Western Khanate. In A.D. 641-648, Tang defeated Western Khante and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains. However, in the north, there arose, after the defeat of the Xueyantuo, a remnant eastern Turkic khan. In A.D. 649, Emperor Taizong, again with help from Uygurs, campaigned against the north. In the same year, Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) died. Altogether images of 14 khans had been inscribed on the stones and stood beside Taizong's tomb after one khan's request to be funerary object buried alive was rejected by succeeding emperor, Gaozong. After Taizong's death, General Gao Kan, under Emperor Gaozong, would soon capture the last remnant eastern khan and the Eastern Khanate was put to rest for the time being. 
 
The Eastern and Western Turks rebelled against Tang several times thereafter. For almost a hundred years, the Huihe [Uygurs] would assert control over north Mongolia in competition with the remaining Turks who re-established the Eastern Khanate in A.D. 682/683 in Mongolia. Tang's civil minister Pei Xingjian was responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681 via strategies like 'hiding soldiers inside the grain carts' and 'offering 10,000 liang (a unit of weight similar to ounce) gold for the head of the khan'. Pei Xingjian, earlier, escorted the Persian Prince on his way to Persia and captured the western Turkic khan who sought suzerainty from the Tibetans. The Persian Prince, however, was afraid of going further to Persia. He stayed around Suiye, failed to organize any army, and then returned to Chang'an where he spent the rest of his life. The remnant Western Turks, under the Tibetan suzerainty, set up the Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin in A.D. 691, to be defeated in A.D. 692 by Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture who re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan).
 
The eastern Turks allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang. The Khitans were given the royal family name of Li by Emperor Taizong in early times and once followed Emperor Taizong in his Korean campaigns. The Khitans first rebelled against Tang in A.D. 656-661 and again in A.D. 696. The eastern Turks (namely, Orkhon Turks) allied with the Khitans in attacking Tang. Certainly, the Turks and the Khitans were adversaries as well. The Orchon Turks, under Khan Mochuo, attacked the Khitans as well. Tang mobilized an army of hundreds of thousands and defeated the Khitans. Hence, the Khitans fled to the Turks for protection. The Eastern Turks obtained in A.D. 697 from Empress Wu Zetian the old Turkic territories of six Tang prefectures, Pingzhou, Shenzhou, Lingzhou, Xiazhou, Suozhou and Dai (Daizhou), and moreover, sought for his daughter the marriage with the Chinese royal family. Empress Wu, who initially refused to yield the pacified Turks to Mochuo, took Yao Ji's advice to appease the Turks by yielding the six prefectures as well as approving the intermarriage request. The pacified Turks in the six Tang prefectures were transferred to Mochuo via expulsion, which further beefed up the Turks' strength. Over 40,000 "shi" (bushel) of seeds plus over 3000 sets of agricultural tools were given to the Turks as well. When Empress Wu Zetian sent her family's prince, Wu Yanxiu, to the Turks, Khan Mochuo got angry after learning that his duaghter was not to marry the Tang royal family of Li. Khan Mochuo held Prince Wu as a hostage and campaigned against Wu Zetian on behalf of Tang's emperors (two Li emperors, both Wu's sons, who were deprived of rights and placed in palace arrest). Khan Mochuo, claiming to be Weiwei Khan, attacked Tang's Jingnan-jun, Pingdi-jun and Qingyi-jun armies, attacked Guizhou and Tanzhou. Empress Wu Zetian dispatched Wu Zhonggui1, Shazha Zhongyi, and Zhang Rendan, about 300,000 troops, against the Turks. Mochuo then attacked Weizhou and Dingzhou, and massacred people indiscriminately. Mochuo killed 80-90 thousand people in two prefectures of Dingzhou and Zhaozhou and retreated. Shazha Zhongyi and Li Duozuo (a former Malgal chieftan) dared not to counterattack the Turks, while Di Renjie failed to catch up with the Turks. The next year, Mochuo declared himself Tuoxi (exploring the west) Khan. In the following years, Mochuo attacked the west, and looted over ten thousand horses in "Long-you" (today's Gansu).
 
In A.D. 700, two Tang nomadic generals defeated the Khitans again. The Turks and the Tang Chinese had seesaw warfare, till dethroned Emperor Zhongzong got restored in A.D. 705. In 703, Mochuo sent an emissary to request for his daughter to be married with a Tang prince. Wu Zetian ordered Wu Chongjun and Wu Chongming to meet the Turk emissary. Mochuo responded with a tribute of over 1000 horses and native products. After Li Duozuo assisted the Tang court ministers in overthrowing Wu Zetian's rule and restoring Emperor Zhongzong, Mochuo sent the Turks to attacking Mingsha-xian County of Lingzhou. The Tang Lingwu-jun army under Shazha Zhongyi was defeated. The Turks attacked Yuanzhou and Huizhou, lotting over ten thousand horses.
 
In A.D. 712, the Khitans submitted to Tang and was conferred the title of King of Songmuo Prefecture. The heads of eight Khitan tribes were conferred general's posts as well. A Tang royal family princess, Princess Yongle, was sent to the Khitan khan as wife.
 
Emperor Xuanzong, in A.D. 714, defeated the Eastern Turkic Khan Mochuo and won over the defection of Mochuo's brother-in-law. However, the glorious days under Emperor Taizong were gone.
 
The Orhkon Turks:   History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Huihe [Uygurs] and the Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks (i.e., Eastern Turks) under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, the Tang Chinese also allied with the Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, the land between the Arabs and the Chinese, from A.D. 716 to A.D. 733. In 716, Turkic Khan Mochuo, i.e., brother to founder Guduolu, was killed. After Khan Mochuo was killed by the Turkic tribesmen, the Orkhon Turks came to term with the Chinese. (Today's Turks claimed that their successors were said to have erected two stone monuments cursing the Chinese for the treachery and their tribesmen for betrayal.) Queteqin (Tul Tegin) conducted a coup to make brother Mojilian a khan. Mojilian wanted to yield the throne to Queteqin, for which he was made into the leftside virtuous king while Mojilian assumed the khan as Pijia Khan. In A.D. 731, when Queteqin (Tul Tegin) died, Tang Emperor Xuanzong sent Zhang Quyi and Lv Xianglai to the Turks for condolence. A stone minument for Queteqin (Tul Tegin) was erected, with winged bird figures, the Zoroastrian burial symbol, inscribed. In A.D. 732, when Khan Pijia was poisoned by minister Meiluduo, the Tang court sent another delegation to condoling the khan's death. Khan Pijia, before his death, ordered to exterminate Meiluduo's family and decreed to make his son Khan Yiran. (Meiluduo, in an earlier trip to the Tang court, divulged the secret Turkic-Tibetan alliance treaty.) The Orkhon Khanate would end in the hands of the Huihe [Uygurs, who believed in the Moni religion, i.e., that of the Buddha of Light] and the Karluks. Though defeated, the Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. The remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties.  

 
The Turgesh rebelled against Chinese in A.D. 739 and were defeated. In A.D. 741, General Kao Hsien-chih (Gao Xianzhi) led the troops into Turkistan. (Gao Xianzhi was spelled Kao-hsien-chih or Ko Son-ji in Korean. Gao was the son of Korguryo General Ko Sagye who was captured by Tang army and then served Tang Dynasty.) In A.D. 744/45, the Huihe [Uygurs] defeated the Turks in Mongolia and established the first Huihe (Uygur) Empire, with the city of Karabalgasun on the banks of the Orkhun River as its capital. In A.D. 747, General Kao defeated the Tibetans near Gilgit in the Hindu Kush mountains and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs to the upper valley of the Amu-darya. (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm has a good article about Gao's expedition at Gilgit Pass, entitled "A CHINESE EXPEDITION ACROSS THE PAMIRS AND HINDUKUSH, A.D.747.", BY SIR AUREL STEIN, K.C.I.E. It compared Gao'a accomplishment to Hannibal's expedition across the Alps with North Africa elephants.) In A.D. 747-749, General Kao also defeated the Karluks who had replaced the Turgesh Turks as a power in the area. In A.D. 748, the Chinese invaded the Ferghana Valley where Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan converge. (Turkmenistan is to the west of the Ferghana Valley). In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Chouci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by locals to counter Arab invasion. But the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
 
Among the prisoners of war, quite a few Chinese possessed special skills, like weaving expert Le Yu. They were relocated to the Arab Peninsula where they relayed the paper technology. One young man, by the name of Du Huan, had later visited North Africa, he later returned to Tang China, and he wrote a book called Jing Xing Ji, i.e., Records Of Passing Through. Du Huan's uncle, Historian Du You, included a section of the travelogue in the encyclopedia 'Tong Dian'. http://cy.revues.org/document33.html has a description of the activities by Du Huan in Arab Peninsula and Africa.
 
The Karlaks in the 740s t0 750s (and in A.D. 766), defeated the Turgesh. The Karlaks, who were adversaries to the Huihe, moved south to the Qihe (seven rivers) area and today's Dzungaria. In south Siberia, the Jiegu (i.e., the Kirghiz) became the adversary of the Huihe, allying with the Karlaks and the Tibetans against the Huihe. The Tibetans took the route of the Karlaks and the Jiegu for trade in lieu of passing through the Huihe territory.
 
The Khitans would continue its developments in power, and by the middle of A.D. 750s, they defeated the Tang army led by An Lushan. An Lushan earlier had led an army of hundreds of thousands and tried to quell the Khitan rebellion with a Xi nomad guide. An Lushan lost over 100,000 troops at Tianmenling (heavenly gate ridge) in the battle against the Khitans. An Lushan's rebellion (An-Shi rebellion) broke out in Oct, A.D. 755. This will bring about Tang's decline. The Khitans later submitted to the Huihe [Uygurs]. It would be in A.D. 842 that the Khitans came to submit to Tang again after the Huihe [Uygurs] were destroyed by the Kirghiz. Governor-general of Youzhou, Zhang Zhongwu, would replace Khitan's Uygur seal with a Tang seal. In A.D. 860s, the Khitans came to pay pilgrimages. With the demise of Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Khitans began to conquer the Xi and Shiwei statelets. They began to raid into northern China again. Governor-general Liu Rengong counter-attacked them. Later, Liu Shouguang defeated them again, and peace ensued for 10 years.

 
Western Khnanate, Persians, Indians & Tibetans   :
  The khan of Western Khnanate, Ashina Daman (Nijue-chuluo Khan, ?-619), who was son of Nili Khan, had once followed Sui Emperor Yangdi's call in the Korean campaign. Taking advantage of Khan Datou's escape to Tuyuhun for asylum in A.D. 603, Nijue-chuoluo Khan took over the land of the Western Turkic Khanate. Shegui, a grandson of Khan Datou, counterattacked Nijue-chuluo Khan. Taking advantage of Sui Emperor Yangdi's detaining Nijue-chuluo Khan in A.D. 611, Shegui Khan took control of the Western Turkic Khanate, with the capital set at Sanmishan, to the north of Qiuci. (Nijue-chuluo Khan [Ashina Daman], who followed Yuwen Huaji to today's Hebei after the latter killed Sui Emperor Yangdi in Yangzhou in a coup, escaped to see Tang's first emperor Gaozu, i.e., Li Yuan, but he was killed by his Turkic rivals in A.D. 619 for his obedience to the Tang emperor when he was handed over to the Eastern Turkic Khanate.)
 
After the death of Khan Shegui (Shekui), Tongyehu (Tong Yabgu) took over the Western Turkic Khanate's rein. In the west, Khan Tongyehu (Tong Yabgu Qaghan) moved the capital to Qianquan (thousand springs), north of today's Tashkent. At about A.D. 618, Khan Shegui (Shekuei) died, with brother enthroned as Tongyehu Khan (reign 618-628), namely, Tong Yabghu Qaghan. Yongyehu Khan was described to have led an army of men with slanting and lidless eyes in sacking and destroying Derbent in today's Azerbaijan in A.D. 627. After the attack on Derbent in cooperation with the Khazers, the Western Turks and Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire joined forces to attack Tfilis in today's Georgia, dealing a defeat onto the Persian Sassanid Empire (224-651). In 627, the Khazars invaded Transcaucasia. Heraclius of the Byzantium Empire subsequently defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Khosrau II was assassinated in early 628. In 628, Tongyehu Khan was assassinated by uncle Moheduo (son of Datou Khan), which led to the turmoil and colalpse of the khanate.
 
Moheduo's rule was challenged by the Karlaks. The Nu-shi-bi tribe pushed Ashina Nishu-mohe-she as khan, while Nishu recomemnded Xili-teqin as Si-yehu Khan. Si-yehu Khan (i.e., Khan Yipiboluosi-yehu) and Moheduo fought for years till the former killed the latter in the Altaic Mountains in A.D. 630. Si-yehu then suspected Nishu of disloyalty, forcing the latter into fleeing to Yanqi. (Nishu was speculated by historian Xue Zongzheng to be the same person as Ashina Mishe who received the first Western Turkic Khan conferral from Tang emissary Liu Shan to be Khan Tun'aloubaxilibi-duolu but died of cold-related illness in 634. Mishe, who received the conferral from Liu Shan in A.D. 632 as Xilibi-duolu Khan, was sid to have led the Chuyue and Chumi tribes to the Tang court as a result of rivalry from Ashina Buzhen. Ashina Mishe was said to have followed Emperor Taizong in the Korean Campaign, for which he was conferred the title of Count Pyongyang-xian[county]-bo. Ashina Mishe, who did not die as Nishu did, played a role in Tang Dynasty's sweep through Central Asia in A.D. 657.)
 
In 632, the Western Turks expelled Si-yehu to the Kang-ju territory and retrieved Nishu as Duolu Khan. The next year, Sishu, who had sworn to be brothers with Tang Emperor Taizong in early years, petitioned to be subject to Tang. In 634, Nishu passed away. Brother Ashina Tong'e enthroned as Khan Shaboluo-dielishi. After several rounds of internal killings, the western Turks invited a royal family member of the Eastern Khanate to be their new khan. After fleeing west in the aftermath of the demise of the Eastern Turkic Khanate, Yuegu-she, son of Eastern Turkic Khan Shibi, in 638 declared to be Khan Yipiduolu, and fought against Khan Shaboluo-dielishi [not xilishi]. Dielishi divided the Western Turks into ten tribes, with one arrow each. The Western Khanate was divided into two parts, with the northern court controlled by Khan Shaboluo-dielishi, and the sourthern court of Western Khanate controlled by Khan Yipiduolu, with the Ili River as boundary. The southern court controlled the five Nushibi tribes while the northern court controlled the five Duolu tribes, namely, the ten Turkic tribes in the west.
 
In 639, Khan Yipiduolu attacked east against Khan Shaboluo-dielishi, expelling the latter to the Fergana area. Nephew Bobu-teqin was made into Yipi-shaboluo-yehu Khan who was ultimately killed by Khan Yipiduolu (?-653). Khan Yipiduolu hence controlled the Turks as well as the Tiele Tribes including Bajimi and Jiegu (Xiajiasi, or the Kirghiz). In 642, Khan Yipiduolu attacked Yizhou (Hami) but got repelled by Tang General Guo Xiaoge. The Chu-mi tribe surrendered to the Tang Chinese. The Western Turks went into turmoil as a result of the khan's mistreatment of his followers. At the request of the Turks, Tang Emperor Taizong decreed to make a nephew of Ashina Sihu the new khan, i.e., Yipi-shegui Khan. Khan Yipiduolu fled to Tuhuoluo, and died there in 653, while his son was made into KZhenzhu-yehu. Yipi-shegui Khan in A.D. 646 refused to yield five statelets around the Pamirs as gift in exchange for intermarriage with the Tang princess. In 648, the Tang court sent Ashina Duerping to defeating Yipi-shegui Khan. Tang sent Ashina Helu as Nifu-shaboluo-yehu to pacifying the Western Turks. In 649, after Emperor Taizong died, Ashina Helu rebelled to attack Tingzhou. In A.D. 651, Ashina Helu defeated Yipi-shegui Khan and declared himself Khan Shaboluo.

 
Previously, we had said that with the help of the Huihe [Uygurs], Tang Emperor Taizong quelled the rebellion of the Xueyantuo [Tiele] tribe in northern Mongolia and attacked the Qiuci [Chouci, i.e., today's Kuche or Kuqa] State in the west which wavered in its loyalty between Tang and the Western Khanate. During the period of A.D. 641-648, Tang defeated the Western Khanate and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains. The Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 A.D. Thereafter, the Tibetans would compete with the Tang Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would exist large Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk).
 
In the Western Khanate, the usurper proclaimed himself Khan Shaboluo and attacked the Tang border post of Tingzhou prefecture. Emperor Gaozong sent an army of 30 thousand led by nomadic general He Li (who was cut off an ear previously by an eastern khan for refusing to surrender to the Eastern Khanate) and called upon a Huihe (Uygur) army of 50 thousand in campaigning against the Western Khanate. This first campaign ended prematurely when the palace struggles between Empress Wu Zetian and two other empressess erupted. Though Tang Emperor Gaozong took the rein from A.D. 649 to 683, Gaozong's wife, i.e., Empress Wu Zetian, had assumed the actual power over Emperor Gaozong much earlier than A.D. 690 when she proclaimed herself 'emperor' (empress) of Wu Zhou Dynasty which lasted till A.D. 705. Wu Zetian later killed two of her 4 sons for solidifying control over the Tang court and by A.D. 690, she killed dozens of royal family members of Li and ministers and generals, including Paekche (Korean) General Heichichang-zi.
 
Years later, Yehu the son of ex-khan of the Western Khanate invited the Tang army to jointly attack the usurper khan Shaboluo. Tang sent governor-general Yuan Lichen of Fengzhou prefecture to the city of Suiye to help make Yehu into a khan. Tang General Su Dingfang, who would later in A.D. 662-666 cross the sea from Mount Chengshan to campaign in Korea and aid Shilla in defeating both Paekche/Koguryo & Japanese (whose 100 warships were burnt by General Liu Rengui during the campaign), led the Huihe [Uygurs] in attacking the usurper khan of the Western Khanate from the north. In A.D. 657, General Su, who attacked from the northern route, released two Western Khanate generals, Ashina Mishe and Ashina Buzhen, in an attempt to encircle the western khan from the southern route. One of the two Western Khanate generals killed Khan Yehu and became the new khan of the Western Khanate, and the other general was made into a khan by Tang Dynasty, too, maybe in an attempt to have the two new khans check on each other. Around A.D. 657, the Western Turks were thoroughly defeated. Altogether 10 family names of the western Turks, i.e., the On Okh (Onoq, Ten Arrows), surrendered to Tang. Tang set up two extra "Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Offices" of Kunling and Mengchi in the territories of Western Khanate. In the Marshal-Presidio Mengchi, Ashina Buzhen was conferred the post as "duhu" (protector) and Khan Jiwangjue (succeeding the past limitless) to be in charge of the five Nushibi tribes. (Ashina Buzhen was the fifth generation grandson of Shidianmi, and a cousin of Ashina Mishe. Previously in A.D. 632, Buzhen killed over 20 brothers and cousins of Ashina Mishe who was conferred by Emperor Taizong to be Xilibiduo Khan. Ashina Mishe in A.D. 639 led the Chuyue and Chumi tribes to the Tang court.)
 
By A.D. 659, Tang Chinese forces subjugated Transoxiana (i.e., Western Turkic Khanate). Marshal-Presidio Kunling office would be in charge of about 9 kingdoms situated in and around Samarkand, Tashkent and Merv and 16 others in Kashmir, Afghanistan and Iran. The Tang Chinese would retain the control of the Oxus valley till the Arabs came along in A.D. 751, with interruptions of the Turkic rebellion in between.

 
In the old territories of Qiuci State, Emperor Gaozong released the son of ex-khan of Qiuci from the Tang capital. Emperor Gaozong relocated the Anxi Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Office to the Qiuci Statelet from the Gaochang Statelet, making the Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) Office in charge of Qiuci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan), and 16 other tribal states, altogether 80 fu and zhou [i.e., prefectures and magistrate offices]. 
 
The two new khans of the Western Khanate would fight each other soon. Khan Buzhen slandered Khan Mishe by telling Marshal-Governor Su Haizhen that Khan Mishe would rebel against Tang Dynasty. Su Haizhen, fearing that his marshal-governor office did not have enough soldiers, decided to take the initiative first. Su Haizhen cheated Khan Mishe into a party and killed him in A.D. 662. Khan Mishe's people fled southwestward to Tibet. Soon Khan Buzhen died in A.D. 667, and the 10 families of the Western Khanate all went to Tibet to seek the suzerainty under the Tibetans. For about twenty years, the ten Tuekic names lacked a leader till Ashina Huseluo (son of Ashina Buzhen) was conferred by Empress Wu Zetian the title of Jiwangjue Khan in A.D. 685, to be in charge of five Nushibi tribes. The Tibetans were invited by the Turks in fighting the Tang Chinese.
 
Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, who obtained Princess Wencheng from Emperor Taizong, died in A.D. 650. At the time of Songtsen Gampo, i.e., A.D. 647, the Tibetans had once helped Tang emissary [Wang Xuance] in attacking middle India (one of five Indian kingdoms of the time) when the Tang emissary was assaulted by the new Indian king. Alternative records stated that it was 7000 Nepalese cavalry, not the Tibetan cavalry, that Wang Xuance had borrowed from Nepalese King A-mu-xiu-wa-e in the name of Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo. The story goes like this: Wang Xuance, who was first dispatched to India in A.D. 643 for escorting Indian emissary home, would visit King Xi-la-di-ti-ya of middle India [Zhong-tian-zu, i.e., Ma-ka-da] in A.D. 647. Upon arrival, Wang Xuance was attacked and arrested by the new usurper Indian king A-e-qiu-na. Wang Xuance, after fleeing from prison, went straight northward, crossed the Ganges River, climbed Mt Himalaya, and paid a visit to Nepalese king. With 7000 Nepalese cavalry, Wang Xuance returned to the Ganges River area and defeated King A-e-qiu-na's elephant column, and brought the captive to Tang Emperor Taizong in A.D. 648. In A.D. 658, Wang Xuance made a 3rd visit to India and wrote extensively on the Indian geography and buddhism.
 
Tibetan Zanpu's young grandson would be the new Tibetan king. However, Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan and his four sons had the actual power over Tibet. Ludongzan, together with 10 families of Western Khanate, would first attack Tangut, i.e., Tibet's number one rival. Tang Emperor Gaozong was asked to intervene by the Tanguts. Emperor Gaozong rejected two Tibetan requests: 1) the land of Chisui (i.e., red water), and 2) Tibetan intermarriage with the Tanguts. Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan hence obtained the aid of the Yutian (Hotan) people and took over 18 prefectures in western territories, including the Qiuci Statelet. General Xue Rengui, in A.D. 670, was ordered to quell the Tibetan rebellion, but he was defeated by Ludongzan's 400 thousand troops due to the fact that his logistics general lost all equipment and supplies to the Tibetans. General Xue negotiated a peace treaty in which Tang would promise not to enter the Tangut territory. When Xue Ren'gui returned to the capital, he was demoted into a civilian and would not be recalled till the Eastern Turks rebelled in the north in A.D. 680-681. Hence, Tibet entered Tangut territory and relocated all Tanguts to the Lingzhou prefecture which was already taken over by the Tibetans. In A.D. 678, Tang Emperor Kaozong campaigned against Tibet again, but Tang was defeated by the Tibetans.

 
A.D. 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina (Ah'shina Duozhi), together with the Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Marshal Presidio. Emperor Gaozong ordered the release of Persian Prince Peroz III in the attempt of having the Persians impede the Western Turks in the west. In early times, the Persian King, Yazdegerd III (grandson of Khosrau II), died in the hands of rebels in A.D. 651 after the Arabs defeated the Sassani Persians in 636 and sacked the capital city of Ctesiphon [since the days of the Arsacid Parthians] in 637. At the time the Arabs attacked the Persians, the new Persian King, Peroz (Beirusi), sought the help of the Tang Chinese by sending his son Niniesi (Narseih) to the Tang capital for requesting aid. Peroz himself came to the Tang court during 670-674. Tang had made the city of Jiling as the marshal-governor office and designated Persian King Peroz (Beirusi) as the "Persian Marshal". In A.D. 678, Tang civil [personnel] minister "libu shilang" Pei Xingjian was ordered to accompany the Persian prince back to Persia. When Pei passed the land of the Western Turks, he led a column of tribal leaders from Anxi Protector-General (Marshal Presidio) nomads, and captured the Turkic Khan Duozhi via a surprise strategy: Pei Xingjian earlier broadcasted that he would go west after the season and the Turkic khan took Fei's words for granted and hence did not make preparations for defence. Pei asked the Persian Prince to continue the trip back to his country, and he re-constructed the city of Suiye (Suyab), and delegated the power of Anxi Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) to his general Wang Fangyi. Later, Pei Xingjian would be responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in A.D. 680 and in A.D. 681 via similar strategies, like hiding soldiers inside the grain carts and offering 10,000 liang(ounce?) gold for the head of the khan.  In A.D. 682, the Western Turks rebelled again, and Fei was ordered to go west, but he died on the road at the age of 64. His general Wang Fangyi would succeed in quelling the Western Turks thereafter.
 
The Persian Prince never reached his homeland. After some futile attempts to rally his people, he returned to the Tang capital in A.D. 708 and spent his rest of the life in China. (There was a dispute as to whether it was Peroz or his son Narseih who was escorted to the west for rallying anti-Arab forces.)
 
In A.D. 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture defeated the Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan). In A.D. 696, the Tibetans sought peace with Tang, requesting: i) that Tang revoke the administrations in the four cities, and ii) that Tibet & Tang divide the 10 Western Turkic families into two halves. But Tang rejected the request. Shortly therefafter, the Tibetan king killed the sons of his previous prime minister, with only one surviving son of Ludongzan fleeing to Tang with 7000 tents of the Tangut people. Tang had quite some good news around that time.
 
The Khitans in the east were also quelled by two Khitan generals who had surrendered to Tang earlier. However, in A.D. 712, the Khitans colluded with the Eastern Turks again in attacking Tang. As to Tibet, it had an internal revolt in the south of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Tibetan king sought peace with Tang again. When Emperor Zhongzong was restored in A.D. 705, he had promised to have princess Jincheng (daughter of a Tang duke-king) marry with the son of the Tibetan king.  After the Tibetan king died, his seven year old son got enthroned. In A.D. 710, Emperor Ruizong sent Prince Jincheng to Tibet to marry the new Tibetan king who just grew up, together with a patch of land called Qiuqu (nine winding) in Hexi (west of the Yellow River) as a gift.  In A.D. 714, the Tibetans invaded Lanwei (today's Lanzhou & Wei River) areas, using the Qiuqu land as a bridge. Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneaked into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had caused Tibetan internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. The Tibetans, however, continued to encroach upon the Tang capital from the territories of the Tanguts and Qiuqu. 
 
The Turgesh (Tu-qi-shi), which had the origin in the Tiele Tribes, was part of the five "Duolu" tribes that were subject to the Western Khanate. After the defeat of the Western Turks in the hands of Tang Dynasty, the Turgesh came to rule the land of the Western Turks. Wu-zhi-le (? - 706), who was the Turgesh chieftan, a subordinate to Ashina Huseluo (son of Ashina Buzhen) who surrendered to Tang in A.D. 690 under the pincer-attacks of the Tibetans and the Posterio Eastern Turkic Khanate, took over Ashina Huseluo's land after the latter stayed on in the Tang capital in A.D. 703 in lieu of returning to the Suiye [Suyab] (Tokmok) area to continue the ruling of five Western Turkic tribes. In A.D. 706, Wu-zhi-le (Ushyly Kaghan) was conferred the title of King Huaidejun-wang. The Turgesh weakened in 736 when internal conflicts raged on, in 744 when defeated by the Tang army, and in 766 when the Karlaks ascended to power.
 
SIR Aurel Stein's article (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm) mentioned the precarious situations Chinese faced at that time, i.e., the allied attacks by the Arabs and Tibetans. Arabs, in A.D. 670, had conquered Tokharistan, the important territory on the middle Oxus of present Afghan. Between A.D. 705 and 715, Arab general Qotaiba had taken over Sogdiana, the land between Oxus and Yaxartes. In A.D. 741, Tibetans advanced to the Oxus valley and joined hands with the Arabs. The Tibetans utilized the line leading down the Indus from Ladak through Baltistan (the Great P'o-lu of the Chinese Annals) to the Hindukush territories of Gilgit and Yasin (both comprised the Little P'o-lu of the Chinese records). SIR Aurel Stein stated that "Great P'o-lu, i.e., Baltistan, had already become subject to them (Tibetans) before A.D. 722. About that time they attacked ... Little P'o-lu, declaring, as the T'ang Annals tell us, to Mo-chin-mang its king: 'It is not your kingdom which we covet, but we wish to use your route in order to attack the Four Garrisons (i.e., the Chinese in the Tarim basin).' In A.D. 722 timely military aid rendered by the Chinese enabled this king to defeat the Tibetan design. But after three changes of reign the Tibetans won over his successor Su-shih-li-chih, and inducing him to marry a Tibetan princess secured a footing in 'Little P'o-lu'... Thereupon, in the words of the T'ang shu, more than twenty kingdoms to the north-west became all subject to the Tibetans... These events occurred shortly after A.D. 741."
 
Tang Emperor Xuanzong (Hsuan-tsang), in A.D. 747, ordered that the Deputy Protector Kao Hsien-chih command the military forces in the Tarim basin. "With a force of 10,000 cavalry and infantry, Kao Hsien-chih started in the spring of A.D. 747 from Anxi (An-hsi), then the headquarters of the Chinese administration in the Tarim basin and corresponding to the present town and oasis of Kucha. In thirty-five days he reached Su-le, or Kashgar, through Ak-su and by the great caravan road leading along the foot of the T'ien-shan. Twenty days more brought his force to the military post of the Congling (T'sung-ling) Mountains, i.e., the Pamirs, established in the position of the present Tashkurghan in Sarikol. Thence by a march of twenty days the valley of Po-mi or the Pamirs, was gained, and after another twenty days Kao Hsien-chih arrived in the kingdom of the five Shih-ni, i.e., the present Shighnan on the Oxus."
 
In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Chouci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by locals to counter Arab invasion. But the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
 
Nationalist Uygurs, at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html, stated that "In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Huihe [Uygurs], the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia." This is erroneous statement in saying the Huihe [Uygurs] were the same Turks as those, 10 families of Western Khanate, who sought refuge and suzerainty with the Tibetans. The Huihe [Uygurs] had always been a distinguished tribal name in Tang's records, and they had initially helped Tang in quelling the Xueyantuo Tribe rebellion in the north and hence relocated to north Mongolia where they eventually established their own kingdom in ADD 744 after defeating the Turks. In the west, the Huihe [Uygurs] did send troops in tens of thousands during Tang's campaign against the Western Turkic Khanate and small tribal states like Chouci.  The Uygur role was apparently that of a Tang accomplice.
 
Later, Tang General An Lu Shan's rebellion broke out in 755 A.D. and the Huihe [Uygurs] were invited by Su-tsung (Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the Tang Chinese. "In this event, the Uygur forces played a key(?) role in the recapture of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Huihe [Uygurs] did not hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute annually to the Huihe [Uygurs] and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in marriage. She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D."  We will touch on this episode in the section An Shi Rebellion shortly.
 
 
Turks, Huihe [Uygurs], Arabs & Chinese
 
AD 632 saw the death of Muhammad and beginning of the expansion of the Arab Muslim Empire. In 642, the Sassanian Shah Yazdigird was defeated by the Arabs at the Battle of Nahavand and the Sassanian Empire collapsed under the pressure of Arab raids in 642-51. c. 650, the Khazars of Khazar Khanate defeated the Alans and Bulgars, resulting in their domination of the Caucasus and the Volga region. 
 
In 652, the Arabs first captured Khurasan. In 659, Tang Chinese forces, under Tang General Su Dingfang, penetrated into Transoxiana (Western Turkic Khanate). For one century, Tang controlled the Oxus Valley, till in 751 when the Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River. Tang would continuously fight both the Turks (who sought suzerainty with the Tibetans after Western Khanate was destroyed by Tang) and the Tibetans (who in A.D. 670 had taken over the Tangut territory after defeating Tang).
 
In 667, the Arabs defeated Peroz, the last Sassanian shah, and first crossed the Oxus River (Amu Darya). In 673/74-704, the Arabs raided across the Oxus in an attempt to capture Bukhara and Soghd. In A.D. 682/83, the Turks revolted against the Chinese and re-established the Turkic Khanate in Mongolia, but were defeated by Tang's Pei Xingjian. In A.D. 689, the Arab occupied Termez. A.D. 691, Turks, under Tibetan suzerainty, re-established the Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin, but in A.D. 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture defeated Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci, Yutian, Shule and Suiye.
 
In A.D. 705, the Arabs, under Qutayba ibn Muslim, launched a war against Transoxiana from Merv. In A.D. 709, the Arabs captured Bukhara and Samarkand. In A.D. 711, they captured Khiva and in A.D. 712 subdued Khwarezm and recaptured Samarkand. In A.D. 713, they sacked Kashgar.
 
Western Turkic Khanate was dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. It would be the Tibetans who competed with the Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would be Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk) which were subordinate to Khan Mochuo as members of so-called ten clan name tribal groups.
 
In A.D. 714, the Chinese, under emperor Xuanzong, defeated the Turks at Beiting [i.e., Lake Issuk-kul area]. Back in 713, Governor-general Sun Quan of Youzhou Prefecture attempted to recover Yingzhou from Xi-Khitans by leading 20,000 army together with Li Kailuo & Zhou Yiti. At Lengjing, chieftan Li Dapu of Xi-Khitan ambushed the Chinese. Only Li Kailuo escaped. Li Dapu surrendered Sun Quan & Zhou Yiti to Khan Mochuo for execution as a show of alliance against China. The two parties hence allied to harass the Chinese border. Tang court sent emissary to the Turks for peace. Mochuo dispatched son Yangwozhi to the Tang court for marriage with Chinese princess. Emperor Xuanzong promised to marry over Princess Nanhe-xian the daughter of King Shu-wang. In spring of A.D. 714, Mochuo dispatched son Tong'e-tele and brother-in-law Huoba-xielifa-shishibi on an attack at Bei-ting Governor-general Office as a retaliation over Emperor Xuanzong's delay of releasing princess. Protector General Guo Qianguan ambushed the Turks outside of the citywall, pierced dead Tong'e, killed over half the Turk force, and chased Huoba. Huofa, being rebuked by Khan Mochuo, fled to seek asylum with Chinese together with wife and sons, and received the conferral of King Yanshan-jun-wang.
 
In A.D. 714, during the fights with the Tibetans (with whom the Turks sought protection and suzerainty), Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneak into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had led Tibetans into internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. For the Turks, they were by that time under a precarious situations as they had to fight on two fronts, the Arabs to the south and the Chinese to the east. 

 
In A.D. 715, the end of the Arab conquest of Transoxiana as a result of the death of Qutaiba. The Eastern Turkic Khanate continued its expansion under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o or Motcho) by subjugating tribes such as the Kirghiz and the Karlak before his death in A.D. 716. The Eastern Turkic Khanate would fall in A.D. 744 following the rebellion of the Basmil, Karlak and Huihe (Uygur) tribes. In A.D. 728, the Arabs attempted to forcibly convert Transoxiana to Islam, resulting in a general revolt.
 
In A.D. 740, Gulipeiluo, i.e., Huihe Khan Huairen, declared himself Khan Guduolu-bijiaque (reign 744-747). (Gulipeiluo's father was exiled to southern China by Tang Emperor Xuanzong in A.D. 727.) In A.D. 744/45, the Huihe [Uygurs] defeated the Orkhon Turks in Mongolia and established the Huihe (Uygur) Empire. The Huihe [Uygurs], considered a vassal of Tang, would now controll the north and west of today's Mongolia, from Lake Balkash to Lake Baykal, till A.D. 840, almost a whole century. History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Huihe [Uygurs] and Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks under Khan Mochuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, Tang Chinese also allied with the Western Turks called Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, between the Arabs and the Chinese, from A.D. 716 to A.D. 733. Chinese history said that the Orkhon Turks still sent emissaries to China in late Tang Dynasty and during the Five Dynasties. They were not heard from again after the Five Dynasties. In A.D. 747, Gulipeiluo's successor Khan Gele (Gelei), also known as Huihe Khan Yingwu (Yaoluoge Moyanchuo, reign 747-759), moved the Huihe capital to the Orkhon Mountain valley, where he employed the Tang Chinese and Sogdian artizans in building the moat-encircled stone city "chanyu-cheng" at the foothill of Mt. Dujingshan. Later, the Huihe built the Fugui-cheng (wealthy and noble) city at the bank of the Selenge River. Huihe Khan Gele dispatched son and a Huihe army to the aid of Tang Dynasty when the An-Shi Rebellion broke out. In 759, the Huihe defeated the people at Sayan-ling mountain range, namely, the Kirghiz. Son Mouyu Khan, for the contribution to defeating Shi Chaoyi in 762 in cooperation with Pogu Huaien, received the Tang conferral as Khan Yingyijiangong.
 
The Turgesh Turks rebelled against the Chinese in A.D. 739 and were defeated. In A.D. 741, General Kao Hsien-chih led the troops into Turkistan, and in A.D. 747, General Kao defeated the Tibetans near Gilgit in the Hindu Kush mountains and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs to the upper valley of the Amu-darya.  

 
In A.D. 747-749, General Kao also defeated the Karluks who had replaced the Turgesh Turks as a power in the area. In A.D. 748, the Chinese invaded the Ferghana Valley where Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan converge. (Turkmenistan is to the west of the Ferghana Valley).  
 
In A.D. 749/50, the Abbasids seized the Caliphate from the Umayyads and subsequently transfered the capital to Baghdad. In A.D. 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In A.D. 751, the Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (a Korean), were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. The Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River in the high Pamirs. Du You, in Tong Dian pointed out that Gao Xianzhi, in the campaign against the Shi-guo statelet, lost 70,000 troops, in likening the loss to Ge Shuhan's loss of 20,000 garrison troops on an island in Qinghai, Yang Guozhong's loss of over 100,000 troops in campaign against Nanzhao, and An Lushan's loss of over 100,000 troops at Tianmenling in the battle against the Khitans. It was said Chinese paper technology was relayed to the West via the prisoners of war.  From then on, the Larluks controlled Western China while the Huihe [Uygurs] controlled Mongolia. The Arabs halted their push after a defeat in the hands of the Khazars in Azerbaijan. 
 
 
The An-Shi Rebellion & the Huihe [Uygurs]
 
Tang [barbarian] general An Lushan's rebellion (An-Shi rebellion) broke out in Oct, A.D. 755.  An Lushan defeated a Tang general by the name of Geshu-han. The two held an interesting dialogue to the effect that An Lushan claimed that they should cooperate since An was by the Turkic mother and Hu [Sogdian] father, while Geshu-han was by the Turkic father and Hu [Sogdian] mother. Emperor Xuanzong sneaked out of the capital without notifying his court. On the way of flight to today's Sichuan from Chang'an, Xuanzong's garrison troops killed prime minister Yang Guozhong. Emperor Xuanzong was forced by his garrison troops in ordering his empress Yang Gui-fei to commit suicide.  Masses of people gathered around the royal column and pleaded with the emperor for staying put so as to organize the counter-rebellion forces.  Xuanzong, in order to continue on his flight into Sichuan Province, orally decreed that his elder son, Suzong, stay behind to be the new emperor.  Emperor Suzong led his people northward to today's Ningxia area where he reorganized his army and requested with the Huihe [Uygurs] for help. The Uygur khan sent his elder son and 5,000 cavalry to helping Suzong, culminating in recapturing both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757.  The Uygur nationalists claimed that their cavalry played the key role in capturing the two Tang capitals.  The Chinese history recorded the patriotism of the Uygur (Huihe) prince. There were 3 days of banquet for receiving the Huihe cavalry. But the Huihe prince said that he should not indulge in delicious foods while the country was still in upheavals. By "country", the Huihe prince was referring to the Tang court.
 
Tang emperor Suzong had organized an army of over 100 thousand under the banners of two famous generals, Guo Ziyi & Li Guangbi. (Li was a semi-Khitan because his father was a Khitan; Li's mother was recorded to have grown beard around the mouth.)  When western capital Chang'an was taken over, the Huihe [Uygurs] requested with Suzong's son for authorization to pillage the capital in accordance with the agreement between Suzong and the Uygur khan that the Huihe [Uygurs] would be conferred women and gold in the capital.  This would be a similar humiliating offer from Tang's founder-emperor Li Yuan when he obtained 2000 horses and 500 Turk cavalry to rebel against Sui.  The Huihe [Uygurs] would be held back for the time being when Suzong's son rejected the request by saying that the people in western capital of Luoyang would help the rebels should they hear about the Uygurs' pillaging in the eastern capital of Chang'an.  After the fall of Luoyang, the Huihe [Uygurs] did their best in pillaging the capital.  Luoyang would be pillaged two more times by the Huihe [Uygurs] during the 8-year long rebellion.  Later, Emperor Suzong granted the Uygur Khan one of his daughters, Princess Ningguo, in marriage.

 
An Lushan had obtained the governor-general posts of Beijing, Taiyuan and Liaodong by bribing the notorious empress Yang.  Thus, An was in control of troops in almost whole northern China.  Per Yao Runeng, a Tang Dynasty county captain at Huayin, An Lushan was of the origin of a mixed Hu in Yingzhou, with a nickname "Yahunshan". Yao claimed that An's mother was a Turk witch from the Ah-shi-de clan, i.e., the clan that had generations of marriages with the Ah-shi-nan clan, and that An Lushan was born after his mother prayed on Mt Yahunshan, i.e., the Turk god of war, which was speculated to be related to the Zoroastrian god. An's son, An Qingxu, later killed An Lushan and took over the title of emperor of Great Yan.  An's general, Shi Siming, killed An Qingxu, in turn, and proclaimed himself the Yan emperor.  Shi's son, Shi Chaoyi, killed his father Shi Siming later.  By AD 763, Shi committed suicide, and the eight year long rebellion was over.
 
Tang China's decline was a result of the An-Shi Rebellion. As a result of this rebellion, Tang China recalled all stationed armies and garrisons to the west of the Yellow River Bend. The recall of forces being not enough, the Uygur mercenaries were also called upon to quell the 8-year-long rebellion. Since then, Tang China lost the western territories, including the pasture where the military horses were raised. Tang Emperor Suzong would call upon all the Chinese armies to the west of the Yellow River and to the right side of Gansu Province. Hence, the Tibetans took advantage of the vacuum and moved in. Over one million Tang Chinese came under the rule of the Tibetans, including the prefectures of Ganzhou, Liangzhou, Guazhou and Sazhou on the Western Corridor. In the land to the west of the Yellow River and to the right side of Gansu Province, Tang China used to have 33 prefectures called 'zhou'. Tang China set up the Anxi Governor-General post here and it used to control 36 statelets in Western China. Xin Wu Dai Shi (i.e., The New History Of Five Dynasties) said Tang had raised altogether 300,000 horses in this area. Half a century later, when a Chinese emissary (under Tang Emperor Wenzong, reign A.D. 827-836) passed through the four prefectures, the emissary noted that those Chinese had changed a bit in accent but the clothing remained unchanged. The local Chinese, with tears, asked the emissary, 'Did the Emperor still remember the people stranded in the land occupied by the Tibetans?" Later, at the times of Tang Emepror Dezong (reign A.D. 780-785), the Dangxiang nomads sought vassalage with Tang. They were relocated to Qingzhou and Xiazhou prefectures. At the times of Posterior Tang Emperor Mingzong (reign AD 926-933), the frontier areas were famous for trading in horses. The horses from Dangxiang and Huihu (ancestor of the Uygurs) weighed heavy in the trades. Dangxiang and Huihu were especially delighted in trading with Posterior Tang because Emperor Mingzhong gave very favorable terms to them no matter the horses were fat or thin. Besides, the Dangxiang and Huihu merchants were given benefits as diplomatic emissaries, and they enjoyed free food/drinks and accomodations. This cost a lot of royal savings to Posterior Tang. Hence, Dangxiang and Huihu were ordered to trade at the frontiers, only. But the Dangxiang people continued to come deep into the Chinese territories, and moreover, the Dangxiang (Tangut) people pillaged China and robbed the Huihu of the horses. The Dangxiang continued the pillages well into the eras of Posterior Zhou Dynasty (AD 951-960).

 
Tang General Guo Ziyi would emerge to defend Tang against the encroachment from both the Tibetans and the Huihe [Uygurs].  The Tibetans, taking advantage of the An-Shi rebellion, had taken over areas in today's Gansu-Qinghai provinces, and they had once entered the western capital of Chang'an and forced emperor Daizong into fleeing. General Guo would send hundreds of soldiers into the capital and spread rumores that Guo's army was coming, thus scaring the Tibetans into retreat.  One Tang general (a Uygur, called Pogu Huaieng, who had been responsible for going to the Uygur tribe in borrowing the Uygur cavalry of 5000 for fighting An Lushan and again borrowing 3000 cavalry for fighting Shi Siming) defected to the Tibetans. Pogu Huaieng sacked the city of Taiyuan.  Altogether 100 thousand Tibetan-Uygur army came to attack the Tang capital again.  General Guo succeeded in defeating them.  Pogu Huai'eng was originally a loyal general who stood with Tang during the An-Shi rebellion, and he even sent his own daughter to the Uygur khan's son at the request of Emperor Suzong.  He felt betrayed when he was refused entry into a border town by a Tang general while he was ordered by emperor to escort the Huihe [Uygurs] back to their tribe.  In A.D. 765, Pogu Huai'eng led the Tibetan-Uygur joint army to attacking Tang again by cheating the Huihe [Uygurs] that the Tang emperor and general Guo Ziyi were both dead.  On the way, Pogu Huaieng himself died due to illness.  General Guo led 500 cavalry into the camp of the Huihe [Uygurs] and successfully persuaded the Huihe [Uygurs] in allying with Tang and attacking the Tibetans. Pogu Huai'eng's mother, who dissapproved of his son's betrayal of Tang, was later invited by the Tang emperor to live in the capital.
 
In A.D. 780, Huihe Khan Mouyu, who was credited with introducing the Moni religion to the Huihe, was killed by prime minister Mohedagan. Cousin Yaoluoge Dunmohedagan, who killed Khan Mouyu, advocated for a friendly relationship with Tang. In A.D. 788, the new Huihe khan renamed Huihe to Huigu. (? Huihe was renamed to Huihu in A.D. 809.) In 789, Huihe Khan Changshoutianqin died. In 790, Huihe Khan Zhongzhen was poisoned, with a brother usurping the throne. After killing of the usurper, son Ahchuo was supported as the new khan, i.e., Fengcheng Khan. The Huihe then colluded with the Tibetans against Tang. In 795, when Huihe Khan Fengcheng died without a son, prime minister Guduolu, who faked the Yaoluoge clan name but was from the Xiadie-shi clan, was made into a khan. The Tang court conferred him the title of Khan Huaixin. After Khan Huaixin, son [Xiadie] Tengli Khan enthroned. The Xiadie-shi throne was destroyed by the Xiajiasi [i.e., the Kirghiz] in A.D. 846. The remnant Huihe, who fled to the west, re-established some regime which ultimately was replaced by the Pogu-shi.

 
The Uygurs claimed that in A.D. 840, the Tang Chinese emperor surreptitiously incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing the Uyghurs in Mongolia.  Hence, Tang got rid of the encroachment of the Uygur. 
 
AD 874, rebellions erupted in China, and by A.D. 880, rebel leader Huang Chao entered Chang'an.  Tang Dynasty was hence a puppet government, to be usurped in A.D. 907 by a ex-peasant rebel leader, Zhu Wen, who had earlier defected to Tang from the camp of Huang Chao.  (Huang Chao was famous for marching from Shandong Province to Zhejiang Province, opening up a road through the mountains of Fujian Province to reach Guangdong Province, and then coming back to the central plains, an accomplishment not secondary to the communists' Long March of 1930s.) 
 
 
The Uygurs After A.D. 840
 
We spend large sections of space discussing the early developments of various Turkic tribes and the surrounding nomads in the hope that the reader will have a clearer thread of events. With the details, a true historian could imagin himself or herself being present at the scene 1300 years ago. In the following, we will touch on the events of the Huihe [Uygurs] after 840, with the Turks mentioned when relevant. The topics of the Turkic Tribes, like the Cumans (Oghuz), Seljuks, and Khazar would be too broad for this page to have them covered.  The Turkic influence would be felt in Ottoman Empire's conquest of the Byzantium and the Balkans as well as waves of raids into the Indus Valley.  Here, we would just concentrate on the activities in the Transoxiana and the Tarim Basin, touching upon outside factors when they matter. 
 
After the the Kirghiz replaced the Huihe [Uygurs] in Mongolia in A.D. 840, the Huihe [Uygurs] fled to Kansu province, south and north of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) and established three separate Uygur kingdoms.
 
Chinese history was very concise in its descriptions. It said that in early years of Huichang, namely, A.D. 841 on, the Huihe [Uygurs] were attacked by the Kirghiz. Hence they relocated to the Tiande and Zhenwu areas. The Huihe [Uygurs] were attacked by Shi Xiong and Liu Mian. Governor-General Zhang Zhongwu attacked the Huihe [Uygurs] again, and the rest of the Huihe [Uygurs] fled westward to seek protection with the Tibetans. The Tibetans assigned the Huihe [Uygurs] to the Ganzhou Prefecture. Chinese history mentioned that some Huihe [Uygurs] fled to the Karlaks in Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) for protection, and Huihe [Uygurs] claimed they set up two kingdoms there.
 
Kirghiz & Uygur: Paul Ratchnevsky quoted some Islamic record saying Kirghiz people had light color in skin and eyes. According to New History Of Five Dynasties, Kirghiz belonged to the ancient 'Jiankun' Statelet which was located to the western-most of the Huns. They should be to the west of Yiwu Statelet and to the north of Yanqi Statelet. Hunnic Chanyu Zhizhi destroyed Jiankun and ex-Han General Li Ling, who surrendered to the Huns, was assigned to the land of Jiankun as King of Youxianwang, namely, rightside virtuous king, with an army of 80,000. New History Of Five Dynasties said that Kirghiz possessed lighter skin, red hair, green eyes and taller height, and that those Kirghiz with black hair must be the descendants of Li Ling.
 
At one time, during Tang Emperor Suzong's reign of A.D. 758-760, the Huihu (Uygur) conquered the Jiankun Statelet of the Kirghiz. The Kirghis allied themselves with the Tibetans, Arabs and Karlaks (part of the Uch-Karluks). The Kirghiz, with the help of a defecting Huihu (Uygur) general and combining a cavalry forces of 100000, defeated Huihu (Uygur) and killed the Huihu khan around A.D. 840s. Fifteen Huihu (Uygur) tribes fled westward to the Karlaks, while some remnants fled southward to Tibetans for protection. Another thirteen families, under the new khan Wujie Tele, moved towards Tang China. The Huihu (Uygur), under Khan Wujie, attacked Tiande and Zhenwu cities (near today's Datong, Shanxi areas), and Tang border governor-general Liu Mian countered back. The Tang Court, at the request of Princess Taihe, agreed to let Huihu (Uygur) reside to the west of Zhenwu city. Further, Tang gave them 20,000 units of grain supply. This group of Huihu (Uygur) would be engaged with fights against Tang China, Tibetans, Xi Nomads of Manchuria, Sha'to Turks, and Kirghis for years, till they were totally destroyed. Today's Huihu (Uygur) should look towards those who fled to the Karlaks and Tibetans for their ancestors.
 
Kirghiz Khan, Ah Ri, earlier, had retrieved Tang Princess Taihe from the Huihu (Uygur) and sent her on the way to Tang China. But the new khan of Huihu (Uygur), Wujie, killed Kirghiz emissary and brought Princess Taihe back to their court. Kirghiz claimed that they shared the same last name as Tang emperors. They sent another emissary to Tang, and it took the emissary three years to reach Tang to see Emperor Wuzong. The later Kirghiz sent another emissary and made a proposal to attack the Huihu (Uygur) together. It would be in A.D. 859 that Tang Emperor Xuandi decided to confer the Kirghiz the title of Khan Bravery-Intelligence. New History Of Five Dynasties said Kirghiz paid three more pilgrimages during A.D. 860-875, but they failed to exterminate the Huihu (Uygur).
 
The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom is one of the three kingdoms and would be the place where the Yellow Uygurs stay. The Uygur nationalists claimed that "the Uygurs living in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom in 840 with the support of other Turkic clans like the Karluks, Turgish and the Basmils, with Kashgar as its capital. The Uygurs living in the northern part of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) in Eastern Turkestan established the Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom (Qocho) near the present day city of Turfan (Turpan), in 846." In A.D. 924, the Khitans defeated the Kirghiz. In A.D. 932, the Turkic Qarakhanid Dynasty was established, with its initial center in Kashgar. In mid-10th cent, the Qarakhanids and Huihe [Uygurs] converted from Buddhism to Islam under Satuq Bughra Khan (d.955): In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam. Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan two Uygur kingdoms were set up: the Karakhanid, who were Muslims, and the Karakhojas, who were Buddhists. 
 
In mid-11th cent, the Qarakhanid Empire split into two: one ruling over Western Turkestan (Transoxiana), the other over Eastern Turkestan (the Tarim Basin).
 
In 1124, the Tungusic Juchen drove the Khitans (Liao Dynasty: 916-1124) from China, resulting in the creation of the Qarakhitai State in Semirechye. In 1137, the Qarakhitai defeated the Qarakhanids (now vassals of the Seljuqs) at Khojent and in 1140/41 defeated the Seljuq Sultan Sanjar at the Battle of the Qatwan Steppe, thus gaining power in Transoxiana. In 1194, the death of Tüghril III, the last Persian Seljuq ruler, resulted in the end of Seljuq power in Iran and the rise of the Turkic Khwarezmians in Transoxiana. In 1206, Chingiz Khan became khan of the Mongols. In 1209, the Mongols defeated the Kirghiz of the Yenisei, forcing them to flee south to the Tien Shan Mountains. In 1209, the Uygurs, under Barchuq, submitted to Mongol rule.
 
In 1218, the Mongols captured Semirechye and the Tarim Basin, occupying Kashgar. In 1218, the execution of Mongol envoys by the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad set in motion the first Mongol westward thrust. In 1219, the Mongols crossed the Jaxartes River (Syr Darya) and began their invasion of Transoxiana. In 1220, the Mongols captured Bukhara and Samarkand, defeating the Khwarezmians. In 1221, the Mongol conquest of Khurasan and Afghanistan. We will discuss the second Mongol wave of invasion and so on, separately. 

 
Borrowing from http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html
    In 1397, the Islamic and Buddhist Uygur Kingdoms merged into one state and maintained their relative independence until 1759. The Manchus invaded the Uygur Kingdom of Eastern Turkestan in 1759 and dominated it until 1862. During this period the Uygurs revolted 42 times against the Manchu rule with the purpose of regaining their independence. In the last revolt of 1863, the Uygurs were successful in expelling the Manchus from their motherland, and founded an independent kingdom in 1864. The kingdom was recognized by the Ottoman Empire, Tsarist Russia, and Great Britain. But for fear of Tsarist expansion into Eastern Turkestan, Great Britain persuaded the Manchu court to conquer Eastern Turkestan. The money for the Manchu invasion was granted by the British Banks. Large forces under the overall command of General Zho Zhung Tang (Tso Tsung-t'ang / Zui Zongtang), attacked Eastern Turkestan in 1876. After this invasion, Eastern Turkestan was given the name Xinjiang which means "new territory" or "New Dominion" and it was annexed into the territory of the Manchu empire on November 18,1884. In 1911, the Nationalist Chinese, overthrew Manchu rule and established a republic. The Uygurs, who also wanted to free themselves from foreign domination, staged several uprisings against the nationalist Chinese rule during this period. Twice, in 1933 and 1944, the Uygurs were successful in setting up an independent Eastern Turkestan Republic. But these independent republics were overthrown by the military intervention and political intrigues of the Soviet Union. It was in fact the Soviet Union that proved deterrent to the Uygur independence movement during this period. In 1949 Nationalist Chinese were defeated by the Chinese Communists. After that, Uygurs fell under Chinese Communist rule. 
One comment I am going to make here is that the Manchus did not take over Xinjiang from the Uygurs. The Manchus fought with the Dzungarians (western Mongols) for control of the Dzungaria ( a name derived from the Mongols) and the Tibet proper. It was after the defeat of the Dzungarian Mongols that the Uygurs rebelled against the Manchus. 
 
 
Today's Uygurs & Xinjiang Autonomous Region
 
Xinjiang was called "Xi Yu" or Western Regions in ancient times. The region is bounded by the Altay Mountains in the north, the Pamirs in the west, the Karakoram Mountains-Altun Mountains-Kunlun Mountains in the south. The Tianshan Mountains divide Xinjiang into northern and southern parts. Southern Xinjiang includes the Tarim Basin and the Taklamakan Desert, while northern Xinjiang has the Junggar Basin. The Turpan Basin lies at the eastern end of the Tianshan Mountains. This place boasted of numerous historical relics, including: The Jiaohe Ruins, Gaochang Ruins, Yangqi Mansion of "A Thousand Houses", Baicheng (Bay) Kizil Thousand Buddha Grottoes, Bozklik Grottoes in Turpan, Kumtula Grottoes in Kuqa and Astana Tombs in Turpan
 
Today's Uyghers, largely living in Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (so-called Eastern Turkestan), have the majority population. A good source on peoples in Xinjiang would be: Aitchen K. Wu. Aitchen K. Wu. Turkistan Tumult. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London, 1940. Chapter 17 THE FOURTEEN RACES OF SINKIANG. In Xinjiang, there exist dozens of ethnic minorities, including 
  • Kasaks or Kazaks: Said to be possibly of a tribe called Kang-chu or Kangju, who relocated with Yuezhi & Wusun to Ili area in Han Dynasty. Photos taken of those people did show considerable Mongolian characteristics, but the ancient Chinese records pointed out that the Kangju people were of the same family as the Yüeh-chih, an Indo-European people. Today's Kazaks claimed heritage from Genghis Khan. http://weecheng.com/silk/uz-kokand/kokand1.htm pointed out that there are two groups of Kazaks in today's Kazakstan: the Cossacks famous for fighting the Red Army in the civil wars and the Kazaks of Mongolian descent. 
  • Kirghiz or Kyrgyz: They are also called Hei-hei-tzu and live on both sides of Tianshan Mountains. They displaced Huihe [Uygurs] in Mongolia in A.D. 840, but were later defeated by the Khitans. The two Kirghiz tribes submitted to the Mongols in A.D. 1209. Later, they were driven out of east side of Tianshan Mountains by the Dzungarians, another Mongol stock who competed with the Manchus for control of Tibet and the west side of of Tianshan Mountains. 
  • Tadjiks: Some scholars said that they could be of Indo-Iranian origin and that they may belong to one of the eight tribes of Karakorum, controlled by Chengis Khan.  http://weecheng.com/silk/uz-kokand/kokand1.htm said "they are the same as Persians or Iranians. They are the majority people in Tajikistan, and the urban inhabitants of major cities in Uzbekistan such as Samarkand and Bukhara (although the Uzbek government, fearful of separatist movements, classify them as Uzbeks), plus of course, northern Afghanistan. The Tajik and Dari (of Afghanistan) languages are virtually the same as Persian in Iran, except that Tajik can be written in Cyrillic." The website, http://berclo.net/page97/97en-steppe-empires.html had kind of confirmed that the Tadjiks were descendants of Indo-European Buddhist Kushan Empire of the Yüeh-chih. They were, unfortunately, surrounded by Turkic speaking Uzbek, Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) and Uygur (Uighur) people.
  • Tartars: Also called Noghai, namely, dogs by Mongols. Tartars first followed the Jurchens and colluded in killing Chenhis Khan's father. After their defeat in the hands of Genghis Khan, they followed the Mongols in the western expeditions. Now there are 2 million in ex-USSR territories, mostly of mixed blood. Some live in Tacheng, Kuldja within Xinjiang.  http://weecheng.com/silk/uz-kokand/kokand1.htm said "... find them all over ex-USSR - those in Europe look more European and those in Asia more Mongolian. But even in Central Asia, they look more European when standing besides Mongolian-looking Kazaks and Uzbeks."
  • Uzbeks: Of Turkic origin. Most of them live in Western Turkestan. They, in early 15th cent, moved south to Transoxiana under Abu al-Khayr (1413-69).  http://weecheng.com/silk/uz-kokand/kokand1.htm said "the Uzbeks in Fergana Valley can sometimes look European too."
  • Tungans: A Chinese-looking people living in Qinhai-Gansu areas, of the descendants of ancient Qiangic-Tangut/Tibetan-Tuoba people mixed with Chinese, Mongols and Huihe [Uygurs] etc. Also said to be descendants of the Persian, Arabian and other Central Asian merchants or officials who either travelled to China or were employed by the Mongols. They were called the Hui ethnic minority which had once been a strong force competing with Uygurs for control of Xinjiang and had once defeated a whole column of Red Army western expedition led by general Xu Xiangqian. Certainly they, together with Tibetans, were later avenged by the communists who were humiliated by the former in early times of the Long March.  http://weecheng.com/silk/kyrgyz/kyrgyz1.htm said that he found a large group in eastern Kyrygzstan, in the area near Karakol next to Tien Shan and that "their food looks Chinese and have Chinese names. A Finnish linguistic scholar ... showed ... a website with a Tungan/Dungan dictionary and it is amazing that the words are indeed Mandarin words, though these days written in Cyrillic."
  • Mongols: Descendants of the Dzungarians, also called Oyrat or Western Mongol. Two other Mongol groups could also be differentiated, namely, Torgut and Chahar, from Inner Mongolia. 
  • Chinese: In 1862-74, Hunan-Hubei Chinese, under Zuo Zhongtang, entered Xinjiang to quell rebellions. Some of those soldiers remained there. Some businessmen and their families, from Beijing-Tianjin areas, followed the route. In 1930s, many Chinese sought refuge in Xinjiang which was away from the Japanese invasion. Communists had relocated several battalions of army there to work on military farms, plus relocation of tens of thousands of young girls in early 50s to have them marry with the soldiers under General Wang Zheng. Last would be the 'educated youth' generation during the early time period of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Chinese are said to be living in Dihua, Hami, Kucheng, Tacheng, and Kuldja areas, mostly. 
  • Manchus: Consisting of two Manchu ally groups, Hsi-bo and So-lun, who were relecated there by Manchurian Emperor Qianlong (Chien-lung). They spent 3 years walking the distance from Manchuria to Xinjiang. 
  • White Russians: A couple of thousand Russian soldiers and their family who fled to Xinjiang under General Annenkov after Lenin's October Revolution. (Another 25 thousand Russians would flee to Shanghai after the fall of Vladivostok in 1920 and 1922, separately, and 17 thousand Russians would join the army of Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin, with 2000 dead in the battles with other warlords & nationalist KMT government.) The White Russians had once helped Governor-General Chin Shu-jen in fighting the minority rebellions against the nationalist rule. It seems Stalin had in fact sought the help of the White Russians in the colonization of Xinjiang. By the time of General Shen Shicai (previously a KMT colonel under Governor Chin), Xinjiang was almost a colony of USSR. General Shen, a nationalist famous for his extreme hatred of Japanese invasion, had travelled to Moscow to get enrolled in the communist party of USSR after his request for joining the Chinese communist party was rejected by Stalin. Xinjiang returned to nationalist rule only after General Shen defected by taking advantage of USSR's entanglement in the war with Germany. 
  • Yellow Uygurs: The Yugur or Yellow Uygur are one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 12,297 persons according to the 1990 census. Living primarily in Gansù Province, the Yugurs have four different language groups, Turkic, Mongolic, Chinese and Tibetan converge. The largest of these groups are the Turkic speaking Western Yugur, comprising about 4,600 persons, considered to be the descendants of a group of Uygur that fled from Mongolia southwards to Gansù after the collapse of the Uygur Empire in 840 A.D 
Owning to the complexity of ethnic minorities in the region, it become very difficult for one ethnic group to assert authority over the others. So to say that the aspirations of Uygurs to be independent and free have met with the difficulties not present in the situations of the Balkans or Baltics. There is another historical dilemma for them, namely, the Uygurs, being a weak ethnic group in comparison with its neighbors, would most likely fall into the influence of others, as they did under Tang Chinese, Tibetans, Mongols Manchus, and Russias etc. In the old times, the Uygurs had rebelled many times and had succeeded occasionally, but mostly at the time when their suzerainty nations were undergoing internal conflicts and upheavals. To be free, in my opinion, one would demand his or her human diginity and spirit be respected by the larger counterpart which is today's Chinese communist government.
 
Turkic Language
Origin Of Turks & The Uygur Turks
Early Turkic History
Huihe, Huihu & Uygur
Turfan Mummies
Yüeh-chih, Hun, Xianbei, Tuoba, Ruruan, Ye-Tai, Turk
Western Turks
Chinese Chronicles As To Nomads
Turk versus Tiele (Tara or Tole)
Turks/Uygurs vs Sui & Tang Chinese
Eastern Khnanate
Western Khnanate
Turks, Uygurs, Arabs & Chinese
An-Shi Rebellion & Uygurs
Uygurs After A.D. 840
Kirghiz & Uygurs
Today's Uygurs & Xinjiang Autonomous Region

 
written by Ah Xiang
 


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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],